Science topic

Embryophyta - Science topic

Higher plants that live primarily in terrestrial habitats, although some are secondarily aquatic. Most obtain their energy from PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They comprise the vascular and non-vascular plants.
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Publications related to Embryophyta (8,170)
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Key message Comparative genetics and genomics among green plants, including algae, provide deep insights into the evolution of land plant sexual reproduction. Abstract Land plants have evolved successive changes during their conquest of the land and innovations in sexual reproduction have played a major role in their terrestrialization. Recent yea...
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Genomic imprinting results in the biased expression of alleles depending on if the allele was inherited from the mother or the father. Despite the prevalence of sexual reproduction across eukaryotes, imprinting is only found in placental mammals, flowering plants, and some insects, suggesting independent evolutionary origins. Numerous hypotheses ha...
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Key messageThe liverwort Marchantia polymorpha regulates gametangia and gametangiophore development by using evolutionarily conserved regulatory modules that are shared with angiosperm mechanisms regulating flowering and germ cell differentiation. AbstractBryophytes, the earliest diverged lineage of land plants comprised of liverworts, mosses, and...
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Over recent decades, wide-ranging research has been focused on algae due to their potential applications, e.g., for biomass, extract and "third"-generation biofuel production. In particular, microalgae, which are very fast-growing organisms with low nutrient requirements, are ideal research objects. This review focuses on one of the most significan...
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The seeds of flowering plants are sexually produced propagules that ensure dispersal and resilience of the next generation. Seeds harbor embryos, three dimensional structures that are often miniatures of the adult plant in terms of general structure and primordial organs. In addition, embryos contain the meristems that give rise to post-embryonical...
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Background Pyrenoids are protein microcompartments composed mainly of Rubisco that are localized in the chloroplasts of many photosynthetic organisms. Pyrenoids contribute to the CO 2 -concentrating mechanism. This organelle has been lost many times during algal/plant evolution, including with the origin of land plants. The molecular basis of the e...
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Leaf veins play an important role in plant growth and development, and the bundle sheath (BS) is believed to greatly improve the photosynthetic efficiency of C 4 plants. The OBV mutation in tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) results in dark veins and has been used widely in processing tomato varieties. However, physiological performance has difficulty...
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Streptophytes are one of the major groups of the green lineage (Chloroplastida or Viridiplantae). During one billion years of evolution, streptophytes have radiated into an astounding diversity of uni- and multicellular green algae as well as land plants. Most divergent from land plants is a clade formed by Mesostigmatophyceae, Spirotaenia spp. and...
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Key message Complete chloroplast genome sequence of a moss, Takakia lepidozioides (Takakiopsida) is reported. The largest collection of genes in mosses and the intensive RNA editing were discussed from evolutionary perspectives. Abstract We assembled the entire plastid genome sequence of Takakia lepidozioides (Takakiopsida), emerging from the firs...
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The earliest evidence for land plants comes from dispersed cryptospores from the Ordovician, which dominated assemblages for 60 million years. Direct evidence of their parent plants comes from minute fossils in Welsh Borderland Upper Silurian to Lower Devonian rocks. We recognize a group that had forking, striated axes with rare stomata terminating...
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Key sources of information on the nature of early terrestrial ecosystems are the fossilized remains of plants and associated organic encrustations, which are interpreted as either biofilms, biological soil crusts or lichens. The hypothesis that some of these encrustations might be the remains of the thalloid gametophytes of embryophytes provided th...
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Land plants first evolved from freshwater algae, and flowering plants returned to water as early as the Cretaceous and multiple times beyond. Alismatales is the largest clade of aquatic angiosperms including all marine angiosperms, as well as terrestrial plants. We used Alismatales to explore plant adaptation to aquatic environments by including 95...
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Land plants produce a vast arsenal of specialized metabolites and many of them display interesting bioactivities in humans. Recently, flavonol quercetin gained great attention in the light of the COVID-19 pandemic because, in addition to the anti-inflammatory, antiviral and anti-cancer activity already described, it emerged as possible inhibitor of...
Article
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Bryophyta comprises one of the earliest lineages of land plants that had implemented remarkable innovations to their lipid metabolic systems for successful adaptation to terrestrial habitat. This study presents a comprehensive investigation of fatty acid profiles of mosses from Eastern Himalayas with an aim to trace their chemotaxonomic and evoluti...
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Greenhouse gas emissions from large-scale volcanism in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province is considered to have caused the end-Triassic mass extinction (201.5 million years ago), but the impact on land plants has been debated. Here, abundance changes in spores and pollen record the devastating effects this volcanic induced climate crisis had on...
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Charophyte green algae (CGA) are assigned to be the closest relatives of land plants and therefore enlighten processes in colonization of terrestrial habitats. For the transition from water to land, plants needed significant physiological and structural changes, also with regard to cell wall composition. Sequential extraction of cell walls of Nitel...
Article
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Liverwort Marchantia polymorpha is considered as the key species for addressing a myriad of questions in plant biology. Exploration of drought tolerance mechanism(s) in this group of land plants offers a platform to identify the early adaptive mechanisms involved in drought tolerance. The current study aimed at elucidating the drought acclimation m...
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Microsatellites (SSRs) are tandem repeat sequences in eukaryote genomes, including plant cytoplasmic genomes. The mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) has been shown to vary in size, number, and distribution of SSRs among different plant groups. Thus, SSRs contribute with genomic diversity in mtDNAs. However, the abundance, distribution, and evolutionary s...
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Climate changes and subsequent loss of biodiversity are threatening human existence. Due to its significance in ecosystem functioning, biodiversity is very important but difficult to replenish and recover when eroded. A severe threat to the anthropological system was the loss of biodiversity that took place over the planet. Climate change has the o...
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Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is a widespread symbiosis between roots of the majority of land plants and Glomeromycotina fungi. AM is important for ecosystem health and functioning as the fungi critically support plant performance by providing essential mineral nutrients, particularly the poorly accessible phosphate, in exchange for organic carbon. AM...
Article
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Some cells grow by an intricately coordinated process called tip-growth, which allows the formation of long tubular structures by a remarkable increase in cell surface-to-volume ratio and cell expansion across vast distances. On a broad evolutionary scale, tip-growth has been extraordinarily successful, as indicated by its recurrent ‘re-discovery’...
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Symbiotic N2-fixing microorganisms have a crucial role in the assimilation of nitrogen by eukaryotes in nitrogen-limited environments1–3. Particularly among land plants, N2-fixing symbionts occur in a variety of distantly related plant lineages and often involve an intimate association between host and symbiont2,4. Descriptions of such intimate sym...
Article
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Knowledge on how climate change affects land-sea ecological connectivity in deep time is scarce. To fill this knowledge gap we have assembled a unique dataset through a Jurassic (early Toarcian) warming event that includes quantitative abundance data from pollen and spores, organic-walled marine plankton and benthic macro-invertebrates, in associat...
Article
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Mechanosensing is one of the fundamental cellular processes that helps cells respond to universal stimuli such as light, touch, gravity, and stresses. PIEZOs are the most well-characterized mechanosensors in mammals and can be activated by applying pressure from either a patch-clamp recording pipette or a blunt glass pipette, as the Greek word piez...
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Penium margaritaceum is a unicellular zygnematophyte (basal Streptophyteor Charophyte) that has been used as a model organism for the study of cell walls of Streptophytes and for elucidating organismal adaptations that were key in the evolution of land plants.. When Penium is incubated in sorbitol-enhance medium, i.e., hyperosmotic medium, 1000–150...
Article
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Main conclusion Identification of the polyamine biosynthetic pathway genes in duckweed S. polyrhiza reveals presence of prokaryotic as well as land plant-type ADC pathway but absence of ODC encoding genes. Their differential gene expression and transcript abundance is shown modulated by exogenous methyl jasmonate, salinity, and acidic pH. Abstract...
Article
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Penta-, Tetra-, and Octo-tricopeptide repeat (PPR, TPR, and OPR) proteins are nucleus-encoded proteins composed of tandem repeats of 35, 34, and 38–40 amino acids, respectively. They form helix-turn-helix structures that interact with mRNA or other proteins and participate in RNA stabilization, processing, maturation, and act as translation enhance...
Article
Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis is one of main economical species cultivated seaweed in China. The yield of Gracilaria lemaneiformis was positive related with its rhizoid branching number and length, whereas the regulation on branching and growth of G. lemaneiformis was unclear. IAA was well known to control morphogenesis and growth in land plants. Th...
Article
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Algae are photosynthetic eukaryotic (micro-)organisms, lacking roots, leaves, and other organs that are typical for land plants. They live in freshwater, marine, or terrestrial habitats. Together with the cyanobacteria they contribute to about half of global carbon fixation. As primary producers, they are at the basis of many food webs and they are...
Article
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Arbuscular mycorrhiza, one of the oldest interactions on earth (~ 450 million years old) and a first-class partner for plants to colonize emerged land, is considered one of the most pervasive ecological relationships on the globe. Despite how important and old this interaction is, its discovery was very recent compared to the long story of land pla...
Article
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The tropical island of Sri Lanka, with a land area of 65,610 km2 and 1340 km of coastline, is highly vulnerable to impacts of climate change, with detrimental effects on agriculture, water resources, human health, coastal zones, infrastructure, industry, and biodiversity. A general increase in temperature and precipitation patterns, rising sea leve...
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Monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR) is an enzyme involved in ascorbate recycling. Arabidopsis thaliana has five MDAR genes that encode two cytosolic, one cytosolic/peroxisomal, one peroxisomal membrane-attached, and one chloroplastic/mitochondrial isoform. In contrast, tomato plants possess only three enzymes, lacking the cytosol-specific enzymes...
Article
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A proteome-wide study of the virus kingdom based on 1.713 million protein sequences from 19,128 virus proteomes was conducted to construct an overall proteome map of the virus kingdom. Viral proteomes encode an average of 386.214 amino acids per protein with the variation in the number of protein-coding sequences being host-specific. The proteomes...
Article
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Plants need to rapidly and flexibly adjust their metabolism to changes of their immediate environment. Since this necessity results from the sessile lifestyle of land plants, key mechanisms for orchestrating central metabolic acclimation are likely to have evolved early. Here, we explore the role of lysine acetylation as a posttranslational modific...
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The Domain of unknown function 506 (DUF506) family, which belongs to the PD-(D/E)XK nuclease superfamily, has not been functionally characterized. In this study, 266 DUF506 domain-containing genes were identified from algae, mosses, and land plants showing their wide occurrence in photosynthetic organisms. Bioinformatics analysis identified 211 hig...
Preprint
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All eukaryotes possess three DNA-dependent RNA polymerases, Pols I-III, while land plants possess two additional polymerases, Pol IV and Pol V. Derived through duplication of Pol II subunits, Pol IV produces 24-nt siRNAs that interact with Pol V transcripts to target de novo DNA methylation and silence transcription of transposons. Members of the g...
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Flooding is a significant stress to land plants, depriving them of essential oxygen. Plants have evolved diverse strategies with variable success to survive flooding. Similar strategies have been described in organisms from other kingdoms. Several fungal species can successfully survive a low-oxygen environment by increasing their branched-chain am...
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Bruguiera is a genus of true mangroves that are mostly distributed in the Indo-West Pacific region. However, the number of published whole chloroplast genome sequences of Bruguiera species are limited. Here, the complete chloroplast sequences of five Bruguiera species were sequenced and assembled using Illumina data. The chloroplast genomes of B. g...
Poster
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COLE TCH, HILGER HH, HRONEŠ M, MAJESKÝ Ľ (2021) EMBRYOPHYTA – VYŠŠÍ ROSTLINY: Vztahy a charakteristika • evoluční strom založený na molekulárních fylogenetických datech (2021) • délka větví je arbitrární a nevyjadřuje časovou divergenci • počty druhů (šedě) jsou přibližné
Poster
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COLE TCH, HILGER HH, MAJESKÝ Ľ, MÁRTONFI P (2021) EMBRYOPHYTA – VYŠŠIE RASTLINY: Vzťahy a charakteristika • evolučný strom založený na fylogenetických dátach (2021) • dĺžka vetiev je arbitrárna a nevyjadruje skutočnú časovú divergenciu • počty druhov (sivou farbou) sú približné
Article
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The new renewable energy source, namely microalgae biomass, which is the third generation in its utilization derivative, has a lipid content productivity that has great potential to be used as raw material for biodiesel production. One species of microalgae, Nannochloropsis sp., is ideal for cultivation and has a higher photosynthetic efficiency th...
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Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins form a large protein family in land plants, with hundreds of different members in angiosperms. In the last decade, a number of studies have shown that PPR proteins are sequence-specific RNA-binding proteins involved in multiple aspects of plant organellar RNA processing, and perform numerous functions in plan...
Article
As a result of the draining of fossil fuels like gasoline and other gases, environmentalists are encouraging people to consider Bio Fuel as a possible replacement. Bio Fuels can't replace gasoline or diesel completely in real-world situations since they lack the necessary manufacturing capacity, such as in the manufacture of engines. But these Bio...
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A critical review of putative nonmarine mass extinctions associated with the so-called “Big 5 mass extinctions” of marine invertebrates (Late Ordovician, Late Devonian, end Permian, end Triassic and end Cretaceous) as well as a likely sixth mass extinction in the marine realm, the end-Guadalupian extinction, reveals little evidence of coeval marine...
Article
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MicroRNA156 (miR156) and miR529 have high sequence similarity and recognize overlapping sites in the same target genes, SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein-like (SPL or SBP box) genes, making it difficult to accurately distinguish their roles in regulatory networks that affect numerous biological functions. Here, we collected data about miR156 and mi...
Conference Paper
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Salinity, which is an environmental and abiotic stress factors, is one of the issues that restricts crop cultivation and has been studied by many researchers for many years. Salinity constitutes a serious problem for agriculture, pasture development, forestry and other similar applications. When the literature are evaluated, in general, the improve...
Poster
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In recent years, with the growth of aquaculture and the interest in improving the health of fish during the breeding process (Asimi and Sahu, 2013), the search for natural product with a source of bioactive compounds has increased. Macroalgae offer a novel and value-added dietary ingredient in diets formulated for fish. Like land plants, the nutrit...
Article
To secure phosphorus (P) from soil, most land plants use a direct phosphate uptake pathway via root hairs and epidermis and an indirect phosphate uptake pathway via mycorrhizal symbiosis. The interaction between these two pathways is unclear. Here, we mapped a network between transcription factors and mycorrhizal symbiosis-related genes using Y1H....
Article
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Mitochondria have their own double-stranded DNA genomes and systems to regulate transcription, mRNA processing, and translation. These systems differ from those operating in the host cell, and among eukaryotes. In recent decades, studies have revealed several plant-specific features of mitochondrial gene regulation. The polyadenylation status of mR...
Article
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Components of the plant immune signaling network need mechanisms that confer resilience against fast-evolving pathogen effectors that target them. Among eight Arabidopsis CaM-Binding Protein (CBP) 60 family members, AtCBP60g and AtSARD1 are partially functionally redundant, major positive immune regulators while AtCBP60a is a negative immune regula...
Preprint
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Background: The mitogenomes of vascular plants are one of the most structurally diverse molecules. In the present study we characterize mitogenome of a rare and endangered species Pulsatilla patens. We investigated the gene content and its RNA editing potential, repeats distribution and plastid derived sequences. Results: The mitogenome structure o...
Article
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Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi, previously known as Vesicular–Arbuscular-Mycorrhizal fungi (VAM) are soil microbes , forming obligate symbiotic association with the roots of 87% of the land plants. The Kaas plateau is situated in the western ghat of Sahyadri ranges 22km from Satara city in Maharashtra. This plateau is famous for its flowering plant d...
Article
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Land plants live in a crisis-filled environment and the fluctuation of sunlight intensity often causes damage to photosynthetic apparatus. Phyto-melatonin is an effective bioactive molecule that helps plants to resist various biotic and abiotic stresses. In order to explore the role of melatonin under high light stress, we investigated the effects...
Article
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In nature, land plants as sessile organisms are faced with multiple nutrient stresses that often occur simultaneously in soil. Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) are five of the essential nutrients that affect plant growth and health. Although these minerals are relatively inaccessible to plants due to their low solu...
Article
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The structurally robust biopolymer sporopollenin is the major constituent of the exine layer of pollen wall and plays a vital role in plant reproductive success. The sporopollenin precursors are synthesized through an ancient polyketide biosynthetic pathway consisting of a series of anther-specific enzymes that are widely present in all land plant...
Article
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About 90% of all land plants form mycorrhiza to facilitate the acquisition of essential nutrients such as phosphorus, nitrogen, and sometimes carbon. Based on the morphology of the interaction and the identity of the interacting plants and fungi, four major mycorrhizal types have been distinguished: arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), ectomycorrhizal (EcM)...
Article
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Several strongly conserved DNA sequence patterns in and between introns and intergenic regions (IIRs) consisting of short tandem repeats (STRs) with repeat lengths <3 bp have already been described in the kingdom of Animalia. In this work, we expanded the search and analysis of conserved DNA sequence patterns to a wider range of eukaryotic genomes....
Article
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Almost all land plants form symbiotic associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Individual plants usually are colonized by a wide range of phylogenetically diverse AMF species. The impact that different AMF taxa have on plant growth is only partly understood. We screened 44 AMF isolates for their effect on growth promotion and nutrient...
Article
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KNOX and BELL transcription factors regulate distinct steps of diploid development in plants. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, KNOX and BELL proteins are inherited by gametes of the opposite mating types and heterodimerize in zygotes to activate diploid development. By contrast, in land plants such as Physcomitrium patens and Arabidopsi...
Thesis
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Renewable energy is becoming an increasingly cost-effective commercial preference for airports due to technological progress, market maturity, and public-sector investment. Airports are highly energy intensive. The increase in passenger and air cargo traffic has led to the increase of energy requirements. The solar energy reduces the airport ope...
Article
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To investigate the growth and feeding conditions of the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis under different feeding modes: traditional (mainly consisting of wheat, bran, and soybean meal), formulated, and mixed feeds (1:1 mixture of traditional and formulated feeds) were fed in different crab breeding ponds in this study. During the experiment,...
Article
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Dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinases (DYRKs) are activated via the auto-phosphorylation of conserved tyrosine residues in their activation loop during protein translation, and they then phosphorylate serine/threonine residues on substrates. The DYRK family is widely conserved in eukaryotes and is composed of six subgroups. In...
Article
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Eukaryotic life cycles alternate between haploid and diploid phases and in phylogenetically diverse unicellular eukaryotes, expression of paralogous homeodomain genes in gametes primes the haploid-to-diploid transition. In the unicellular Chlorophyte alga Chlamydomonas KNOX and BELL TALE-homeodomain genes mediate this transition. We demonstrate tha...
Article
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Evolutionary pulses of complexity The evolution of land plants has been marked by an increase in the complexity of reproductive structures. Leslie et al . analyzed the temporal pattern of this increase in a study of fossil and extant land plants across the entire paleontological record. Reproductive complexity increased in two widely separated puls...
Article
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Journal of Palaeosciences (previously: The Palaeobotanist) 70(2021): 159–171 Fire is a major driver for the evolution of biodiversity throughout the Phanerozoic and occurs in continental palaeoenvironments since the advent of the first land plants in the Silurian. The detection of palaeo–wildfire events can be based on different proxies, and charc...
Thesis
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Geographical information systems and remote sensing are the two principal elements of geographic technology, which in turn represent the infrastructure of modern geography. In this context, Cartographic modeling is also an advanced field in geographical research, which includes the applications of mathematical analysis and structure on the map, and...
Article
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The Late Devonian witnessed landscape evolution, increased atmospheric O2 level, intense organic and volcanic activities and initial expansion of earliest wildfires. This paper is focused on petrographic and geochemical studies of Famennian inertinite-bearing marine shale facies in northern Kerman (central Iran), a Late Devonian key area in north o...
Article
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Background The periderm is a protective barrier crucial for land plant survival, but little is known about genetic factors involved in its development and regulation. Using a transcriptomic approach in the cork oak ( Q. suber ) periderm, we previously identified an RS2-INTERACTING KH PROTEIN ( RIK ) homologue of unknown function containing a K homo...