Science topics: Biological ScienceDevelopmental BiologyEmbryology
Embryology - Science topic
The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.
Questions related to Embryology
Often, during the development many structures first undergo proliferation such that their lumen first gets occluded almost completely and then "recanalize" again as the central cells undergo apoptosis. Why is there a need of recanalization to re-establish the lumen, when the lumen was already there at first place?
Kindly could you identify the reason for existing dark color particles inside of the Zebrafish egg yolk.
(refer the attached photos herewith)
There are many models which helps us to explain in some detail certain processes or phenomena or even to predict to some point how or why or what will happen to the organism if we did... animal testing, trying out a drug or a compound. there are many models, and this does not mean they are used dfor the same reason. Some organisms are better suited than others. How many models and why is this model appropriate? I would like to start by adding a partial answer. I hope we can make a detailed answer to the question, which fully explains the reason or the main aspects on the use of organisms for a model.
A related model may be the use of E. Coli for secveral purposes. some of them require the use of variants or stains, or some need the use og genetic engineering. Is this organism considered a model despite the transformations, or is it more related to the fact it is widely used? How many strains are there, why would we use a particular strain and is it related to the case of general use of model organisms? Are the more cases where we use organisms like this? Do we classify them under the model organism as a whole? Is there anything else you would like to add to the question?
Rejection of organs and other tissue is common. It's hard to find a good match, and usually people who receive tissue donations have to take immune suppressants.
And yet, there seem to be a lot of tetragametic chimeras, far more than people once believed. What prevents the cell lines from rejecting each other?
I am working with embryos and oocytes, i am confused about how many an which internal controls to use for qPCR?
in literature, i have seen only one internal control has been used and study is published in reputed journal. but i am not getting clear idea.
The scientific theory of evolution by natural selection was proposed by Charles Darwin its book On the Origin of Species (1859).
BEFORE DARWIN : Fixism and transformism are adopted by the scientifics to explain the living beings.
DARWIN : On the Origin of Species (1859): (Introduction ; CHAPTER I. Variation under Domestication. CHAPTER II. Variation under Nature. CHAPTER III. Struggle for Existence. CHAPTER IV. Natural Selection. CHAPTER V. Laws of Variation. CHAPTER VI. Difficulties on Theory. CHAPTER VII. Instinct. CHAPTER VIII. Hybridism. CHAPTER IX. On the Imperfection of the Geological Record. CHAPTER X. On the Geological Succession of Biological Beings. CHAPTER XI. Geographical Distribution. CHAPTER XII. Geographical Distribution—continued CHAPTER XIII. Mutual Affinities of Organic Beings: Morphology: Embryology: Rudimentary Organs. CHAPTER XIV. Recapitulation and Conclusion. Darwin has published a large number of books and articles on geology, biology, ect ..
Today, evolution (Synthetic Theory of Evolution) is based on a very large number of specialty : Paleontology and other Earth sciences, taxonomic, Molecular biology, Ethology, Ecology, Physiology, Cel. Biology, ..........
TODAY, HOW RESEARCHERS SEE THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION IN THE LIGHT OF INNUMERABLE DISCOVERIES OF MODERN SCIENCE?
It is interesting to understand if there is a definite stage when we can measure consciousness in a human embryo . Is it at moment of conception? or after birth? and how do we measure it? This is an exploitative scientific/ engineering oriented question. All are welcome to answer ,
Most organs start developing by epithelial growth into the underlying connective tissue. During this growth the epithelium undergoes biological modifications in order to start morphogenesis and differentiation. I found a gradient of certain proteins which disappear towards the deeper end whereas others are expressed in the deeper end. Which terms in embryology are most appropriate to describe these modifications.
Could the transfer of embryos (or oocytes and zygotes) between different culture media induce alterations in their cytoskeletal structure leading to cell division failure?
Thanks in advance.
I need to know the blood vessel organization in a 10-15 day old chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane.
My question is regarding chick embryo eyes sectioned with cryostat (10 um / 4 sections per slide). After performing the IHC, I apply 50 ul of mowiol and then slowly mount the coverslip (24x50 mm). The problem is that there are some bubble formation inside the eye and I don't know how to avoid this.
Fractals derived from Julia set and Glynn set as new tool for simulation of the stages of embryogenesis
I want to know if the methylation status of both IGF2 alleles will be the same across the different tissues (imprinting) or will it change depending on its source in a "normal" adult person? Since the expression of IGF2 is not the same across the different tissues (mainly in embryonic stages).
I know that there are various embryonic sources for the primary germ cells. And I know that they can reach their target (gonad) either by amoeboid movement or via blood vessels. But do all sperm and ova come from these migratory primary cells, or some of them develop from the local mesoderm of the gonad?
Thanks in advance.
I am studying the cell and chromosome of Trichogramma(Hym.: Trichogrammatidae). I used of colchicinfor the cessation of cell division and acetic- orcein for staining of them. I got the images of this process. is the images shows the cells?
Hi I am working on chicken Embryos and want to perform and ISH with HH16/21 and 25 Embryos. Unfortunately sometimes it happens that air bubbles trap in the Head, heart and vessels, which I would like to remove before doing the actual ISH procedure. I'm struggling to find a good way since I am intending to use a lot of embryos and especially it is difficult to remove it from the heart and vessels with forceps, without damaging the embryo.
In past ISH the bubbles didn't disappear when doing the O/N probe incubation at 65°C. I am not quite sure if it affects the actual binding.
I have lyophilized CEE that then must be resuspended in ddH2O. CEE is one of the components of a cell culture medium. I have a problem in filtering it alone and also as a component of that medium. I have used 0,22 and 0,45 um PVDF filters and in both cases I have the block of the filters, change filters everytime they block and at last lose a lot of material. I have also tried cell strainers of 40 and 70 um. The solution goes through but the strainers do not hold the particles.
How could I solve my problem? Do you have any suggestions for me?
I don't know which one is better?and which one work well?
We learn that the stroke volume is the same for the right and left side of the heart. When the stroke volumes are same, does it imply that the volume in the capillary bed and the systemic bed are same? Like, is there 3L of blood in the systemic and 3L in pulmonary bed? What's the distribution? There's also a list of adaptations in the pulmonary vasculature that accommodates the huge volume of blood. But that's the adult. What about the foetus?
My doubt is that, in the presence of a patent ductus arteriosus and a patent defect in the atrial septum in the foetal circulation, doesn't this distribution change? This shunting of blood into the systemic circulation would result in a low pulmonary venous return and hence, a low left ventricular stroke volume. So in the foetus, both blood distribution (in the two circulations) and also the stroke volumes (of either side of the foetal heart) should be differrent. Is this so?
This actually concerns me because the ductus areteriosus joins after the initial three branches (left brachiocephalic, the common carotid, and the subclavian). So, wouldn't such a shunting drastically reduce oxygenated blood flow/perfusion to the brain? As in there would be decreased flow to the carotids when compared to the adults.
Finally, what are the consequences of the differential blood volumes in the two circulations and differential stroke volumes of the two ventricles due to a patent ductus arteriosus in a foetus? (If happens)
My colleagues, I want to remove embryo from mice in many days of pregnancy period,now I have some question:
1.Is there a method for exact detection of days in pregnancy period except of seeing vaginally plaque?
2. After removing embryo, which solutions I must add for dehydration and fixation?
Does someone have already tried to inject CTB in E14.5 hind limb embryonic muscle?
Do you have any estimation of the speed rate of CTB-488 nm in the organism at this stage=?
Hi, I'm doing a project on the embryonic development of bearded dragons, and am currently decalcifying a few specimens in preparation for serial sectioning. So far I've been having calcium detected in surprising places - for instance a tail snip from a 12 day old embryo was found to have calcium, even though these apical vertebrae shouldn't form until much later one.
Does anyone have any experience with this? Namely, could the formalin in which they were preserved for quite some time have caused calcium leeching?
I need a simple protocol for karyotyping of preimplantation embryos (morulae and blastocysts).
I would like to induce rabbit BMSC to differentiate into fibroblast.
But, it is not easy for me to find out those references and information, although there are many other cases of differntiation including osteoblastic, cardiomyocytic, neuroblastic differentiation.
Is it because of embryologic reason or just my lack of searching skill?
I am interested in the phyrengeal arch arteries, and staining is affected by the presence of RBC's. How can I get rid of blood cells after dissecting embryos. I know that I can do perfusion with PBS into the outflow tract, but I am interested in knowing any other methods (if available).
I was wondering if anyone can illuminate me on the average number a blastocyst is made of right before implantation. Most papers seem to provide numbers referring to IVF-derived blastocysts. Can anyone provide me with a reference for blastocysts at day-6 under physiological conditions? Thank you in advance.
A better outcome in term of fertilization, cleavage and implantation.
Can pressure induce electrical effects like depolarization? I'm thinking about whether unborn can process sound information by acoustic pressure-pulses coupled to voltage-pulses, propagated by gap-junctions. What do you think?
I can't remember but I think I read somewhere that it only takes around 24 hours. Is this true?
I am working on a project measuring the activity of polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, chitinase, and other enzymes in wheat kernels. I am interested in measuring the difference in enzyme activity between live seed and 'dead' seed (non-viable embryo) within the same seed lot. So, I need to kill the embryo of a set of seeds without significantly altering their enzymatic composition, which is why I have avoided using heat. Thanks in advance!
How can one kill a seed embryo without denaturing enzymes or proteins within seed? - ResearchGate. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/post/How_can_one_kill_a_seed_embryo_without_denaturing_enzymes_or_proteins_within_seed [accessed Nov 6, 2015].
I have been trying to electroporate HH15-16 chick embryo somites in an ex-ovo culture system similar to the one described by Yalcin et al. (2010) (details available at http://www.jove.com/video/2154/an-ex-ovo-chicken-embryo-culture-system-suitable-for-imaging). Here in our lab we have already tried other systems, in-ovo and ex-ovo, but so far this has been the easiest system to culture and manipulate the embryos. However, the electroporation conditions are still difficult to set. We have been using a silver electrode (+) under the embryo and a paddle-style electrode (-) over the embryo, and here are the best conditions of the electroporation that we have tried so far: 5 pulses of 15V for 20ms, with intervals of 500 ms. We are trying to electroporate the somites near the hindlimbs to go as far as we can from the heart, but most of the embryos don't survive too long after the procedure (maximum of one day). Besides, we are still having difficulties to inject our DNA inside the somites, it seems DNA is leaking after the injection. We are using pCMV-EGFP vectors as our positive control and the vast majority of green cells are located at the surface of the embryo, not inside the somites. Could anyone help us to improve the electroporation conditions? Thank you!
I am performing alkaline phospatase staining for 3dpf zebrafish embryos for observing blood vessels. I am getting some problems in staining of blood vessels. I used 110ug/ml NBT, 55ug/ml BCIP in ALP buffer (100mM tris Hcl, 50mM MgCl2, 100mM NaCl and 0.1% Tween20). And I kept embryos in this for 15 - 30min. After this, embryos getting stained but not blood vessels. What I have to do?
(Ref. : Discriminating Different Cancer Cells Using a Zebrafish
in Vivo Assay Karni S. Moshal, Karine F. Ferri-Lagneau, Jamil Haider, Pooja Pardhanani and TinChung Leung *, Cancers 2011, 3, 4102-4113; doi: 10.3390/ cancers3044102)
During embryonic condition of twins, some genes are switched off and some are switched on. Here in this process cytosine get attaches to the CH3 then 5- methyl cytosine will be formed.
Why only cytosine is attached to methyl group and forms switched off gene. Why not other nitrogen bases attaches to methyl?
Thank you. GD
I know I read this in a paper detailing the rationale for work in the 1980s where platelet responses were used as model to study the effect of antidepressants and antipsychotics prior to more modern neuroscience techniques.
However, I cannot find an embryology reference that explicitly states this, unless I am misremembering what I originally read. Does anyone know of corroborating lines of enquiry or a reference to support why platelet models were used.
I am looking for information about impact of drinking alcohol while breastfeeding. I will be grateful if somebody could comment on it. Regards, Olga
We use some STR and VNTRs for detection of maternal contamination in our refereed cvs samples, but we are finding a new substitution method?
Hi there, I am a graduate student and I recently started working with Xenopus lavis oocytes. I need to use the Nanoject ii to preform microinjection to the oocytes which are digested using collagenase. Currently in my lab, we are loading the oocytes onto a piece of plastic film which we stick in our petri dish. This film however, does not hold the oocytes in position as I want it to. I am wondering if anyone have tried other methods of loading and have used other materials to hold them in a relatively fixed position for micro-injection. Thanks!
I am working on post-copulatory sexual selection in birds, and I would like to assess egg fertilization success. Visual inspection of the yolk does not allow to distinguish between non-fertilization and very early death of the embryo, and fluorescent coloration of the germinal disc and the perivitelline layer does not always provide reliable results. So I am looking for an alternative method.
Is anyone aware of a molecular/genetic technique to distinguish non-fertilized eggs from early embryonic death which could be applied to birds?
Is anyone familiar with the TGFb/nodal/activin luciferase reporter plasmids.
I know that p-smad3 is essential and sufficient for activation of CAGA. Is it the case for p3Tp-lux, SBE-4 too ? Is phosphorylation of smad2 essential to activate ARE-lucif reporter ? I mean is there any evidence of that?
Can anyone suggest detailed papers about using nano-particles in developmental embryology?
Some techniques state it is better to dissect the female mouse dorsally others state to use the normal ventral dissection method.
When we say "preimplantaion development" we know it means the process from the zygote to blastocyst stage. But what does "early development" refers to? Does it mean a defined time span?
I would like to know if the umbilical cord blood shows any similarities with mother's haematopoietic system.
I want to immunostain mouse embryos (2-cell, 8-cell, and blastocyst). What's the best method for moving the embryos from one solution to another? The previous times I tried this experiment I put the embryos in a 96-well plate and had a very difficult time moving them from one well to another with the mouth pipette. Also, I tried leaving them in 1-well and changing the solution in each well instead of moving the embryos but this proved to be difficult too.
I am curious if there are any other techniques out there that work well that I could try?
Prospective fate maps show that cells of different germ layers and different subdivisions within germ layers are partially segregated from one another in the epiblast and primitive streak. however , Gerhart et al (2007) demonstrate that the epiblast contains both multipotent cells and a subpopulation of cells that are stably committed to the skeletal muscle lineage before the onset of gastrulation .
Monte et al. suggest that pattern of metastatis in malignant melanoma may related to the embryological derivation of tissues involved.
could there is specific interaction between deifferent segregation in epiblast or they exposed to related factor that may explain organ - specific metastases ?
this make sense or there is something i understood wrongly ?
There are several factors affecting stem cells differentiation during embryonic development stage. I would like to discuss these factors together through your research and your experiences. Either in vivo or in vitro .
I'd like to measure the intracellular levels in my primary ES cells (grown on feeder MEFs). the literature is a bit confusing, but my conclusion was that if I want to use a plate reader fura2-AM is the best option, however results from microscopy seem to be more robust and in that case it's better to use fluo-4 AM, as fura-2AM need to be exited at 2 different wavelengths. so I would appreciate if anyone can give some suggestions, and a detailed protocol as I'd like to know also which is better, to load the cells at RT or 37C. thnx
Is this really what happens? If so, the three lineages would give rise to layers in organs such as the colon with three distinct patterns of ancestral somatic mutations. Alternately, organs could be created by pluripotent stem cells that locally create the layers of tissue observed. In such a case local elements of layers would to some extent share a genetic pattern of somatic mutations.
I want to examine preimplantation stage mouse embryos with LSCM and I have to fix them.
What is a common measurement standard for mouse ES cell/embryo (life and medical sciences) research?
DeSimone and the National Research Council committee state the following in “Convergence: Facilitating Transdisciplinary Integration of Life Sciences, Physical Sciences, Engineering, and Beyond”:
“Many believe that life and medical sciences have not focused as extensively as physics and engineering on developing common measurement standards and common guidelines for collecting data from biological samples. In order to move beyond information encoded in individual genomes to translational application, further attention to this challenge of standardization and reproducibility is required. Strategies adapted from the physics and engineering communities can contribute, although the complexity and individual variability of living organisms make measurement challenges in life and medical sciences unique.”
So, is this a legitimate problem that concerns life scientists explicitly or are engineers and physicists simply asking for too much because they can't appreciate the difficulty of measuring what we all should want to know?
Is a common measurement standard for ES cell research, etc., the best someone has already done or is it defined as the best we can achieve for some stated purpose? What is that purpose and the best we can achieve? Can there be one colligated, stated purpose and measurement standard for something like, "in vitro generation of hemangioblasts for rejuvenation and health"?
Would a "stem cell scientist", a "developmental biologist", a "cell biologist", a "materials engineer", a "network physicist", a "computer scientist", a "physiologist", a "tissue engineer", a "geneticist", a "reasonably informed citizen" and a "potential patient" ( i.e., all who investigate) agree this is what we want to know? Why bother? That is, what can we know in that future that we can't know now with current standards?
If we achieve this standard, would we even know what we're looking at? For example, if we saw regular flashing behavior associated with a construct that's not supposed to flash, how can we use that information? Who is responsible for assigning meaning if the behavior is novel to everyone investigating?
If we can't achieve that standard, whose problem would that be? Why should it be the biologists' problem? Isn't 21st century biology different in that it encompasses and synthesizes all disciplines?
Speculations are also welcome, so please... :)
Maybe a homeobox gene is operating only in the zone of vertebral laminae.
I'm trying to improve my maturation medium for bovine COCs, as it has been used in the same formulation for years.
Hello everyone! I am looking for a nice protocol for fragment removal from 8-cell embryo with AH needle and tyrode's solution. Thanks!
I want to collect newborn (1 day) mice ovaries to study it microscopically, but I can't find precise/complete information about the procedure.
Is it possible to identify contamination based on the morphology of embryos?
I'm interested in knowing if and at what point primordial germ cells may undergo EMT. I know EMT generates the primary mesenchyme but I'm not a devlopmental biologist and I am trying to find an answer to this question.
The focus of my current research project is to create a photographic series to illustrate the complexity of the abdominal wall in human cadavers. Typically portrayed from a lateral view, the peritoneal layer is central to my series. Due to limitations in the availability of cadavers in our lab, I am not able to completely bisect an abdominal cavity in order to attain this shot. Are there any suggestions to how I can alter my approach (preferably using an anterior view) and adequately portray this concept?
What can we use except D-limonene? It's basically an organic solvent, but the permeability is actually about the waxy layer (~5 nm) surrounding the vitelline membrane. Would acetone be right for this?
Embryologic and histologic studies on egg, effects of genetic changes on egg embryo, how to explore the information, etc.
Just wonder when the medullary bone first shows up in female bird and dino in their life time. If this formed, will it disappear when it's not in reproduction phase?
How does the anterior part of the crescent become the outflow tract and connect to the aortic arches?
I have a problem with fetomaternal haemorrhage staining. I have stained fetal blood in flow cytometry with anhydrase and fetal hemoglobin stains.
I didn't see fetal erythrocytes in the maternal blood. I then did a smear and saw that hematopoiesis was present in the fetal blood not bone marrow.
Why I didn't I see fetal erythrocytes in the maternal blood? Whats the matter with fetus?