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Enamel - Science topic

Q&A Forum for mineralized tissues such as Enamel
Questions related to Enamel
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Like carbon isotope from fossil tooth enamel, is oxygen isotope also have some specific values to define humid or arid areas?
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Oxygen Isotopes in Enamel Carbonate and their Ecological Significance
Matt Sponheimer
Journal of Archaeological Science (1999) 26, 723–728 Article No. jasc.1998.0388, available online at http://www.idealibrary.com
Our re-examination of the Swartkrans and Equus Cave data reveals several points of interest. First, enamel carbonate ä18O values have not been obscured by diagenesis. This is evident because taxa with diVerent eating/drinking behaviours remain isotopically discrete at both sites. Further, it is clear that drinking behaviour has a dominant eVect on mammalian oxygen isotope composition. In addition, these data suggest that diet, too, has a strong aVect on ä18O values inasmuch as it determines an animal’s drinking behaviour, and because diVerent food such as leaves, stems, and animal flesh are isotopically discrete. Together, these principles explain why some browsers are more enriched in 18O than grazers, while carnivores are depleted compared with herbivores.
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I would like to know why mostly of dentists doesn't use an adhesive system to their sealants, because when asked they just answer with "because that’s not the protocol" but in fact they’re plenty of studies like by Feigal in the late 2000 reporting the elasticity of the bonding agents serving as a long-term stress-breaker for these sealants. Moreover McCafferty & O’Connell reported the statistical significant improvement in the retention of a bonded sealant at 12 months over conventional sealants, and there's at least 10 more studies showing the benefits of bonding sealants. Is it time to switch the paradigm about bonding our sealants?
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Many thanks for bringing this point up!
This was a matter of discussion in the latest European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry Congress held in June 2022 in Lisbon, Portugal. Apparently, there is some kind of guidelines in the United States that recommends applying an adhesive system before the resin-based sealant material (At least according to the lecturer from the states). Otherwise, I join my voice to Dr. Sezer that adhesive systems can indeed be used underneath of sealants, and I also think that this kind of technique would also be superior in in-vitro tests (Microleakage, Retenetion, etc..). Weather this in-vitro superiority would bring any advantages clinically is remained to be answered.
In our department, we - also - do not use an adhesive system before applying a resin-based sealants. When bonding only to enamel in other procedures (e.g., surgical exposure and assisted eruption of an impacted canine), we use an - only - enamel bonding agent (e.g., Heliobond). This is of course rather based on expert experience only.
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I am a post graduate student doing Masters of Dental Surgery and I am doing a study related to Biomarkers and primary teeth.
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I agree go for an x ray and than you can proceed with sectioning.
Or if it's a natural you can go for cej visualization and than you can perform
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In 1834, Charles Wheatstone measured the velocity of electricity along two long wires, whereby he found a velocity of about 463,500 km/s, over 1.5 times the speed of light. In 1905, Nikola Tesla also measured a propagation speed for the telluric currents he transmitted trough the earth's surface of 471,240 km/s, remarkably close to Wheatsone's result and within 0.1% of pi/2 times the speed of light.
In order to validate the possibility of transmitting superluminal signals along a wire, we setup an experiment, similar in design to Wheatstone's, consisting of two relatively long wires which were excited by a capacitive discharge. Hereby, a mercury wetted relay was used as a switching element in order to obtain as fast a signal rise time as possible.
Quite surprisingly, the superluminal signal was detected and found to propagate at more than 1.8 times the speed of light. This is quite a lot faster than the theoretical pi/2 (1.57), which may be caused by the use of enamelled wire rather than unshielded wire.
I still need to work things further out, but you can take a look at the scope shots and setup to draw your own conclusions:
Besides this experiment, I've also worked on a new aether theory, whereby the electromagnetic domain is fully integrated with the fluid dynamics domain and whereby all units of measurement are expressed in just three fundamental ones: mass, length and time, which would explain the existence of superluminal longitudinal "sound" waves in the aether:
In this work, there are 18 references to papers wherein superluminal signals were detected with various methods, such as microwave experiments as well as experiments with optical fibers.
So, the question is: is this actual additional evidence of the existence of Tesla's superluminal longitudinal waves, or did I measure an artifact?
Update: The measurement presented above (even though preliminary), together with the 18 references around detection of superluminal signals in my paper as well as the recent work of Steffen Kühn leave little doubt that the actual propagation speed of the electric field is superluminal rather than that it propagates at c:
So, now we have two independent measurements of superluminal signal transmission along a transmission line. He has also pointed to the exact same problem in Maxwell's equations via a different path:
Taking all of this together, there simply is no escape to the conclusion that Maxwell's equations are indeed wrong. One cannot get away with violating the fundamental theorem of vector calculus, which is undoubtedly called fundamental for a reason, and it seems to me that after 120+ years of attempting to correct this obvious flaw by extending the model, i.e. make it "complete" by trying to find additional equations (including multi-dimensional ones), maybe it's time to try something else, like simply fixing the actual problem and revise Maxwell's equations.
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In my opinion, the special theory of relativity is now experimentally falsified:
It is interesting that Einstein's postulates and Maxwell's equations seem to be correct. Nevertheless, one can obviously cheat the speed limit if one knows the trick.
Best regards,
Steffen
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Working on my master thesis, I've created and eroded 1 sample (Vertex exterior with enamel sample on the middle) and now need to measure the volume difference between before and after erosion? Any tutorial I can follow please?
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Dear,
I am currently working on my master thesis (measure wear of dental materials for a in vivo study) with Geomagic Control X.
I know how to align the STLs but I don't know how to measure the volume difference between the occlusale surface of my baseline data and the 1 year data.
Do you have any advise or protocole to help me ? I don't know how to create a 3D model of my scanned data as Hamed Bakhtiari proposed.
Thanks
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1. if a person had an orthodontic treatment, would one could understand it, after the treathment? if Yes, what are the implications or traces to say so? Another question is, by looking  an individual's cephalometric radiograph or bitewing , panoramic etc. Can one understand this?
2. Are those materials (archwire, ligature, springs etc.) used for orthodontic treatment leave behind a trace or any deformation on tooth enamel?
3. can we understand this macroscopicly? And, after the orthodontic treatment, does it occur  a shift in size and morphology of teeth that has been to this treatment?
Thank you...
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I dont think by looking at the cephalogram, panoramic radiograph, it would be possible to identify whether orthodontic treatment has been performed. Unless the patient received extractions or surgery. Best way is to take proper history for the patients.
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In the literature, different fluoride formulations have been documented for the formation of fluorapatite.
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Fluorapatite is not influenced by just one factor that is dentifrices, Its formation is a much dynamic process influenced by various factors ranging from
1. Systemic administration of fluoride at the time of enamel formation and early tooth eruption,
2. Daily dietary intake of fluoride,
3. Intake of fluoride from additional resources like Tea, fish vegetables, food cooked in Teflon coated utensils etc.
3. Loss of hydroxyapatite to gain of fluorapatite ratio,
4. Availability of free fluoride ions
5. Bare minimum concentration of 500 ppm for children and 800-1000 ppm and above the optimum level of fluoride for adult usage in dentifrices.
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Hi all
I am looking for articles for anisotropic mechanical properties of jawbones (maxilla and mandible).
I am looking for mechanical properties (modulus of elasticity, poisson ratio, compressive strength, shear modulus, density) of various sites of jawbones ( for maxilla- palate, premaxilla, pterygoid maxilla, zigomatic maxi and for mandible- symphisis, body, ramus and condylar areas.
also I am looking for same mechanical properties for enamel, dentine, pulp, pdl, and cementum.
please anyone having articles related send it to me.
I would be grateful
Thanks and regards
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DOI: 10.1034/j.16000501.2000.011005415.x
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0113229
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When we are evaluating the remineralization in the interface layer between the sealant and enamel using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)could we assess in the same time the mineral content in a quantitative way of the interface enamel?
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I do not understand what type of remineralization you expect to find, but crystal structure of healthy enamel is pretty dense and do not allow any significant infiltration of a resin. Of course, dental bore makes rather rough surface of an enamel, and applied resin will fill all the crevices, so there will be no flat, even interface. Additional difficulty is that resolution of standard EDS procedure for an enamel is about 2 microns (some paper erroneously state that infiltration is the same 2 micron, their authors just do not know what "resolution" means). In your case mapping is rather useless, even if pretty. I would advise to use line scan, as was already suggested by Ahmed Samir Bakry .
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Is there a fluoride home application compliance test, that would tell the use of fluoride in past week or month? Something similar to the glycated hemoglobin test that tells you your average level of blood sugar over the past 2 to 3 months.
We are evaluating telephone interventions to increase fluoride compliance for post -radiation caries patients. We would like to use something more objective than just self reported yes or no.
There is an old and semi-invasive method, but has not been used much in recent research:
van der Merwe, E. H., Retief, D. H., Barbakow, F. H., & Friedman, M. (1974). An evaluation of an in vivo enamel acid etch biopsy technique for fluoride determination. The Journal of the Dental Association of South Africa = Die Tydskrif van Die Tandheelkundige Vereniging van Suid-Afrika, 29(2), 81–87.
Brudevold, F., Reda, A., Aasenden, R., & Bakhos, Y. (1975). Determination of trace elements in surface enamel of human teeth by a new biopsy procedure. Archives of Oral Biology, 20(10), 667–673. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-9969(75)90135-1
Best regards,
Aleš
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Following
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I am studying inhibitors effect on LDH activity in Streptococcus mutans and I want to study enamel Demineralization Test in vitro, is there any test to study enamel Demineralization in vitro??
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Based on the information that you are investigating LDH inhibitors of S. mutans, I would assume that you are not interested in how to induce initial enamel caries lesions, but how to monitor lesion progression or assess lesion size. Correct? (you see it is not so easy to formulate a question in an unambiguous way).
The size of a lesion can be assessed for example by means of X-rays. In connection with caries experiments, for example, transverse microradiography (= TMR) is recommended as a well established method (de Josselin de Jong E, ten Bosch JJ, Noordman J: Optimised microcomputer-guided quantitative microradiography on dental mineral tissues slices. Phys Med Biol 1987;32:887-899).
TMR is replaced more and more with microct evaluations (see for example: Thomas, R., Ruben, J. L., De Vries, J., Ten Bosch, J. J., & Huysmans, M. C. D. N. J. M. (2006). Transversal wavelength-independent microradiography, a method for monitoring caries lesions over time, validated with transversal microradiography. Caries research, 40(4), 281-291).
Personally I prefer the microct approach, as you can perform repeated measurements with the same sample. It is a non-destructive method.
However, not everybody has such an expensive device.
Another well established alternative is quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF). You find plenty of publications on the website of www.inspektor.nl.
This publication might be especially interesting for you:
Kim, Y. S., Lee, E. S., Kwon, H. K., & Kim, B. I. (2014). Monitoring the maturation process of a dental microcosm biofilm using the Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence-Digital (QLF-D). Journal of dentistry, 42(6), 691-696.
QLF does not need expensive equipment. You do not need the Inspector devices. You can do it yourself. You can for example use a fluorescence microscope. A simple FITC filter would be sufficient. QLF is valid only for lesions up to a thickness of 500 µm. But you will hardly every induce more tha 500 µm deep enamel lesions in the lab.
If you need software to evaluate your images, use ImageJ. I have written a plugin for ImageJ to perform QLF. Google will help you to find it.
I would go for the QLF in case you have budget restrictions.
If you have access to a microCT, go for the microCT method. But keep in mind. You can only see effects with are roughly 2.5 times the size of the so called voxel size. The explanation behind this is described here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nyquist%E2%80%93Shannon_sampling_theorem
A lot of researchers using a microct does not know this limitation!
Sincerely
Karl-Heinz Kunzelmann
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I am working on lead-free glass enamels and I would like to know if anyone has any idea about what materials can help the glass enamels to become hide?
Thanks in advance
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+++ if u find it ,please can you share with me ?
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Is it possible for a dentist to use a product that highlights enamel or dentin ? It should have a real interest in the bonding procedures to apply. Of course it should not color the tissues or it should be removed very easily. Thank you for your help.
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Using phosphoric acid etching gel. If the color changes to chalk white under loup with white LED light, it's enamel. If the color almost no change even cannot distinguished by loup and white LED light, it's detin.
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I want to know if interstitial fluid is also acidic in dental caries patients . which when flow in dentinal lymph and along rod sheath and cause demineralization.
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For additional information please read my hypothesis in attachment
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Hi I am preparing enamel paint from alkyd of medium oil length. I found that the first coat of paint is getting tack free in 7-8 hours whereas the second coat is tack free in 5-6 hours. Can anyone explain this phenomenon of fast drying of second coat over the first one.
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Dear Vinay Khandelwal, my proposed explanation is as follow. I think the metal surface plays an adverse effect on the hardenning of the coat film. It inhibits and retards the Polymerization process. The upper 2nd coat forms rapidly because the course of the polymerization is not affected by the metal surface since it is isolated by the first coat film. The attached file give more details. My Regards
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How the re mineralisation of enamel is happening in avascular dental enamel
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I am not an endodontist, but being an active researcher of this area I can comment on this question. As Prof. Karl-Heinz Kunzelmann it can be monitored using non-destructive testing methods.
Plenty of methods are available to quantify the results of testing using image processing and signal processing techniques.
Ankit Nayak
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I need to perform AFM analysis on the labial surfaces of human teeth to evaluate enamel erosion. The reference articles suggest wet polishing to produce flat enamel surfaces. I need to know if this is mandatory. If yes, will it not change the original surface morphology of the tooth, thereby giving a wrong measurement on AFM?
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Ah, OK, so the polishing seems to have happened before the erosion procedure was applied. In that case everything makes sense since a polished surface is a more reproducible starter than just a preexisting tooth with whatever past.
I suppose if you just use the tooth directly you will have to differentiate what erosion effect resulted from the "prestructuring" and what resulted from your actual experiment and while this may be closer to actual natural processes it may be pretty hard to get a publishable statement out of it.
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In some paper, I found AmeloD as an inner enamel epithelial marker but pig AmeloD primer sequences is not available at NCBI. So i need to look for some other possible markers.
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THe inner enamel epithelium, also known as the internal enamel epithelium, is a layer of columnar cells located on the rim nearestthe dental papilla of the enamel organ in a developing tooth.
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Dear all,
Please suggest me any Non toxic material for tooth enamel products.
want make make product for tooth which look like nail lacquer.
mainly fast drying material and which can make film on tooth easily.
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PMMA and PC
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Is there any way to answer the question
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Good question. The over saturation of the saliva is what creates the deposition of "calculus" on the teeth. Too much and instead of being incorporated into the tooth, it accumulates on it. Remineralization is a process that happens on the nanometer scale in which calcium and phosphates are used to replace the lost ions (at least on the theoretical level). A great article that proposes a model is this one: Niu LN, Jee SE, Jiao K, et al. Collagen intrafibrillar mineralization as a result of the balance between osmotic equilibrium and electroneutrality. Nat Mater. 2017;16(3):370–378. doi:10.1038/nmat4789
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The idea is to couple these new materials to a spectrometer that already works with rock samples
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You can try to use the materials of ceramic for crown prosthesis fabrication
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I'm still confuse about the etching pattern on enamel based on the type of etching acid that been used and so on about the width of the pores that created by it? still confuse too about identifying which one is the tail nor enamel rod. can anyone suggest me a journal nor a book that worth to read to help me to understand about this? thank you so much for your help! its mean a lot to me. have a good day everyone!
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how the two paint are made sir/ma
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Dear Dr.
your question was not clear to me please write more informations on what you need, and are you a researcher?, or dentist ? you need a method to use it in your clinic?
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Is there any clinical or in vitro evidence to suggesta benefit from restoring the full buccal surface of abfracted teeth with an indirect restoration?
In other words, if a tooth needs cuspal coverage for structural reasons, and there is a buccal abfraction, is there any reason to prepare the buccal surface other than esthetics? Could the effect of bonding the cervical area to the occlusal possibly outweigh the loss of stiffness related to removing the buccal enamel?
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Thank you.
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Hello everyone,
I have been on the hunt for an article or just some general advice about FT-IR spectra for human tooth enamel, particularly what is considered an "acceptable" range for C.I. values? I know there is some debate in the literature if C.I. values actually tell us anything about the diagenetic processes of human bone/tooth enamel, but I would like to get some opinions from other researchers about how they interpret sample spectra in their own projects.
Thanks!
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Thank you!
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Tooth enamel plays a critcal role in the function of teeth by providing a hard surfavce layer for wear and sometimes impact resistance. But it is a hard and brittle material that one would presume would readily crack. Although the DEJ provides an effective barrier for cracks in the enamel from reaching the dentin, thereby causing the whole tooth to fracture, are there mechanisms for the enamel to heal its cracks?
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Nicola:
Thanks for your thoughts on this issue. We have come to somewhat similar conclusions and have a paper coming out in Acta Biomaterialia shortly.
I appreciate your insight.
Cheers
ROR
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Discoloration of demineralized or cavitated surface of tooth is a major drawback of SDF (Silver Diamine Fluoride). This agent permanently blackens carious enamel and dentinal lesions.
Since, it is not mandatory to excavate the infected dentin before SDF application,and there is no tooth preparation also how would the longevity and aesthetics of such restorations be?
Any studies reporting the same?
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I have started using SDF recently. I use GIC to mask the Black colour in Primary teeth. The far reaching benefits of SDF do not compel us to excavate discoloured dentin. A sandwich restoration of GIC+ Light cured composite helps for sure.
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Can ethanol be used as enamel deproteinizing agent before bracketing, while using RMGIC as adhesive material?
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First off how much faster do you want to etch enamel than say 20 sec. A little rubber cup and fine pumice in water will easily remove the protein pelicle. Second, while NaOCl may denature protein, it will have a negative effect on the acid pH. The last question is...are you having problems bonding brackets to enamel? If you are, you are probably bonding with a self-curing or dual cure material. In the mid 1980's I demonstrated a procedure to bond Acid-Etched Fixed Partial Dentures with light cured composites which was easily translated to ortho brackets. That research was published in the mid 1980's and people familiar with my work and that of Rolf Bahrents have used the technique for almost 30 years.
D Naifeh, SL Wendt Jr, LD Dormois, and JP McKnight. A laboratory evaluation of rebond strengths of solid retainers of the acid-etched fixed partial denture. J Prosthet Dent 59(5):583-7, 1988.
L King, RT Smith, SL Wendt Jr, and RG Behrents. Bond strengths of lingual orthodontic brackets bonded with light-cured composite resins cured by transillumination. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop (4):312-5,1987.
RG Behrents, SL Wendt Jr, DM Fox, RT Smith, and L King. A transillumination technique for lingual bonding. J Clin Orthod 21(5):324-5, 1987.
Hope this helps.
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I am working on my M.Sc. thesis about silver enameling. I have done some research in enameling on metal field, But unfortunately, I couldn't find any paper having to do with my thesis. Silver enameling is categorized in metal enameling. based on my research, the paper titled "Electrical Insulating Properties of Porcelain Enamels on Clopper " is the only reference which is close to my study.
F.Y.I.: you can find the mentioned paper by
DOI: 10.1111/j.1151-2916.1959.tb13556.x
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There is nothing in the dental literature about cloisonné enameling because this material does not have the physical properties for use in the mouth.  The low fusing temperature is due to adding more sodium or potassium ions, which increases solubility.  Check craft books in a hobby store for the latest techniques, or Google "vitreous enamel" and follow up the links.
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This molar was assigned to M. primigenius,  but looks very unusual. 
First of all, the structure of the enamel is very unusual: very many tiny plates, and very parallel. 
Besides the enamel structure, another issue is represented by the type of fang is presented in the images.
How could you describe this tooth ?
Could this molar be assigend wrong to M. primigenius ? What is the right identification ?
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Dear Bogdan! Please contact with dr Arthur Chubur (https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Chubur_Aa). He is a very good in dentition of mammoths and other proboscideans. Good luck!
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I would like to know if it's possible to prepare this surfaces by the most minimally invasive technique, so I have been thinking in air abrasion.
Do you think that the amount of tissue removed would be minus with air abrasion? Or it would be less with a fine-grained (polishing) high-speed burr?
Also it is important to find out if air abrasion is able to remove all the demineralized layer (0.2 y 3 µm). The dephts of the demineralized layer are described by Amaechi and Higham, 2001; Eisenburger et al., 2001; Wiegand et al., 2007; Cheng et al., 2009; Voronets and Lussi, 2009.
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Please go through these
J Am Dent Assoc. 2001 Jun;132(6):762-9
Hegde, V. S., & Khatavkar, R. A. (2010). A new dimension to conservative dentistry: Air abrasion. Journal of Conservative Dentistry : JCD, 13(1), 4–8. http://doi.org/10.4103/0972-0707.62632
J Esthet Restor Dent. 2002;14(3):167-87.
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Which laboratory methods can be used to compare abrasive effect of toothpaste formulations on teeth (enamel and dentin)
From available studies Relative dentin abrasivity index for common abrasives is available. But I have not found any laboratory in India which carry out Relative dentin abrasivity tests.
Is there any alternative testing method which can be used to determine erosive effect or the abrasiveness of toothpaste formulation on teeth.
If possible please suggests laboratories in India that could be helpful in carrying out these tests. (possibly with no conflict of interests)
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For measuring the surface roughness (which will tell you about abrasivity) you can try Atomic force microscopy(AFM) and it is be available in many of the institutes in India. You could get exact values of micro roughness over the surfaces. 
But for carrying out the "brushing" over the teeth in a controlled and reproducible manner, I don't know any instruments as such. But a suggestive option will be to use a electric toothbrush of same brand with same amount of electric charge, so that the experiment is less prone for errors. And after it you can subject the surface of the teeth to AFM studies to measure the surface roughness.
Just a google search about "surface roughness using AFM" will give you some ideas.
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I want to use Buskes' protocol to produce in vitro caries enamel lesion
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Thank you Dr, Gaur, This compound ( methyl hydroxy diphosphonate (MDP)) is not in sigma chemical catalogue, the most resemble is: 1-Hydroxyethane-1,1,-diphosphonic acid, 1-Hydroxyethylidene Diphosphonic acid, HEDP.
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I'm curious if anyone has looked at the difference in enamel band thickness between the upper and lower teeth of any mammal, but more specifically ungulates.
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The enamel isn't uniformly thick in upper or lower teeth, so I doubt you'll find any studies that have measures of this from exactly homologous points that could be comparable. Plus, a worn tooth is showing a section of an enamel band often at oblique sections, not a real measure of enamel thickness. And, that thickness will change from crown tip to base, so the real answer would be in estimating enamel thickness from something like microCT. That has been done with some primates and crocs, but not really for much in the context of ungulates, as far as I know. would be great to see done.
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Caries has conventionally been treated with drlling and fillling keeping GV Black's rule of extension for prevention in mind. Contemporarily, caries is recommended to be treated with minimal intervention (MID) keeping prevention of extension in mind.In near future, caries will be treated without drill or any other method which involves loss of tooth structure as protien has been synthesized which replaces enamel. I will appreciate if someone elaborate on it in this forum.
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 Hi there,
you should try (for dentistry in Children) the Scottish Dental Clinical Effectiveness Programmes manual (although it is currently being updated, it is still contemporaneous). This document has been adopted for use in several other countries and is meant to be international in its scope although produced by a Scottish Group. It is very much about 'how to' do minimal intervention dentistry. 
There is VERY little evidence for lasers and ozone both of which are expensive and, from the research would seem to be unnecessary.  I would urge caution in adopting these when simpler, proven, effective methods are available.
Again, if it is primary teeth you are interested in, you could look at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hall_Technique
Also, please find a link to the Cochrane review on minimal caries removal techniques and the evidence for them.
If you wish, I'd be happy to send you more literature or point to more information.
Kind regards,
Nicola
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Is there any material or information onto what exactly is the mechanism of fluoride on developing enamel and timing at which this exposure should occur for fluorosis to develop.
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The primary dentition develops in utero and therefore if fluorosis occurs in the primary teeth, it would have to occur during this time. On the other hand, the development of the permanent dentition excluding the third molars occurs anywhere between 1 year and 7 years of age, This is the period of time the permanent dentition is vulnerable to fluorosis.
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Does bleaching, especially home bleaching either with Carbamyl or Hydrogen Peroxide cause calcium loss or degradation in tooth enamel?
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can you read the followings studies
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J Contemp Dent Pract. 2014 Jul 1;15(4):392-8.
Influence of Fluoride Concentration and pH Value of 35% Hydrogen Peroxide on the Hardness, Roughness and Morphology of Bovine Enamel.
Nascimento WC, de Lima Gomes Ydo S1, Alexandrino LD1, Costi HT, Silva JO Jr, Silva CM.
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Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2014 Nov;45(6):933-6, 945.
[Effects of vinegar on tooth bleaching and dental hard tissues in vitro].
[Article in Chinese]
Zheng LW, Li Di-ze, Lu JZ, Hu W, Chen D, Zhou XD
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Oper Dent. 2014 Dec 23. [Epub ahead of print]
Effects of the Concentration and Composition of In-office Bleaching Gels on Hydrogen Peroxide Penetration into the Pulp Chamber.
Mena-Serrano A, Parreiras S, Nascimento ED, Borges C, Berger S, Loguercio A, Reis A.
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.J Esthet Restor Dent. 2014 Dec 20. doi: 10.1111/jerd.12123. [Epub ahead of print]
Evaluation of Novel Microabrasion Paste as a Dental Bleaching Material and Effects on Enamel Surface.
Bağlar S, Çolak H, Hamidi MM
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J Int Oral Health. 2014 Jul;6(4):18-24.
Microhardness and roughness of enamel bleached with 10% carbamide peroxide and brushed with different toothpastes: an in situ study.
Melo CF, Manfroi FB, Spohr AM
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Eur J Dent. 2014 Jul;8(3):320-5. doi: 10.4103/1305-7456.137634.
Effects of a bleaching agent with calcium on bovine enamel.
Alexandrino L, Gomes Y, Alves E, Costi H2, Rogez H, Silva C1.
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BMC Oral Health. 2014 Sep 6;14:113. doi: 10.1186/1472-6831-14-113.
Does post-bleaching fluoridation affect the further demineralization of bleached enamel? An in vitro study.
Kemaloğlu H, Tezel H, Ergücü Z.
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See comment in PubMed Commons belowOper Dent. 2015 January/February;40(1):96-101. Epub 2014 Aug 19.
Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide Concentration on Enamel Color and Microhardness.
Borges A, Zanatta R, Barros A, Silva L, Pucci C, Torres C.
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See comment in PubMed Commons belowActa Clin Croat. 2013 Dec;52(4):419-29.
Surface changes of enamel and dentin after two different bleaching procedures.
Klarić E, Marcius M, Ristić M, Sever I, Prskalo K, Tarle Z.
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There is some debate about whether to bevel or not the cavosurface margins in the occlusal box of a class II preparation for resin restoration in a primary molar in order to remove the aprismatic enamel and increase the surface area for bonding. 
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Hi Mona, I would like to know first,  why do you ask this question? On the benches of the dentistry school we taught us that the particular orientation of the enamel prisms in the primary molar is different from permanent molar and it makes useless the beveling because there are not steady prisms in the cavo-surface margins. However, I find the paper recommended by our colleagues Adit et Nirmala very interesting especially because the studies on the temporary teeth are relatively rare.
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I am searching for a high-temperature resistant enamel or glassceramic to coat a stainless steel. It should be stable until 1000°C. The thermal expansion coefficient should be between 130-180 * 10-7 K-1. If anybody has an idea, please help me.
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Thank you both for your answers. We got already some progress in developing high temperature enamels with high thermal expansion coefficient.
The enamel should be stable and corrosion resistant for a long period of time - several years at least.
And we also have a look on fuel cell development, but in general the articles report not the exact composition, only a range of ingredients. If you have some better information / articles, please let me know.
Thank you in advance.
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I was following a discussion on how lower pH (acidification) causes demineralization of tooth enamel, increasing risk for caries. This ties together with Bardow, A. et al (2000) - Archives of Oral Biology, where they found that an unstimulated low salivary flow rate was the best variable for predicting demineralization (bicarbonate, calcium, phosphate).
Therefore, low pH and low salivary flow -> demineralization -> leading to increased caries risk. 
So what is causing the change in pH and the change in salivary flow?
I have been looking if stress, critical illness, hospitalization may affect the salivary pH. And in turn, this would increase the bacterial colonization and microorganisms that could lead to a hospital acquired aspiration pneumonia. There is a lot of info out there on oral flora changing in critically ill and oral flora associated with ventilator acquired pneumonia, but I want to know more about how and when the pH is affected. Is a change in pH the first causal factor that gets the ball rolling?
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Your question is difficult to answer because it raises at lot more questions. First of all. Measuring salivary pH is a critical matter. It should be done within the oral cavity, as it changes under experimental conditions outside the oral cavity. Secondly salivary pH varies consideably is is dependent from a lot of different factors such as CO2, bicarbonate, protein concentration and last not least from the physiological contition of the individdum (see. also Naumova et a. Sci Rep. 4:4884). Bacterial colonization and distribution in the oral cavity is not equal. It is different in different niches. Most bacteria are found on the tongue surface. Very little are fount on the mouth floor. We are just about to study the physiological differences of the bacterial colonization in different areas of the oral cavity.
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Did anybody notice a better or faster absorption by enamel?
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In the recent past agents like cpp-app , bio active glass, xylitol and other agents have shown to effectively counter initial carious lesions in tooth enamel, there have been many invitro studies supporting the same, though long term animal or invivo studies are required , never the less these agents have shown promising results to replace fluorides as the major agent for countering tooth caries.
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thank you for the articles Dr Baroni. As we all know enough evidence ,is present on cpp-acp . can be found in the literature regarding its effectiveniess compared to fluoride containing dentifrices. but how effective and promising are the the more advanced/ recently introduced materials like hydroxyapatite and organic fluorides (amide fluorides) , bioactive glass (novamin technology) are when compared to CPP-ACP & fluorides .
Our group has done a study regarding the same and the result have been promising.