Science topic

Embedded Systems - Science topic

Electronics, Embedded Systems, and Microcontrollers, Hardware in the Loop
Questions related to Embedded Systems
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Hello Folks
Can you discuss the opportunities available for PostDoc in the domain of Embedded Systems, IoT, AI&ML in india and abroad.
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is it possible to control non-linear changes with PID?
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Universal control channel https://t.me/universalcontrol
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Hello all
I would like to perform a Design and implementation of Smart Farmer using Embedded System . if you have any documents or papers (I prefer thesis or any axpanded documents) about this area.
thank you
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Hello Everyone,
I am doing master's 2 in Wireless Embedded Technologies from Polytech Nantes, France. Now I am looking an internship in my interest field. I need suggestion and advice regarding this. How I can find an internship at a research lab. Please feel free to give your advice and your recommandations.
Thank You in advance.
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You can directly ask in research and development centers in the different companies in France particular and Europe in general. All electronic equipment research and development centers practice heavily imbedded systems.
Best wishes
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Hi community,
Can you please suggest some journals indexed in Scopus or Web of Science on the topic of embedded systems with a quick review time ?
I am considering only free journals.
Thank you,
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Salam Achraf,
Thanks for your response, but I tried to search by subject area and I did not get any result.
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As you know, artificial intelligence has become a trend these days, and with the development of embedded systems, it has become necessary to work on projects that combine the two topics. The first topic most of time is a trained model, while the second is a hardware controlled by a code in its memory, My question is how to integrate the two topics, for example, how to download a trained model after complete training it on a Drone or Raspberry Pi or other systems.
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Hi Ayad,
Here is an example for integrating AI and Embedded Camera System. You may check the detail of this product from Internet.
The WESCAM MX-10D EO/IR low-weight targeting system – ideal for low-altitude tactical surveillance, reconnaissance and target acquisition missions from unmanned airborne platforms.
An Ideal Targeting Solution for: Low-altitude Tactical Surveillance & Target Acquisition and Designation missions requiring low-weight installation flexibility.
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I'm looking for some good suggestions to do a decent project in a EV vehicle where I'll be able to do reverse engineering and analyse the components used in it. The project span will be around 2 months and I can tear-down the components for study. Suggestions appreciated. Thanks in advance.
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Dear Keerthana Prithiviraj , I will suggest you to go for ROBOTIC ARM project (can be done in a short span of time) but its more related to Embedded system
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I'm working on a project which will involve using a mono-camera or stereo-camera and accelerometer to detect the location of an object(as offline GPS). I want to implement the data form camera and sensor in an embedded system with algorithm to get the location. I know, there are many embedded system like beaglebone, raspberry pi and stm32.
so my question :
What is the best way to start selecting a suitable embedded system for this project?
Hopefully, somebody can guid me in the right direction.
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Oliver Krohn
Sorry for the late response. Thanks for your help
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Hello everyone, I was reading a book published in 2000. The book is about HW/SW partitioning for embedded systems. Just wondering if this topic is relevant to today's high performance real time embedded researchers or not? I mean nowadays almost all embedded systems build on predesigned HW (System On Module, Single Board Computer, etc). What are the real practical use cases for this in Real-Time Embedded Systems design point of view? I want to see connection between theory and practice.
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It is definitely relevant today because of Deep Learning. Most deployable implementations in embedded systems are completely rigid and depend on specific libraries provided by manufacturers such as Qualcomm, Samsung etc
Some people are betting that FPGAs will solve it all, but that may take a while and most software today can't easily change configurations on the fly, you usually have to train a different model for each target hardware.
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Dear all,
I hope you are doing safe and sound.
I have been developing a covid19 symptom detection system, which is expected to allow the users to diagnose remotely if they are infected with the virus, as soon as the symptoms start to expose.
This IoT based initiative comprises of-
1. the IoT & embedded systems technology for prototype development and data acquisition;
2. software technology and machnie learning for data assessment, and decision making; and,
3. GSM technology to connect with a preferred physician for prescription etc.
If any researchers from the above fields have interests to collaborate to bring out an end product, are welcome to get in touch.
Together we may work together to help battle the covid pandemic. Attached are a few photos fyi.
Thanks and best regards,
Navid
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Very nice project planning!!
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Despite choosing the appropriate modelling language to use in embedded system, such as SysML or MARTE, choosing the suitable modelling method to implement the model according to the practice, such as OOSM or SYSMOD, plays as important role.
What modelling method do you use in the Embedded Systems domain and why it was the choosen method?
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I have used AADL in my research. AADL comes with different standardized extensions which can be used for evaluation and inline implementation. See "The FORA Fog Computing Platform for Industrial IoT" and "Fogification of electric drives: An industrial use case" where I employed AADL for modelling.
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I have a high aspect flexible aircraft wing of 2 meters in which I want to place 6 gyroscopes along it to measure its deflection for research purposes. I want to be able to collect all the data effectively at 100Hz frequency from all the gyroscopes ( at the same time) to feed an estimator . It is not an easy task to do because I need communication protocol to be fast, robust to noise generated from BLDC motor, works for long distances and cheap.
Please see specs below :
- The longest distance between the control unit and any IMU will not exceed 2 meters.
- The Data collected from all the IMU’s should be relatively at the same time.
- The communication protocol that to be used should be highly robust to noise.
- The protocol to be used can be adapted with available microcontrollers.
- Data should be collected at 100 Hz frequency in control unit (T sampling = 10 ms).
There are alot of IMU sensors which can be used from adafruit, sparkfun or silicon labs. Currently i have two candidates thunderboard sense 2 and Razor sparkfun IMU in which both can be used as a sensor and a microcontroller at same time since they have arm processor and can be programmed.
Any one can suggest a suitable way to connect and interface with these sensors?
Any one can suggest a cyber physical system in which we can connect these sensors in a specific architecture in which we can gather data with interrupts respecting the above specs?
Thank You.
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Ali Srour I guess it must be ok for moderate clock. E.g. if you are using 5MHz the length of signal in cable will be 30 meter (half speed of light in the cable) and considering back and forth delay the clock domain has radius of 15 meters . One can use e.g. 1 or 2 MHz for peace of mind, should still be OK for 100Hz (one can transfer almost 1e6/100 = 1e4 bits at 1MHz/100Hz). Alternatively, you can poll sensor sequentially but it complicates things e.g. as adding the time shift between them. For sequential polling however i2c would be easier at that (rather low still) sample rate (there are nice i2c isolators too considering EMI hardening).
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Every MCU has a different list of timers. Here I am mentioning a few types of timers. If you know another one then please write a comment in the comment box I will add in this list.
  • Watchdog Timer (WDT)
  • General Purpose of Timer
  • Interval Timer (Programmable timer)
  • Systick Timer
  • Real-Time Clock (RTC)
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Programmable interval timer(Software timer) required for various speeds of data transmission in embedded systems.
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Here I am mentioning a few common errors which occur while we writing firmware for an embedded device or making an embedded system.
  • Accessing invalid memory location, like a wild pointer, dangling pointer, or accessing array beyond the boundary. In short, you can say accessing invalid or illegal memory.
  • Generally, we avoid dynamic memory allocation in MCU based projects but if you are using the memory management function like malloc or calloc then you must be careful and should avoid illegal memory allocation like malloc(0). Sometimes it creates hidden issues and can because of memory leak.
  • Wrong addressing of address lines and data lines within a circuit.
  • Segmentation fault and Stackoverflow.
  • If your application is multitasking then you should use the synchronization technique very carefully. It can create a problem.
  • Wrong insertion of Memory devices into memory slots.
  • Transient current and static charges which damages memory devices.
  • Sometimes control signals are faulty.
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Mostly hardware errors such as memory addresses and bulk code overflow.
Software error such as synchronization of the device.
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Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) have been constantly used for embedded systems in various applications, such as inverters, medical appliances, etc. The reverse engineering in the FPGA is a way of re-configurating the netlist inside the FPGA in various ways. There are some known tools such as Debit, BIL, and Bit2ncd that could be especially used for Xilinx products. However, these are still under developmental phase. Are there more such products available for stable use? What if non-Xilinx products such as from Intel Altera FPGA's are adopted for use?
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as far as I know, there are no such tools around
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Hello Folks
I am a recent graduate and started my career in the Power Electronics field. It's really great field and I am lucky to get an opportunity to learn PCB design, control of power supply, reliability analysis. My study background more related to power engineering and I want to be an expert in Analog Electronics, Digital Electronics, and Embedded control systems. Can you please anyone guide me for each field (Analog, Digital Electronics, Embedded system) what resources I should use? It would be really great help
Thanks
Avi
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Hi Avi,
The best book I had during my university years was this one:
It covers almost every hardware topic from low noise analogue to digital and power electronics. It even touches on embedded software but that part might be a bit dated now. This will give you a really good overview of many topics.
The best book I found for embedded software is this one:
Chapter 13 takes you from the simplest of round-robin programs up to a real time scheduler in a few simple steps. Schedulers are the basis for most operating systems and they are essential if you want to do any real-time control of anything.
When you get around to designing PCBs then ignore anything you might read in data sheets and application notes. Look at any book written by Ralph Morrison, especially this one:
Despite the name it's an invaluable source of information on how to route a PCB to get your design to pass an EMC test. High power / high frequency switching circuit (like power electronics) need careful attention to layout and Ralph's theories on PCB design really work but are often contrary to other books on the subject.
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I've been working on a way to replace an older (likely from the 1990s) ISA card (missing) that ingests a large amount of data from a signal processor.
This original card interfaced with the signal processor that provides data in the form of 16 bits (where 16 bits = a "word"). They also communicate via 3 signal lines (responsible for managing when to read/clear the registers for the 16 data bits). One of these signal lines, a "Cycle_Request" line, is where the signal processor sends a 600ns pulse prior to each word (to identify the presence of a word). This card reads up to 287,000 words/second; whereas the signal processor has a data rate of 120,000 measurements/sec per channel (total of 2 channels).   
In my previous attempt, I coded an Arduino Mega (opensource microcontroller boards with I/O pins; has 16MHz and 8KB RAM) and I was able to capture the 600 ns pulses and the data. However, I observed the results seemed to be "missing" data (i.e. seems to skip an unknown amount of words in between data). I suspected it was a speed and buffering issue. I used another slightly faster arduino board, and observed slightly better results, thus somewhat validating my suspicion. I'm currently using a Raspberry Pi (similar to arduino, but essentially a small computer) that has higher processing/RAM (900MHz, 1GB RAM). However, someone suggested it still may not be "fast enough" since the Pi also runs a linux platform and can't dedicate the entire 900MHz and 1GB RAM to my code. 
1) Is this true that the Pi will not be fast enough for the data rate I need?
2) The "back-to-square-one" question, what solution/DAQ/device would you have "started with" that would be sufficient to get the job done?
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MCP3008 will work for afrorementioend problem.
MC118 or Bitscope are also good readymade solution.
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I'm doing some research in swarm robotics and for testing algorithms and learning about them a swarm simulator will help me.
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I would suggest using any one of these:
a) NetLogo is a multi-agent programmable modeling environment and can be found at https://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/
b) You can use ARGoS, a multi-physics robot simulator which can be found at https://www.argos-sim.info/
c) Then there is the robot simulator CoppeliaSim(formerly V-Rep), which is an integrated development environment, is based on a distributed control architecture: each object/model can be individually controlled via an embedded script, a plugin, a ROS or BlueZero node, a remote API client, or a custom solution.
d) If you are looking to simulate kilobots you can use Kilombo. ( https://github.com/JIC-CSB/kilombo )
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Can anybody give details about how NIR spectra is related to glucose absorption in the sense of wavelength?
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Infrared radiation induces molecular vibrations as a result of which different bonds absorb light at different frequencies. Glucose for example is a hydrocarbon which consists of C-H, O-H, C-C, C=O functional groups which absorb photons with the right energy to excite overtone and combinations of fundamental molecular vibrations. Therefore, glucose is capable of absorbing NIR light. However, NIR absorption features are low in magnitude and highly overlapping in nature.
References
Hope that helps. Best of luck!!
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I'm currently researching ideas for a low-cost finger motion tracking system, mainly non-intrusive magnetic or capacitive sensing. Any brainstorming ideas?
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One can use Accelerometers and Gyroscopes a sensor for the transnational and rotational motion, respectively.
Best wishes
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Hello everyone,
I am in Electronic Engineering area and looking to start my research in the domain of Embedded System and HW/SW Codesign field.
I am a bit confused about where to start from ?
Please can you oriented me ?
Any kind of help will be really really really appreciated. Thanks
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Hi Kevin,
This my favourite area and yes it can be confusing and there is no certain answer. You can take different routes and approaches to address your problem.
You need to make sure you know what you need and what resources you have to achieve it. Well-defined objectives can also be a good start.
Best wishes,
Mani
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We are preparing a paper regarding image processing in raspberry boards, using javascript libraries that run inside browser space, under a new web assembly binary execution machine. Can this topic be considered an "embedded systems" topic? My question arise since Raspbian's browser is used for image processing (being Raspbian an operating system itself), perhaps a reviewer can disqualify the solution as an "embedded one".
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Thanks for your answers. Our paper was accepted in an Embedded Systems journal, when published, I'll notify here.
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Hello Everyone!
I am working on Embedded systems from 2 years, I have done many embedded and IoT projects.
Now I want to start my research in the domain of embedded systems, I am a bit confused that from where can I start?
please guide me, your any help will be really appreciated.
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Thank you so much Sir George Slade for your kind answer.
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I need my ESP8266 to be an access point and command multiplexer to more devices. I need at 5 to 7 devices - 4 to 6 slaves and one master that sends them commands by TCP/IP and receives responses. I can't broadcast UDP, and commands must be sent to all nodes in less than 250ms.
The issue is that by default ESP8266 doesn't allow more than 4 connections. There are a compile-time variable max_connections set to 4. Some say that this limit can be set to 8, but ESP8266 won't support more sockets than 5. I'm here to ask: is there any way to surpass that limit? I have three possibilities on how to do that:
  1. Somehow configure ESP8266 that it can support more connections - perhaps it's just a question of reserved resources? Maybe somewhere in the firmware, there is another limit that can be changed? Disconnect one socket and connect another device in its place - will this be reliable?
  2. Use something else - but what? I need something small and fairly cheap. Other platforms I considered:
  • Arduino YUN - too big and quite expensive, unsure about the limit of clients
  • CC3000 - doesn't support AP mode
  • Onion Omega - unavailable and unsure about the limit of clients
  • Raspberry PI 3 - too expensive and too big
  • Raspberry PI Zero + WiFi dongle - PI Zero is unavailable below 10x it's official price
  • Intel Edison - verified it works, but is very expensive
  • Sparkfun Particle P0/P1 - not sure if AP mode is controllable and what is the limit of clients
I could do with a very small embedded router and an ESP8266 to control it - but can't find any such part either.
3. There is also one solution that I really don't want to do, but have considered it - stacking ESP's - I can do that, but this will be a very big hack and will make large problems with connecting devices to this monstrosity - must make more than one wifi network, will have to keep track how many devices are connected to each network etc.
Could you please tell me if #1 is possible? If not, any recommendations on #2?
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I didn't check in detail, but the limitation might stem from limitations in memory (RAM): the "mature" network stacks/protocols haven't exactly been designed with low resource consumption in mind.
Thus you may consider to use an ESP32: basically an ESP8266 "on steroids", it sports a dual-core microcontroller and significantly more memory at about the sme price.
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Where can I find and study about the Narrow Band IoT?
Provide me with papers link and documents' link...
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A follow-up comment: looking at the family of cellular IoT (EC-GSM-IoT, LTE-M and NB-IoT), NB-IoT provides the biggest deployment flexibility. Note that EC-GSM-IoT was designed to reuse GSM infrastructure and frequency channels (200kHz bandwidth); around 300-400kbps data rates are possible, but the activity around it in the industry and academia is rather limited, to my best knowledge. On the other hand, LTE-M is to be deployed in-band with LTE, uses wider bandwidth (6 PRB) and provides higher data rates (ideally up to 1Mbps). Finally, NB-IoT is the slowest (data rates no more than ~200kbps), but it only needs 1PRB (180kHz) to operate, meaning that one can either reuse a GSM carrier for it (still preserving 10kHz guardbands), place it in-band with LTE or even allocate NB-IoT within the LTE guardband.
I think the following book is the great source of knowledge:
Olof Liberg et al. "Cellular Internet of Things: Technologies, Standards, and Performance".
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Is it possible to make oscilloscope by using atmel avr microcontrollers ?
how ?
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You need to use wide bandwidth with extremely high frequency in real time, which means the mentioned processors is not enough and you do need to use FPGA
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which type of microcontrollers do you prefer ?
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STMicroelectronics has a robust versions of ARM based cortex processors. I prefer to use Stm32-f407 which is well known processor for wide range of embedded applications Fahd Hussein :D
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I have code ready for a Fingerprint-based embedded system but am unable to connect the hardware to it, could anyone help me out?
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There are fingerprint scanning modules already available, interfacing largely depends on the microcontroller you're using.
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I want to design a embedded system to control a remote system but I want to do it methodically
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January Mahlalela
A valid, more detailled approach.
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Hi,
As per the definition of logic obfuscation, obfuscated circuit stays in obfuscated mode upon global reset (i.e. initial state) and generates incorrect output; upon receiving correct initialization sequence it enters into functional mode and generates intended outputs.
This is fine with respect to the design that does not connected with any further critical systems. If at all, the obfuscated logic needs to be connected to further safety critical systems, won't incorrect value generated in obfuscated mode affects the critical systems??
In such case, how to apply logic obfuscation??
Thanks in advance.
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You can read the literature yourself and come up with your own conclusions. It would do you good, you would sound less like a non-expert rambling about something you have very little clue about. I am done here.
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- mappng
- networks on chips
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Following...
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I am using a FTDI's IC FT4222H, a programmable one which was released few months back. It's used for interfacing I2C/SPI based slave or master devices and acquire the signals or data. I am using the Evaluation module of the same IC to act as a I2C Master and communicate with a EEPROM 24LCB16 for reading and writing the data from and to it respectively.
I am using LabVIEW to communicate with the FTDI IC through USB. I am not using the Virtual COM port whereas I am importing the FT4222H .dll into vi and executing the program such a way. 
I find the device is listed properly in the VI, it is getting recognize as FT422H. The mode selected is Mode 3 where the I2C Master/Slave, SPI Master/Slave is enabled and the GPIOs are disabled. So it is listed as FT4222H. 
Even then the device is getting opened and doesn't through error from FT_Status till the device is initialized. Here I have configured the device as I2C Master and in the next step I am reading the data from EEPROM. But the following errors are listed.
1. Initialize- 1000( FT_STATUS)
2.Read device - 3 
3. Un initialize- 3
4. Close status-1.
The DWORD are listed under the Appendix of datasheet.
If someone can reason out the solution for this kindly help me out to go ahead. Its almost done only the write and read operation has to be performed.
I have attached the Zip file of VI and Sub-VIs that I am executing. If you find any errors in those please let me know.  
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Good question.. Please share me the best answer might you trust...
Regards…
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What are the re-searchable topics in area of Data mining and Embedded System for Master programme?
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the current research topics in data mining are many, some of them are text mining and web mining , social networks mining such as mining in the contents of tweets of whatsapp, etc.
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Which is the best low-cost IOT embedded board available in the market?
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I think it depends on your requirement. Usually i use ESP8266 based modules since they are very cheap and easy to interface with microcontroller or other components. But power consumption is not so good. But we can mitigate that problem by enabling deep sleep mode. On the other hand LORA wifi based modules are very good in power consumption. But limitaion is low band width. Thanks.
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I am doing my master by coursework. I have final year thesis on Modelling and monitoring of battery for energy storage. I am doing research on Modelling of battery, equalization methods for battery, thermal effects of battery while charging and discharging etc. I am planning to monitor battery's central cell's voltage, current etc. with embedded system. Than, i will compare my both study and prepare final thesis. So, i was thinking to use any battery simulation software for getting some practical results and study the simulation effects of battery modelling and packing system of battery.
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From my experience, I suggest MATLAB simulink.
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An exciting opportunity has become available to work full time on a 3-year project to design and develop a smart technology for real-time alarm and remote monitoring system implementation on medical devices. This is a partnership between Manchester Metropolitan University and Pure O2 Ltd, funded by Innovate UK.
Apply for the job here at
You should have high level of expertise in analogue/digital circuits design and simulation and skills to develop electronic hardware in general with experience in embedded systems.
For an informal discussion, please contact Dr Rupak Kharel (r.kharel@mmu.ac.uk)
Please share this within your network who might be interested on it.
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Can this project implemented as a PhD project under your supervision?
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In 2018 what are the latest and most researched side channel attacks on embedded systems?
An example from 2015 is provided here:
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I am following answer
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An exciting opportunity has become available to work full time on a 3-year Knowledge Transfer Partnership (KTP) to design and develop a smart technology for real-time alarm and remote monitoring system implementation on medical devices. This is a partnership between Manchester Metropolitan University and Pure O2, part funded by Innovate UK.
Apply for the job here at
For an informal discussion, please contact Dr Rupak Kharel (r.kharel@mmu.ac.uk)
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Is that possible to apply for it? :)
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I would like to know from researchers who are working on IOT, Is it useful to use online data servers platforms like ThingSpeak or it is better to create my own platform?
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I have found ThingSpeak a really easy way to get things going, since it has a simple API, with some storage and visualization options. You can probably go from nothing to graphs on a screen in half an hour.
However, the visualization options are limited, and by the time you get to the paid options on the platform you should also be considering other options. Amazon, Google and Microsoft all have products targeted at IoT now (AWS IoT, GCloud IoT core, Microsoft Azure IoT Suite), which allow for storage/databasee, processing of alerts, machine learning and data visualization. These can all be done relatively cheaply to start, and can scale to a large implementation later. It is more work to construct what you want, but you get a lot more flexibility.
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For 'n' number of nodes on a CAN Bus,in which some nodes are masters(such as data processing controllers) and some nodes are slaves(I/O drivers), how can we implement a protocol such that any master can communicate with any slave in a time cycle format without loss of data? Can we achieve time synchronization with only CAN Bus being connected to all the nodes? If not how can we do communication?
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Thanks Mr.Neimann and Mr.Short for your recommendations. I'll look into them and after finding the solution, will intimate through this thread,
Thanks & Regards,
Naveen
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Hi Guys,
Just wondering!!!
Does energy considered one of the QoS parameters from embedded systems perspective?
Some researchs deal with them seperately and others consider energy as QoS parameter. I would appreciate hearing your opinion on this.
Thanks.
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Depends on if energy consumption is a constraint.   Take a system which has some reserve battery capacity.   The QoS drops to zero when the device runs out of power.   In a system which can manage its power consumption, there will be some optimizations once could make - operationally - that would maximize the volume of services delivered.
For a specific example, consider a remote security camera system.   Higher frame rates or in-camera processing may increase power consumption.   If the goal is no loss of service, meaning the battery is never exhausted, power saving strategies such as lowering frame rates, lowering resolution, sleeping between frames, etc. may be employed.   So in this example, managing power is an integral part of QoS.
Same would apply for intermediate nodes in a wireless mesh network, or compute nodes in the cloud.
There are other situations where the device really does not have a means to be optimized.   This speaks more to the design and suitability - and if "good enough is good enough" - does the application warrant optimization. 
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Given the limited resources in terms of memory and computing capacities of embedded systems (like microcontroller based), would it be worthwhile to deploy a virtual machine in ? In effect, it will have to interpret the programs corresponding to the specific applications written in its input language (DSL).
If so, what can be the interests ?
Some references would help me
Thank you
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Thanks very much
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There is a commercial available implementation of RTPS protocol, a RTI Connext Micro, which is well scalable for small embedded systems with microcontroler. There is also open-source project ORTE (http://orte.sourceforge.net) that implement a RTPS protocol, but I haven't found its port for microcontroler based systems.
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RTnet Embedded -- RTnet for microcontrollers
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I'm looking for code source in C, C ++ or C # to evaluate a transfer function provided in "s" space and generate similar graphics like the "step" and "impulse" functions in Matlab.
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For those who took an interest in the subject.
I found an excellent book that helped me a lot.
PROCESS IDENTIFICATION AND PID CONTROL
Su Whan Sung, Jietae Lee, In-Beum Lee
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I would like to implement type 2 fuzzy controller system on FPGA . Which FPGA module is best to implement for real time Type 2 Fuzzy Logic System for Control System Applications?
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Virtex-7 or Stratix-10.
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In theory, we knew if two current loads have same average current value but different frequency, the discharge time of battery or the discharge SOC profile should be different; the higher frequency current load can reduce the discharge time because it reduces the nominal capacity of battery. However, except measurement, is there any existing battery model can show such difference? Dualfoil battery model seems cannot reflect such difference...
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Dear Yukai Chen, a Li-ion battery maybe considered as a near DC source, if the internal-Z if much lower than ZLoad.  Also, there is good enough thermal control for the battery. So, one can not say this for any case. This is because, apart from the external load, the internal-Z acts as an internal-load, also. This is a major reason, among other, for the introduction of an intermediate electronic control (for the batteries) in common end user portable devices (cell-phones, laptops etc.).  So, actually, it is rather the max power p(f) specs (not simply the load frequency f) that may limit a Li-ion battery to function as an ideal VDC-source. If someone (a company) underestimate this function p(f)  as limiting factor, then, occasionally, we might hear the news for burning cell-phones etc. depending on users' applied (unusual) conditions.
Note: Similar (sometimes hidden-) limitations exist for all commercial VDC-sources.
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If the basic ingredient of the universe is energy (ie even matter is basically energy E=Mc^2) and as em waves such as presently used. in modern communication, contains information , the idea of some em wave from space, which can create life without pre- conditions, as we know them now, seems feasible. It is interesting to speculate on this from different points of view.
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dearest narasim
hopefully this information could help
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I want a buck-boost converter with positive output.Can I use the basic inverting buck-boost converter with output terminals reversed for positive output voltage on any type of Load? If i should not use like this,what are the reasons,please suggest?
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Dear Marada Naveen Kumar,
For the basic inverting buck-boost converter with output terminals reversed for positive output voltage on any type of Load is not acceptable. It depends on type of load, for a purely resitive load, application of reversed polarity will not have any affects but  for a R-L, L, R-C, L-C or R-L-C load reversal of polarity may have an adverse effects as the device is manufactured according to polarity mentioned on it. And it has even more harmfull effects for a motor load.
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I am new to SoC, on what basis we partition our design into Hardware and software Co-design? How do we partition the entire design? 
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Hello,
I'm the 'old-fashioned' guy - doing the partitioning in the planning phase without any specialized tool. Then using the respective spezialized tools for FPGA logic resp. software development.
There might be tools available for 'co-design', leaving the decision of 'what is implemented how' to the tool. But I'm to some extend sceptical about such tools: may work, but no guarantee.
Aside from tools from the vendor of your SOC you may try to gather information about eventual 'co-design' development environments eg. from National Instruments (NI), Xilinx (if you've got a Xilinx SOC) or eventually Mathworks (Matlab/Simulink).
Or look for a provider of eg. SystemC, SystemVerilog or SpecC. These are more my 'old-fashioned' approach: leaving the decision to the developer and 'only' providing the means to specify the logic within the development environment that is already in use for software development.
Hope this clarifies the 'whole thing' a bit.
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in ULT, scheduling is performed at user level (without the kernel involvement). but if one user level thread leave CPU and another will be schedule, then we have to change the value of program counter, Stack pointer and CPU register. without the involvement of kernel, how we can access these registers (hardware)?
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I need to humidify, with 1% RH accuracy, a gas stream flowing at a fixed rate that contains parts per million levels of acetone, ethanol, and other water soluble molecules. The gas stream will be then delivered to a sensor analysis chamber. What are the best equipment and process control to use to minimize the analyte loss during the humidification process?
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The relative humidity (Hr) for humidified gas is the ratio of the water vapour pressure in the gas stream (Pv) to the saturation water vapour pressure at the gas dry bulb temperature (Pvs):  Hr =  (Pv / Pvs)·100%. The humidification process could consist at mixing the former relatively dry gas stream with a humidified gas stream, or with a vapour stream. A more convenient parameter to deal with the inherent mass balance, would be the humidity ratio (r), defined as the ratio between the mass of water vapour and the mass of dry gas. I have addressed the relationship between both this humidity related parameters (Hr and r) for the case of humidified hydrogen elsewhere at this forum: https://www.researchgate.net/post/In_a_100_humidified_hydrogen_what_would_be_the_mass_of_water_molecules_per_unit_mass_of_hydrogen
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In the book "computer architecture a quantitative approach by hennessy and patterson", it is given that write takes more time than read because tag comparison in cache happens in parallel with block reading (in case of read) and if it is a hit then memory block immediately being transferred to CPU. While this is not possible in case of write, because we can't write a block unless it is a hit, else it would overwrite the present data in cache.
So my question is "is it only a reason behind this or there are others too?"
and what is rationale behind the more power consumption in case of Read/Write?
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Hi, I could suggest you the reading of the attached paper to know about R/W operaton cost on flash memories.
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The ZigBee protocol has been created and ratified by member companies of the ZigBee Alliance. Over 300 leading semiconductor manufacturers, technology firms, OEMs and service companies comprise the ZigBee Alliance membership. The ZigBee protocol was designed to provide an easy-to-use wireless data solution characterized by secure, reliable wireless network architectures.
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Dear Ali,
You may also want to check this survey out. The scope may be a little broader, but still...
P. Suriyachai, U. Roedig and A. Scott, "A Survey of MAC Protocols for Mission-Critical Applications in Wireless Sensor Networks," in IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 240-264, Second Quarter 2012.
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I´m realinzing a proyect for the construction of parabolic trough collector system and I nedd the kind of motors and gearbox to implement the tracking system. I would be greatful if anybody could give information about providers or campanies where I can purchase it. 
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Why don't you use simple servo motors? They are cheap, provide high torque and can be easily controlled (with an Arduino or Pi Board) in case you are constructing a tracker.
Check the company called DEGER in case you need a ready-made system. 
Also, check for TRAXLE in :
which is a tracking drive system.
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I want to receive data from 4 different nodes situated in BT range. I have configured HC05 in master slave configuration. How should i preform this activity for receiving data from all the node at center node?
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bluetooth works with one to one communication at a time (RFComm mode ). if u want to make a star topology, u have to disconnect with one node and connect with adjacent node. find your information central node should be movable or in covarage range of all.
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I tried to estimate total variable space (T) for i-vector estimation, in speaker recognition, but if i select the factor number to more than 100 it gave wrong results but with 100 or less it provided good result. So how to decide that we need as much number of factor (t dimension) for total variablity space? 
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@Hamid: Thanks, (otherwise I was always using 512 Gauss and 400 TV space. Although I don't have the access to NIST database, I just need to test with smallar databases, so atleast I can have running system. 
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How do i measure 'structural embeddedness' from the entrepreneur's ego network level through survey questionnaire
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Dear Alfred Howard Miller,
Thank you so much for this useful insight and invaluable suggestion. I really appreciate it.
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please help in the matter regarding an VHDL code and its synthesis in two different tools say Xilinx and synplify for the same code.
Since Synplify Pro gives re timing option and hence results improves after that, hence what exactly it do and how to incorporate that in our architecture without the help of tool.
thanks looking for inputs
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For more information about synopsys tool, use solvnet ID.
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I require RFID simulator for running an authentication protocol, so if anyone could suggest a good RFID simulator for the same.
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You could use OMNET++ and if required you can interface it with other libraries and simulation packages (MATLAB, etc.)
Good luck !
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Could someone tell me the accuracy and credibility of Cooja simulation's results? More published papers utilized Cooja as their experiments and evaluation works since 2012. The easy-to-use toolsets like Cooja/Contiki will be a good alternative for the IoT R&D.
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Dear Yibo Chen
Thank you for your scientific message about Simulation of IoT.. I have M.Sc. student . we need to work on security of "IoT" using hybrid cryptosystem.. The main question for us currently is that : What is suitable for us as ( simulation tool) to be used in such project>
Note: We are working in Babylon University- Iraq. And as I know, there are very small number of academics interesting in IoT in Iraqi Universities... And I hope according to your suggestion, we can go ahead with suitable simulator. Best wishes
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As, to determine the kf, we can calculate it from "half-wave" potential, but in this case we have peak potential (Epa) because the reaction is irreversible. Can we assume the Epa as half-wave potential ???
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Its a very conductive environment and so typical views of antenna design and propagation aren't as important. Omega had a wavelength of 23km. So many situations would only be a few wavelengths away. So it's almost a near field analysis but we are more interested in skin depth than most other things (a lot more than antenna tuning). DB
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What should be the basic safety measures taken in terms of tool diversity, redundancy etc for using FPGA based system in safety critical application? What about Tool validation and reliability of software tools used in the design deveopment of the logic implemented in the FPGAs?
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dear dr roy
Functional Safety is common across many applications but the end systems usually share one or more of three characteristics: Reliability, Security and System Recoverability.
Reliability
Most Processors and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) utilize SRAM memory to store executable code, configuration information and data during run-time. SRAM memory is susceptible to Single Event Effects (SEE), which can change the state of an SRAM memory cell, changing either the logical configuration or data held in an SRAM cell.
Microsemi FPGAs and System on-a-Chip (SoC) FPGA solutions provide immunity to Single Event Errors through the use of Flash memory cell based and Antifuse based technology. In addition to using these two technologies to combat Single Event Errors, Microsemi is the only semiconductor vendor offering devices based on both of these very different technologies. Both devices use the same toolchain to develop designs, and the same design can be targeted to Flash and Antifuse based devices, thus reducing design effort, time and co
Security
There are many forms of security that are appropriate to Safety Critical systems, from all out "cyber attack" to cloning of a device without understanding its operation. The 2 main factors are Design Security and Data Security.
In the case of Safety Critical systems Design Security is the prevention of Unsafe conditions by ensuring the device operates within the functional safety specifications and cannot be tampered with to operate outside of those conditions. Microsemi FPGAs and SoC FPGAs have built-in protection against the reverse engineering of a design and possible attack on the safety of a system by using FlashLock technology and secure In System Programming.
Data Security ensures the operating data that is used in the system at run-time must be correct and cannot be changed by unauthorized personnel. Strong Data Security has the base requirements that the device has good Design Security implemented on it. Microsemi deliver devices that meet or exceed the demands on design security and extend the strength of data security through in-house and partner IP cores and zeroization.
System Recoverability
Once a fault has been detected, the System Manager must perform some corrective action to ensure that a failure does not occur. As well as making the redundant system the live system, the now faulty system needs to be "repaired". This may be by physical replacement of the sub-system, but in many cases a soft or hard reset will "cure" the problem.
To ensure that further faults do not occur, a system manager will sequence the turning on of the power supplies, timing of the resets and handle any device configuration necessary for proper operation. Microsemi provides a reference design that allows for easy set up of a system manager implemented in a SmartFusion SoC FPGA using a Graphical User Interface (GUI) to set up power sequencing, reset control and more. As Microsemi SoC FPGAs are flash based and "Instant On" there is no delay in the device becoming active as soon as power is applied to it.
please check the attachment if it is helpful for you.
thank you
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The median, z, of a set of numbers is such that half the values in the set are below
z and the other half are above it. For example, the median of the set of values
{2, 3, 8, 20, 21, 25, 31} is 20.
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The basic definition of linearity is that the output of a function exhibits a proportional response to changes in the input.
Regarding a median filter of length 3 on a sample of length 5, we are able to calculate 3 results (assuming that results off-index are invalid).
Input [1 2 3 4 5] ==> Output [2 3 4]
Input [1 2 3 4 6] ==> Output [2 3 4]
A single example is sufficient to prove that the conditions for linearity are not fulfilled. Even if many other examples might exhibit a response similar to linear functions.
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Please let me know about the maximum turns ratio I can expect from an on chip transformer and any limitation such as frequency for voltage conversion. I have read that the efficiency of on-chip transformer depends on the frequency of operation as well.
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Dear Sir,
I dont know about the turns ratio.
The problem with DC-DC convertor with on-chip inductor is as follows:
- To have high efficiency, you need a coil with high Q factor to keep the coil losses down.
- On the other side, you want low switching frequency in order to keep the gate losses of the MOS transistors down.
Now, usually, the 2 are not compatible. On chip inductors only have decent Q for frequencies above 1 Ghz, but this is quite high to keep the switching losses down. So, usually, the result is poor efficiency.
I think if you want to make a design, you need to look at inductor libraries (TSMC, global, smic), or make your own inductor, and then design the convertor around it.
Best Regards,
Henri.
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Does Yocto Project support C#.Net programing language or C and C++ only ?
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Hello Abdullah 
Buildroot  is another tool like Yocto to build custom embedded Linux systems.
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Whether it is possible for longer distance? Whether the power will be lost or not while transmitting?
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The above mentioned posts give you some details, along with that please alert of using your frequency usage. We people can only use the general comunication bands and other bands are occupied for different puropses.
then the modulation scheme is another key factor.
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CPS have become of the the major research fields in the recent times. Its sensing, computing and actuating nature makes an excellent system for medical applications. What are the various opportunities, applications and challenges of this field of research?
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Of course, there is CORDIC for sin() and cos(), and one could also use precomputed lookup tables for single variable functions like exp() and log(). However, common bivariate functions as pow(a,b) and atan2(a,b) seems to be a little trickier to implement.
I'm considering a simple RISC-like microcontroller such as the AVR. It can perform fast adds and shitfs and loads but it has no built-in multiplier hardware.
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Mr. Senzio
Actually I'm looking for some bit manipulation hacks for implementing these kind of functions on very low-profile or older embedded systems.
I'm attaching a link for this comment that will show to you an example of what I was thinking of.
Best Regards.
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I am currently studying the relationship between the cyber-physical systems and its predecessor, embedded systems. I am look for survey papers, literature reviews and classical references.
I am giving special concentration to the security aspects.
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Hi, there is an e-book by E. A. Lee and S. A. Seshia named "Introduction to Embedded Systems - A Cyber-Physical Systems Approach"
Hope it helps
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I would like embedded system program for this control system and how I can soldering the chip with bread board?
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As typestate has been used in runtime monitoring for the software,especially fro java.In fact ,most of the research done is experiment on java.Can typestate be used in runtime verification of embedded system ? This question means it is possible or not to use typestate eliminate some monitoring instruments.
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Please any help on:
1. How to identify singularity on PUMA robotic arm
2. How to minimizes the effect of singularity on PUMA robotic arm by actuation of passive joints, introduction of redundancy and correct positioning of redundant joints but maximizing the workspace, and stability and minimizing self-motion?
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Hello.
I'm studying transistor for the first time:) and have seen some wired statement. It appears that base-emitter voltage (Vbe) in transistor is always assumed as 0.6 V in circuit analysis. I've seen one figure (see attached image). It seems over the wide range of base current (Ib), Vbe doesn't change much. Thus we can interpret this as it is safe to assume Vbe of 0.6 V.
But I interpret this differently that there is strong dependency of base current to small change of the base-emitter voltage thus precise value of Vbe is important.
What is wrong in my interpretation? Maybe in KCL and KVL analysis of the circuit embedding transistor, small change of Vbe is not important but..I always prefer exact value. Even I'm not sure 0.6 V assumption is valid even in other mode rather than active mode!
In circuit analysis for example, 2nd attached image, is there a way to precisely know the Vbe?
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Your interpretation is correct "there is strong dependency of base current to small change of the base-emitter voltage". But as already mentioned every single transistor (even from the same production lot) will have slightly different value of Vbe for a given current. Software dedicated for electronic circuits analysis, e.g. Spice, does not use a fixed value but exponential dependence of the i(Vbe) during calculations. But if you want to evaluate operation of a particular circuit "on paper" (meaning without use of such a software), you need to use some simplifications. Assumption that Vbe is about 0.6-0.7 V is one of such simplifications. Take into consideration that in a manual analysis of operation of a particular circuit the analysis is performed in such a way that such assumptions will not lead to substantial errors (e.g. you never calculate current from the Vbe using the mentioned exponential dependence, but use other circuit constrains and properties that let you evaluate the current with a reasonable accuracy)
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I am currently developing a system for allowing students to undertake embedded systems labs (Arduino and HC12 based) over the internet. This is based on ESXi virtualised hosts connected through networked USB ports. We have an application server running as a booking/LMS system but haven't fully integrated that part yet.
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We have used remote access to manipulate tools and IDEs remotely and a system to manage message exchanging, class organization,... In our solution is also possible to share screen among any two participants of a lab.
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It would be better if the porting could be done using keil.
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That's right, you may use any IDE for the purpose. But because the Keil IDE is comfortable to work with, I prefer porting the applications to RVDS compatible source files.
You may download the zipped version of a ready to compile FreeRTOS port for the LPC21xx from here:
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I am working on toycar steering control using PID controller.I am developing Firmware on mbed platform using c++. I am using Gyroscope as sensor for my feedback for angle reading.
Please give me suggestions for How can I model my steering control or How can it be realized without using plant model?  I was thinking to take all this reading data and get my error value by taking difference with desired angle,but how to realize this readings in Matlab or any other platform and use my PID. 
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I join Zeashan idea. If you do not have the process model to control you can use one of the methods suggested by Ziegler and Nichols. In the following link you can find these methods implemented in Matlab: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Roger_Moliner/contributions. For a model of the process you can perform an experiment of identification. The simplest is to get the step response step of the process in open loop. For example, changing the input voltage of 0V to a motor voltage higher than zero your engine support. You must have sensors to measure and store such values experienced by the engine speed to make that change in voltage. Then, with speed data collected can get the model of the process through some method of identification. For example Strecj method (you can download the same link I suggest above).
Before using one of these possible ideas work, I advise well documented what he wants to do and make a detailed work plan before applying these or other methods. Good luck with your work.
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