Science topics: EngineeringElectronic Engineering

Science topic

# Electronic Engineering - Science topic

Electronic engineering is an engineering discipline where non-linear and active electrical components such as electron tubes, and semiconductor devices, especially transistors, diodes and integrated circuits, are utilized to design electronic circuits, devices and systems, typically also including passive electrical components and based on printed circuit boards.

Questions related to Electronic Engineering

I'm trying to design a tunable microstrip combline filter with its initial f0 at 2.45GHz, with my resonator's electrical length at 45 degrees to provide maximum tuning range. I'm having problems with my CST simulation, where I'm trying to find the unloaded Q-factor of a resonator. I don't trust the results I'm getting (a Q0 of over 1000 for a 18um copper trace on a Rogers substrate, which I thought would be below 300) and am wondering if I'm using CST correctly.

The only thing I think can be wrong with the dimensions is that I might have chosen a PCB with too thin or thick a dielectric thickness. What are some common thicknesses used for applications at 2.45GHz?

The below list is the steps that I've followed. Hopefully something erroneous pops up to someone more experienced than I.

I've set up the simulation for Q0 extraction as follows:

- I entered the required parameters: resonator's height, width, length; substrate's height, width, length (based on the resonator's dimensions), and eps_r; the vias' outer diameter and offset from the bottom.
- I created the substrate, groundplane, and resonator, defined their geometries, materials, and positions, and placed them accordingly. I then created an airbox and set its position on top of the substrate with appropriate dimensions, and set its material to vacuum.
- I then boolean inserted the vias into the substrate, groundplane, and resonator. After this, the resonator and vias were boolean inserted into the airbox. I wonder if the boolean operations I performed were incorrect, as I'm not sure what exact operations to follow in order to ensure proper electrical connections.
- I selected the
**eigenmode solver**, used the**tetrahedral meshing**technique, and defined the frequency ranges. - The simulation was then run:
**two modes were found**, both**not at my desired f0**but almost double and 4x respectively, both showing an unloaded q factor of way higher than 300 (which I thought was a practical max for copper on most Rogers substrates).

My goal is to get Q0 at my desired resonant frequency, but the mode frequencies CST gave me is not at 2.4GHz. I don't think it's a fault with the dimensions, but I could very well be wrong. I suspect I might have made a mistake in how I set up my simulation.

Please advise me on any possible errors I could be making, or perhaps better ways of going about the simulation.

I can't seem to find anything on YouTube detailing the process I'm embarking on, nor do the papers I've found detail exactly how they arrived at their filter's dimensions from simulation, they simply provide their resulting parameters.

Thank you for your time.

**Please suggest some fast publishing Elsevier/IEEE/Springer/T&F journals in Electrical and Electronic Engineering/ Computer Science**

As a research scholar, I feel that a lot of time is wasted in preparing a manuscript according to a journal format. The worst part is that if the paper gets desk rejected, then we have to prepare the manuscript in some other journal style. A lot of time is wasted in this cycle.

When the paper can be type set by the journal after getting accepted, then why dont journal allow a general free format submission.

#I_support_free_format_submission

How to calculate the power dissipation for different switching activity in sequential elements?

Please answer the question or recommend articles.

Hallo every one,

I did nanoidentation experiment :

1 photoresist with 3 different layer thicknesses.

My results show that the photoresist is harder when it has thicker layer..

I can't find the reason in the literature.

Can any one please explaine me why is it like that??

is there any literature for this?

best regards

chiko

Thermal management of electronics/PCB boards purely depends on the power it dissipates (component power dissipations). But the power dissipation values provided by the component suppliers are the maximum power dissipation and in realty on field the power dissipation is far from this max values. So, i am looking into other possible ways to determine this values, through physic or analytically maybe.

Any bit of information would be highly helpful !

Thanking in advance !!!

Regards,

Rajesh.

the question in the paper is related to vehicle electronics and vehicle control. i am stuck on how to approch such questions so gaining an insight on how to approach will be helpful. thanks

Does anyone have access to any of this article? I have already tried to contact some of the authors, but without success. I don´t speak Mandarin so is very difficult with CNKI where they are available through payment. I can not understand even the payment method or if I would have access from US. Thanks in advance for any help.

P.S. Even with google translator it was impossible understand the database.

**DU Yu-ming YANG Jian-yu (College of Electronic Engineering, UESTC,Chengdu Sichuan 610054, China)**

Linear FMCW radar is a kind of high-range-resolution radar, and motion compensation is a key problem to realize high range resolution. A multiple repetition frequency waveform is adopted and a Doppler frequency cluster (DFC) algorithm is proposed, which is capable of recovering true velocity from the coupled velocity estimation directly. Aiming at solving resolution of multiple targets, a match algorithm based on mean square error is also proposed. The combination of the above two methods realizes distance and velocity decoupling for multiple moving targets. The result of simulation verified the effectiveness of the methods, the velocity estimate performance of DFC algorithm improve obviously contrast to Chinese remainder theorem.

The 2023 ranking is available through the following link:

QS ranking is relatively familiar in scientific circles. It ranks universities based on the following criteria:

1- Academic Reputation

2- Employer Reputation

3- Citations per Faculty

4- Faculty Student Ratio

5- International Students Ratio

6- International Faculty Ratio

7- International Research Network

8- Employment Outcomes

- Are these parameters enough to measure the superiority of a university?

- What other factors should also be taken into account?

Please share your personal experience with these criteria.

I would like to know the areas of Electrical and Electronics Engineering in which Java can be applied. Please give your inputs along with some materials to be followed.

My first degree was in Electrical and Electronics Engineering. Presently, I want to obtain a master degree in electrical engineering. I am looking for possible topics for my master thesis. The subject of my master's thesis is renewable energy (especially wind).

HFSS and Maxwell were made by Ansoft in the last century, and there actually were little problems with them. You could always trust the simulation provided by those systems.

However after Ansoft was absorbed by ANSYS, nothing was improved in solvers from engineering point of view. Instead some crazy non-scientific poorly documented things were introduced, probably programmed by game and CGI designers without any thoughts of engineering application.

One of the craziest thing I discovered lately is ANSYS's "closest point interpolation".

What is the "closest point" value, you may guess? Well, I think it is obvious - a value of the point found closest to the coordinate of interest.

It would be a very good approach feeding the discrete precalculated input fields, or material parameters for precisely simulating complex designs.

However what does ANSYS think about the closest point values!? You may be surprised.

Below, I show you a test of the clp() function, which SHOULD find a value of the closest point from the dataset "$dataset" for every mesh node with coordinates XYZ.

It should be placed in the material editor, in any property cell as clp($dataset, X,Y,Z).

According to manual, X,Y,Z, are provided in SI units, i.e. in meters. The output should be in the dataset units, but it is not, recognized by HFSS on practice. So I recommend making it unitless, and multiply by the desired unit, like clp(...)*1cel.

Now I define a simple dataset with a script:

<code>

dim pushdata()

redim pushdata(1) 'generate the data incrementally in dynamic dataset

pushdata(0)="NAME:Coordinates"

pushdata(1)=Array("NAME:DimUnits", "", "", "", "") 'in meters

for x = -1.1 to 1.1 step .1 'in millimeters

for y=-1.1 to 1.1 step 0.1

for z=-1.1 to 1.1 step 0.1

redim preserve pushdata(ubound(pushdata)+1)

pushdata(ubound(pushdata))=Array("NAME:Point", CDbl(x/1000), CDbl(y/1000), CDbl(z/1000), 1) ' see that "1" in the end. it is a value of "1" inside the Unit-BOX

if ((abs(y)>=1) or (abs(x)>=1) or (abs(z)>=1)) then

pushdata(ubound(pushdata))=Array("NAME:Point", CDbl(x/1000), CDbl(y/1000), CDbl(z/1000), 0) ' see that "0" in the end. it is a value of "0" AROUND the Unit-BOX

end if

next

next

next

oProject.EditDataset "$Dataset", Array("NAME:$Dataset", pushdata) 'write the dataset to HFSS (ANSYS EDT))

</code>

Now lets see what the clp() function reads out from the dataset, and substitutes to material properties:

See the yellow and red lines on the plot below.

Obviously, those are NOT ones(1), and NOT zeroes(0), as one would expect.

I do not know what is that, but it is not a simple bug. I checked it in ANSYS EDT 2021 R1, and R2, both. It is a way how the programmer's head works.

Crazy stuff.

And we are forced to pay hundreds of thousands (some organizations pay millions) of Dollars for that, risking the corporate security btw. Because EDT is a security hole requiring Internet connection to work, and providing a backdoor for ANSYS, and anyone who could exploit that, to your system.

I have been studying quantization in context of Digital Image Processing. I referred to the 4th edition of the book titled "Digital Image Processing" by Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E. Woods.

In the book, the intensity quantization levels are defined as

L=2^k

where k is an integer.

Now the first thing that comes to my find is why is that the quantization levels should be integer multiple of two and why not just any integer in general.

A paragraph has been attached regarding this from the book.

Then I found a homework problem and its solution online which are both attached as images.

In the homework question, I believe n is used in place of k to calculate bits per pixel or bits per picture elements. While k was defined as integer in Gonzalez, here n comes out to be 3.32 bits per pixel (not an integer). Isn't it a contradiction?

The Mission "make in India" is promoted by the government recently. But "made by India" is necessary in the current crisis.

Researchers are rapidly increasing on Electronic Engineering field. Especially in India, No. of Publications and No. of Ph.Ds are increasing to reach a new peak every year. But most of the research papers,thesis are only in paper with out product outcome. What kind of initiation is required from government side in this regard? Is conventional politics affecting the development of Science and technology?

The discussion is open.

Environmental Engineering, Electrical engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Electronics Engineering

We had a problem with "negative resistance" since it represented two different types of resistances - "true negative resistance"

and "differential negative resistance"

Now we have a similar problem with "negative impedance" since it represents different things in electronics and electrotechnics...

IN ELECTRONICS, we believe that all natural passive components (resistors, capacitors and inductors) absorbing energy from the input source have "positive impedance" (or simply "impedance"). So, from this viewpoint, the impedances of capacitors and inductors have the same positive signs. Conversely, the artificial electronic circuits - NICs (negative "resistors", negative "capacitors" and negative "inductors"), behaving in an opposite way (adding energy to the input source in the same manner as the according passive components do it), have a true "negative impedance". So, this classification regards to the way of processing energy - "positive impedance" means consuming while "negative impedance" means producing energy; "positive impedance" means "ordinary impedance" while "negative impedance" means something opposite as "inverse impedance", "opposite impedance" or "anti-impedance".

IN ELECTROTECHNICS, they classify the impedance of the reactive elements capacitor and inductor according to their behavior in time when a DC input voltage is applied - "negative impedance" symbolizes an "increasing voltage opposition" while "positive impedance" symbolizes a "decreasing voltage opposition". From this viewpoint, the impedances of capacitors and inductors have opposite signs.

IN ELECTRONICS, BOTH CAPACITORS AND INDUCTORS HAVE POSITIVE IMPEDANCE WHILE IN ELECTROTECHNICS, CAPACITORS HAVE NEGATIVE IMPEDANCE BUT INDUCTORS HAVE POSITIVE IMPEDANCE.

This concept is extremely simple, clear and intuitive if we think in terms of voltages when we apply a constant input voltage to the elementary RC and RL circuit. Then, voltage drops appear across capacitors and inductors; they change in a different (opposite) way through time but both they are voltage drops. Conversely, voltages appear across negative capacitors and inductors; they also change in a different (opposite) way through time but now both they are (electromotive) voltages, not voltage drops.

After these speculations, it is interesting to remember what a negative impedance converter did. What does it convert? Does it make a capacitor behave as an inductor and v.v., an inductor as a capacitor? No, it doesn't. A gyrator can do this magic. A negative impedance converter can make capacitors and inductors behave as sources (negative impedance elements) instead as passive elements having positive impedance:

I have presented these speculations in the archived Wikipedia talk page about negative resistance:

I have inspired to ask this question by the enthusiastic speculations of Tolga Soyata in the related questions about capacitor and inductor:

I have to compare five level MLI in term of efficiency and THD which has less number of switches.

The op-amp will be used in the physical layer of the USB 2.0 PHY.

Inverse bias of an NPN Transistor

-----

I have heard that if we bias the collector and emitter of an NPN transistor inversely, its gain will be decreased in comparison with the correct bias condition.

Could you please tell me why?

Hi!

I have started working on a project "floating sensor networks (FSN) for continuous water quality monitoring". For which I need simulator to measure Like, pH, Turbidity, Salinity, Temperature, DO, EC, etc. Rather than going with real time deployment of FSN for measuring water quality sensors.

Objectives of the Project:

A. Water Quality Measurement

B. Reliable Data Transform

C. Congestion Control

D. Deployment Strategy

E. Energy Harvesting

All objectives should be carried out simulation based. Kindly suggest whether this work will done via simulation design (either partially or whole)

Thanks in Advance.

Eg to find emissivity or radiant exitance based on temperature.

I want to know the Scopus or SCI journals for electrical and electronics Engineering, which provide a fast review process without a publishing fee. ??

When I was an engineering student, while investigating a

**circuit schematic**, I was often discouraged by a device whose**symbol**I was not familiar with. Thinking that it was a**different device**, I was usually giving up. In some of the cases, I was finding out (much later) that the device was actually just a**regular device**(e.g. an inductor or a Zener diode, etc.) with**another symbol**accepted/used by some other engineers.When I started to

**teach electronics**, I noticed that I should make convincing explanations for my students to relax them about such occasions. For example, I mention**multiple symbols**used for**Zener diodes**, along with the meaning/purpose of essential items of each symbol version. Unfortunately, sometimes I cannot convince some of the students about this many versions of symbols used for the same specific device.This issue can be an important problem when you are publishing or reading papers in different scientific journals.

Now, I remembered another case -although not very similar-, namely the

**unit**of electrical**conductance**, which is given with the unit "**Siemens"**, as well as with**1/Ohm**, represented by**Ω**or by^{-1}**℧**and even by "**mho**" (*Leaving away the "inverted omega" symbol which I also regard as unusual, I have always thought that,**Georg Ohm**would not be happy about the "**mho**" unit*).Of course, some

**symbol versions**(e.g. some of the**ground**symbols given in the figure) may represent a**slightly**or**substantially different property/behavior**. However, many people occasionally use those different symbols to represent the**same**specific**device**. With no doubt, that's another aspect of the "multiple symbols" issue.For sure there are

**multiple standards**that we cannot alter to fix a**unique symbol**for a specific device.On the other hand, this "

**multiple symbols**" issue often creates problems, especially for the**students**who are in a**struggle**to learn/understand**new devices**.The "

**handy**"**versions**of the**symbols**(like the last ground symbols in the figure) preferred by some instructors may complicate the issue further.A

**symbol**which reminds of the device's main behavior, points out to difference and similarity with another device, provides ease of drawing and ease of spotting the device on a schematic, etc., can be assumed a**good symbol**(This can explain, for instance, the different versions of Zener diode symbols).I know that many of you may think that I am exaggerating the problem. Nevertheless, I would like to know what others think about this issue.

Any

**personal experiences**or**suggestions**which may be helpful especially for teaching will also be appreciated.Best regards...

Normally, the mechanical energy harvester, such as piezoelectric generator (PEG), can drive small electronic loads directly after rectified the signal by converter. However, one can see the main issue of discontinuous operation of loads, e.g., the blink of LEDs that depends on the periodic force applied. To solve this issue, the PEG is connected to the capacitor to store the charge in specific period, and then discharge to the loads. After discharged, the electronic loads can operate stably, but they can do only in short period.

So, are there the methods to extend the discharging time of capacitor? For example, some circuit that can control the ability of charging-discharging of energy harvesting system.

I have also attached the additional information (.jpg) to describe the problem.

Normally, capacitor needs to charge for a long time due to high impedance of PEG, and rapidly discharge due to low R of electronic loads.

Best regards,

Thank you

Hi, a friend wants to publish an article related to the mobile robot navigation slam algorithm. Could someone please suggest a few journals with low impact factor?

**is dynamically developing because pro-development factors continue to outweigh the factors limiting this development.**

*Online mobile banking*The main development factors are the reduction of

**for banks and***operating costs***to banking services, including mobile payments to clients.***facilitating remote access*Currently, the only barrier to development can be increased activity of

**stealing data from online banking clients, hacking into online bank accounts of customers and robbing clients of financial means. However, banks have so far quickly identified this type of***cybercriminals***and have been gradually improving their mobile banking security systems.***cybercrime incidents*Another factor limiting the development of online mobile banking may be the number of bank

**interested in this type of banking.***customers*What are the other key determinants of the development of mobile banking?

Please answer

Thank you very much

Dear Friends and Colleagues of RG

I described the problem of cybercrime in publications:

I invite you to discussion and cooperation.

Thank you very much

Best wishes

I am working on the project of LC voltage controller oscillator. i have design a LC VCO for C band application. I am facing problem to design the layout of inductor on L-edit of Tanner EDA tool. can anybody help??

I use a piezoelectric sensor, a humidifier electronic circuit and a 32-volt power supply to generate high-frequency ultrasound waves. I use these waves to atomize the liquid.

the problem is that the viscosity of the liquid is high, so the generated ultrasonic waves cannot atomize the liquid well.

any idea for this problem?

for example, can i use two circuit with two supply power and connect their output to the sensor to higher the sensor power? or ...

i used [peanoisy, snrnoisy] = psnr(A, ref);

Is there some effective and equantitative methods to measure the fault tolerance of combinational circuits and sequential circuits?

I'm basing my question on the paper: "Efﬁcient Maximally Stable Extremal Region (MSER) Tracking". It's not clear to me how to compute the stability measure of a node when it has multiple descendants with the same grey-level. Does the node have more than one stability measure assigned to it?

Hello, I am about to start my final year as an undergraduate Electrical and Electronic Engineer at The University of Nottingham Ningbo China. I am going to be writing my dissertation this year and was hoping someone could give me a bit of a perspective upon the active general research topics that would be worth focusing effort upon, or a certain area of research to consider.

I would also be looking forward to your helpful advice and suggestions regarding dissertation writing.

In this forum it is required to discuss the effect of the n emitter layer parameters on the the conversion efficiency of the Si np solar cells. These parameters are the junction depth, the doping concentration,the minority carrier life time and the surface recombination of the minority carriers.

As we have seen that most powerful and expensive quadcopters being swept away by prevailing wind gusts and losing connection with the controller, and even that “fail-safe” GPS-enabled Return To Home feature will struggle and oftentimes fail when flying into a strong headwind.

How to make it reliable and robust for sever weather conditions?

I was getting stuck on the coefficient part of the summation.

While the COVID-19 Pandemic is continued, I want to present to my students some of the laboratory experiments, unfortunately, there is a curfew in my country and I can't reach my lab to filming the experiments.

So, I am looking for an alternative that makes me able to show my students the experiment results, via virtual oscilloscope, power supply, etc.

Hello everyone,

I am in Electronic Engineering area and looking to start my research in the domain of Embedded System and HW/SW Codesign field.

I am a bit confused about where to start from ?

Please can you oriented me ?

Any kind of help will be really really really appreciated. Thanks

I know half of that energy is dissipated in heat in the resistance of the charging pathway, and only QVb/2 is finally stored on the capacitor at equilibrium

I'm just going to lower the resistance of the charging pathway so I will get more energy on the capacitor , but why this doesn't work ?

Although my code does not have error apparently, it doesn't offer proper solution. I have attached some parts of my code.I would be grateful if you could give me some tips on how to implement sos1 variables in gams.

In the design of power converter ICs, sometimes the power switches are not given by the PDK. That means we have to design the power transistors as the switches (NMOS and PMOS).

Since the power loss causes by conduction loss and switching loss, the power efficiency of the converter is decided by a very well trade-off between these losses. The conduction loss depends on the Ron of the switch, that means larger switch (with larger Width of the transistor), the lower conduction loss. In the mean time, the switching loss increases since the parasitic capacitor of the power switch increase.

So I would like to know the method of sizing the power switches in the converter for maximizing the power efficiency. Any ideas or recommendations/reference papers from you are highly appreciated. Thank you so much.

I am looking at the integration of Bi4Ti3O12 thin films on Ultrananocrystaline diamond (UNCD) substrates. I deposit my thin films using RF-Sputtering, but am unable to do in-situ substrate heating, so I rely on post deposition annealing to crystallize the thin films. I normally perform annealing in ambient atmosphere, producing good insulative, ferroelectric and dielectric properties.

However, due to the nature of the UNCD substrate, I have been limited to annealing the films under vacuum conditions. From impedance spectroscopy, I have determined the films to possess a dielectric constant of 80, about 60% of what it should be when annealed in atmosphere. I am looking for references to confirm the dielectric properties of BTO thin films when annealed in vacuum. If anyone could provide any, I would be extremely grateful.

Best Wishes

Jamie

Is there any electronic part that made from pure (metallic) zinc?

Could you please tell me the electronic parts which contain germanium?

Feel free to reference any literature in support of your replies.

Thanks in advance

I want to use a single circuit for accelerating the motor in bi-direction ,and also want the same circuit to provide dynamic braking for the motor. Will a buck-boost converter be helpful when I am using a micro-controller as a master control for the circuit?

I am trying to write my dissertation about automatic quantification of algorithms. These algorithms are written as a C function, which represents the behaviour of a VLSI circuit. The main purpose of the dissertation is to maximize the number of removed bits from the word-lengths of the signals describing a VLSI circuit, by finding a sub-optimal combination which fits a rule. The rule is that any combination must cause an error less or equals to a boundary error.

In order to find this suitable combination which is close to the error boundary and maximize the removed bits, my dissertation supervisor suggested to use local search algorithms. Due to the execution of the quantification will be made over a GPU (CUDA), I have found that the differential evolution and cellular genetic algorithm are suitable for a SIMD machine and easy to implement and execute in parallel. The constraints of the problem are: use of fixed point quantification, error produced at the outputs = fitness function and word-lengths from 1 to 22 bits (integer values). Actually, I have implemented the canonical DE (DE/rand/1/bin) and cGA (NEWS, 2D toroidal grid) over CUDA for any number of signals describing the VLSI circuit.

Before testing the algorithms with real VLSI circuits, I am testing them with a synthetic benchmark to confirm the related work and suggestions made about DE. This benchmark returns an output error (1 output circuit) based on this formula: sum in j elements of [ (element_j_of_individual_i - element_j_of_local_optimum) * 2 * factor ] with factor selected randomly for each element for 0,5 to 0,9 . Hence, if an individual of the population is an exact match of the pre-selected local optimum, the error returned by this fitness function will be 0. For an individual who has at least one element under the corresponding element of the local optimum will be discarded (and if it belongs to the initial population, will be regenerated until obtaining a valid individual).

Using this schema, the parameters of the benchmark are:

- population size of 5D, 10D, 15D and 20D (with D = number of signals describing the VLSI circuit), with each element in the population set randomly from 16 to 22 for each execution. ex: for D = 5, individual_number_0 = {14, 17, 21, 19, 20}

- randomly pre-selected local optimum from these values: {6,7,8,9,10}. ex: for D = 5, local_optimum = {7, 10, 6, 9, 6}

- ten executions trying to eliminate someway the bias caused by a pre-selected local optimum

- F = 0.5 and CR = 0.1

- the algorithm will stop when the local optimum is found or when all the generated offsprings are not valid and/or not better than their parents

For this set-up, I have found that for 50, 100 and 150 signals, the DE found the exact pre-selected local optimum for populations of 5D, 10D, 15D and 20D in the ten executions in several iterations (if requested, I could upload the iterations, timings, etc). For 200 signals the DE only found the local optimum for 10D, 15D and 20D. For 250 signals, only one execution of the ten for 20D found the local optimum; not founding it for any iteration of 5D, 10D or 15D. I have tried to relax the termination condition of the search by establishing an error boundary some way close to 0 (like 50, 70, 100 values) to find sub-optimal solutions for population sizes of 5D, 10D, 15D and 20D (D = 250). Although I have relaxed the termination condition, the algorithm stops without founding the local optimum.

I have found the Q&A from Stephen Chen: 'What is the optimal/recommended population size for differential evolution? ' but I do not know if these questions will fit my needs a priori, because I would like to use DE for VLSI circuits up to 400 signals in a first approach.

(Edit): added some examples: one randomly initialized individual in the initial population and one randomly pre-selected local optimum.

Dear researchers,

I facing a problem regarding the model of wind turbine(DFIG or Full Scale converter) in DigSilent Power factory.

Actually i have to analyze the influence of different wind generator on power system small signal stability. I have modeled the DFIG and full converter model of wind generator with all the standard controllers from power factory library.

During modal analysis, i am getting some unstable oscillatory mode which is actually due to improper tuning of controllers. I tried in different ways but all in vain.

Could anyone of you help me regarding this issue?

Best regards,

your new research fellow

Antenna design in one software varies with result in another software. Also which one is better for mesh analysis.

What is the main difference between dual band and dual radio?

Let

A system equipped with:

Dual Band= 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz

Dual Radio=802.11 and 802.14.5

where 802.11 with 5GHz is deploy between air to air link

and 802.11 with 2.4 GHz between air to ground.

similarly some nodes are also connected through 802.15.4 with 2.4 GHz between air to air.

The above system is dual band dual radio

or triple band dual radio

or triple band triple radio?

I am running optimization using Optimizer Tool in CST 2014. I do not know why after about 300 iterations, the optimization is suddenly stopped with an error showing up (see figure). I need to keep running my optimization but it always is stopped suddenly. In my design, each iteration takes about 5 minutes. Is there any one who has the same problem? Can any one help me to solve this problem? Thank you.

I have designed a different topology of boost converter. I calculated the transfer function of the converter. Their is a zero at the right half plane.

1. What will be the effect of that zero on the stability of the circuit?

2. Can any one explain to me how i can analyze the Bode plot of this transfer function. In the attachment is the bode plot.

3. Does PI controller will be suitable for the compensation in close loop system?

how can I modify my input file in order that I will be able to read Highest and Lowest Unoccupied orbitals (HOMO and LUMO) in output file either in scf or relax calculations?

I have obtained s-parameters of a material placed inside a resonator. How can I extract its permittivity?

This question is dual to the question below that I asked a few hours ago:

There, we began thinking what would happen when connecting the input voltage source in parallel to another voltage source (the output of a voltage follower) what was quite confusing for traditional thinking electrician and not so for electronics specialists. Here, we would like to know what happens if we connect the input current source in series to another current source (the dual situation). We would like to know it since we have the feeling that this is a powerful idea in electronics-:) Well, let's begin thinking...

It is obvious that we should apply the input current to the input of a current amplifier (e.g., a BJT) and to take the output current from its output. But we are curious enough to (try to) "blow" the input current into the output of the current amplifier (the BJT collector) and to take the collector voltage as an output. And we ask the same confusing questions:

Is this arrangement (two current sources connected in series) possible and correct from the basic electricity viewpoint? What would be the sense of this nonsensical connection? Can we use it somewhere in electronics? Can we see it in some existing circuit solutions? Can we see this idea in our life? Can we generalize it as a fundamental (particularly, circuit) principle?

BTW we have already managed to "blow" the input current into the collector of a BJT by applying a parallel-parallel negative feedback

but here we mustn't apply a negative feedback. Then?

As in the dual question, I have given a hint with the same attached picture. If this is not sufficient, look again at the link below:

I warn again: do not consider these speculations as an absolute truth; they show only my personal viewpoint at this phenomenon...

My research is all about the assessment of program outcomes of Bachelor of Science in Electronics Engineering by asking the employers of the graduates to rate them with a listed performance indicators. One of the comments of the external reviewer of my research is that ethical protocol is missing in my abstract. How can I address this?

In grid-tied solar PV system if generated power by solar PV system is higher than the load requirement then the extra power will be exported to grid or if generated power lower than the load requirement then required power will be imported from the grid. How we can identify the imported and exported AC power flow?

Suppose I have two material having high carrier density (hole=5x10

^{22}cm^{-3}and electron =5x10^{20}cm^{-3}).. will this two film form good quality diode?Or I can make a diode putting one p and n type layer with higher resistivity in between the afore mentioned device i.e with structure p

^{+}-p-n-n^{+}??Which one would provide better rectification theoretically??

I am trying to simulate gold nano particles plasmonic effect in solar cells, but every time I see this error "Internal error in linear solver". Does any body know how to solve it?

i think it is interesting if we can go anywhere in a second . do you have any idea about how we can do it?

At least two of the resistors on the circuit board are badly damaged. See attached photo. So what I really need to know is what the values of those resistors are so I can replace them. I'm guessing that other Corning X20 model hot plates have similar electronics. The PC-420 hot plate/magnetic stirrer has analogue control knobs with LED indicator lights with a 6 X 7.5 inch heating surface.

Dear all,

I am working on a four coil resonant-based wireless power transfer system. I saw many 3-D and 2-D diagrams which compare the primary factors of a transmission system. Does anyone have the Matlab code to calculate and plot the mutual inductance, efficiency, and the coupling coefficient? I also want to plot 3-D diagrams which compare the efficiency, the transfer distance and the coupling coefficient. Moreover, a 2-D diagram with efficiency and transfer distance. I have the formulas, but unfortunately, I have no expertise with Matlab.

Thank you very much!

I have noise in achieved signal and I don't know how eliminate noise from interested signal.

I have executed the c-v measurement of Al/HfO

_{2}/Al structure using impedance analyzer and I have found a non linear relationship between c & v. As i see, the case of above said structure resembles to a parallel plate capacitor. So, as I know capacitance with voltage in case of parallel plate capacitor remains constant. please help me out.what will be the difference between the series resistance measured in lighted IV and dark IV? Which is more reliable and why?