Electronics - Science topic
Electronics are the study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Questions related to Electronics
1) For conformal coating on electronics, what will happen if there is a very thin coating of say only 1-5 micrometers with process point of view?
2) Will this solve the purpose of environmental protection and basic insulation?
3) Will this thin layer be fragile to be handled during processing?
4) Will there be any fouling of this layer during its application?
When we Launch rocket to put our satellite in orbit , how it is put in orbit so accurately? Because as I know their are debries in Leo, Meo & Geo so how they find their way out by going through debries , are their any radars to detect the debries , how they avoid this debries ??
I have had previous experience with an EVOM for measuring TEER across Caco-2 transwells but it seemed to me like it was just an over priced multimeter. Has anyone tried using a conventional multimeter for this purpose? I called Corning and they seemed to think it would work... but they didn't seem very confident in what I was asking about.
I am new to LabVIEW, Can anyone please share the LabVIEW code to get a voltage vs current plot for a resistor by Keithley 2460?
Thanks in advance.
Reshna Elsa Philip
I want to know your thoughts, experience and suggested literature on the topic of the best way to develop a new electronics product in today's world.
1. What are the steps a designer should take in the process of developing a new electronics product? Why? How?
2. What should he strive to accomplish in each development step? What should the results be?
3. What tools should he use to enchance his work?
4. Where can he learn more about the suggested development process?
Thank you all in advance for helping all the young and aspiring engineers with your knowledge
I'm getting repetitively negative open circuit potentials(OCP) vs. Ag/AgCl reference electrode for some electrodes during the OCP vs. time measurements using an electrochemical workstation. What's the interpretation of a negative open circuit potential? Moreover, I also have noticed that it got more negative on illumination. What's the reason behind it? Are there some references? Please help.
With which Industry 4.0 technologies it is possible to improve system solutions for saving electricity in order to increase the scale of energy security?
Technologies typical of the current fourth technological revolution and Industry 4.0 have been developed and implemented in various sectors of the economy since the end of the last century. Technologies typical of the current fourth technological revolution and new technologies Industry 4.0 are used, among others also in the field of creating new solutions increasing the scope of energy savings. In view of the developing energy crisis, this is a particularly important issue at present. The key technologies of Industry 4.0 include: technologies improving analytical processes such as Big Data Analytics, Business Intelligence, Data Science, besides also cloud computing, artificial intelligence, learning machines, Internet of Things, robotics, horizontal and vertical data system integration, multi-criteria models simulation, digital twins, additive manufacturing, Blockchain, 5G, smart technologies, cybersecurity technologies, Virtual and Augmented Reality and other technologies of computerized multi-criteria data processing Data Mining. With the help of the above-mentioned Industry 4.0 technologies, it is possible to improve system solutions for saving electricity and / or heat as well as management systems for economical energy consumption, intelligent production of energy generated from various sources, energy security management systems, failure risk and energy blackout management systems, etc. The issue of improvement management systems for both energy production and its economical consumption is now particularly important in the context of the current energy crisis. In the future, not only subsequent energy and economic crises will increase the importance of using new technologies in order to increase the scale of energy saving, increase energy efficiency, energy storage, and build new sources of clean energy. In the future, the developing climate crisis will also increase the importance of this issue, as climate warming will generate greater energy consumption, e.g. by increasing the scale of installing cooling devices in various buildings.
In view of the above, I would like to address the following question to the Distinguished Community of Researchers and Scientists:
With which Industry 4.0 technologies it is possible to improve system solutions for saving electricity in order to increase the scale of energy security?
What is your opinion on this topic?
I invite everyone to the discussion,
Thank you very much,
Normal car uses Radiatior system to cool down the engine system. But in Electric vehicle that there is no nead of radiators i think.
Someboby told me electric vehicles using heatsink. Please clarify what type of heatsink is used and how heat in Electric vehicle is controlled.
I have a query :
I had written a paper few months ago and its prepreint is floating online.
Query: I want to add more additional results along with modeling in that paper and submit it to some other journal. Can I do the same because a preprint is already floating online? Won't it count in the plagiarism count by the detector? I mean I know preprint is also my earlier version of the same paper but software dont.
Kindly help me with this.
I am interesting in areas of Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Signal Processing and electronics.
Now some researchers are using artificial intelligence, machine learning, and signal processing to build powerful three-level platforms to help meet project goals.
So to go forward in research, it is very important to find new project on actual fields of research.
What is the band gap of MWCNT (not SWCNT)? Is it near about 2eV?
If not, what could be it's electronic property? Are MWCNTs metalic like zigzag SWCNT or semiconductor or insulator?
I plan to divide my long research article(simulation + mathematical) into two parts, but I am clueless about how to do this. (I can not separate the simulation and mathematical analysis)
I have a few questions regarding the same
1) Do I need to show the common mathematics in both parts?
2) Can the introduction be the same?
3) Can some explanations remain the same in both parts?
Can someone give me the reference of any article divided into two parts?
I wonder if anybody had any experience with electronics letters regarding to the review process, I would appreciate it if you could share it.
Hi, are there any atomistic simulation tools (free or not) like QuantumWise ATK able to perform simulations for molecular devices with more than two ATOMISTIC terminals? I mean: for simulate molecular devices like the one shown in the attached figure?
Thank you very much!
I had written two papers. One of the paper is on analog performance of GAA MOSFET and second one is on bio sensing performance of GAA MOSFET.
Both these papers are simulation based. I had sent them to various journals but unfortunately got rejected due to absence of any device physics( I am working on device physics in my current work-next paper).
I want to know if any Scopus or SCI based journal that can possibly accept these papers. I am really depressed since its been more than a year but its getting rejected. Any Scopus journal will also work but should be recognized.
Please, suggest me some journals seniors and respected people. Kindly help me.
DOMAIN- Electronics(VLSI) and MOSFET based Biosensors
One of my colleagues is working with piezoelectric components and couldn't find the shock response spectrum for various piezoelectric components. Can anyone please share your idea to deal with the calculation process of shock response spectrum (srs) of piezoelectric components? However, any informative links that contain useful resources or details will be very helpful.
Thank you for your time and guidance.
I want to learn about analysis and design of resonant converters but where do I start? Do you have any recommendations about books, articles, webinars, videos that cover this topic and you found it usefull?
RRAM device has metal/insulator/metal structure, in which insulating layer acts as an active switching layer. I am looking for any correlation between the crystllite size of the active switching layer's nanoparticles with resistive switching mechanism. Does the size of Nanoparticles control the switching mechanism?
Please share some relevant articles.
I need to design a low-pass filter for cryogenic experiment. Ideally the filter should be placed near the sample. However, the sample will be subjected to high field up to 4 Tesla. How much this field will affect the pi-filter and/or RC-filter. The cryogenic temperature will be around 2K.
We have a keithley 2400 SMU in our lab but we can not control it through windows 10 64 bit. Labtracer 2.9 does not support win7 and over.Tektronix releases a software called kickstarter, however, it doesn't support REV C30 series. We want to control it and make special measurements.
I am simulating nanofluids thermal conductivity in which I inserted metal (Cu) nanoparticle in water. Many researchers have done the same thing by inserting metal nanoparticle in solvent to determine the enhanced thermal conductivity.
My query is are we simulating the real system, as MD (done with LAMMPS) only contributes to phonon contribution towards thermal conductivity not electronic and electronic contribution is a major part. Is at nanoscale electronic contribution negligible? PFA few papers. Any kind of help is welcomed. Thanks
This paper is a project to build a new function. I will propose a form of this function and I let people help me to develop the idea of this project, and in the same time we will try to applied this function in other sciences as quantum mechanics, probability, electronics …
Today, sensors are usually interpreted as devices which convert different sorts of quantities (e.g. pressure, light intensity, temperature, acceleration, humidity, etc.), into an electrical quantity (e.g. current, voltage, charge, resistance, capacitance, etc.), which make them useful to detect the states or changes of events of the real world in order to convey the information to the relevant electronic circuits (which perform the signal processing and computation tasks required for control, decision taking, data storage, etc.).
If we think in a simple way, we can assume that actuators work the opposite direction to avail an "action" interface between the signal processing circuits and the real world.
If the signal processing and computation becomes based on "light" signals instead of electrical signals, we may need to replace today's sensors and actuators with some others (and probably the sensor and actuator definitions will also be modified).
- Let's assume a case that we need to convert pressure to light: One can prefer the simplest (hybrid) approach, which is to use a pressure sensor and then an electrical-to-optical transducer (.e.g. an LED) for obtaining the required new type of sensor. However, instead of this indirect conversion, if a more efficient or faster direct pressure-to-light converter (new type of pressure sensor) is available, it might be more favorable. In near future, we may need to use such direct transducer devices for low-noise and/or high-speed realizations.
(The example may not be a proper one but I just needed to provide a scenario. If you can provide better examples, you are welcome)
Most probably there are research studies ongoing in these fields, but I am not familiar with them. I would like to know about your thoughts and/or your information about this issue.
Journals with review time of 2-4 weeks and publication time of <6 months.Impact factor journals >1.
We had a problem with "negative resistance" since it represented two different types of resistances - "true negative resistance"
and "differential negative resistance"
Now we have a similar problem with "negative impedance" since it represents different things in electronics and electrotechnics...
IN ELECTRONICS, we believe that all natural passive components (resistors, capacitors and inductors) absorbing energy from the input source have "positive impedance" (or simply "impedance"). So, from this viewpoint, the impedances of capacitors and inductors have the same positive signs. Conversely, the artificial electronic circuits - NICs (negative "resistors", negative "capacitors" and negative "inductors"), behaving in an opposite way (adding energy to the input source in the same manner as the according passive components do it), have a true "negative impedance". So, this classification regards to the way of processing energy - "positive impedance" means consuming while "negative impedance" means producing energy; "positive impedance" means "ordinary impedance" while "negative impedance" means something opposite as "inverse impedance", "opposite impedance" or "anti-impedance".
IN ELECTROTECHNICS, they classify the impedance of the reactive elements capacitor and inductor according to their behavior in time when a DC input voltage is applied - "negative impedance" symbolizes an "increasing voltage opposition" while "positive impedance" symbolizes a "decreasing voltage opposition". From this viewpoint, the impedances of capacitors and inductors have opposite signs.
IN ELECTRONICS, BOTH CAPACITORS AND INDUCTORS HAVE POSITIVE IMPEDANCE WHILE IN ELECTROTECHNICS, CAPACITORS HAVE NEGATIVE IMPEDANCE BUT INDUCTORS HAVE POSITIVE IMPEDANCE.
This concept is extremely simple, clear and intuitive if we think in terms of voltages when we apply a constant input voltage to the elementary RC and RL circuit. Then, voltage drops appear across capacitors and inductors; they change in a different (opposite) way through time but both they are voltage drops. Conversely, voltages appear across negative capacitors and inductors; they also change in a different (opposite) way through time but now both they are (electromotive) voltages, not voltage drops.
After these speculations, it is interesting to remember what a negative impedance converter did. What does it convert? Does it make a capacitor behave as an inductor and v.v., an inductor as a capacitor? No, it doesn't. A gyrator can do this magic. A negative impedance converter can make capacitors and inductors behave as sources (negative impedance elements) instead as passive elements having positive impedance:
I have presented these speculations in the archived Wikipedia talk page about negative resistance:
I have inspired to ask this question by the enthusiastic speculations of Tolga Soyata in the related questions about capacitor and inductor:
I want to use Al2O3 or HfO2 as the gate oxide material for GAA MOSFET in the SILVACO TCAD script . How can I do that?
Can I use them directly with just changing the dielectric constant value in the material portion written in my script or do I have to define it explicitly somewhere else?
Can someone tell me about this or share the script?
It will be a great help.
"Self-fulfilling prophecy" is Moore's own definition, while "a convenient fiction" is somebody else's...
I have decided that, giving some excerpts from two relevant articles will be more helpful than trying to explain my personal views in detail.
Excerpts from the article "Was Moore’s Law Inevitable?" by Kevin Kelly:
(...) Writing in 2005, (...) Moore says, “Moore’s Law is really about economics.” [Moore's colleague] Carver Mead made it clearer yet: Moore’s Law, he says, “is really about people’s belief system, it’s not a law of physics, it’s about human belief, and when people believe in something, they’ll put energy behind it to make it come to pass.”
(...) Finally, in a another reference, Mead adds : “Permission to believe that [the Law] will keep going,” is what keeps the Law going. Moore agrees in a 1996 article: “More than anything, once something like this gets established, it becomes more or less a self-fulfilling prophecy. The Semiconductor Industry Association puts out a technology road map, which continues this [generational improvement] every three years. Everyone in the industry recognizes that if you don’t stay on essentially that curve they will fall behind. So it sort of drives itself.”
(...) Andrew Odlyzko from AT&T Bell Laboratories concurs: “Management is *not* telling a researcher, ‘You are the best we could find, here are the tools, please go off and find something that will let us leapfrog the competition.’ Instead, the attitude is, ‘Either you and your 999 colleagues double the performance of our microprocessors in the next 18 months, to keep up with the competition, or you are fired.'”
Excerpts from the article "A Moore’s Law Mystery" by Rose Eveleth:
(...) Moore’s Law probably didn’t start as a marketing ploy. Even Carlson will admit that. But it then became, what he called, “a convenient fiction.”
Thomas Haigh, a historian of technology at the University of Wisconsin, had a similar idea. “[Moore’s Law] has always been more of a self-promotion for the wondrous accomplishments of the semiconductor industry than a law of nature,” (...) “It’s also been a kind of self-fulfilling prophecy, since it’s taken ever larger investments of research and development money to keep it coming true."
When I was an engineering student, while investigating a circuit schematic, I was often discouraged by a device whose symbol I was not familiar with. Thinking that it was a different device, I was usually giving up. In some of the cases, I was finding out (much later) that the device was actually just a regular device (e.g. an inductor or a Zener diode, etc.) with another symbol accepted/used by some other engineers.
When I started to teach electronics, I noticed that I should make convincing explanations for my students to relax them about such occasions. For example, I mention multiple symbols used for Zener diodes, along with the meaning/purpose of essential items of each symbol version. Unfortunately, sometimes I cannot convince some of the students about this many versions of symbols used for the same specific device.
This issue can be an important problem when you are publishing or reading papers in different scientific journals.
Now, I remembered another case -although not very similar-, namely the unit of electrical conductance, which is given with the unit "Siemens", as well as with 1/Ohm, represented by Ω-1 or by ℧ and even by "mho" (Leaving away the "inverted omega" symbol which I also regard as unusual, I have always thought that, Georg Ohm would not be happy about the "mho" unit).
Of course, some symbol versions (e.g. some of the ground symbols given in the figure) may represent a slightly or substantially different property/behavior. However, many people occasionally use those different symbols to represent the same specific device. With no doubt, that's another aspect of the "multiple symbols" issue.
For sure there are multiple standards that we cannot alter to fix a unique symbol for a specific device.
On the other hand, this "multiple symbols" issue often creates problems, especially for the students who are in a struggle to learn/understand new devices.
The "handy" versions of the symbols (like the last ground symbols in the figure) preferred by some instructors may complicate the issue further.
A symbol which reminds of the device's main behavior, points out to difference and similarity with another device, provides ease of drawing and ease of spotting the device on a schematic, etc., can be assumed a good symbol (This can explain, for instance, the different versions of Zener diode symbols).
I know that many of you may think that I am exaggerating the problem. Nevertheless, I would like to know what others think about this issue.
Any personal experiences or suggestions which may be helpful especially for teaching will also be appreciated.
I need to create custom wiring for my experiment because the ground of cryostat is noisy (the manufacturer suggest this because the ground is connected to the vacuum pump). I plan take the signal line directly to my instrument which is tied to more (supposedly) quite ground. I plan to use twisted pair (wire loom) rather than coaxial because space limitation and thermal concideration.
Which configuration is best to achieve highest noise immunity? The experiment will also use magnetic field up to 3T. I know that configuration (B) have longer return path than (A), does it have any effect on parasitic impedance/capacitance?
I just started working on TENGs. I would like to know how can I use COMSOL to simulate working condition of nanogenerator so I can reach optimum output and to determine its charge distribution. Is there any other simulation program that can be employed for these purposes?
I have taken I-V characteristics of my RRAM devices but could not understand how to measure its retention time and endurance. Please suggest me the waveform which should be applied for retention time and endurance. Please suggest some good paper for this measurement?
Hello, I am currently working on the design of a device that measures thermal conductivity of sediments and I am not sure if i estimated heat losses and heat flux in the correct way. The device is a 0,0034 cubic meters (200 cubic inches aprox) box with a resistor (curved alloy wire) in contact with one face of the sample, connected to a power supply. The resistor is in the middle of one face of the sample and a heavy insulator, like glass wool (i am not sure if this is the proper term for the material).
This is not my work area, i'm a geologist, but given my current research i am in the need to resolve this issue
Please feel free to answer any of this questions, also any comment will be helpful.
My questions are:
- If it is ok to estimate heat losses considering an estimation of the temperature at a middle point in the box and thickness and the thermal conductivity at the five walls that surround the internal sample considering that one side of the device is in contact with the surrounding air
- If using a common insulator (say 0,02 to 0,04 W/m.C°) will yield an aproximate heat loss of less than 1W, considering 0,1 m wall thickness (4 inches aprox).
- If the sample will reach a quasi steady-state heat flux or will be far from it, considering the room temperature stays aproximately constant.
- How much heat will disipate the wire if the power output of the power supply is, say 6W. In other words what will be the heat flow at the resistor, through the first face of the sample near the resistor, given that supplied power.
This Special Issue will focus on control, modeling, various machine learning techniques, fault diagnosis, and fault-tolerant control for systems. Papers specifically addressing the theoretical, experimental, practical, and technological aspects of modeling, control, fault diagnosis, and fault-tolerant control of various systems and extending concepts and methodologies from classical techniques to hybrid methods will be highly suitable for this Special Issue.
Potential themes include, but are not limited to:
Modeling and identification
Adaptive and hybrid control
Adaptive and hybrid observers
Reinforcement learning for control
Fault-tolerant control of systems based on various control and learning techniques
Prof. Dr. Jong-Myon Kim
Prof. Dr. Hyeung-Sik Choi
Dr. Farzin Piltan
I am trying to compute the theoretical efficiency of a photovoltaic cell using the method described in the attached paper, which is based on the classical Shockley and Queisser arguments (available here:
Part of the calculation involves the efficiency factor n_rec = V_oc / Vg where V_oc is the open circuit voltage and Vg the bandgap voltage (Equation 13).
As a far as I understand, from a physical standpoint n_rec should be smaller than 1, since V_oc cannot be superior to Vg. Nevertheless, I do obtain n_rec values higher than 1 (i.e. V_oc > Vg), when I consider for instance a blackbody emitter at 6000K, a PV cell temperature = 300K, 100% radiative recombinations (f_rec = 1) and a bandgap of 1 eV.
Therefore, I am wondering: is there something wrong with my calculation ? or does the model have some limitation that I am not aware of ?
From a mathematical standpoint, I don't see what enforces V_OC < Vg, would someone be able to explain this?
Thanks a lot for your help!
Is ECU connected to can? Can we program it through AUTOSAR?
And if we have up to 70's ECU in car so it means we don't have a brain here?
What is sbw-Center ECU then?
Need to know about journal/special issue for fast publication in electrical engineering.
I am an Electrical Engineer in a Dutch startup, & looking for the research team who is working on some electronics project, well that's a very big topic by naming just Electrical or Electronics. But any project related to the subject I would be interested to join.
Pls, let me know if group/individual would like to join me in their group or individual who wants to work with me on some project(can discuss separately).
I have done some research/projects in my current company like reducing Inrush current in television, Circuit design for a small oven, Design of LED batten, Programming of Power converter through a USB port etc.
Hello, I am try to measure the voltage and current of a solution (typically PBS or other nutrient media) with bacteria like E coli with mediators like neutral red dye or methylene blue. Typical electrodes I'll use is two carbon or copper and aluminum combination in a single compartment setup. I know E coli K-12 shouldn't conduct current compared to other electroactive bacteria, but I'm just trying to get an understanding of setup. I've been using a digital multimeter and I can usually get a voltage measurement, although it is low and varies with the electrodes I use. However, I haven't been able to get reliable current measurements since I'll get fluctuating readings of my multi meter and I don're really know what to make of it. i read papers where this simple tool is used for current and voltage so I'm not sure what I am doing wrong. Thanks.
Trying to find out how the frequency affects the dielectric constant of a material in order to find a substitute. Thnk you in advance for any help with this.
Rice husk ash is increasingly being used in silicon production for electronics, which is required to be cleaned off water soluble alkali (and alkaline earth, to some extent) oxides. In Agriculture dominant area, rice husk ash is simply dumped outdoor as landfills by Rice mills. would it be better to use the dumped ashes for further purification to electronics, especially if not spoiled by soil/clay?
Whenever a PCB layout is subject to noise (such as being in the vicinity of switching mode power supplies or high dv/dt and di/dt incidents), is it better to route the critical signal traces (such as gating signals) wider or narrower? (I understand that using planes is a good solution, wherever possible. But many times we have to use traces.) Which one has the advantage in terms of being more immune to the noise?
I am working on wireless power transfer using Ansys Maxwell and Simplorer . I modeled a circular-circular coil with a L- C circuit at a high-frequency resonant of 13.56 MHz. I am wondering that ANSYS Maxwell can model the WPT at a high-frequency resonant or not. Should I use the ANSYS HFSS and circuit design to model it or not? Can i rely to Ansys Maxwell and Simplorer results? I attach the power efficiency result. I am looking forward to hearing any suggestions or recommendations.
1) When designing a PCB layout, do we always need to terminate a high-frequency signal with a proper resistor (for example with a 50 ohm one) at the signal destination (i.e. gate of an IC)?
2) Is there any rule of thumb to know when we need to terminate a signal route with a proper resister (i.e. relating the travel length with the frequency of the signal to know if we need a terminator resistor ) ?
3) What is the proper terminator resistor value? I know it depends on the "characteristic impedance" of the signal route but it might not be possible to calculate it accurately. Is there any less complicated way to roughly get to know the terminator resistor value?
in a 3 phase application, SVPWM output is gates S1S3S5 .. but If I made modeling to my system in dq frame, HOW I can convert S1S3S5 to dq frame to suit my modeling system?
I am interested in adaptive cooling for spectral photometers and radiometers used in a field phenotyping situation. Peltier thermoelectric cooling appears attractive. Yet my initial testing is using lots of power inefficiently. Approaches have been direct press to cold plates, air exchange with circulation, closed and open box, thermostats, no water.
Wanting to support a 60 watt field spectrometer at a steady and safe operational 30 C target in a 45 C environment using TEC.
I am trying to implement capacitive sensor using Arduinio. It is a simple RC circuit. It works as follows,
--> Self capacitance of a single plate capacitor
Only send pin and receive pins are used (Read from literature and applied)
Problem is most of the literature and videos show sensor working on ADC principle. Send pin sends a high signal and on the receive side time is counted till receive goes high as well. I want to get analog signal (Voltage) from the sensor as i have to use it as trigger for other data acquistion systems. I give 5 volts from send pin and at receive pin i measure analog voltage. It is not grounded. Big question is with respect to which reference voltage is measured here. Sensor works fine and shows voltage drop when touched.
I am beginer in electronics.
Any lead is welcome.
I was wondering if there was any way to measure the quantity of fatty acid present in different oils by using some electronic device.
Will phmeters or concuctivity meters work? As there is less mobility of charge I doubt if they will.
Is there anyother method ? Like passing light and measurining absorptivity or by measuring turbidity etc.
Any answer will be highly appreciated
SP4T AlGaAs PIN Diode Switch , such as one avialable with MACOM part number MA4AGSW4 , is suggested for millimeter wave applications. Microstrip line circuits are the transmission lines on a grounded substrate. I want to know that how this swich can be integrated on such planar Q-TEM transmission lines.
We know that the manufacture of electronic components has been reducing their costs in recent years. But what are the main challenges to facilitate the reduction of component costs?
Question: How to find out the order of the thermal network needed for self heating assessment?
In order to model self heating in SOI MOSFETs, an RC equivalent has been made of the thermal network where thermal resistance and the thermal capacitance have been described. (Refer to Zhang et al 'On the Formulation of Self-Heating Models for Circuit Simulation')
Given this basic assumption, some other papers have used an n-th order thermal network for self heating assessments. In , a 4th order thermal nework has been used while in  a 3rd order is taken.
How do we know what should be the right order and why should a simple one stage RC network not be good enough?
 Scholten et al ‘Experimental Assessment of Self-Heating in SOI FinFETs’
 Karim et al ‘Extraction of Isothermal Condition and Thermal Network in UTBB SOI MOSFETs’
I can not find the info about the number of bending cycles or similar parameters for electrical parameters change for flexible printed circuit board (pcb) with teflon/ptfe substrate. For example flexible pcb of Rogers corp.
Thank you for an advance