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Enamel - Science topic

Q&A Forum for mineralized tissues such as Enamel
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Publications related to Enamel (10,000)
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Article
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Nanoparticles (NPs) are insoluble particles with a diameter of fewer than 100 nanometers. Two main methods have been utilized in orthodontic therapy to avoid microbial adherence or enamel demineralization. Certain NPs are included in orthodontic adhesives or acrylic resins (fluorohydroxyapatite, fluorapatite, hydroxyapatite, SiO2, TiO2, silver, nan...
Article
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Background: The caries-preventive effect of topical fluoride application has been corroborated by a number of clinical studies. However, the effect of fluoride on oral microecology remains unclear. Objective: To monitor the effect of fluoride on dental plaque microecology and demineralization/remineralization balance of enamel initial caries. M...
Article
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Tooth enamel possesses outstanding viscoelasticity as well as stiffness — a combination of properties often considered a trade-off. Now, a bi-directional freezing method affords a biomimetic composite with mechanical properties superior to those of enamel.
Article
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Background Fluoride has a major role in strengthening the structure of enamel against acids. Despite differences between caries and root resorption processes, both events inherently involve acidic dissolution of dental tissues. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of water fluoridation levels on the surface roughness of root...
Article
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Objective To assess literature for the effectiveness and impact of femtosecond (fs) laser irradiation for surface processing of enamel and dentine. Materials and methods This systematic review followed PRISMA guidelines. Criteria for inclusion and exclusion were established, and searches undertaken in the PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase and, Scopus databas...
Article
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Numerous laboratory evaluations have been conducted since Dr. Rafael Bowen introduced a method for determining the bond strengths of adhesive systems to dental substrates in 1965. Most of the past studies have been conducted using static bond strength tests, such as shear and tensile bond strength testing with either macro or micro sized specimens....
Article
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Purpose of the review This article presents an overview of the so-called “Universal Adhesives”, which theoretically have the potential to simplify and expedite adhesive protocols, by providing flexibility about the etching approach and type of substrate, thus representing the state-of-the-art in adhesive dentistry. However, despite the claimed adva...
Article
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The study aims to compare the way modern resin‐based composites (RBCs) respond to mechanical stress related to the tooth structure they are designed to replace. Eight representative light‐cured RBCs, including ormocers, giomers, RBCs with nano and agglomerated nanoparticles, prepolymerized, or compact fillers, were selected. Flexural strength, FS a...
Article
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Large-scale triage after major radiological events, such as nuclear reactor accidents, requires a method of ionizing radiation dose estimation called retrospective biodosimetry (RBD) to detect doses in the range of 0.5–8 Gy. A well-known technique for performing RBD is electron spin resonance (ESR), which can be used to measure radiation-induced pa...
Article
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Dens invaginatus or dens in dente represent anomaly of the developing tooth due to invagination of the enamel organinto the dental papilla. Dens invaginatus is usually diagnosed by standard radiological methods (RVG, OPG, and 3DCBCT).Clinical examination may reveal a mottled, dilated or conical shape of the crown. Endodontic treatment of dens invag...
Article
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Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the postbrushing tooth-whitening effect of toothpaste containing hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nano-HAPs). The impact of the concentration on the whitening performance of nano-HAP toothpaste was also investigated. Methods Two concentrations of nano-HAP (10 wt% and 1 wt%) were incorporated in nonabra...
Article
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Background Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with autoimmune diseases and oral health. Knowledge about the association between vitamin D status and oral conditions in JIA is limited. We aimed to investigate vitamin D status in a cohort of Norwegian children and adolescents with JIA and possible associations between serum vitamin D levels, cl...
Article
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This study’s aim was to assess whether the Renewal MI composite can self-etch enamel, seal sound cavities, and stabilize demineralized dentine. Etching was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cavity sealing was quantified using the ISO-11405 dye microleakage test. Demineralized dentine stabilization was evaluated by visualizing resin...
Book
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"Bonderizer" bonding agents are resin materials used to make a dental composite filling material adhere to both dentin and enamel which are often methacrylates with some volatile carrier and solvent like acetone may also contain diluent monomers. This book will discuss about various different bonding agents with their structures, various propertie...
Article
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Objectives: To Evaluate and Compare Debonding Properties (Detachment Force, Magnitude of Deformation, Adhesive Remnant Index and Pull out Force) for Three Types of Directly Bonded Lingual Retainer Wires. Materials and Method: 36 pairs of extracted mandibular incisors were embedded in Acrylic blocks proximally in contact with each other. The w...
Article
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Introduction: The aim of the study was to investigate and compare light-emitting diodes (LED) with the conventional halogen light-curing unit to see the effect of different curings on microleakage in resin-based composite restorations and to observe the degree of microleakage occurring in enamel and dentine.
Article
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This article presents a short overview of modified cements with photocatalytic activity. First, the types and three main methods of obtaining photoactive cements are presented. The most frequently used modification method is the incorporation of a photocatalyst into the total mass of the cement. The second group analyzed is cements obtained by appl...
Article
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Biogeochemistry is crucial to reconstruct climate, diet, and habitats of extinct animals. The Siwalik sediments of Pakistan exhibit an excellent record of faunal elements, providing an opportunity to explore palaeohabitats of diverse mam-malian communities that existed in the Siwaliks. This study is the first to investigate the dietary niche and cl...
Article
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Background: Micro abrasion changes the enamel surface, lowering the binding strength of composites. Numerous surface treatments were applied on the enamel surface to increase the binding strength of the composites. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of non thermal atmospheric plasma (NTAP), grape seed extract (GSE), and bromelain...
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Although once considered a ‘counterfeit paradise’, the Amazon Basin is now a region of increasing interest in discussions of pre-colonial tropical land-use and social complexity. Archaeobotany, archaeozoology, remote sensing and palaeoecology have revealed that, by the Late Holocene, populations in different parts of the Amazon Basin were using var...
Article
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Background: Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is a prevalent chronic pathology, and it has a negative impact on the oral and general health of the child patient. Aim: To evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of Spanish paediatricians regarding early childhood caries according to the professional's years of experience. Material and methods:...
Article
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Background Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) is a common oral health condition that can lead to difficulties and complications for both dental professionals and patients. It also has a negative impact on the oral health-related quality of life. The present study aimed to assess the knowledge, clinical experience, and perceived need for trainin...
Article
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Silicate ceramics have been the top material for more than 100 years when it comes to replacing lost tooth substance with restorations that look as natural as possible. Charles Henry Lund, a US dentist, first invented an all-ceramic crown restoration made of silicate ceramics as early as 1900. However, the technical application was very complicated...
Article
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Abstract Although the commensal Streptococcus sanguinis [ S. sanguinis] is isolated from caries-free people, it can ferment carbohydrates producing acids. We aimed to characterize S. sanguinis cariogenic potential as a function of different enamel biofilm formation periods, in vitro. Saliva-coated enamel slabs were inoculated with S. sanguinis to f...
Article
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In this article, we present the results of an isotopic study of diet for the early medieval (Merovingian, Viking, Early Christian) humans buried in the unique Luistari cemetery at Eura (ca. 600–1400 CE), southwestern Finland, the largest cemetery of the region. Isotope analysis was conducted on 37 humans for dentine and bone collagen (δ¹³C, δ¹⁵N, a...
Article
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The Vickers hardness and Young’s modulus of the hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramics with a small amount of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were studied by using ultramicrotester Shimadzu for dynamic tests DUH-211. Small concentrations of MWCNTs were from 0.05 to 0.5 wt.%. The argon inert atmosphere and vacuum condition were taken for the pre...
Article
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In the present study, solid particle erosion of Ti-6Al-4V alloy under the impact of spherical alumina particles with a diameter of 85 microns was analyzed using experimental studies and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) modeling. The erosive behavior of this alloy was simulated as impacts on micro-scale and based on Johnson-Cook constitutive eq...
Article
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In this study, we conducted carbon, strontium, and oxygen isotope analyses on tooth enamel from human and pig remains that were excavated from the Chengdu Plain and its western highlands in Sichuan to investigate the dietary patterns of the peoples and possible population movements in these areas. The analyses of carbon isotope showed that the diet...
Article
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The presence of fluoride in drinking water can have beneficial effects in reducing the incidence of dental caries when its concentration lies in the optimal range of 0.5–0.7 mg/l. However, fluoride intake below and above this range can have negative effects on tooth enamel and skeletal fluorosis in case of prolonged exposure to high concentrations....
Research
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Although fluoride has benefits, too much of it can be toxic. It disrupts the natural development of enamel and bone, which increases the risk of dental and skeletal fluorosis. This study sought to evaluate inhabitants' knowledge, attitudes, and practises about fluoride and fluorosis.
Article
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Tooth enamel wear occurs because of daily mastication and occlusion. This study investigated the wear behavior of bovine teeth against aesthetic restorative materials in vitro. Abrader specimens were fabricated using four tooth-colored restorative materials (zirconia, lithium disilicate glass ceramic, dental porcelain, and resin composite), with bo...
Presentation
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Impact of Laser Radiation on Dominant Human Body Constitutional Metals 1) Determination of threshold ablation value of Energy Density for calcium in dental tissues 2) Analysis of structural variation for laser irradiation in enamel and dentin 3) Investigate and explore surface morphological changes in tooth tissues before and after laser treatment...
Presentation
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Impact of Laser Radiation on Dominant Human Body Constitutional Metals 1) Determination of threshold ablation value of Energy Density for calcium in dental tissues 2) Analysis of structural variation for laser irradiation in enamel and dentin 3) Investigate and explore surface morphological changes in tooth tissues before and after laser treatment...
Article
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The aim of the paper was to examine the efficacy of individual topical fluoride preparations and CPP-ACP agents and to evaluate the efficacy of their combination on the processes in the initial carious lesion. The effectiveness of these agents was tested by assessing fluoride uptake using a fluoride-selective electrode. Material and methods: The en...
Article
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Smoking has been one of the major threats to social health in the past few decades. The problem is concerning, causing over eight million annual deaths worldwide. The most common way of tobacco consumption is burning (cigarettes) but there are other ways: waterpipe tobacco, pipe tobacco, smokeless tobacco products, etc. With the appearance of alter...
Article
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The transition in Mysticeti (Cetacea) from capture of individual prey using teeth to bulk filtering batches of small prey using baleen ranks among the most dramatic evolutionary transformations in mammalian history. We review phylogenetic work on the homology of mysticete feeding structures from anatomical, ontogenetic, and genomic perspectives. Si...
Article
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The Three Gorges region (TGR) located in the geographic center of China, is a transition zone between mountain and plain areas, and a probable migration corridor for hominins and other mammals between South and North China. Detailed chronological information of paleoanthropological evidence in this area could help us better understand the human evo...
Article
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Background: There is limited information on the effectiveness of 38% silver diamine fluoride (SDF) in managing enamel caries. Objective: This study aimed to compare effectiveness of 38% SDF and 5% Sodium fluoride (NaF) varnish in arresting enamel caries in young children when applied semiannually over 18 months. Methods: A randomized controlle...
Article
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Electrical machines are commonly used in industries and transport and are manufactured with enameled wire coils with polymer insulation. In extreme conditions, as in aeronautics and aerospace, where temperatures exceed 280 °C, the organic insulation deteriorates and it is necessary to find another way to insulate winding wires, in order to ensure a...
Article
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Stains and stained incipient lesions can be challenging to differentiate with established clinical tools. New diagnostic techniques are required for improved distinction to enable early noninvasive treatment. This in vitro study evaluates the performance of artificial intelligence (AI)-based classification of hyperspectral imaging data for early oc...
Article
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Poor oral hygiene leads to serious damages of theteeth’s surface enamel such as micro-abrasions and acid erosion. These alterations combined with bacterial plaque result in cavity appearance. Prophylactic measures include various techniques for enamel surface restoration. Fluorination is one of the most important treatments for this purpose. Theref...
Article
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Megalithic cultures of central India provide important links between the southern Neolithic-Chalcolithic cultures and the early Historical period (∼500 BC to ∼AD 700) and reveal knowledge of ancient traditions of early inhabitants. Scientific dating of these Megalithic burial sites is a challenging task due to scarcity of dateable material and alte...
Article
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Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) is a bio-derived water-soluble, edible, non-immunogenic nylon-like polymer with the biochemical characteristics of a polypeptide. This Bacillus-derived material has great potential for a wide range of applications, from bioremediation to tunable drug delivery systems. In the context of oral care, γ-PGA holds great promi...
Article
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Objectives Color of ceramic veneers is affected by the thickness and translucency of ceramics as well as the color of the underlying tooth structure. This study aimed to assess the effect of ceramic and composite systems with two different thicknesses on masking of a substrate with C4 color shade. Methods In this in vitro, experimental study, 90 di...
Article
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The effects of ingested fluoride, from unnatural sources added to drinking water, on human physiologic processes at various systemic blood concentrations is described. The chemistry of synthetic fluorides used in water fluoridation helps understand why ingested fluoride does not affect teeth enamel, a very hard impenetrable form of hydroxypapatite,...
Article
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Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders of dental enamel. X-linked AI results from disease-causing variants in the AMELX gene. In this paper, we characterise the genetic aetiology and enamel histology of female AI patients from two unrelated families with similar clinical and radiographic findings. All three proba...
Article
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The nutritional status of pregnant women greatly determines their newborn outcome. Deficiencies of several micronutrients are associated with stunting in early childhood, affecting health into adulthood. However, apart from the systemic disease that has been a concern so far, fetal undernutrition can also be associated with dental caries in a child...
Article
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Imperial expansion can have substantial impacts on the daily and long-term activities of colonized regions. However, statecraft can vary depending on local resilience and the decisions made by agropastoralists and other economic collectives. We explore how Wari expansion affected, and was affected by, pastoralists’ activities by examining the isoto...
Article
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Backgroud Root caries in aging population was prevalent worldwide. Due to the absence of enamel and specific structure of dentine, bacteria are able to penetrate further into dentine at an earlier stage of lesion development. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of adding of a strontium-doped bioactive glass-ceramic (HX-BGC) to a flu...
Article
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This research activity aims to evaluate electrical insulation system (EIS) intended for electrical machine winding wires. The evaluation is based on mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties tests following international standards for enameled wires. Dielectric parameters such as dissipation factor, partial discharge inception voltage (PDIV),...
Article
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Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of the material and corresponding sintering protocol, layer thickness, and aging on the two-body wear (2BW) and fracture load (FL) of 4Y-TZP crowns. Materials and methods Multi-layer 4Y-TZP crowns in three thicknesses (0.5 mm/1.0 mm/1.5 mm) were sintered by high-speed (Zolid RS) or c...
Article
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Bone scaffolds must fulfil numerous and sometimes contradictory characteristics: biocompatibility, bioactivity, high porosity, and appropriate mechanical strength. To tackle some of these is-sues, this study has several aims for the development of such scaffolds for dentistry applications: (i) to utilize appropriate materials (ceramics and sponges)...
Article
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Background: The depletion of bond strength after the bleaching procedure has resulted in the usage of several antioxidants to get rid of discharging oxygen from residual peroxides before any adhesive restorations. Aim: The in vitro study aimed to compare and evaluate the shear bond strength of composite after application of three over-the-counter n...
Article
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Objective: This study evaluated the in vitro and in situ effects of phytosphingosine (PHS) associated with tooth brushing on color stability, surface roughness, and microhardness of dental enamel. Methods: Sixty-four specimens of bovine teeth (6 × 6 × 2 mm) were separated into 8 groups (n = 8): S + TB: PHS (spray) + tooth brushing; TB + S: tooth...
Article
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Background The aim was to evaluate the remineralization potential as well as the extent of protection against renewed demineralization of enamel by hydroxyapatite-containing toothpaste (Karex) in comparison to fluoride-containing (Elmex) and fluoride- and hydroxyapatite-free toothpaste (Ajona) as control. Methods Fifty-seven enamel samples were ob...
Article
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Objective: This study evaluated the preventive effect of a chitosan gel containing CaneCPI-5 against enamel erosion and erosion + abrasion in situ. Methods: Sixteen volunteers participated in a crossover, double-blind protocol, comprising 4 phases: (1) no treatment (Nt); (2) chitosan gel (Cg); (3) chitosan gel + 12,300 ppm NaF (Cg + NaF); and (4...
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Article
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Dens invaginatus is a defect categorized by a prominent lingual cusp and centrally located fossa. It occurs due to early invagination of the enamel epithelium into dental papilla of the underlying tooth germ. The affected teeth show a deep invagination of enamel as well as dentin initiating from foramen caecum or tip of the cusps and may extend eve...
Article
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The present study aimed to evaluate the wear rate of polymer-infiltrated network composites and ceramics against enamel in a bruxism-simulated scenario. Ninety-six (n = 96) molars were divided into six groups (n = 16) according to their occlusal material: group 1—a polymer-infiltrated network ceramic (PINC); group 2—a second polymer-infiltrated net...