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Publications related to Elementary Particle Physics (1,333)
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The present comprehensive chapter would stimulate to overview historical backgrounds and recent topics, regarding C (charge conjugation), P (parity), T (time reversal), CP (charge-parity), PT (parity-time), and CT (charge-time) violations in the framework of CPT (charge-parity-time) invariance in cosmology, elementary particle physics, subatomic an...
Article
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By 1933, the class of generally accepted elementary particles comprised the electron, the photon, the proton as well as newcomers in the shape of the neutron, the positron, and the neutrino. During the following decade, a new and poorly understood particle, the mesotron or meson, was added to the list. By paying close attention to the names of thes...
Preprint
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The physics of the mysterious and stealthy neutrino is at the heart of many phenomena in the cosmos. These particles interact with matter and with each other through the aptly named weak interaction. At typical astrophysical energies the weak interaction is some twenty orders of magnitude weaker than the electromagnetic interaction. However, in the...
Book
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What nature is telling me about the grand unified theory. Basics and applications in the fields "elementary particle physics" and "spin physics".
Article
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Hans Reichenbach’s posthumous book The Direction of Time ends somewhere between Socratic aporia and historical irony. Prompted by Feynman’s diagrammatic formulation of quantum electrodynamics, Reichenbach eventually abandoned the delicate balancing between the macroscopic foundation of the direction of time and microscopic descriptions of time orde...
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The history of the Institute of Physics at the University of Florence is traced from the beginning of the 20th century, with the arrival of Antonio Garbasso as Director (1913), to the 1960s. Thanks to Garbasso's expertise, not only did the Institute gain new premises on Arcetri hill, where the Astronomical Observatory was already located, but it al...
Article
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Quantum theory is the most important part of quantum physics. In simple terms, this theory describes the movement, behavior and interaction of microscopic particles. The theory of quantum physics about the behavior and interaction of microscopic particles formed the basis for condensed matter physics, elementary particle physics, and high energy ph...
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In July 2012, the ATLAS and CMS collaborations at the CERN Large Hadron Collider announced the observation of a Higgs boson at a mass of around 125 gigaelectronvolts. Ten years later, and with the data corresponding to the production of a 30-times larger number of Higgs bosons, we have learnt much more about the properties of the Higgs boson. The C...
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KEK electron positron injector LINAC initiated the injection operation into Photon Factory (PF) light source in 1982. Since then for 39 years, it has served for multiple projects, namely, TRISTAN, PF-AR, KEKB, and SuperKEKB. Its total operation time has accumulated 200 thousand hours on May 7, 2020. We are extremely proud of the achievement followi...
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In July 2012, the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations at the CERN Large Hadron Collider announced the observation of a Higgs boson at a mass of around 125 GeV. Ten years later, and with the data corresponding to the production of 30 times larger number of Higgs bosons, we have learnt much more about the properties of the Higgs boson. The CMS experiment ha...
Preprint
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Hans Reichenbach’s posthumous book The Direction of Time ends somewhere between Socratic aporia and historical irony. Prompted by Feynman’s diagrammatic formulation of quantum electrodynamics, Reichenbach eventually abandoned the delicate balancing between the macroscopic foundation of the direction of time and microscopic descriptions of order und...
Article
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Charge conservation in the theory of elementary particle physics is one of the best-established principles ‎in physics. As such, if ‎there are magnetic monopoles in the universe, the magnetic charge will most likely be a ‎conserved quantity like electric ‎charges. If neutrinos are magnetic monopoles, as physicists have reported ‎the possibility, th...
Article
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In our universe, distances have increased since the Big Bang. This is directly indicated by the redshift of distant galaxies or of the cosmic microwave background. Usually, that increase of distances is explained by a continuous expansion of space according to general relativity. However, that explanation is very incomplete. This is indicated by th...
Article
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Formulation of the problem. Precision studies of the Higgs boson, supersymmetric particles, the magnetic moment of the muon, electric dipole moment of the electron, flavor anomalies demonstrate the deviation beyond Standard Model. They are connected with a new understanding of quantum field theory through the unification of gravity with particl...
Article
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Some of the most fundamental questions of physicists are what the universe is constructed by, or why the building blocks of our universe (i.e., the elementary particles) present so particular characteristics (e.g., particular mass, electrical charge, and/or spin). In this work, for the first time, we have demonstrated that all properties of electro...
Article
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Nesse artigo, analisaremos o processo de constituição de uma agenda própria na física de partículas elementares de um grupo de jovens físicos, brasileiros e estrangeiros, que atuou na segunda metade dos anos 1940, tomando o Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas (CBPF) como a instituição referência onde esse esforço foi implementado. Através de um...
Article
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Analogies between non-trivial topologies of matter and light have inspired numerous studies, including defect formation in structured light and topological photonic band structures. Three-dimensional topological objects of localised particle-like nature attract broad interest across discipline boundaries from elementary particle physics and cosmolo...
Article
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The Standard Model and Quantum Mechanics studies the quantum world as a collection of probabilistically interacting particles and does not tell us what a single isolated particle like the electron is, thus its intrinsic detailed field mechanics and how these are generating its intrinsic property values like charge, spin, magnetic moment and handedn...
Thesis
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Elementary particle physics is a contemporary topic in science that is slowly being integrated into high-school education. These new implementations are challenging teachers’ professional knowledge worldwide. Therefore, physics education research is faced with two important questions, namely, how can particle physics be integrated in high-school ph...
Conference Paper
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In an increasingly technologically demanding world, knowledge and skills within natural sciences, technology and engineering are crucial for development of competitiveness of individuals and societies. Thus, recent decades many countries are emphasizing and planning to introduce the STEM fields in education systems as early as possible, including b...
Article
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A bstract For nearly a century, studying cosmic-ray air showers has driven progress in our understanding of elementary particle physics. In this work, we revisit the production of millicharged particles in these atmospheric showers and provide new constraints for XENON1T and Super-Kamiokande and new sensitivity estimates of current and future detec...
Conference Paper
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Seit mehr als 70 Jahren sind Feynman-Diagramme (FD) aus der Elementarteilchenphysik kaum mehr wegzudenken, da sie komplexe Rechnungen auf eine kompakte Weise veranschaulichen. Dies wird vielfach auch für die Behandlung im Schulunterricht genutzt.Aus fachdidaktischer und lerntheoretischer Sicht wird der Nutzen verschiedener Repräsentationsformen zum...
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The measurements of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CE$\nu$NS) experiments have opened up the possibility to constrain neutrino physics beyond the standard model of elementary particle physics. Furthermore, by considering neutrino-electron scattering in the keV-energy region, it is possible to set additional limits on new physics proc...
Article
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The MEG experiment took data at the Paul Scherrer Institute in the years 2009–2013 to test the violation of the lepton flavor conservation law, which originates from an accidental symmetry that the Standard Model of elementary particle physics has, and published the most stringent limit on the charged lepton flavor violating decay μ+→e+γ: BR(μ+→e+γ...
Preprint
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Quantum systems with a finite number of states at all times have been a primary element of many physical models in nuclear and elementary particle physics, as well as in condensed matter physics. Today, however, due to a practical demand in the area of developing quantum technologies, a whole set of novel tasks for improving our understanding of th...
Book
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The observable universe ranges from huge galaxies near the light horizon at a distance of 4.1 ∙ 10^26 m, via elementary particles at a hierarchy of scales, towards smallest objects at the Planck scale at lengths of 1.6 ∙ 10^-35 m. How did these very different objects form and develop? We present an answer by deriving a physically founded and critic...
Book
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Universe: Unified from Microcosm to Macrocosm Series The observable universe ranges from huge galaxies near the light horizon at a distance of 4.1 · 10^26 m, via elementary particles at a hierarchy of scales, towards smallest objects at the Planck scale at lengths of 1.6 · 10^-35 m. How did these very different objects form and develop? We presen...
Book
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The central theme in physics has always been the mechanism of energy interactions that lead to the emergence and decay of material structures. It is a new version of the ontological question of all times and cultures about the appearance of order out of chaos. The old answer included the hypothesis of God as the creator of matter. It provided an e...
Thesis
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Elementary particle physics is a domain of physics that uses the scientific method to describe the fundamental building blocks of matter and the elementary interactions between them [1]. In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle whose substructure is unknown. Thus, it is unknown whether it is composed of othe...
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Gauge theories form the foundation of modern physics, with applications ranging from elementary particle physics and early-universe cosmology to condensed matter systems. We demonstrate emergent irreversible behavior, such as the approach to thermal equilibrium, by quantum simulating the fundamental unitary dynamics of a U(1) symmetric gauge field...
Article
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This Special Issue presents a comprehensive picture of the Casimir effect as a multidisciplinary subject that plays an important role in diversified areas of physics ranging from quantum field theory, atomic physics and condensed matter physics to elementary particle physics, gravitation and cosmology [...]
Article
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Our paper studies the anatomy of the discovery of the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider and its influence on the broader model landscape of particle physics. We investigate the phases of this discovery, which led to a crucial reconfiguration of the model landscape of elementary particle physics and eventually to a confirmation of the standar...
Article
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We propose an extension of the scalaron-Higgs model by a non-minimal coupling of the Standard Model Higgs boson to the quadratic Ricci scalar resulting in a Higgs-dependent scalaron mass. The model predicts a successful stage of effective single-field Starobinsky inflation. It features a multi-field amplification mechanism leading to a peak in the...
Preprint
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For nearly a century, studying cosmic-ray air showers has driven progress in our understanding of elementary particle physics. In this work, we revisit the production of millicharged particles in these atmospheric showers and provide new constraints for XENON1T and Super-Kamiokande and new sensitivity estimates of current and future detectors, such...
Article
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Das Standardmodell postuliert ein Higgs‐Feld, das durch den Higgs‐Mechanismus die Masse aller Teilchen erzeugt. In Supraleitern existiert eine Analogie dazu, wobei das Cooper‐Paar‐Kondensat die Rolle des Higgs‐Feldes einnimmt. Eine Anregung des Higgs‐Feldes, das Higgs‐Boson oder die Higgs‐Mode, ist damit auch in Supraleitern möglich. Da im Gegensat...
Preprint
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The importance of Octahedral Symmetry (Oh) to the results of the Dimensional Gate Operator (DGO) Standard Model is abundantly clear. Octahedral Symmetry links the quaternions to the various Lie Groups and Spin Groups and therefore shows the deep relationship between the DGO conception of the Standard Model and the more conventional approach.
Conference Paper
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The fundamental symmetries, charge conjugation (C), parity (P) and time reversal (T), play a significant role in the Standard Model (SM) of elementary particle physics. Of these, T symmetry and the combined CP symmetry are the least well understood, and they hold valuable clues for unraveling the secrets of nature. All subatomic particles are postu...
Article
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Consistency of Weyl natural gauge, Lorentz gauge and nonlinear gauge is studied in Weyl geometry. Field equations in generalized Weyl-Dirac theory show that spinless electron and photon are topological defects. Statistical metric and fluctuating metric in 3D space with time as a measure of spatial relations are discussed to propose a statistical in...
Book
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Background, Personal Life and Discoveries Alexander Animalu was born into the family of Mr Michael Nwakudu Animalu and Mrs Nkenwa Animalu. It was a large family with Alexander being his parents’ fifth child. His research over the years has made remarkable contributions in the area of solid state and elementary particle physics. Animalu is an author...
Article
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Based on the results of quantum field theory and quantum electrodynamics on virtual photons as quanta of electromagnetic interaction, we discuss the interpretation of quantum indeterminacy, uncertainty relations, and physics, which determine the probabilistic statistical character of quantum phenomena. We discuss the fundamental reasons for the app...
Article
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The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) is currently being built in Darmstadt, Germany. The SIS100 accelerator is at the heart of FAIR and will provide proton and heavy-ion beams for a variety of experiments. There are four main research pillars at FAIR specialized in the field of nuclear, hadron and elementary particle physics, atomic...
Thesis
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The experiment was carried out at the proton accelerator (JINR, Dubna). We studied the reaction products inside thin 238U sample irradiated by secondary neutron field created from lead target by proton beam (E = 660 MeV)
Preprint
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Charge conservation in the theory of elementary particle physics is one of the best-established principles in physics. As such, if there are magnetic monopoles in the universe, the magnetic charge will most likely be a conserved quantity like electric charges. If neutrinos are magnetic monopoles, as physicists have speculated the possibility, then...
Preprint
Full-text available
Charge conservation in the theory of elementary particle physics is one of the best-established principles in physics. As such, if there are magnetic monopoles in the universe, the magnetic charge will most likely be a conserved quantity like electric charges. If neutrinos are magnetic monopoles, as physicists have speculated the possibility, then...
Preprint
Full-text available
Charge conservation in the theory of elementary particle physics is one of the best-established principles in physics. As such, if there are magnetic monopoles in the universe, the magnetic charge will most likely be a conserved quantity like electric charges. If neutrinos are magnetic monopoles, as physicists have speculated the possibility, then...
Article
Full-text available
In this informal memoir, the author describes his passage through a golden age of elementary particle physics. It includes not only his career trajectory as a theoretical physicist but also his excursions into experimental physics and particle accelerator theory. While his successes are highlighted, some unsuccessful efforts are included in the nar...
Article
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The difficulties of relativistic particle theories formulated by means of canonical quantization, such as those of Klein–Gordon and Dirac, ultimately led theoretical physicists to turn to quantum field theory to model elementary particle physics. In order to overcome these difficulties, the theories of the present approach are developed deductively...
Chapter
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Seit 2016 wird an der Bergischen Universität Wuppertal das Wuppertaler Curriculum für den Unterricht der Elementarteilchenphysik entwickelt. Im Rahmen des Projekts Elementarteilchenphysik kompetent und spannend unterrichten haben sich Dr. Oliver Passon (Physik und ihre Didaktik), Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Wagner, Prof. Dr. Christian Zeitnitz (beide: Exper...
Book
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Kohärenz im Unterricht der Elementarteilchenphysik Das vorliegende Buch fasst die Ergebnisse des Symposiums „Kohärenz im Unterricht der Elementarteilchenphysik“ zusammen, das von der Arbeitsgruppe Physik und ihre Didaktik der Bergischen Universität Wuppertal veranstaltet wurde. Ziel des Treffens war ein Austausch zwischen Fachwissenschaft, der zuge...
Article
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Understanding the hydrogen atom has been at the heart of modern physics. Exploring the symmetry of the most fundamental two body system has led to advances in atomic physics, quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, and elementary particle physics. In this pedagogic review, we present an integrated treatment of the symmetries of the Schrodinger...
Preprint
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1. Introduzione In questo lavoro descrivo un modulo riguardante la fisica delle particelle elementari negli Anni Quaranta, dalla determinazione della vita media del muone alla scoperta delle particelle strane. Il percorso didattico richiede un tempo indicativo di 14 ore ed è consigliabile il suo svolgimento durante l'ultima parte dell'ultimo anno d...
Article
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In questo lavoro descrivo un modulo riguardante la scoperta dei raggi cosmici ed i primi studi sulla loro natura che segnano la nascita della fisica delle particelle elementari. Il percorso di-dattico richiede un tempo indicativo di 16 ore ed è consigliabile il suo svolgimento durante l'ultima parte dell'ultimo anno delle superiori. Le modalità di...
Article
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2 Introduzione In questo lavoro descrivo un modulo (proseguimento di un altro descrivente la scoperta dei raggi cosmici [1]) riguardante la scoperta, all'interno dei raggi cosmici, di una nuova particel-la, inizialmente chiamata mesone (per la sua massa intermedia fra quella dell'elettrone e del protone). Il percorso didattico richiede un tempo ind...
Article
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In the standard model of elementary particle physics neutrinos are massless, and therefore the actuality of finite neutrino mass indicates a theory beyond the standard model. The Sun produces abundant neutrinos due to nuclear fusion reactions. A pioneering experiment in the early '70s detected neutrinos from the Sun, but found that the observed flu...
Article
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Neste artigo serão apresentadas reflexões sobre como a circulação de ideias em diferentes momentos da história da Física de Partículas contribuíram para formar o embrião do Modelo Padrão da Física de Partículas Elementares. A narrativa histórica foi construída em três fases que tem como intuito apresentar um panorama geral da circulação de ideias e...
Article
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In this literature review, we survey student naïve ideas (frequently referred to as ‘misconceptions’) that plausibly relate, at least in part, to difficulty in understanding probability. We collected diverse naïve ideas from a range of topics in physics: Non-linear Dynamics; Cosmology; Thermal Physics; Atomic, Nuclear, and Particle Physics; Element...
Article
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Zusammenfassung Auch 90 Jahre nach ihrer „Erfindung“ und über 60 Jahre nach ihrem experimentellen Nachweis geben uns die Neutrinos zahlreiche Rätsel auf. So konnte bisher ihre Masse nicht bestimmt werden, obgleich bereits lange bekannt ist, dass Neutrinos mit Abstand die leichtesten Elementarteilchen sind. Der Mechanismus, durch den die Neutrinos i...
Article
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This is a review of Fredenhagen, Klaus Quantum fields and noncommutative spacetime. (English) Zbl 1330.81184 Scheck, Florian (ed.) et al., Noncommutative geometry and the standard model of elementary particle physics. Proceedings of the conference, Hesselberg, Germany, March 14–19, 1999. Berlin: Springer (ISBN 3-540-44071-2/hbk). Lect. Notes Phys....
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Relativistic impulse approximation (RIA) has been widely used in atomic, condensed matter, nuclear, and elementary particle physics. In former treatments of RIA formulation, differential cross sections for Compton scattering processes were factorized into atomic Compton profiles by performing further simplified approximations in the integration. In...
Article
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After a long a glorious history, marked by the first direct proofs of neutrino existence and of the mixing between the first and third neutrino generations, the reactor antineutrino experiments are still well alive and will continue to give important contributions to the development of elementary particle physics and astrophysics. In parallel to th...
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Main goal of this article—assessment of scientific projects and their economic impact. This assessment includes economic and technological feasibility on the example of elementary physics collider projects. Methodology includes structural integration in other technological fields by means of self-organizing neural maps and anthological retrospectiv...
Article
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Neutrino oscillation is an important physical phenomenon in elementary particle physics, and its nonclassical features can be revealed by the Leggett–Garg inequality. It shows that its quantum coherence can be sustained over astrophysical length scales. In this work, we investigate the measure of quantumness in experimentally observed neutrino osci...
Preprint
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For many years, philosopher-of-statistics Deborah Mayo has been advocating the concept of severe testing as a key part of hypothesis testing. Her recent book, Statistical Inference as Severe Testing, is a comprehensive exposition of her arguments in the context of a historical study of many threads of statistical inference, both frequentist and Bay...
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The various mathematical models developed over the years to interpret the behavior of materials and corresponding processes they undergo were based on observations and experiments made at that time. Classical laws for solids (Hooke) and fluids (Navier–Stokes) form the basis of current technology. The discovery of new phenomena with the aid of newly...
Article
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Mass and charge live and die together. They can’t exist independently without the other. Every elementary matter particle must be charged. Neutron is a composite particle; this is an important conclusion in nuclear and elementary particle physics. Matter can be created out of nothing.
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Over the last decades, new architectures and infrastructures for containing and artificially reproducing the conditions at the very beginning of the Universe have surfaced across the world: a synthetic replica of the early Universe on Earth. These sophisticated technospaces are sealed chambers that recreate specific and inexistent physical conditi...
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The Tokyo regional analysis center at the International Center for Elementary Particle Physics, the University of Tokyo, is one of the Tier 2 sites for the ATLAS experiment in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. The current system has 10,752 CPU cores and 16 PB disk storage. CERN plans the HighLuminosity LHC starting from 2026, which increases the pe...
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The present work addresses different but related subjects of cutting edge research in E-infinity fractal Cantorian spacetime theory. Thus, using the E-infinity Cantorian spacetime formalism, i.e., transfinite platonic set theory, we show that Newton's gravitational inverse square law strictly implies quantum entanglement and visa versa to the exten...
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H. Weyl's proposal of 1918 for generalizing Riemannian geometry by local scale gauge (later called {\em Weyl geometry}) was motivated by mathematical, philosophical and physical considerations. It was the starting point of his unified field theory of electromagnetism and gravity. After getting disillusioned with this research program and after the...
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In elementary particle physics, the characteristics of the events can be distorted to varying degrees due to instrumental effects, which leads to inaccuracies in experimental distributions. To solve such difficulties and restore distributions close to the true, a various mathematical approaches are used. In this paper, we examine the quality of unf...
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span>Apresentamos os resultados de um estudo que investigou o imaginário de um grupo de professores que ensinam física acerca do uso de jogos destinados ao ensino da Física de Partículas Elementares. Os dados foram coletados em um curso de formação continuada oferecido para professores em docência escolar da rede pública do estado de São Paulo. Apó...
Book
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Information is what tells us about the world. Could we think of physical reality itself as consisting just of information? Could the universe represent over the time the most general collection of logical codes? If we think of information as expressed in terms of binary codes, we could interpret binary sets as spatial arrangements of energy, giving...
Article
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The nucleon (proton and neutron) electromagnetic form factors (FFs) are fundamental quantities in nuclear and elementary particle physics as they are essential ingredients needed to parametrize the internal structure of composite particles. The spatial distribution of charge and magnetization within the nucleon is encoded in the electric G E ( p ,...