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Electronic Engineering - Science topic

Electronic engineering is an engineering discipline where non-linear and active electrical components such as electron tubes, and semiconductor devices, especially transistors, diodes and integrated circuits, are utilized to design electronic circuits, devices and systems, typically also including passive electrical components and based on printed circuit boards.
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Hallo every one,
I did nanoidentation experiment :
1 photoresist with 3 different layer thicknesses.
My results show that the photoresist is harder when it has thicker layer..
I can't find the reason in the literature.
Can any one please explaine me why is it like that??
is there any literature for this?
best regards
chiko
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The nano layer thickness is very very small layer, otherwise it's cannot use by Resistivity method and it has VES limitation.
Best regards.
P. Hakaew
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Thermal management of electronics/PCB boards purely depends on the power it dissipates (component power dissipations). But the power dissipation values provided by the component suppliers are the maximum power dissipation and in realty on field the power dissipation is far from this max values. So, i am looking into other possible ways to determine this values, through physic or analytically maybe.
Any bit of information would be highly helpful !
Thanking in advance !!!
Regards,
Rajesh.
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Dear
You can benefit from this valuable Link about your topic:
"PCB Simulation: How to Simulate a PCB Design"
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Also this one:
"PCB thermal calculator & simulation"
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"7 Considerations for PCB Power Supply Design"
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"Five Approaches to Cooling Military Electronics"
@Five Approaches to Cooling Military Electronics
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"Basics: Power dissipation and electronic components"
################
Online calculator for PCB circuits
I hope it will be helpful..
Best wishes..
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the question in the paper is related to vehicle electronics and vehicle control. i am stuck on how to approch such questions so gaining an insight on how to approach will be helpful. thanks
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Muhtashim Altaf MATLAB tutorial might help
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Does anyone have access to any of this article? I have already tried to contact some of the authors, but without success. I don´t speak Mandarin so is very difficult with CNKI where they are available through payment. I can not understand even the payment method or if I would have access from US. Thanks in advance for any help.
P.S. Even with google translator it was impossible understand the database.
DU Yu-ming YANG Jian-yu (College of Electronic Engineering, UESTC,Chengdu Sichuan 610054, China)
Linear FMCW radar is a kind of high-range-resolution radar, and motion compensation is a key problem to realize high range resolution. A multiple repetition frequency waveform is adopted and a Doppler frequency cluster (DFC) algorithm is proposed, which is capable of recovering true velocity from the coupled velocity estimation directly. Aiming at solving resolution of multiple targets, a match algorithm based on mean square error is also proposed. The combination of the above two methods realizes distance and velocity decoupling for multiple moving targets. The result of simulation verified the effectiveness of the methods, the velocity estimate performance of DFC algorithm improve obviously contrast to Chinese remainder theorem.
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Ana María Rojas-Gómez check your inbox i have sent you
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The 2023 ranking is available through the following link:
QS ranking is relatively familiar in scientific circles. It ranks universities based on the following criteria:
1- Academic Reputation
2- Employer Reputation
3- Citations per Faculty
4- Faculty Student Ratio
5- International Students Ratio
6- International Faculty Ratio
7- International Research Network
8- Employment Outcomes
- Are these parameters enough to measure the superiority of a university?
- What other factors should also be taken into account?
Please share your personal experience with these criteria.
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Cenk Tan; There are, of course, several websites that rank the universities worldwide. However, QS is the most famous of which.
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I would like to know the areas of Electrical and Electronics Engineering in which Java can be applied. Please give your inputs along with some materials to be followed.
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Over a span of 40 years, I wrote code for micros with Assembler and C. For computers I started with keypunch cards and ended with C#. For websites I use WordPress. After a person learns Java, it is easy to learn other programming languages.
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My first degree was in Electrical and Electronics Engineering. Presently, I want to obtain a master degree in electrical engineering. I am looking for possible topics for my master thesis. The subject of my master's thesis is renewable energy (especially wind).
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I think it would be interesting for you to invest in geothermal research. Who knows about the efficiency of steam turbines, or most efficient heat exchangers? Saw interesting systems in New Zealand in 2012, Taupo plant (https://www.mbie.govt.nz/building-and-energy/energy-and-natural-resources/energy-generation-and-markets/geothermal-energy -generation/).
Looking ahead, heat exchangers, steam turbines and control systems for these thermal equipment will be very useful when nuclear fusion becomes available.
Good luck!
Prof.Wiltgen
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HFSS and Maxwell were made by Ansoft in the last century, and there actually were little problems with them. You could always trust the simulation provided by those systems.
However after Ansoft was absorbed by ANSYS, nothing was improved in solvers from engineering point of view. Instead some crazy non-scientific poorly documented things were introduced, probably programmed by game and CGI designers without any thoughts of engineering application.
One of the craziest thing I discovered lately it ANSYS's "closest point interpolation".
What is the "closest point" value, you may guess? Well, I think it is obvious - a value of the point found closest to the coordinate of the interest.
It would be a very good approach feeding the discrete precalculated input fields, or material parameters for precisely simulating complex designs.
However what does ANSYS think about the closest point values!? You may be surprised.
Below, I show you a test of the clp() function, which SHOULD find a value of the closest point from the dataset "$dataset" for every mesh node with coordinates XYZ.
It should be placed in the material editor, in any property cell as clp($dataset, X,Y,Z).
According to manual, X,Y,Z, are provided in SI units, i.e. in meters. The output should be in the dataset units, but it is not, recognized by HFSS on practice. So I recommend making it unitless, and multiply by the desired unit, like clp(...)*1cel.
Now I define a simple dataset with a script:
<code>
dim pushdata()
redim pushdata(1) 'generate the data incrementally in dynamic dataset
pushdata(0)="NAME:Coordinates"
pushdata(1)=Array("NAME:DimUnits", "", "", "", "") 'in meters
for x = -1.1 to 1.1 step .1 'in millimeters
  for y=-1.1 to 1.1 step 0.1
    for z=-1.1 to 1.1 step 0.1
      redim preserve pushdata(ubound(pushdata)+1)
      pushdata(ubound(pushdata))=Array("NAME:Point", CDbl(x/1000), CDbl(y/1000), CDbl(z/1000), 1) ' see that "1" in the end. it is a value of "1" inside the Unit-BOX
      if ((abs(y)>=1) or (abs(x)>=1) or (abs(z)>=1)) then
        pushdata(ubound(pushdata))=Array("NAME:Point", CDbl(x/1000), CDbl(y/1000), CDbl(z/1000), 0) ' see that "0" in the end. it is a value of "0" AROUND the Unit-BOX
      end if
    next
  next
next
oProject.EditDataset "$Dataset", Array("NAME:$Dataset", pushdata) 'write the dataset to HFSS (ANSYS EDT))
</code>
Now lets see what the clp() function reads out from the dataset, and substitutes to material properties:
See the yellow and red lines on the plot below.
Obviously, those are NOT ones(1), and NOT zeroes(0), as one would expect.
I do not know what is that, but it is not a simple bug. I checked it in ANSYS EDT 2021 R1, and R2, both. It is a way how the programmer's head works.
Crazy stuff.
And we are forced to pay hundreds of thousands (some organizations pay millions) of Dollars for that, risking the corporate security btw. Because EDT is a security hole requiring Internet connection to work, and providing a backdoor for ANSYS, and anyone who could exploit that, to your system.
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Dear sir:
Thank you for sharing this important and valuable information .....
With best wishes....
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I have been studying quantization in context of Digital Image Processing. I referred to the 4th edition of the book titled "Digital Image Processing" by Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E. Woods.
In the book, the intensity quantization levels are defined as
L=2^k
where k is an integer.
Now the first thing that comes to my find is why is that the quantization levels should be integer multiple of two and why not just any integer in general.
A paragraph has been attached regarding this from the book.
Then I found a homework problem and its solution online which are both attached as images.
In the homework question, I believe n is used in place of k to calculate bits per pixel or bits per picture elements. While k was defined as integer in Gonzalez, here n comes out to be 3.32 bits per pixel (not an integer). Isn't it a contradiction?
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The colleagues really gave satisfactory answers to your questions. However, I have to stress the main cause of using the binary numbers in signal processing.
It is the available electronic devices that impose the number system used in digital computers and consequently signal processing.
There are two major electronic devices imposing the binary system:
The memory cells are binary that is a cell sores either logic one or logic zero.
So, to wright or read them directly they have to handle binary numbers.
The other major device is the arithmetic and logic unit. It also use binary numbers in their operations.
So, any other signal format must be converted into the binary from including the samples of analog signals. Every sample must be converted into n bit code. Which is a strings of one and zeros.
The conversion from analog to digital and vice verse is accomplished by A.D converters. According to the required resolution, every sample is represented by an n bits binary codes.
Best wishes
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The Mission "make in India" is promoted by the government recently. But "made by India" is necessary in the current crisis.
Researchers are rapidly increasing on Electronic Engineering field. Especially in India, No. of Publications and No. of Ph.Ds are increasing to reach a new peak every year. But most of the research papers,thesis are only in paper with out product outcome. What kind of initiation is required from government side in this regard? Is conventional politics affecting the development of Science and technology?
The discussion is open.
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I think to T Thammi Reddy point, it is only a Trillion rupee ($14 Billion) industry in India. The current cost of a 14nm fab (which is not state of the art, but state of practice) is around $14 Billion, so it is difficult for the semiconductor industry in India, whose entire market is less than or equal to the value to build one moderate technology factory in that industry, to grow in any meaningful way. India has huge capacity to assemble and test finished semiconductor products, but does not have any significant capacity to produce the underlying semiconductor die, which require these very large, and expensive factories. These factories also typically take years to build in countries with completely developed semiconductor fab industries, so building one in a new locale will probably take even longer. I would imagine the construction to take at least 8 to 10 years. In addition, there are a number of ancillary advanced high technology industries which must exist to support the semiconductor fabrication industry, which India also does not currently have, which would also need to be setup and successful prior to the start of any initiation of a semiconductor fab factory.
The Indian government would not only need to provide very lucrative incentives to all of these industries (free money, free loans, complete bankruptcy protection, and guaranteed bailouts), as the governments of South Korea, Taiwan, and China have done in order to catch up to more established semiconductor industries in the USA, Japan, and Europe, but also guarantee a return on the investment by either requiring large portions of electronics purchased by the government (offices, schools, military), or complete tax exemptions and subsidies until profitability is reached. In the instance that all electronics purchased by the government must be locally made, there will be a 5 to 10 year gap during which the local electronics will be inferior or more expensive, or both to those imported from other countries, which will make non-subsidized or non-government sales more difficult. The Indian government would need to have these policies in place for at least 15 to 20 years, independent of changes in the government or leading party, to get investors interested in such a project.
Semiconductors are a fundamentally expensive, slow, and typically a low margin industry, so unless there is a concerted effort from the Indian government across all political parties, the private sector will not risk tens of billions of dollars to create an industry where one doesn't exist if there are better areas in which to invest said billions.
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I want to know the Scopus or SCI journals for electrical and electronics Engineering, which provide a fast review process without a publishing fee. ??
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I am sharing a list of SCOPUS and SCI Journal whose review time is very less.
1. International journal of Engineering.
2. International journal of Engineering and Technology Innovation.
3. Innovative Infrastructure Solutions.
4. SN Applied Science.
5. Civil Engineering Journal.
6. Jordan journal of Civil Engineering.
I hope it will help you
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We had a problem with "negative resistance" since it represented two different types of resistances - "true negative resistance"
and "differential negative resistance"
Now we have a similar problem with "negative impedance" since it represents different things in electronics and electrotechnics...
IN ELECTRONICS, we believe that all natural passive components (resistors, capacitors and inductors) absorbing energy from the input source have "positive impedance" (or simply "impedance"). So, from this viewpoint, the impedances of capacitors and inductors have the same positive signs. Conversely, the artificial electronic circuits - NICs (negative "resistors", negative "capacitors" and negative "inductors"), behaving in an opposite way (adding energy to the input source in the same manner as the according passive components do it), have a true "negative impedance". So, this classification regards to the way of processing energy - "positive impedance" means consuming while "negative impedance" means producing energy; "positive impedance" means "ordinary impedance" while "negative impedance" means something opposite as "inverse impedance", "opposite impedance" or "anti-impedance".
IN ELECTROTECHNICS, they classify the impedance of the reactive elements capacitor and inductor according to their behavior in time when a DC input voltage is applied - "negative impedance" symbolizes an "increasing voltage opposition" while "positive impedance" symbolizes a "decreasing voltage opposition". From this viewpoint, the impedances of capacitors and inductors have opposite signs.
IN ELECTRONICS, BOTH CAPACITORS AND INDUCTORS HAVE POSITIVE IMPEDANCE WHILE IN ELECTROTECHNICS, CAPACITORS HAVE NEGATIVE IMPEDANCE BUT INDUCTORS HAVE POSITIVE IMPEDANCE.
This concept is extremely simple, clear and intuitive if we think in terms of voltages when we apply a constant input voltage to the elementary RC and RL circuit. Then, voltage drops appear across capacitors and inductors; they change in a different (opposite) way through time but both they are voltage drops. Conversely, voltages appear across negative capacitors and inductors; they also change in a different (opposite) way through time but now both they are (electromotive) voltages, not voltage drops.
After these speculations, it is interesting to remember what a negative impedance converter did. What does it convert? Does it make a capacitor behave as an inductor and v.v., an inductor as a capacitor? No, it doesn't. A gyrator can do this magic. A negative impedance converter can make capacitors and inductors behave as sources (negative impedance elements) instead as passive elements having positive impedance:
I have presented these speculations in the archived Wikipedia talk page about negative resistance:
I have inspired to ask this question by the enthusiastic speculations of Tolga Soyata in the related questions about capacitor and inductor:
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Dear Cyril Mechkov sir,
Capacitor is not considered as a current source because it can not provide current(energy) to the circuit for a long time. It will just momentarily provide(energise) the circuit, hence it is not classified as a current source.
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I have to compare five level MLI in term of efficiency and THD which has less number of switches.
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The op-amp will be used in the physical layer of the USB 2.0 PHY. 
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Dear Nam ho sir,
The best way to increase the bandwidth of an opamp is by decreasing the closed loop voltage gain of opamp.
Explanation: Opamp has a very low bandwidth(around 5Hz) and to increase the bandwidth, we apply negative feedback which decreases closed loop gain. Since gain*bandwidth=constant, so bandwidth increases in case of negative feedback.
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Inverse bias of an NPN Transistor
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I have heard that if we bias the collector and emitter of an NPN transistor inversely, its gain will be decreased in comparison with the correct bias condition.
Could you please tell me why?
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I agreed with all the answers given above Morteza Shabanzadeh sir. Reversing the role of emitter and collector with decrease the forward current since collector(which is now playing the role of emitter) is not heavily doped to emit the charge carriers like the emitter region. This is the main reason, why you get a reduced gain in this case. There is one more reason, emitter being heavily doped(acting as collector now) will have a very low breakdown voltage, so you can not operate it at higher voltage level.
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Hi!
I have started working on a project "floating sensor networks (FSN) for continuous water quality monitoring". For which I need simulator to measure Like, pH, Turbidity, Salinity, Temperature, DO, EC, etc. Rather than going with real time deployment of FSN for measuring water quality sensors.
Objectives of the Project:
A. Water Quality Measurement
B. Reliable Data Transform
C. Congestion Control
D. Deployment Strategy
E. Energy Harvesting
All objectives should be carried out simulation based. Kindly suggest whether this work will done via simulation design (either partially or whole) 
Thanks in Advance.
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Dear Sarang, did you find any suitable simulation software? We also need it for a small project we are working on
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Eg to find emissivity or radiant exitance based on temperature.
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When I was an engineering student, while investigating a circuit schematic, I was often discouraged by a device whose symbol I was not familiar with. Thinking that it was a different device, I was usually giving up. In some of the cases, I was finding out (much later) that the device was actually just a regular device (e.g. an inductor or a Zener diode, etc.) with another symbol accepted/used by some other engineers.
When I started to teach electronics, I noticed that I should make convincing explanations for my students to relax them about such occasions. For example, I mention multiple symbols used for Zener diodes, along with the meaning/purpose of essential items of each symbol version. Unfortunately, sometimes I cannot convince some of the students about this many versions of symbols used for the same specific device.
This issue can be an important problem when you are publishing or reading papers in different scientific journals.
Now, I remembered another case -although not very similar-, namely the unit of electrical conductance, which is given with the unit "Siemens", as well as with 1/Ohm, represented by Ω-1 or by and even by "mho" (Leaving away the "inverted omega" symbol which I also regard as unusual, I have always thought that, Georg Ohm would not be happy about the "mho" unit).
Of course, some symbol versions (e.g. some of the ground symbols given in the figure) may represent a slightly or substantially different property/behavior. However, many people occasionally use those different symbols to represent the same specific device. With no doubt, that's another aspect of the "multiple symbols" issue.
For sure there are multiple standards that we cannot alter to fix a unique symbol for a specific device.
On the other hand, this "multiple symbols" issue often creates problems, especially for the students who are in a struggle to learn/understand new devices.
The "handy" versions of the symbols (like the last ground symbols in the figure) preferred by some instructors may complicate the issue further.
A symbol which reminds of the device's main behavior, points out to difference and similarity with another device, provides ease of drawing and ease of spotting the device on a schematic, etc., can be assumed a good symbol (This can explain, for instance, the different versions of Zener diode symbols).
I know that many of you may think that I am exaggerating the problem. Nevertheless, I would like to know what others think about this issue.
Any personal experiences or suggestions which may be helpful especially for teaching will also be appreciated.
Best regards...
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In my first answer, I referred to the symbols in the upper row of the attached file. These replaced those in the lower row which were a former DIN attempt to make German symbols "unique" but those older ones had at least some resemblance to the more widespread symbols.
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Normally, the mechanical energy harvester, such as piezoelectric generator (PEG), can drive small electronic loads directly after rectified the signal by converter. However, one can see the main issue of discontinuous operation of loads, e.g., the blink of LEDs that depends on the periodic force applied. To solve this issue, the PEG is connected to the capacitor to store the charge in specific period, and then discharge to the loads. After discharged, the electronic loads can operate stably, but they can do only in short period.
So, are there the methods to extend the discharging time of capacitor? For example, some circuit that can control the ability of charging-discharging of energy harvesting system.
I have also attached the additional information (.jpg) to describe the problem.
Normally, capacitor needs to charge for a long time due to high impedance of PEG, and rapidly discharge due to low R of electronic loads.
Best regards,
Thank you
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If this is the case then you have to:
either increase the capacitor and increase the charging time to full charge the capacitor. Supercapacitors may help you increase the the discharging time.
The other solution is to increase the generated power from the PEG.
The concept is to size the source to be able to supply the load for the intended duration.
Do you use full or half wave rectifier. If you use full wave rectifier you will double the charging current and therefore double the power!
Best wishes
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Hi, a friend wants to publish an article related to the mobile robot navigation slam algorithm. Could someone please suggest a few journals with low impact factor?
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I am working on the project of LC voltage controller oscillator. i have design a LC VCO for C band application. I am facing problem to design the layout of inductor on L-edit of Tanner EDA tool. can anybody help??
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FromTanner there is @ MIT or Cornel University a very old document from 2008 related probably to the old Tanner v13 (tdb-based layout: Tanner data base, since 10 years Tanner is using OA open access for storing layout views!) about the Dev-Gen 13 (Device Layout Generator).
This document is related to a very old Tanner L-edit release, therefor any statement about the existance of Dev-Gen in recent Tanner 2016/2020 releases is doubtfull.
You will need the scripts behind for the newer OA-based Tanner L-edit releases....
see page 11 related to inductor Dev-Gen
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Hello, I have an assignment in my material science class that requires us to interview an electronics engineer that practices material science at work. I heard manufacturing engineers at semiconductors or PCB industry do heavy materials related works. I don't have anyone to interview so I'm asking here for a favor if anyone of you is interested to share some of your knowledge and experience when it comes to this subject matter. Please do comment or send me a message if you're interested. Your help is very much appreciated. Thank you!
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Hello
I'm Sorry, my field is computer engineering.
Best Regards
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Expansion of SU in SU-8 Photoresist?
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SU-8 Photoresist
By: Frederik Ceyssens and Robert Puers
SU-8
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I use a piezoelectric sensor, a humidifier electronic circuit and a 32-volt power supply to generate high-frequency ultrasound waves. I use these waves to atomize the liquid.
the problem is that the viscosity of the liquid is high, so the generated ultrasonic waves cannot atomize the liquid well.
any idea for this problem?
for example, can i use two circuit with two supply power and connect their output to the sensor to higher the sensor power? or ...
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welcome!
I think the problem is not only in the power of the ultrasound waves.
As the ultrasound generator invokes harmonic waves then
P= pm sin wt where p is the pressure, Pm is the peak value of the pressure w is the angular frequency.
Assume that the speed of the pressure waves is v,
Then the wavelength lambda= v/f,
The division of the material is the matter of lambda.
You have to decrease lambda to the about double the interatomic distance.
So you have to concentrate your effort to see t5he effect of decreasing lambda oo your liquid.
Best wishes
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i used [peanoisy, snrnoisy] = psnr(A, ref);
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I agree with Dr. Abdelhalim Zekry
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Is there some effective and equantitative methods to measure the fault tolerance of combinational circuits and sequential circuits?
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Fault tolerance is the property that enables a system to continue operating properly in the event of the failure of (or one or more faults within) some of its components. If its operating quality decreases at all, the decrease is proportional to the severity of the failure, as compared to a naively designed system, in which even a small failure can cause total breakdown. Fault tolerance is particularly sought after in high-availability or life-critical systems. The ability of maintaining functionality when portions of a system break down is referred to as graceful degradation.
For Fault tolerance measured we have:
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I'm basing my question on the paper: "Efficient Maximally Stable Extremal Region (MSER) Tracking". It's not clear to me how to compute the stability measure of a node when it has multiple descendants with the same grey-level. Does the node have more than one stability measure assigned to it?
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Hello, I am about to start my final year as an undergraduate Electrical and Electronic Engineer at The University of Nottingham Ningbo China. I am going to be writing my dissertation this year and was hoping someone could give me a bit of a perspective upon the active general research topics that would be worth focusing effort upon, or a certain area of research to consider.
I would also be looking forward to your helpful advice and suggestions regarding dissertation writing.
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I second Frederico that many staff members in specific specialization such as electrical and electronic engineering propose Bsc projects for their students to exploit their effort in solving real existing problems in such engineering branches.
There are many subdivisions under electrical and electronic engineering.
In which division you have an interest.
So the question is so broad and includes all courses in electrical and electronic engineering.
For example:
- power generation
-power transmission
-power distribution
- power control
- Power electronics
- renewable energy sources, solar, wind etc
- In Electronics:
- Electronic materials
- Electronic devices
-Electronic circuits analog and digital
- Electronic systems for different applications
as computing, signal processing, communications, instrumentation. ..etc
I would propose that you work on electronic applications in advanced systems such that as internet of things. biomedical applications and communications system.
If you narrow your target one can propose for you you a specific research project.
Best wishes
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In this forum it is required to discuss the effect of the n emitter layer parameters on the the conversion efficiency of the Si np solar cells. These parameters are the junction depth, the doping concentration,the minority carrier life time and the surface recombination of the minority carriers.
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Dear Jayakumar,
welcome!
Hope you are well!
The heavy doping concentration has the followings benefits:
- It reduces the reverse saturation current of the solar cell n-p junction and thereby leads to an increase in the opencircuit voltage Voc. This improves the photo conversion efficiency.
- It decreases the resistance of this layer and thereby contribute to the reduction of the series resistance. It leads then to an increase in the fill factor and the PCE.
- The metal silicon contact will be ohmic and its resistance will be smaller leading to higher PCE.
Best wishes
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As we have seen that most powerful and expensive quadcopters being swept away by prevailing wind gusts and losing connection with the controller, and even that “fail-safe” GPS-enabled Return To Home feature will struggle and oftentimes fail when flying into a strong headwind.
How to make it reliable and robust for sever weather conditions?
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First basic step is to define "strong wind" speed, and then compare that with the quadcopter's maximum speed. No Return To Home (RTH) feature can be effective as long as wind speed > quadcopter maximum speed so "speed" has to be first defense. Once quadcopter max speed is exceeded, it is just be a matter of time before the quadcopter is out of ground control range; options then are to land, and wait for input, (maybe not a great option in heavily wooded areas, or over water), or switch to an autonomous mode which will attempt return to base GPS location as long as power allows.
Next consideration would be turbulent response; in strong winds, particularly in urban areas, where wind gusting around buildings will make control response times critical.
Note also that GPS-enabled RTH features will struggle with tall obstacles, be they trees or high rise buildings, that block the (most direct) return path.
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I was getting stuck on the coefficient part of the summation.
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Layout of VLSI circuits.
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Electric VLSI Design System is an opensource IC Design tool. Good help/tutorials are available at cmosedu.com
In combination of another free tool LTSpice, you can have compete pre and post-layout simulation experience. Also, LTSpice supports BSIM4 models and you can use them by adjusting Lambda accordingly in the ELECTRIC.
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While the COVID-19 Pandemic is continued, I want to present to my students some of the laboratory experiments, unfortunately, there is a curfew in my country and I can't reach my lab to filming the experiments.
So, I am looking for an alternative that makes me able to show my students the experiment results, via virtual oscilloscope, power supply, etc.
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Dear Ahmed,
You can use the electronic work pinch EWP it is thought to be a virtual electrical and electronic circuit laboratory. I think it is the most appropriate software for experimenting and demonstrating the operation of the elements devices and circuits.
This program has a spice core and it will remain useful the student in all their stages of educations.
Best wishes
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Hello everyone,
I am in Electronic Engineering area and looking to start my research in the domain of Embedded System and HW/SW Codesign field.
I am a bit confused about where to start from ?
Please can you oriented me ?
Any kind of help will be really really really appreciated. Thanks
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Hi Kevin,
This my favourite area and yes it can be confusing and there is no certain answer. You can take different routes and approaches to address your problem.
You need to make sure you know what you need and what resources you have to achieve it. Well-defined objectives can also be a good start.
Best wishes,
Mani
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I know half of that energy is dissipated in heat in the resistance of the charging pathway, and only QVb/2 is finally stored on the capacitor at equilibrium
I'm just going to lower the resistance of the charging pathway so I will get more energy on the capacitor , but why this doesn't work ?
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Charging the capacitor by using potential energy source or voltage source through a frictional media such as the electrical resistor will cause losing the electrical energy into friction, since the current passing to charge the capacitor will meet friction in the resistance. So, in the charging process the potential energy of the charging source is converted into kinetic energy where a fraction of it, commonly one half will be converted int heat and the other half will be stored.
In order to avoid this loss one first store the kinetic energy into an inductor and then transfer this stored energy into a potential energy in a capacitor to be charged.
So charging capacitor through kinetic energy storing element will be not lossy if the inductor is ideal.
That is substituting the lossy resistor by storing lossless inductor will resolvethe problem of the losses.
It is the same idea of the pendulum.
Best wishes
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Although my code does not have error apparently, it doesn't offer proper solution. I have attached some parts of my code.I would be grateful if you could give me some tips on how to implement sos1 variables in gams.
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That's easy to be implemented!
Assume a typical mathematical program with equilibrium constraints as below:
Min f(x,y)
s.t.
g(x,y)>=0
y>=0
y * g(x,y) =0 (your complementarity condition i.e., 0<=y_|_g>=0)
-----------
To solve the problem above using SOS1 variables, you can reformulated it as follows:
Min f(x,y)
s.t.
g(x,y)>=0
y>=0
u = 0.5 * (y+g(x,y))
u - (vp + vn)=0
vp - vn = 0.5 * (y-g(x,y))
where, 'vp' and 'vn' are SOS1 variables that can be easily defined in GAMS as below.
----------
variables x , y , u;
SOS1 variables vp , vn;
----------
Good luck,
Morteza
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In the design of power converter ICs, sometimes the power switches are not given by the PDK. That means we have to design the power transistors as the switches (NMOS and PMOS).
Since the power loss causes by conduction loss and switching loss, the power efficiency of the converter is decided by a very well trade-off between these losses. The conduction loss depends on the Ron of the switch, that means larger switch (with larger Width of the transistor), the lower conduction loss. In the mean time, the switching loss increases since the parasitic capacitor of the power switch increase. 
So I would like to know the method of sizing the power switches in the converter for maximizing the power efficiency. Any ideas or recommendations/reference papers from you are highly appreciated. Thank you so much.
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For any MOS switch the losses can be expressed by this relation
ploss= Pstat + pdyn= Ion^2 Ron Ton/T +CVdd^2/T where T=1/f with f is the switching frequency. Ion= un cox w( ,Vgs-Vtn)^2/2L, Vgs=Vdd , Ton = T/2 for square wave operation with a duty ratio =0.5, C= Cgs= cox wL, Ron is also a function of w. So, can get an optimum w as the on losses decreases with increasing w while the dynamic losses increases. Therefore there will be an optimum value which give a minimum of the power losses. L is taking as a minimum feature size.
Best wishes
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I am looking at the integration of Bi4Ti3O12 thin films on Ultrananocrystaline diamond (UNCD) substrates. I deposit my thin films using RF-Sputtering, but am unable to do in-situ substrate heating, so I rely on post deposition annealing to crystallize the thin films. I normally perform annealing in ambient atmosphere, producing good insulative, ferroelectric and dielectric properties.
However, due to the nature of the UNCD substrate, I have been limited to annealing the films under vacuum conditions.  From impedance spectroscopy, I have determined the films to possess a dielectric constant of 80, about 60% of what it should be when annealed in atmosphere. I am looking for references to confirm the dielectric properties of BTO thin films when annealed in vacuum. If anyone could provide any, I would be extremely grateful.
Best Wishes
Jamie
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Is there any electronic part that made from pure (metallic) zinc?
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Pure zinc is used as an electrode in a Daniell cell and also in dry batteries.
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Could you please tell me the electronic parts which contain germanium?
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Dear Sina,
due to the low band gap of about 0,67 eV, Ge is used for photodetectors (wavelength < 1,862µm.). Therefore, the efficiency of solar modules could be enhanced to the infrared range. Nevertheless, Ge-diodes are very sensitive for temperatures above 70°C. An application for temperature sensors is possible. Diodes have a lower knee-voltage than Si. This may be a benefit for digital applications.
I used a High-purity Ge-detector for X-ray detection. Today, more Si-detectors are used for this purpose (Li-drifted SiLi-detector).
Generally, Ge is well recommended for special applications, but it is an expensive technique. Especially, the material is hardly to obtain. It is a material for military applications (guidance for rockets an so on).
With Regard
R. Mitdank
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Feel free to reference any literature in support of your replies.
Thanks in advance
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I want to use a single circuit for accelerating the motor in bi-direction ,and also want the same circuit to provide dynamic braking for the motor. Will a buck-boost converter be helpful when I am using a micro-controller as a master control for the circuit?
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Go for the class C chopper
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I am trying to write my dissertation about automatic quantification of algorithms. These algorithms are written as a C function, which represents the behaviour of a VLSI circuit. The main purpose of the dissertation is to maximize the number of removed bits from the word-lengths of the signals describing a VLSI circuit, by finding a sub-optimal combination which fits a rule. The rule is that any combination must cause an error less or equals to a boundary error.
In order to find this suitable combination which is close to the error boundary and maximize the removed bits, my dissertation supervisor suggested to use local search algorithms. Due to the execution of the quantification will be made over a GPU (CUDA), I have found that the differential evolution and cellular genetic algorithm are suitable for a SIMD machine and easy to implement and execute in parallel. The constraints of the problem are: use of fixed point quantification, error produced at the outputs = fitness function and word-lengths from 1 to 22 bits (integer values). Actually, I have implemented the canonical DE (DE/rand/1/bin) and cGA (NEWS, 2D toroidal grid) over CUDA for any number of signals describing the VLSI circuit.
Before testing the algorithms with real VLSI circuits, I am testing them with a synthetic benchmark to confirm the related work and suggestions made about DE. This benchmark returns an output error (1 output circuit) based on this formula: sum in j elements of [ (element_j_of_individual_i - element_j_of_local_optimum) * 2 * factor ] with factor selected randomly for each element for 0,5 to 0,9 . Hence, if an individual of the population is an exact match of the pre-selected local optimum, the error returned by this fitness function will be 0. For an individual who has at least one element under the corresponding element of the local optimum will be discarded (and if it belongs to the initial population, will be regenerated until obtaining a valid individual).
Using this schema, the parameters of the benchmark are:
- population size of 5D, 10D, 15D and 20D (with D = number of signals describing the VLSI circuit), with each element in the population set randomly from 16 to 22 for each execution. ex: for D = 5, individual_number_0 = {14, 17, 21, 19, 20}
- randomly pre-selected local optimum from these values: {6,7,8,9,10}. ex: for D = 5, local_optimum = {7, 10, 6, 9, 6}
- ten executions trying to eliminate someway the bias caused by a pre-selected local optimum
- F = 0.5 and CR = 0.1
- the algorithm will stop when the local optimum is found or when all the generated offsprings are not valid and/or not better than their parents
For this set-up, I have found that for 50, 100 and 150 signals, the DE found the exact pre-selected local optimum for populations of 5D, 10D, 15D and 20D in the ten executions in several iterations (if requested, I could upload the iterations, timings, etc). For 200 signals the DE only found the local optimum for 10D, 15D and 20D. For 250 signals, only one execution of the ten for 20D found the local optimum; not founding it for any iteration of 5D, 10D or 15D. I have tried to relax the termination condition of the search by establishing an error boundary some way close to 0 (like 50, 70, 100 values) to find sub-optimal solutions for population sizes of 5D, 10D, 15D and 20D (D = 250). Although I have relaxed the termination condition, the algorithm stops without founding the local optimum.
I have found the Q&A from Stephen Chen: 'What is the optimal/recommended population size for differential evolution? ' but I do not know if these questions will fit my needs a priori, because I would like to use DE for VLSI circuits up to 400 signals in a first approach.
(Edit): added some examples: one randomly initialized individual in the initial population and one randomly pre-selected local optimum.
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Papers report that DE is sutable for optimization problems from low dimensional spaces to high decisión variables.
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Dear researchers,
I facing a problem regarding the model of wind turbine(DFIG or Full Scale converter) in DigSilent Power factory.
Actually i have to analyze the influence of different wind generator on power system small signal stability. I have modeled the DFIG and full converter model of wind generator with all the standard controllers from power factory library.
During modal analysis, i am getting some unstable oscillatory mode which is actually due to improper tuning of controllers. I tried in different ways but all in vain.
Could anyone of you help me regarding this issue?
Best regards,
your new research fellow
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Jawwad Siddique Can you please send me the sanpshot of your DFIG model you made in Digsilent. I urgently need it. Thanks.
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Online mobile banking is dynamically developing because pro-development factors continue to outweigh the factors limiting this development.
The main development factors are the reduction of operating costs for banks and facilitating remote access to banking services, including mobile payments to clients.
Currently, the only barrier to development can be increased activity of cybercriminals stealing data from online banking clients, hacking into online bank accounts of customers and robbing clients of financial means. However, banks have so far quickly identified this type of cybercrime incidents and have been gradually improving their mobile banking security systems.
Another factor limiting the development of online mobile banking may be the number of bank customers interested in this type of banking.
What are the other key determinants of the development of mobile banking?
Please answer
Thank you very much
Dear Friends and Colleagues of RG
I described the problem of cybercrime in publications:
I invite you to discussion and cooperation.
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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Others may be
1. Core bnking software
2. ICT infrastructure
3. Efficient bankers
4. Two factor authentication
5. Security systems and so on.
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Antenna design in one software varies with result in another software. Also which one is better for mesh analysis.
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For antenna parameters HFSS is quite good choice.In case of it's physical and equivalent circuit simulation please try another software, ADS
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What is the main difference between dual band and dual radio?
Let
A system equipped with:
Dual Band= 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz
Dual Radio=802.11 and 802.14.5
where 802.11 with 5GHz is deploy between air to air link
and 802.11 with 2.4 GHz between air to ground.
similarly some nodes are also connected through 802.15.4 with 2.4 GHz between air to air.
The above system is dual band dual radio
or triple band dual radio
or triple band triple radio?
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Dual band refers to a device which uses two different frequencies to communicate.
Dual radio refers to a device which uses two different protocols to communicate.
Maybe an illustration would help. A dual band device is like a person at a party who can move between two different rooms (different frequencies) to talk with other people, while a single band device would be limited to talking to people in only one room. On the other hand, a dual radio device can speak with people who speak in two different languages, while a single radio device can only speak one language.
A dual radio device is typically used as an intermediary between two different networks like 802.11 (like WiFi) and 802.15.4 (like many wireless sensors).
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I am running optimization using Optimizer Tool in CST 2014. I do not know why after about 300 iterations, the optimization is suddenly stopped with an error showing up (see figure). I need to keep running my optimization but it always is stopped suddenly. In my design, each iteration takes about 5 minutes. Is there any one who has the same problem? Can any one help me to solve this problem? Thank you.
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1. Clean up unnecessary old result files from the directory and re-simulate
2. If no.1 doesn't work, save the project in different name and re-simulate
3. If no.2 doesn't work, redraw the design, and re-simulate.
Hope it fixes your problem. Good luck.
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I have designed a different topology of boost converter. I calculated the transfer function of the converter. Their is a zero at the right half plane.
1. What will be the effect of that zero on the stability of the circuit?
2. Can any one explain to me how i can analyze the Bode plot of this transfer function.  In the attachment is the bode plot.
3. Does PI controller will be suitable for the compensation in close loop system?
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Dear Aamir,
The right half plane zero has gain similar to that of left half plane zero but its phase nature is like a pole i.e., it adds negative phase to the system. Instead phase increasing from 0 to 90 degrees, its phase increases from 0 to -90 degrees. This causes delay in your system response which can lead to instability if not taken care.
The intuitive way of understanding right half plane zero can be as follows. Imagine you have a boost converter 24V to 48V i.e., duty of 0.5. Due to some reason, the input voltage has decreased to 20 and the output voltage falls to 40V if operated at 0.5. In order to restore output voltage to 48V, we have to increases the duty to 0.5833. Assume that, you have increased the duty from 0.5 to 0.5833. If you observe the output voltage closely, the voltage decreases below 40V instead of increasing to 48V and after some time the voltage starts increasing towards 48V.
The reason is that, we have increased the duty from 0.5 to 0.5833 i.e., we have increased the ON time of the switch from 50% to 58.33%. If you see the circuit during on time, the inductor is connected to the input source and the output is supplied by capacitor alone. So when we increase the ON time of switch, that much amount of time the capacitor discharges to the load which would decrease output voltage further compared to the previous switching cycle. If your controller is very is very fast, it assumes that the voltage is decreasing instead of increasing and it increases the duty further which eventually makes the system unstable. Ideally, your controller should wait for the output voltage to fall and then increase towards the desired value and then do corrective action if required. This is done just by making the system slow i.e., by selecting lower bandwidth (gain crossover frequency). In general, if you take one gain crossover frequency as one tenth of the right half plane zero frequency, your system will be stable.
This phenomena of instant fall in voltage and then raising towards the reference value becomes a right half plane zero in the transfer function. The instant fall in voltage in spite of increasing command (opposite action to that of the desired action) is the negative phase of right half plane zero. I hope this is helpful.
Regards
Srikanth
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how can I modify my input file in order that I will be able to read Highest  and Lowest Unoccupied orbitals (HOMO and LUMO) in output file either in scf or relax calculations?
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If you specify the nbnd value in your pw.x input file, the HOMO and LUMO values will be printed in the output file. YOu need to choose nbnd, depending on your system, pw.x documentation says;
for an insulator, nbnd = number of valence bands (nbnd = # of electrons /2); for a metal, 20% more (minimum 4 more)
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I have obtained s-parameters of a material placed inside a resonator. How can I extract its permittivity?
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To calculate dielectric and magnetic parameters from scattering parameters, you can read the application notes with calculation examples here in the attached file.
this will help you alot...
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This question is dual to the question below that I asked a few hours ago:
There, we began thinking what would happen when connecting the input voltage source in parallel to another voltage source (the output of a voltage follower) what was quite confusing for traditional thinking electrician and not so for electronics specialists. Here, we would like to know what happens if we connect the input current source in series to another current source (the dual situation). We would like to know it since we have the feeling that this is a powerful idea in electronics-:) Well, let's begin thinking...
It is obvious that we should apply the input current to the input of a current amplifier (e.g., a BJT) and to take the output current from its output. But we are curious enough to (try to) "blow" the input current into the output of the current amplifier (the BJT collector) and to take the collector voltage as an output. And we ask the same confusing questions:
Is this arrangement (two current sources connected in series) possible and correct from the basic electricity viewpoint? What would be the sense of this nonsensical connection? Can we use it somewhere in electronics? Can we see it in some existing circuit solutions? Can we see this idea in our life? Can we generalize it as a fundamental (particularly, circuit) principle?
BTW we have already managed to "blow" the input current into the collector of a BJT by applying a parallel-parallel negative feedback
but here we mustn't apply a negative feedback. Then?
As in the dual question, I have given a hint with the same attached picture. If this is not sufficient, look again at the link below:
I warn again: do not consider these speculations as an absolute truth; they show only my personal viewpoint at this phenomenon...
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Cyril, You are right. This topic can be debated :-)
Josef
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My research is all about the assessment of program outcomes of Bachelor of Science in Electronics Engineering by asking the employers of the graduates to rate them with a listed performance indicators. One of the comments of the external reviewer of my research is that ethical protocol is missing in my abstract. How can I address this?
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Dear Framses,
In addition to what has been said, I think you are required to include explanation about the ethical considerations in your research at the abstract level: this includes the process of obtaining ethical clearance and approval from by an IRB
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In grid-tied solar PV system if generated power by solar PV system is higher than the load requirement then the extra power will be exported to grid or if generated power lower than the load requirement then required power will be imported from the grid. How we can identify the imported and exported AC power flow?
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I agree with U. Dreher
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Suppose I have two material having high carrier density (hole=5x1022 cm-3 and electron =5x1020 cm-3).. will this two film form good quality diode?
Or I can make a diode putting one p and n type layer with higher resistivity in between the afore mentioned device i.e with structure p+-p-n-n+??
Which one would provide better rectification theoretically??
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I am trying to simulate gold nano particles plasmonic effect in solar cells, but every time I see this error "Internal error in linear solver". Does any body know how to solve it?
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What is the command line in deckbuild to add gold nanoparticles??
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i think it is interesting if we can go anywhere in a second . do you have any idea about how we can do it?
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Never and by no means
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At least two of the resistors on the circuit board are badly damaged. See attached photo. So what I really need to know is what the values of those resistors are so I can replace them. I'm guessing that other Corning X20 model hot plates have similar electronics. The PC-420 hot plate/magnetic stirrer has analogue control knobs with LED indicator lights with a 6 X 7.5 inch heating surface.
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I don't know if it could help you, but I have the same hotplate which has toasted its transformer and I'm providing you the pictures so as you can identify the resistors and replace them. I'm struggling with finding specifications for the voltage transformer, if anybody had it and could share it to me, I'd appreciate.
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Dear all,
I am working on a four coil resonant-based wireless power transfer system. I saw many 3-D and 2-D diagrams which compare the primary factors of a transmission system. Does anyone have the Matlab code to calculate and plot the mutual inductance, efficiency, and the coupling coefficient? I also want to plot 3-D diagrams which compare the efficiency, the transfer distance and the coupling coefficient. Moreover, a 2-D diagram with efficiency and transfer distance. I have the formulas, but unfortunately, I have no expertise with Matlab.
Thank you very much!
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Thank you so much!
I want to recalculate the values of this document and also plot the diagrams. Next, based on this document I want to create my circuit.
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I have noise in achieved signal and I don't know how eliminate noise from interested signal.
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Brother, Reza Karimzadeh do u filter the noise as pre-processing?? If you want to do it by Matlab, I can help you. Please let me know detail.
Regards
Md. Asadur Rahman
BME, KUET.
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I have executed the c-v measurement of Al/HfO2/Al structure using impedance analyzer and I have found a non linear relationship between c & v. As i see, the case of above said structure resembles to a parallel plate capacitor. So, as I know capacitance with voltage in case of parallel plate capacitor remains constant. please help me out.
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Dear Satyendra,
welcome,
I know that i cam very late to your question. As i see there in no satisfactory answer to you question, i will try to give an answer to it. It is so that HfO2 shows ferroelectric properties making the C-V behavior of this material nonlinear. So, the nonlinearity is because of the ferroelectric behavior of such material.
In order to prove that you need to measure P-V diagram of this capacitor. It will show hysteresis.
For more information about this material please see the link: http://www.namlab.de/research/dielectric-materials-1/hafnium-oxide-ferroelectrics
Best wishes
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what will be the difference between the series resistance measured in lighted IV and dark IV? Which is more reliable and why?
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The value of series resistance for dark characteristics is higher than the value corresponding to illuminated characteristics since homogeneous quasi neutral regions contain more free charge carriers in the second case and the conductivity of each region depends on mobility and free charge carrier concentration.
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The extremely interesting and topical questions below were about the rift between digital and analog circuits
But the human aspects engendered by this "war" are even more important for us, human beings, living and working in this continously changing environment. This "digitalization" makes a tremendous impact on the electronics, particularly on electronics education. In addition to all the positive sides of this process, there are negative aspects as well...
First of all, this tendency has imposed the domination of the formal approach in technical education. Making circuits digital, miniaturizing and enclosing them in packages, and interacting with them by means of software (e.g., FPGA) has apparently eliminated the need of technical abilities, a natural aptitude to technics (simply, the vocation for mastering something material, e.g., real circuits, with his/her own hands). This gives a chance to students that are averse to technics to enter technical universities at the expense of those having a technical vocation. For example, students graduated mathematical, philological, trading and other non-technical schools can easily enter Technical university of Sofia by solving a few mathematical problems without any proof of their technical aptitudes). In the Computer systems department, where I teach basic, digital and microcomputer circuitry, our students become sooner a kind of "informatics" specialists than real engineers...
Of course, the same sorry truth can be said about teachers and university lecturers. The abstract digital ground gives an excellent opportunity for those of them having no technical sense, abilities and vocation, to work in technical departments where to build "brilliant" courses and to carry out "striking" lections analyzing circuits by applying sophisticated formal methods without understanding circuit phenomena. I have noted the sorry truth that I can talk with my colleagues about anything but only without circuits...
This topic is considered in the interesting materials below kindly given by Prof. Lutz von Wangenheim:
It is interesting to predict what will be the results of this process...
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Have positive aspects and negative aspects
For example, negatively affect social skills
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Aside from Iron in blood, what are the magnetic materials in human body?
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Although mostly about dielectric properties, the book
Dielectric and Electronic Properties of Biological Materials Hardcover –
by Ronald R. Pethig
has additional information.
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How can we simulate directional and omnidirectional antenna in Opnet simulator for UAVs Networks?
Thanks
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Dear Mr. Muhammad Usama,
It would be great if he can integrate the pattern of the designed antenna for either RFID or WSN into the OPnet. This is because I think he wants to simulate a real scenario for the complete system including the communication layers and accordingly he can test and/or edit to have better performance.
Regards,
Ahmed Elawamry
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I need materials in any form regarding antenna pattern in Opnet for learning purpose.Your help would be highly appreciated.
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Yes Aparna Sathya Murthy .
I need useful tutorials and links,which might be useful in implementing it in Opnet simulator.
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hi , 
i put my WO3 (tungsten oxide) pellet (made by WO3+PVA) in furnace at 1000c for 2h . 
and its color became dark gray ? is this normal ? 
i attached the pic
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I got the same result after milling WO3 in hardened steel jar for 30 min. Maybe it's transferred to W2O5 + WO2 mixture or something like this?