Questions related to Electronic Instrumentation
I am working on the project related to optofluidic sensors. I want to simulate a structure in "RSoft Beamprop" i had to draw defect region segment surrounding with 40 core and 40 cladding structures.
its very difficult and time consuming to draw one segment and then make a copy and duplicate it every time. .
is there any efficient way to draw these 80 structure quickly to save time and make my design flexible. below i attach the segment pic which i should need to draw multiple times mean 80 times.
i shall be extremely thankful if someone helps me related to this. .
I'm looking for a blood pressure device/module/kit which outputs raw data (serial or wireless, digital or analog). Usually, the information from these devices is on-screen only or, if Bluetooth, connected to an app that does not permit you to access the raw data.
I need to develop an instrument that measures the pressure data from the sphygmomanometer and processes it in a microcontroller to send it elsewhere.
I couldn't find this kind of solution anywhere. I'm already thinking of buying an analogical sphygmomanometer and hacking a pressure sensor in it. What do you think?
The question is briefly related to electrical and core instrumentation. kindly guide me through this.
This figure is at page 390 of the book. I used Bride elements as R1=R2-2.2 K ohms. C=0.1 microF. R with C= 180 ohms. IC 741. Vcc +/- 12 V. I am trying to send two signals about 8.8 KHz and 16 KHz. Resistor in Amplifier 1 pin 2 and ground is 10 K. Checking results on Yokogawa DSO in FFT analyzer mode. But the circuit does not suppress the fundamental of 8.8 KHz sine wave. Both components are shown by DSO FFT analyzer.
Can anyone help.
Is it possible to use the same low level DC measuring methods such as electrometers , nanovoltmeters and picoammeters for low level AC measurements?
I'm using the following guide to learn about low level DC measuring methods.
Volatile sulphur compounds are measured til date while non volatile sulphur compounds may also contribute to halitosis
I want to model the difference in temperature between an electronic instrument surface and the ambient air. I used a linear multiple step-wise regression model with six variables as the potential predictors: net radiation, incoming shortwave (solar) radiation, incoming longwave radiation, horizontal wind speed, air temperature, water vapor density.
The significant curve-like trend in the scater plot of the modeled and measured temperature difference indicated that the linear model form was likely wrong.
But, if we ignore the interactions between the cilmatic variables, which variable should have a non-linear influence on the heating or cooling of the instrument surface compared with the ambient air? The wind speed? And also the water vapor density?
This question might seem personal and of course, it is, but many of my friends are facing this problem.
I am a sophomore student and I want to do research in the field of electrical and electronic engineering. I am not quite sure about the specific field but I am finding interest in power electronics, embedded circuit and integrated circuits. But I want to know why should I be doing higher studies and research in these fields? Can somebody please tell me the future aspects of these branches? It would be very helpful for us.
Thank you in advance.
Which structure of the transistor is the most sensitive to pressure? A vertical NPN transistor and a vertical/lateral PNP transistor are considered. Which structure of the transistor will be the least sensitive to temperature and will have the lowest noise component of the output signal?
Recently I am trying to reverse engineering circuit of the torque sensor (attached pictures), that compromises of two TI op-amp, two regulators, AD685 for compatibility with HART protocol. But it's a sort of very time consuming and I have always been willing to learn how to design these kinds of analog circuits. I really appreciate if anyone may show me a schematic circuit of this type of circuits. This will be a big help to me.
Thank you all
Electropneumatic Signal Converter is used for converting direct current signal into standard linear pneumatic signal for process control system applications. It is used for converting control signal 4-20 mA or 0-20 mA etc. coming from Electronic Controllers etc. into a linear 3-15 psi or 0.2-1 kg/cm² pneumatic signal for operation of control valves and dampers etc.
Please explain the working of it and if possible add a circuit diagram also.
It was very interesting to me to discuss how to investigate circuit elements (e.g., semiconductor devices) in the simplest, elegant and clever way...
...but even more interesting to me is to build circuit systems with these elements and discuss their behavior there...
Basic circuitry is my favorite discipline because it allows me to reveal in the best way the philosophy of electronic circuits. For many years, I dedicate the first lab of this discipline to passive resistive circuits because my concept of electronic circuits is that, in many cases, they are just improved passive circuits. Moreover, equivalent passive resistive circuits may be used to represent, in an attractive way, the operation of the more complex active electronic circuits.
Encouraged and inspired by the successful implementation of the labs on Semiconductor devices as free experiments on prototyping boards during the previous semester, I decided to do the same in the course of Basic circuitry this semester. But where to start? What is the simplest and, at the same time, most productive passive device - the resistor, the voltage divider or something else? Eventually, I chose the potentiometer...
At first glance, this simple device does not deserve any attention, so you can not find it in the most electronics books. But I have long ago fascinated by its unique properties that made me excited to create, together with my students, the Wikibooks story below:
So, I began to prepare the equipment for implementation of the so unusual lab devoted, imagine, only to the simple potentiometer! I was already convinced how useful floating power supplies (adapters) are; so I prepared a set of two pairs of such devices - DC (12V/1A) and AC (24V/0.5A), with suitable "needle" ends, for each of the four working places. Also, I prepared a sufficient number of multimeters with the same "needle" probes, oscilloscopes with handmade "solid wire" probes, solderless prototyping boards... and, of course, a sufficient number:) of 1k potentiometers...
But my efforts did not go in vain, because it really was an incredible laboratory exercise, where my students were able to learn about important circuit concepts and devices:
This made me offer you to discuss here all these incarnations of the ubiquitous potentiometer. So, what are all these very important circuit concepts, devices and circuits represented by the mere potentiometer?
(By the way, my students managed to burn only one potentiometer although they were working hard in this direction:)
Biomedical, Medical, Electrical, Electronics, Instrumentation, Medical Device, Embedded Systems
I am trying out a CMOS rectifier. I did built a diode connected half wave rectifier and it works fine.
The doubt which I am getting now is, how important is the bulk connection in diode connected transistor (PMOS).
Consider a PMOS with Gate-drain (GD) connected, and the bulk connected to source terminal (SB). Now the question is which of these connection form the P and N terminal of the diode and how is it determined.
Which junction in transistor, the diode characteristic is used. Is it drain-bulk, source-bulk of gatedrain-source junction.
Can anyone brief on it ?
What is the Best way to connect the bulk in diode connected PMOS for rectifier application? - ResearchGate. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/post/what_is_the_Best_way_to_connect_the_bulk_in_diode_connected_PMOS_for_rectifier_application [accessed Feb 8, 2016].
As a rule, BJT output characteristics are presented as a family of particular characteristics representing the function of the collector current IC of the collector-emitter voltage VCE while the base current IB is kept constant as a parameter. Maybe this two-dimensional way of presentation is widely used since it is convenient for printing on paper...
When we automatically measure and plot BJT output characteristics by a computer (even the primary Apple II), we have the unique chance to present them in a more attractive three-dimensional way. Now the collector current is a function of two variables - the collector-emitter voltage and the base current; IC = f(VCE, IB). The image on the screen is a surface, in which the particular characteristics IC = f(VCE) are represented by separate vertical sections of this surface.
I implemented this attractive experiment in the early 90's when I was trying to make vocational teachers in Bulgarian carry out real computer experiments in the semiconductor laboratory... but they proved unprepared for this... A program written on MLBASIC (an assembler extension of the embedded interpretator) was controlling an Apple computer equipped with an analog periphery - 4 DACs, 4 ADCs, power voltage-to-current and current-to-voltage converters (described, regretfully only in Bulgarian, in the attached link after the pictures below).
It is amazing that then I had no idea that I will reproduce this attractive experiment with my students whole 25 years later... and really I will start doing it today... I made a "dress rehearsal" of the "show" at the university on Saturday evening. It was too late and dark in the laboratory... so movies I made were very poor (there was a mistake in the camera settings)...
(Measuring of a 3-dimensional transistor output characteristic by MICROLAB)
(Plotting a 3-dimensional transistor output characteristic on the screen)
This question is closely related to the questions below:
It would be interesting for me to see what you think about this way of presentation. Is it the actual output transistor characteristic or only another attractive presentation?
We are working on induction heating and we are having trouble to measure the high frequency magnetic field strength (about 1 kA/m)? We have the coil design (nos. of turns and dia) and we know the current. From these quantities, we are using solenoid equation to theoretically estimate the magnetic field value.
But is there any instrument to measure the field directly at these high frequency. Normal gaussmeter is not working. Moreover, any metallic probe may get heated up extremely fast due to magnetic induction.
Any help is well appreciated. Advanced thank you.
This is challenging as we might loose contact in some spots as curling happens due to thermal gradient.
hai sir this is guru.... i'm doing simple task with labview ...now i'm having some questions about labview interfacing
1)can we display labview software outputs (Like signal generator output signals) in external instruments of signal genertors (agilent and R&S). how??????
2)how labview software control external instruements ???? and is it requires any instrument drivers for communication...please specify the names of instrument drivers
please help me sir
Standard uncertainty is the estimated standard deviation of measured values. However, the dispersions of electronic components values are specified by companies as tolerances in datasheets and do not bring information about statistics (moments, PDF) . How their uncertainties can be modeled?
I'm a student in university and in this year I'm studying over regenerative braking system. I am interested different articles about that. Specifically in the regenerative braking what articles are used for different switching? For example, when a Phase is positive and b phase is negative, switching is a_low, but in the other article switching is b_low. Which switching do you think I should use for that? By the way, I formed the system in matkab/simulink, but I didn't divert the current toward the battery. I can send the simulation. Could you help me please?
A wind blade consists of steel chassis and composite laminae as outer surface.
I want to make bending stress on the blade. It fixed from end as cantilever.
I will put strain gauge rosette near the fixation end on the composite laminae as known to have maximum bending stress.
I want to calculate stress values from the strain readings.
The majority of the literature related to low-frequency impedance spectroscopy recommend the use of four-electrode (4T/4E) measurement systems in order to "eliminate" the electrode polarization (EP) effect.
Anyway, every time I read an empirical work paper describing the use of 4T-based measurement in biological and soil studies, the platinized electrodes (typically platinum-black coated) show up.
It seems to me that the potential probes may still be impacted by EP and the platinization is a way to mitigate this. Is that right? If so, it is my opinion that the term "EP elimination" cannot be used (rather "EP mitigation") without a proper characterization of the effect of the electrodes material in 4T systems.
Unfortunately, I could not find specific explanations for my question at the original 4T works (H.P. Schwan and others).
My goal is to find (or develop) a step-by-step guide related to the use of non-commercial 4T electrodes and soil dielectric measurements. I am fine in terms of electronic instrumentation for this goal, but the missing aspect is related to the soil probes themselves.
I want to process a 1D signal using dilation of mathematical morphology. I know the function imdilate in matlab can do it. However, you know, the 1D signal is different to the image. So someone said : the structuring element must be a linear flat with all 1 ,like [1 1 1 1....], if not all 1 ,like[ 1 1 0 1] or nonflat ,the function imdilate will be invalid. Is it right? Thank you very much.
Are there any alternative treatments to avoid using the mixture H2O:H2O2:NH4OH, in the steps of Si wafer cleaning (RCA SC-1: Removal of Residual Organic Films, Certain Metals, and Particles) ?
Thank you for your help
A 900w (100A, 90V DC) power supply with a sputtering of atoms is transferred from a material transfer to other substrate material, and the other material is used to mix with them. Through a magentron sputtering gun, is there any power received for other electronic equipment to synchronize it?
Except software manuals and specific application note, I do not know where to start to study these techniques. Can someone help me? Many thanks in advance.
There is my Basic Am modulator design with Labview in youtube link.
I modulate signal which is simulated, but I want to modulate my voice or any mp3 or mp4 or wav file in Labview . How can I do this ? Is there any way ?
These is for making a input to the control board to set up the current value according to that it will the maximum current .
Normally we measure power of high frequency signal using power sensor which convert the power of signal to power around its DC component then monitored by power meters .
Now , is it valid if we use the system of current probe +digital scope +power module?
We can enlarge the powerful idea of the “ideal” op-amp ammeter already discussed in the question below by replacing the movement with other current-driven loads (2-terminal elements like LEDs, solenoids, motors, rechargeable batteries, etc.)
Regardless of the device, the op-amp will always do the same – it will make its output voltage equal to the voltage drop across the corresponding device. As a result, the device “disappears” and the input current source “sees” just a “piece of wire”. We can think of this “wire” as of a kind of artificial “active superconductor” with zero resistance. We can also look at this phenomenon (aka “virtual ground”) from another perspective - shorting the input imperfect current source, we actually have provided it with ideal working conditions and it has began behaving as a perfect current source... and this is one of the possible ways of making perfect current sources
But all these op-circuits have no (electrical) output; their outputs are light (LED), displacement (solenoids, motors...) or none (rechargeable batteries). More frequently, we need circuits (converters) with electrical inputs and outputs; maybe the transimpedance amplifier is the most typical representative of this class of op-amp circuits. So, the question is, “Where do we take an electrical output from?”
Let’s solve this problem by building the ubiquitous transimpedance amplifier. Although we can do it by adding only one additional step to the 4-step ammeter building scenario, let’s for completeness do it from the very beginning.
1. NO PROBLEM. Imagine a current I = V/R flows in the simple Ohm's circuit... and it really is I = V/R... but we want to see if this is true. There is only one way to do it - by measuring the current.
2. THE PROBLEM. Contemporary instruments measure voltages; so, if we want to measure a current, we have to convert it into a voltage. For this purpose, we break the loop, connect a resistor and measure the voltage drop across it... but a problem appears. The voltage drop is desired for us and we want to be as much as possible higher to obtain a maximum "gain" (a minimum discrete error of the next ADC); so we need a maximum resistance. But, at the same time, this voltage drop disturbs the input (imperfect) current source; so to obtain a minimum error, we have to keep minimum resistance. If we measured the current of a perfect current source, there was no problem since the source would compensate the "undesired" voltage drop by increasing its own internal voltage... but in our case the source is imperfect. What do we do then?
3. THE REMEDY. We already know the remedy (from the question about the ammeter) - we can remove the resistance by an equal “anti-resistance”... or, in other words, the voltage drop by an equal (electromotive) "anti-voltage"... So, we add a humble variable voltage source in series with the resistor and adjust its voltage equal to the adverse voltage drop. As a result, the voltage drop and respectively the resistance as though disappear... and the whole circuit looks as a “piece of wire” to the input source. The additional compensation source actually "helps" the input excitation voltage source, which creates the input current (note that the two voltage sources are connected in series, in one and the same direction "- +, - +" so that their voltages are added).
4. THE OUTPUT. But where do we take the output from? Actually, the voltage drop across the resistor exists but it is not a good idea to use it as a circuit output (first, it is “floating”; second, the next stage may disturb it). Then? The clever idea is to use the compensating (op-amp) voltage as a "mirror" output (just like in life when we estimate indirectly some positive quantity by an equivalent negative "antiquantity"). All the circuits with parallel negative feedback (i.e., all the inverting op-amp circuits) exploit this idea. The advantages: first, the load is grounded; second, it consumes energy from the compensating voltage source instead from the input source (so, the load can be low-resistive enough). A disadvantage may be the inverted output...
5. THE IMPLEMENTATION. Finally, we have just to replace the manual "op-amp" by a real one and will obtain the so desired “ideal” current-to-voltage converter (transimpedance amplifier) well known from the classic electronics books.
This story about the transimpedance amplifier was the continuation of the previous story about the simpler op-amp ammeter. What do you think about it? Have you ever seen such an explanation before? Is it reliable? Is it useful for understanding compared with the conventional virtual ground explanation? If you like it, visit the links below and enjoy.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/254864969_How_I_Revealed_the_Secret_of_Parallel_Negative_Feedback_Circuits_(a_circuit_story)? (a fancy version of this story)
And yet, is there any connection between the humble resistor and the transimpedance amplifier? What does the op-amp really do in this electronic circuit? Can we say the op-amp is a "negative resistor" and the transimpedance amplifier is a "zero resistor"? Or, even more figuratively, the transimpedance amplifier is a "neutralized positive resistor" (R - R = 0)? If so, it would be a good prelude to the subject of negative resistor... and we can continue this story...
I have 2 winding transformer whose primary is fed from two phases out of three phases giving the primary side a 415 volts. The secondary voltage is 220V, but each terminal to ground voltage is 110v each. Now I have my miliamperes current output of various electronic instruments is fluctuating. Is it due to the switching surges? how can I get rid of this problem?
If we have to find the speed of sound in any material measuring sound vibrations at different points in the sample, what kind of piezoelectric sensors which have high sensitivity would be useful?