Science topic

Electrical & Electronics Engineering - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Electrical & Electronics Engineering, and find Electrical & Electronics Engineering experts.
Questions related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
10 answers
Hallo every one,
I did nanoidentation experiment :
1 photoresist with 3 different layer thicknesses.
My results show that the photoresist is harder when it has thicker layer..
I can't find the reason in the literature.
Can any one please explaine me why is it like that??
is there any literature for this?
best regards
chiko
Relevant answer
Answer
The nano layer thickness is very very small layer, otherwise it's cannot use by Resistivity method and it has VES limitation.
Best regards.
P. Hakaew
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
8 answers
Thermal management of electronics/PCB boards purely depends on the power it dissipates (component power dissipations). But the power dissipation values provided by the component suppliers are the maximum power dissipation and in realty on field the power dissipation is far from this max values. So, i am looking into other possible ways to determine this values, through physic or analytically maybe.
Any bit of information would be highly helpful !
Thanking in advance !!!
Regards,
Rajesh.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear
You can benefit from this valuable Link about your topic:
"PCB Simulation: How to Simulate a PCB Design"
###########
Also this one:
"PCB thermal calculator & simulation"
##############
"7 Considerations for PCB Power Supply Design"
###############
"Five Approaches to Cooling Military Electronics"
@Five Approaches to Cooling Military Electronics
###################
"Basics: Power dissipation and electronic components"
################
Online calculator for PCB circuits
I hope it will be helpful..
Best wishes..
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
14 answers
I will really appreciate it if somebody could share the software. My lab owns the stimulator but when we acquired it we didn't get the software nor the drivers. Grass doesn't exist anymore and "Natus" which is the company that bought it told me that "S88X" is a discontinued product and they do not longer provide support for it.
Its crucial for us to control the device from a PC.
Thanks in advance
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi David Martínez-Vargas Janelle M Fine Eric Kenji Lee ! Do any of you still have the Grass S88X Stimulator driver and software? If yes, can you please send it to me at apoorvar@umich.edu? Many thanks!!
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
3 answers
I am delivering power to my device using a VNA with frequency ranging from 300kHz to 8GHz. I am trying to figure out the current that passes through my sample, or DUT. I can set the output power of the VVNA and measure the S11. Here is my approach.
Since the total current (the sum of the incident and reflected waves) at the DUT can be expressed as:
I=V0/Z0 (1-Gamma)
then, use P0=I*V0, so current becomes
I=sqrt(P0*(1-Gamma)/Z0), where Gamma=10^(S11/20)
Is this approach current? Another method that I thought of is to first measure the DC resistance, R. Then, the current can be derived as:
I=sqrt(P0*(1-Gamma^2)/R).
Is any of these correct? Any help is much appreciated.
Relevant answer
Answer
If gamma is a complex number it is already in the form you want. The S11 you started with is actually S11(dB) which is 20*log10(abs(a+ib)).
S11(complex) is a+ib.
Sometime a and b are not available in a data file, but S11(dB) is and also the phase S11(radians) or S11(degrees), so you can still get the complex number.
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
5 answers
In a hypothetical situation where I have two wires, ones cross section is a cylinder, and the others a star. Both have the same cross section area, both have the same length. What are the differences in electrical properties ?
Are there any experiments done looking into this ?
Also what would happen if a wire had a conical shape, by length ?
Relevant answer
Answer
The electrical properties are frequency dependent and are dependent on the electromagnetic field profile around the wire. For example, in a high frequency situation, the electric current will travel close to the surface of the wire. Consider a coaxial cable: if the center conductor is round (circular) and the shield is circular and collinear, the electric field will be evenly distributed around the center conductor and the current (tangential magnetic field) will also be evenly distributed. Hence, the resistance per unit length of the wire will be 1/(2*pi*a*delta*sigma), where a=radius of wire, delta=skin depth, sigma=wire material conductivity.
Now, suppose we have a "star" shaped wire. The electric field (and longitudinal current) will be concentrated at the points of the star. The effective area of the current flow will be reduced in this case and the wire will have a higher resistance than the smooth round wire.
If you have access too electromagnetic field simulator software, why not try some numerical experiments?
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
4 answers
I want to simulate a circuit having pin diode to verify switching function of PIN Diode in x-band. What are the softwares that i can use..?
Relevant answer
Answer
ADS, CST MICROWAVE STUDIO, HFSS
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
1 answer
It is a network of 30 earth pits. 3 sets of10 pits.
I have disconnected all the 3 sets. However, when I check for the resistance between the network of first 10 and that of the second set, I get 45ohms. Should it not show in k or M ohms as they are not galvanically coupled. One thing is for sure that they are not shorted as the resistance is as high as 40+
If I disconnected one pit from the remaining 9 in the first set, I get around 250ohms with multimeter.
I am trying to decouple all the 3 sets from each other but to no avail.
is it due to the high conductive compound that has gone into these pits?
Meanwhile, I'll try to explore more on this
Relevant answer
Answer
try to measure[1], if possible, the AC-resistances[2] (impedances, at 1kHz), also.
1. "8. Method for the Earth measurement of a large earthing system" https://www.kew-ltd.co.in/2019/05/02/a-guide-to-earthground-resistance-test/
2. "What is the resistance of Earth Pit?" https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-resistance-of-Earth-Pit
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
1 answer
Out of these 5 universities can you rate them from top to bottom which is best for coursework and research opportunities for Masters in Antenna Specialization.
Arizona State University, North Carolina State University, Virginia Tech, The Ohio State University, UT Dallas.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear
You can benefit from this Link about your topic:
You can enter the name of any university that you want to know its rank in the search box.
I hope it will be helpful...
Best wishes...
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
3 answers
Stabilizing techniques for transistor amplifiers are well known, and as we know the frequency of operation we can make sure of stable operation in that band. However, in oscillators and specifically parallel oscillators which oscillation frequency is wished to be defined by feedback loop length (phase delay) we end up with existing multiple oscillation modes. e.g. equivalent series feedback mode at low frequency.
my question is that in such oscillators how can we make sure of other modes suppression? of course we can check startup condition for modes, how ever this is an analysis technique not synthesis.
my intuition is that as oscillation starts from DC we should keep amplifier stable all the way to oscillation frequency. but I am not sure.
I appreciate it if you share your experience with others.
thanks a lot
Relevant answer
Answer
From the control view, you have to keep your poles on the left side of the imaginary axis. This means that the amplifier has to be insulated from the oscillator or work at different frequencies. Also usually it is said that in a high-frequency world, the amplifiers oscillate while the oscillator does not!
As a result, I think your question can be answered if you let us more details such as circuit structure, desirable oscillation frequency, type of amplifier, oscillator, and feedback.
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
2 answers
Hi,
I was working on a thesis project on a portable ECG device, I checked these
So it was basically biopotential->Amplifier->logging->displaying using Teensy(Programmable chip), Adafruit(Bluetooth Module), SPI LCD Screen, and resistors and capacitors.
I developed and assembled all except Teensy, adafruit, SPI LCD screen, as I don't have circuit on how to connect output to these 3 devices.
Can anyone share some other resources it would be very much valuable.
Thank You
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear sir, I guess the Teensy is used to acquire the signal (use one of the analog inputs; for instance, pins for 14 to 23 Analog). The signal is of course converted (Analog to Digital) inside the Teensy. Then, you can display what you read using SPI (pins 10 to 13 of Teens) on SPI LCD Screen. For the Bluetooth device, I don't know what is it used for; maybe to save the data on an SD card and send the data (acquired ECG) to a remote station (computer I guess). You can use it. It is not difficult to assemble that and programs exist for each task: 1. Acquire analog signal using Teensy; 2. Display a value, figure using SPI of Teensy on an SPI LDC display; 3. Send data using a Bluetooth device.
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
4 answers
case1 : when Radio frequency wave transmision line is loaded with matched impendace, then entire signal is taken by load without any reflections..
case 2: when a Radio frequency wave transmision line is loaded with short circuit, then entire signal is reflected back...
Now what happens when both the above cases are combined?
where will the signal go and how much will be the reflection coefficient?
will the matched impedance load get any signal?
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes, the signal will be reflected back and ods not reach the load. At the opposite end, the load will see some impedance varying from short to open depending on the electrical length of the transmission line between shorted point and the load.
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
2 answers
I am trying to design a PIN Diode switch for a WR90 Rectangular waveguide ( X - Band) using HFSS software. I have learnt from some discussion that PIN Diode can be modelled using sheets and boundaries but how exactly that model i can use inside a waveguide as a switch? what are the parameters or extra devices i need to add? I couldn't find any open publications on PIN Diode switch in x-band rectangular waveguide Can someone recommend me some books or publications or blogs for better understanding of PIN Diode simulation in HFSS inside a waveguide.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello,
Few papers are attached for your help.
Thanks,
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
8 answers
We have chips on which there is tin, which disappears after a while. Tin is used on the chips to glue the heatsink.
What is your solution for chips that have lost their tin?
Due to the lack of poor heat transfer, we can not use silicone paste.
Relevant answer
Answer
You can use silver foils and glue them with thin film of silver paste. It will work for long time without damage. You can also use thermal conducting ceramic paste, contact the heart think to it and fix the heat think to the chip by a clamp.
Best wishes.
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
4 answers
Hi there,
I hope you are doing well.
Do you know, which camera is used recently for the GRENOUILLE technique in order to measure the pulse length of ultra-short pulses?
what features the camera should provide? Should it be fast or regular camera works as well?
This article names a camera but I am not sure it is used recently in experiments or it is out of date!
Attached is a document in this regard.
I appreciate your time and any feedback.
Best regards,
Aydin
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Hassan Nasser I really appreciate your response.
Thank you!!
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
4 answers
I have just designed a fuzzy system, and now I want to redesign it based on the fractional order. However, I have no idea where to start from and what to do. Could you please tell me what I should do and mention any related sources to study?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear s.Milad:
You can benefit from this valuable article about your topic:
"Fuzzy Fractional-Order PID Controller for Fractional Model of Pneumatic Pressure System".
Abstract:
This article presents a fuzzy fractional-order PID (FFOPID) controller scheme for a pneumatic pressure regulating system. The industrial pneumatic pressure systems are having strong dynamic and nonlinearity characteristics; further, these systems come across frequent load variations and external disturbances. Hence, for the smooth and trouble-free operation of the industrial pressure system, an effective control mechanism could be adopted. The objective of this work is to design an intelligent fuzzy-based fractional-order PID control scheme to ensure a robust performance with respect to load variation and external disturbances. A novel model of a pilot pressure regulating system is developed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. Simulation studies are carried out in a delayed nonlinear pressure regulating system under different operating conditions using fractional-order PID (FOPID) controller with fuzzy online gain tuning mechanism. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed strategy and confirm the performance improvement for the pneumatic pressure system. To highlight the advantages of the proposed scheme a comparative study with conventional PID and FOPID control schemes is made.
I hope it will be helpful...
Best wishes....
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
21 answers
Dear colleagues,
I would like to request your collaboration to take part in the survey, available at the links: (EN): https://lnkd.in/djVdWne (IT): https://lnkd.in/dnvK3eJ (PT-BR): https://lnkd.in/dVGWmHv This questionnaire is part of the project aiming to analyze the transition from a linear economy to a circular economy, comparing developed and developing countries, at a macro level (nations, regions, cities). The project is a partnership between the University of Brasilia (Brazil), coordinated by Professor Patricia Guarnieri and the University of Bologna (Italy), coordinated by Professor Augusto Bianchini.
Your participation is very important to us. Please share with your network! Sincerely,
Patricia Guarnieri, Dr. Professor and Researcher Faculty of Economics, Business Administration, Accounting and Public Policies Management (FACE/UnB) - http://www.adm.unb.br/ University of Brasilia - UnB -  http://www.unb.br/ ORCID : http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5298-5348
Relevant answer
Answer
The transition to a circular economy is not uniform and varies depending on a series of factors such as the degree of industrialization, the level of technological development, the availability of qualified human resources and access to financing, among others.
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
6 answers
From Few Discussion i got to know about PIN Diode Equivalent RLC circuit. Then in hfss created 2 cylinder blocks both in contact to each other, then for one cylinder i gave inductance and for other i gave resistance and capacitance for Diode off condition. Similarly for DIode ON condition, for one cylinder i gave inductance and for other resistance. But it is not working as expected. Please need some help to design it.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Raj:
You can benefit from this valuable Courses about your topic:
"Ansys Learning Fourm HFSS"
In it you will find the answer to all your questions at:
Please go through "Cosimulation Using Ansys HFSS” course to learn about how to do cosimulation using Ansys HFSS and Circuit from below link:
You can design the PIN diode equivalent circuit in the Circuit and connect it to the HFSS design to see the performance.
I hope it will be helpful..
Best wishes...
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
7 answers
Hello everybody,
I'm trying to simulate VFTOs in EMTP, I came across an article which depicted the EMTP model for a 245Kv GIS. Unfortunately, I'm new to EMTP environment and I'm not quite familiar with it's library. There are some elements in the figure that I don't know. I would really appreciate it If you could help we with them.
I marked the elements in the attached pictures.
Thank you
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
4 answers
How to get your article published in Nature or Science?
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
4 answers
I am trying to solve the differential equation. I was able to solve it when the function P is constant and independent of r and z. But I am not able to solve it further when P is a function of r and z or function of r only (IMAGE 1).
Any general solution for IMAGE 2?
Kindly help me with this. Thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
check out this paper using a Laplace transformation for solving nonlinear nonhomogenous partial equations
the solutions are not trivial which is different if your coefficients and the pressure P are constant
Hopefully it helps
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
11 answers
Is it possible to replace a flyback transformer with a common transformer in a high voltage power supply by modifying the circuit? and if yes, what kind of modifications are needed?
I ask this because making a flyback is harder than making a common transformer.
Relevant answer
Answer
There are 2 answers :
1. Theoretically : Yes, however you need a circuit modification.
- The flyback uses a transformer with air gap. A normal transformer does not have this.
- You can create an isolated dc/dc convertor with a normal transformer, at the cost of an extra inductor, an extra winding and an extra diode. I think it is called the 'forward' convertor.
2. Practically, what you show in the pictures:
- On the left: This is a low-frequency transformer, mains, max. 400 Hz frequency. (with very good iron.)
- On the right : A ferrite transformer, typically used in the horizontal drive circuit of a Cathode Ray Tube television. In these televisions, the horizontal drive circuit :
a. It controls the left-right sweep of the electrons in the tube. The standard is such that the frequency where it operates on, is about 16 Khz. (Depends on the TV standard used.) As such, you CANNOT change the core to an iron core.
b. Usually, this circuit is also used as the power convertor for the whole TV. Apart from the windings for the left-right movement of the electron beam, there are windings for a multitude of voltages in the TV. The most 'visible' of these is the high-voltage (10 kV for black/white, 30 kV for color) to accelerate the electrons toward the screen. The 10 kV, that is straight, single diode rectifier. For the 30 kV, usually a diode voltage tripler is used. Note that, in the picture, the 'bulky' look for the right transformer is caused by this 10 kVolt winding. This needs lots of isolation, creep distance etc. Note that a normal ferrite transfomer, nowadays operating at ~100 to ~200 Khz is much more compact than a 50-60 Hz transformer.
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
11 answers
I have updated my manuscript but its the third time the reviewer send me this comment again.
What are the probable redox reaction during cyclic voltammetry?
Could anyone guide me on this, please
Thanks, A lot in advance for your precious time.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear all, please have a look at the following link and the attached file. My Regards
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
5 answers
- Journals ranking (Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4).
- Article Processing Charge (APC) <1500 USD.
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
9 answers
If you refer to the images attached of opamp, one is open loop config of opamp and the other is the closed loop config of opamp. In both of these equations, the formula to obtain output voltage remains the same including the common mode signal affects. However, the Adm term, called as the differential gain of opamp or the circuit, in open loop config refers to the open loop gain of opamp while the Adm term in the second circuit refers to the closed loop gain of opamp. The books I have referred are: Microelectronic Circuits (Seventh Edition) by Sedra Smith, and Op-Amps and Linear Integrated Circuits (Fourth Edition) by Ramakant A. Gayakwad.
Is the reason because the Adm and the Acm in the first circuit refer to the differential gain and the common mode gain of the circuit and the circuit is opamp itself so Adm and Acm are the differential gain and the common mode gain of the opamp itself? While in the second circuit, the Adm and the Acm are the differential mode gain and the common mode gain of the whole circuit? But I saw in Sedma Smith that for the second circuit, output voltage formula of opamp being used in terms of open loop gain without including the affect of internal common mode gain of opamp.
Relevant answer
Answer
There are some good answers by esteemed colleagues but I want to refer to very basic concepts which are the configurations of both amplifiers: the op amp and the differential and difference amplifier based on a circuit of the op amp.
As both amplifiers has a differential input then both have a differential gain and a common mode gain. In every configuration, there are two input voltages and one output terminal.
The two amplifiers have the same terminology as they have similar configuration but the values of the values of Ad and Ac are surely different.
So, the matter is definition of the performance parameters.
Best wishes
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
9 answers
I have been studying quantization in context of Digital Image Processing. I referred to the 4th edition of the book titled "Digital Image Processing" by Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E. Woods.
In the book, the intensity quantization levels are defined as
L=2^k
where k is an integer.
Now the first thing that comes to my find is why is that the quantization levels should be integer multiple of two and why not just any integer in general.
A paragraph has been attached regarding this from the book.
Then I found a homework problem and its solution online which are both attached as images.
In the homework question, I believe n is used in place of k to calculate bits per pixel or bits per picture elements. While k was defined as integer in Gonzalez, here n comes out to be 3.32 bits per pixel (not an integer). Isn't it a contradiction?
Relevant answer
Answer
The colleagues really gave satisfactory answers to your questions. However, I have to stress the main cause of using the binary numbers in signal processing.
It is the available electronic devices that impose the number system used in digital computers and consequently signal processing.
There are two major electronic devices imposing the binary system:
The memory cells are binary that is a cell sores either logic one or logic zero.
So, to wright or read them directly they have to handle binary numbers.
The other major device is the arithmetic and logic unit. It also use binary numbers in their operations.
So, any other signal format must be converted into the binary from including the samples of analog signals. Every sample must be converted into n bit code. Which is a strings of one and zeros.
The conversion from analog to digital and vice verse is accomplished by A.D converters. According to the required resolution, every sample is represented by an n bits binary codes.
Best wishes
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
4 answers
I want to make a decision making device by nearby active bluetooth devices using HC-05 bluetooth module with arduino nano but I stucked at programming algorithm to find active devices.
It is similar as arogya setu app's concept.
Kindly give your attention on this question and provide me its resolution.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks for responding Mr @Joerg Fricke , Mr @Oussama Laayati and Mr @Rishav Pramanik
I want to clarify my question. Like, when we turn on our mobile phone's bluetooth, it shows nearby by bluetooth devices. In the same way I want to implement such technic using bluetooth module and Arduino nano for detection of nearby active bluetooth devices.
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
8 answers
Dear Researchers :
If someone is proficient in COMSOL and knows about the physics and applications of Electric Power Cables
Can help me on solving this model? What am I doing wrong ?
I need to compute the Temperature Distribution of this 2D model of a MV (35 kV) Power Cable.
The configuration is simple, and the application if for 25 kV AC.
I used a Study in two Steps
Step 1: a Frecuency Domain Analysis to solve first the Electric Currents (ec) and the Magnetic Fields (mf) physics. Followed from a
Step 2: a Stationary Study to solve the Heat Transfer phenomenon and its coupling with the (ec).
I'm attaching this image to shown how I can't get a Temperature Gradient, the Gradient I am getting is so tiny that practically the Temperature is uniform across all the Cable.
I'm doing something wrong
I'll appreciate the help,
Best Regards !
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Franklin:
I agree with the opinions of my colleagues mentioned above, that it's difficult to find the problem since we can't see all the settings.
But you could benefit from this valuable article about your topic:
"Heat Transfer Modeling of Power Cables in Tunnels"
Electric power, in cities or for power plant outflow, is most often transmitted through underground cables. Due to increased electricity demands power suppliers make large investments to house these cables in deep or shallow tunnels.
The thermal environment is complex, with different kind of cables placed in different configurations, transmitting different powers. These are hard to take into account theorically, so thermal simulations using COMSOL Multiphysics® software were undertaken to measure the inaccuracy of the empirical models.
The Conjugate Heat Transfer interface is used, 2D and 3D models were developed and showed that several hypotheses lead to underestimation of the hottest cable temperature and two interesting possibility for improvement were found: the heat transfer correlations and cables proximity effects.
I have attached the pdf files ....
I hope it will be helpful...
With my best regards ...
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
10 answers
We know wind turbines extract energy from the wind in order to produce electricity, the wind downstream of a turbine has a lower energy content than the wind upstream. Suppose, the understudy region is formed of two zones (Figure attached). In the dark red zone, the initial wind velocity is greater than that in the light red zone.
Bearing in mind the different initial wind velocities, How to determine the resulting wind speed, due to the wake effect of turbine 1 on turbine 2 (case 1) and of turbine 3 on turbine 4 (case 2)?
Scenario: The problem in case 2, perhaps the recovered wind speed at turbine 4 is greater than V0 =8 m/s (initial speed at light red region)
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Bassam:
At the first, and as you know that several different factors influence the potential wind resource in an area. The three main factors that influence power output are: wind speed, air density, and blade radius. Wind turbines need to be in areas with a lot of wind on a regular basis, which is more important than having occasional high winds.
# Wind speed:
Wind speed largely determines the amount of electricity generated by a turbine. Higher wind speeds generate more power because stronger winds allow the blades to rotate faster. Faster rotation translates to more mechanical power and more electrical power from the generator. The relationship between wind speed and power for a typical wind turbine is shown in Figure (a).
Turbines are designed to operate within a specific range of wind speeds. The limits of the range are known as the cut-in speed and cut-out speed. The cut-in speed is the point at which the wind turbine is able to generate power. Between the cut-in speed and the rated speed, where the maximum output is reached, the power output will increase cubically with wind speed. For example, if wind speed doubles, the power output will increase 8 times. This cubic relationship is what makes wind speed such an important factor for wind power. This cubic dependence does cut out at the rated wind speed. This leads to the relatively flat part of the curve in Figure (a), so the cubic dependence is during the speeds below 15 m/s (54 kph).
The cut-out speed is the point at which the turbine must be shut down to avoid damage to the equipment. The cut-in and cut-out speeds are related to the turbine design and size and are decided on prior to construction.
#Air Density:
Power output is related to the local air density, which is a function of altitude, pressure, and temperature. Dense air exerts more pressure on the rotors, which results in higher power output.
#Turbine Design:
Wind turbines are designed to maximize the rotor blade radius to maximize power output. Larger blades allow the turbine to capture more of the kinetic energy of the wind by moving more air through the rotors. However, larger blades require more space and higher wind speeds to operate. As a general rule, turbines are spaced out at four times the rotor diameter. This distance is necessary to avoid interference between turbines, which decreases the power output.
# There's a phenomenon, which referred to as the reduced wake effect:
During curtailment, less power is extracted from the wind and thus the wake effects are reduced. This leads to a wind speed increase at the downstream turbine and therefore to an apparent increase of its available power. This phenomenon is referred to as the reduced wake effect.
# So you could benefit from this valuable article about this topic:
"Analysis of the reduced wake effect for available wind power calculation during curtailment"
# Abstract:
With the increase of installed wind power capacity, the contribution of wind power curtailment to power balancing becomes more relevant. Determining the available power during curtailment at the wind farm level is not trivial, as curtailment changes the wake effects in a wind farm. Current best practice to estimate the available power is to sum the available power calculated by every wind turbine. However, during curtailment the changed local wind conditions at the wind turbines lead to inaccurate results at the wind farm level. This paper presents an algorithm to determine the available power of a wind farm during curtailment. Moreover, results of curtailment experiments are discussed that were performed on nearshore wind farm Westermeerwind to validate the algorithm. For the case where a single turbine is being curtailed, it is shown that the algorithm reduces the estimation error for the first downstream turbine significantly. Further development of the algorithm is required for accurate estimation of the second turbine. All further downstream turbines did not experience a change in wake conditions.
I hope it will be helpful ...
With my best regards ...
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
3 answers
Hello ,
how can i plot the same figure ( desired figure ) for Required leakage inductance with respect to operating power rating and phase shift for DAB converter i tried so many times i think i have problem with my Matlab code , can anyone help me with it ,
thanks
I'm sharing my MATLAB code and ( desired figure )
Relevant answer
Answer
finnally i found a solution
close all , clear all ,clc
%% parameters %%
P=1000:70:4000; phi=0.174:pi/50:pi/2; f=250e3; Vo=300; Vg=33.33; n=3/4;
%% Required leakage inductance with respect to operating power rating % and phase shift for DAB converter
[X,Y]=meshgrid(P,phi);
L=((pi*Y-Y.^2)*Vo*Vg)./(2*pi^2*f*n*X);
figure
h=surf(X,Y,L)
colorbar
title('Required leakage inductance with respect to operating power rating and phase shift for DAB converter')
xlabel('Power (W)')
ylabel('Phase shift (rad)')
zlabel('Inductance (H)')
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
13 answers
Kindly suggest which routing algorithm is better to implement for finding the optimal route in wireless adhoc networks? 
Performance criteria :end to end delay , packet delivery ratio, throughput
Relevant answer
Answer
There is no specific answer to your question. to choose the best routing algorithm in an Ad hoc network you must specify the type of application, the size of the network, and the mobility model.
The most known routing protocols are
1- AODV and DSR as reactive protocols.
2- OLSR and DSDV as proactive Protocols.
3- ZRP and TORA as Hebrid Protocols.
I recommend to read and cite the related paper
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
19 answers
Can I connect 2 capacitors in series/parallel to get 180 deg phase shift,? only 2 capacitors?
I need to have total impedance of 200 ohms at 2.4 GHz.
please advise
Relevant answer
Answer
Both are different things :
1.phase shift between input and output across a device
2. phase shift between current and voltage across a device
Two capacitors in series can not provide phase shift of 180 between input and output. So, it depends upon the quantities in which you need phase shift. No, nowadays amplifiers are available in miniature form or IC form (maybe you can use that, comparable or even smaller than the size of conventional capacitors).
That's how I can help, may be some faculty or researcher from the concerned domain may provide a useful answer and suggestion to your query.
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
50 answers
Journals with review time of 2-4 weeks and publication time of <6 months.Impact factor journals >1.
Relevant answer
Answer
Engineering with computers IF=7.9
Soft computing IF=3.6
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
6 answers
IS there any literature that analyze selection of window length of window in rooling/moving RMS of voltage signal?
I log data from oscilloscope, and then I calculate RMS voltage, but I am not sure the length of the window? Are there any rules about this?
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
6 answers
Dear researchers,
As you know, non-technical energy loss is a major problem in distribution networks especially in traditional ones with no smart meters. I know that the huge amount of non-technical energy loss is caused by electricity thefts mostly in rural areas. Nowadays, the novel configurations of networks are prevailing which can prevent at least electricity theft. However, it is still happening and results in huge amount of money loss! Here are my questions:
1. What are the other causes of non-technical loss and how can we reduce them?
2. Who must pay for it?
3. How can we consider it in novel electricity market places?
4. What is the easiest way to detect and prevent/reduce this type of loss in networks?
Any ideas would be appreciated.
Thank you in advance.
Relevant answer
Hi, Hooman Firoozi, there is not an easy answer for all questions.
I can share with you the incident characteristic we found on one electric company in Colombia, you can read on
for the last question 4. What is the easiest way to detect and prevent/reduce this type of loss in networks?
I think there is not create a detect system of NTL because of the dynamic behavior of the energy theft when you improve the energy network security, you have a time of response while the new methods for thefts raise from the users. Another important issue is the regulatory law in each country. For example, the law can allow it is cheaper to pay a penalty fee than the energy used in the theft period. So user can prefer to generate NTL instead of paying the energy bill and waiting for the penalty fee.
You have to study several topics you need to mix to understand this complex problem.
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
3 answers
Are there any models to predict when an "Electrical Tree" or a "Water Tree" will occur inside an electrical insulator (dielectric materials as Polyethylene, Polypropylene, etc.) working on its normal operating conditions for Medium Voltage or High Voltage applications ? i.e. the Electric Insulator material covering the conductor cable in underground power cables (MV and HV)
Are there any theoretical or empirical models to predict these phenomena ? When treeing will occur along the life of an electrical power cable?
Regards !
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
26 answers
Hello Dear colleagues
in the figure below there are two relaxation oscillator circuits they do the some function that generate triangular and signals. However, what are the technical difference between these circuits? and in particular when i use the circuit in figure (a) and when i use circuits in figure (b)?
Best regards
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Tariq Kanaan sir,
1) Yes both the circuits produces the square wave but the noise immunity in first circuit is more due to the usage of bistable multivibrator (Bistable multivibrator in general are more noise immune due to two threshold voltages: larger hysteresis voltage indicates more noise immunity).
2) The frequency of the generated square wave depends upon the circuit elements (R and C) but the maximum frequency of the opamp will be limited by the slew rate of the opamp.
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
2 answers
The idea is to find supplier and prices of the most used batteries for EVs.
Relevant answer
Answer
check this paper for values:
Standard suppliers are CATL, Samsung, LG, BYD
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
47 answers
When it comes to choosing a good journal, it has always been debated which one is more important? Impact factor (IF) or journal quartile (Q)?
I give an example, you have three following journals, which one would you choose?
1- IF: 1.3 & Q1
2- IF: 2.5 & Q2
3- IF: 3.9 & Q3
Please select one of the three journals above and give a reason for that.
Relevant answer
Answer
I extracted impact factor and quartile of all mathematics journals based on new report released by Clarivate 2021.
Please, click on the following link:
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
10 answers
Is XLPE best insulator material for Medium Voltage underground electrical cables for Transmission Lines?
Normally the rated operation temperature for XLPE at this applicaction is 90 °C, So the temperature is not an issue , but what about the weight, cost and amount of material required for one meter of insulated Aluminum/Copper
Thank You!
Best Regards !:)
Relevant answer
Answer
I am doubtful on the replacement of XLPE in such a short period. Some European companies are claiming that they are recycling XLPE. Apart from this, on account of much lower loss factor XLPE is likely to continue as a leader for some more time.
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
8 answers
I am trying to simulate the following case: A three-phase source in a Matlab is connected to a Vienna Rectifier which is supposed to supply power to a resistive load of 50KW. Output DC voltage to be 800V DC and the input voltage is 400V AC. Technically a Vienna rectifier after rectification also improves power factor, that is, reduces the input current distortion to be less than 5%. I have designed almost everything correctly still neither the Vienna rectifier is reducing the input current distortion nor it is boosting the output voltage at the DC link to be 800V. I cannot figure out what is wrong. I am trying to solve this problem for the past 2 weeks still no solution.
To run the simulation, first, run the Vienna_rectifier_data.m file and then simulate the test.slx
The Matlab version is 2020b. If you need me to convert to an older version I can do that too.
Any kind of help is highly appreciated.
Thank you
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
11 answers
"Self-fulfilling prophecy" is Moore's own definition, while "a convenient fiction" is somebody else's...
I have decided that, giving some excerpts from two relevant articles will be more helpful than trying to explain my personal views in detail.
A.Z.
Excerpts from the article "Was Moore’s Law Inevitable?" by Kevin Kelly:
(...) Writing in 2005, (...) Moore says, “Moore’s Law is really about economics.” [Moore's colleague] Carver Mead made it clearer yet: Moore’s Law, he says, “is really about people’s belief system, it’s not a law of physics, it’s about human belief, and when people believe in something, they’ll put energy behind it to make it come to pass.”
(...) Finally, in a another reference, Mead adds : “Permission to believe that [the Law] will keep going,” is what keeps the Law going. Moore agrees in a 1996 article: “More than anything, once something like this gets established, it becomes more or less a self-fulfilling prophecy. The Semiconductor Industry Association puts out a technology road map, which continues this [generational improvement] every three years. Everyone in the industry recognizes that if you don’t stay on essentially that curve they will fall behind. So it sort of drives itself.”
(...) Andrew Odlyzko from AT&T Bell Laboratories concurs: “Management is *not* telling a researcher, ‘You are the best we could find, here are the tools, please go off and find something that will let us leapfrog the competition.’ Instead, the attitude is, ‘Either you and your 999 colleagues double the performance of our microprocessors in the next 18 months, to keep up with the competition, or you are fired.'”
Excerpts from the article "A Moore’s Law Mystery" by Rose Eveleth:
(...) Moore’s Law probably didn’t start as a marketing ploy. Even Carlson will admit that. But it then became, what he called, “a convenient fiction.”
Thomas Haigh, a historian of technology at the University of Wisconsin, had a similar idea. “[Moore’s Law] has always been more of a self-promotion for the wondrous accomplishments of the semiconductor industry than a law of nature,” (...) “It’s also been a kind of self-fulfilling prophecy, since it’s taken ever larger investments of research and development money to keep it coming true."
Relevant answer
Answer
The so-called Moore's laws are distinguished by the fact that they are formulated in such a way as to serve as a "self-fulfilling prophecy."
Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
4 answers
I am currently working on a soft strain sensor having a wavy fluidic cyclic channel. To get data in the form of electrical, I have to attach electrodes to both ends of the fluidic channel of the soft strain sensor and it must be properly attached so that fluid in the channel may not come out of the channel. But I am confused, which electrodes should I use for this sensor?
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you so much Mr. Cuff, your answer helped me to think more widely. Thanks for telling me about your experience, it is really helpful.
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
3 answers
Hello to all Researchers :
I'm looking for someone, or some Article, where I can find numerical simulations of Electrical Trees in dielectric materials like Polypropylene, Polyethylene, PMMA, XLPE, etc.
Does someone have some information about this topic and these kind of works ?
Regards ! :)
Relevant answer
Answer
I'm interested
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
6 answers
in an islanded microgrid to control voltage and frequency, we need control methods such as droop control.In general, selection of the power
sharing coefficients and controller parameters carefully will promote the system performance against disturbances and load changes. in the sys with multiple DGs using trial and error methods to select voltage and current PI controller parameters consume time. Is there a step by step way to do it?
I could not get desirable results using given parameters in special paper.
Relevant answer
Answer
hello could you please me on how to select the PI parameter value for inner current and voltage control loop in AC microgrid
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
5 answers
I aim to analyse the permeability of aluminum to liquid gallium by measuring it's velocity at individual grain boundaries using ultrasounds.An ultrasound-based characterization technique is motivated by its higher temporal resolution.
But open to more suggestions regarding the problem statement.
Relevant answer
Answer
Please read :
An atomistically informed energy-based theory of environmentally assisted failure
S Ganesan, V Sundararaghavan - Corrosion Reviews, 2015 - De Gruyter
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
15 answers
When I was an engineering student, while investigating a circuit schematic, I was often discouraged by a device whose symbol I was not familiar with. Thinking that it was a different device, I was usually giving up. In some of the cases, I was finding out (much later) that the device was actually just a regular device (e.g. an inductor or a Zener diode, etc.) with another symbol accepted/used by some other engineers.
When I started to teach electronics, I noticed that I should make convincing explanations for my students to relax them about such occasions. For example, I mention multiple symbols used for Zener diodes, along with the meaning/purpose of essential items of each symbol version. Unfortunately, sometimes I cannot convince some of the students about this many versions of symbols used for the same specific device.
This issue can be an important problem when you are publishing or reading papers in different scientific journals.
Now, I remembered another case -although not very similar-, namely the unit of electrical conductance, which is given with the unit "Siemens", as well as with 1/Ohm, represented by Ω-1 or by and even by "mho" (Leaving away the "inverted omega" symbol which I also regard as unusual, I have always thought that, Georg Ohm would not be happy about the "mho" unit).
Of course, some symbol versions (e.g. some of the ground symbols given in the figure) may represent a slightly or substantially different property/behavior. However, many people occasionally use those different symbols to represent the same specific device. With no doubt, that's another aspect of the "multiple symbols" issue.
For sure there are multiple standards that we cannot alter to fix a unique symbol for a specific device.
On the other hand, this "multiple symbols" issue often creates problems, especially for the students who are in a struggle to learn/understand new devices.
The "handy" versions of the symbols (like the last ground symbols in the figure) preferred by some instructors may complicate the issue further.
A symbol which reminds of the device's main behavior, points out to difference and similarity with another device, provides ease of drawing and ease of spotting the device on a schematic, etc., can be assumed a good symbol (This can explain, for instance, the different versions of Zener diode symbols).
I know that many of you may think that I am exaggerating the problem. Nevertheless, I would like to know what others think about this issue.
Any personal experiences or suggestions which may be helpful especially for teaching will also be appreciated.
Best regards...
Relevant answer
Answer
In my first answer, I referred to the symbols in the upper row of the attached file. These replaced those in the lower row which were a former DIN attempt to make German symbols "unique" but those older ones had at least some resemblance to the more widespread symbols.
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
9 answers
I am seeking on how to determine the sample size for pass-fail tests, and am unsure of the correct formula to use. I would like to use a 5% margin of error and be at least 90% confident from my sample size. I've read numerous articles that you must test 59 and all of them must pass the test. What happens in that strategy if one of the 59 doesn't pass? Do you need to test another 59? Any help or insight would be greatly appreciated.
Relevant answer
Answer
Also here I have attached the excel sheet that includes the calculator mentioned previously ....
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
13 answers
Hi, a friend wants to publish an article related to the mobile robot navigation slam algorithm. Could someone please suggest a few journals with low impact factor?
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
20 answers
I have dataset which shows the length of power lines. I need to classify the lines based on the line length. Is there a rule to classify the High voltage (HV) and low voltage (LV) lines based on line length? For instance, can we say lines below 500m (meters) are considered as LV lines and lines above this length are HV lines?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Mr Muhammad Ali
You were about to hit the target but missed for just a little bit. Here is the answer to your question in brief.
Transmission lines are classified into two standards.
  • Voltage Rating
  • Length of Line
As per voltage rating, there are 5 types of transmission existing
  1. Low Voltage (LV) < 1000V
  2. Medium Voltage (MV) 1000V < V < 69kV
  3. High Voltage (HV) < 138kV
  4. Extra High Voltage (EHV) 345kV < V < 800kV
  5. Ultra High Voltage (UHV) > 800kV
As per the length of the line, there are 3 types of transmission existing
  1. Short Transmission Line < 50km
  2. Medium Transmission Line 50km < L < 150km
  3. Long Transmission Line > 150km
Once again these standards can vary in different countries. Hope that information will be helpful for you. Good Luck!
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
5 answers
Is there any direct relation or equation between the open circuit voltage and the instantaneous voltage produced at the output of the PV panel at a particular irradiance and temperature value?
Relevant answer
Answer
There is a misconception that because a voltage source isn't connected to a circuit or load, the voltage doesn't really exist, or its power doesn't go into effect until it is connected to a closed-circuit path. However, this is erroneous.
A voltage source does not need to be connected to anything for voltage to exist. Voltage unconnected is the real voltage. Even if a voltage source is unconnected and not attached to any load, the potential power still exists.
This misconception may stem from the fact that current can only flow when it is in a closed circuit. However, voltage is different. While current can only exist when a circuit is closed, voltage always has potential.
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
11 answers
I am simulating helix antenna in hfss, right now, giving excitation with 50 ohms port. When I see the results of Z parameter (real). It shows lower than 50 ohms. Do not understand, if it can be true or I am making any mistake. Please advise.
Relevant answer
Answer
The impedance of an antenna can be anything from a few ohms to very high. A properly designed antenna will match to the impedance of the driving source for optimum power transfer. The 50 ohm value of the port is arbitrary and can be set to any value desired. Cable impedances come in many different values, such as 50, 75 and 300 ohms. Sometimes a low value antenna impedance is desired such as 10 ohms when connected to a low impedance solid state circuit.
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
3 answers
Is there any article or project about interaction of the "Schumann Resonance" on the brain alpha or theta waves?
  • The Schumann resonances (SR) are a set of spectrum peaks in the extremely low frequency portion of the Earth's electromagnetic field spectrum :: Schumann Resonance Freq. : 7.83 Hz
  • Alpha waves are neural oscillations in the frequency range of 8–12 Hz
More:
Best Regards
Relevant answer
Answer
I suppose one possibility that should always be considered is that perhaps what we call alpha waves are in fact the recording of the Schumann phenomenon when the brain is not working! Since we cannot really pick a spot on the planet where the Schumann sound is not present your best bet would be to look at brainwave studies on astronauts. There’s a good chance this information is classified.
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
1 answer
Impulse voltage= 1 volt with and 500ns domain
Will the structure change by injecting a small surge voltage into a solar panel? Will the values ​​of the series and shunt resistance change?
Relevant answer
Answer
A forward voltage impulse of one volt amplitude and duration of 500 ns will not damage the solar cell. In forward direction the solar cell is equivalent to a parallel Cf -rf in series with the Rs the series resistance of the solar cell.
rf is the forward junction resistance and and Cf is the forward capacitance of the solar cell and it is composed of two capacitances the junction capacitance and the diffusion capacitance. At the beginning of the voltage pulse applications, the voltage will appear at Rs while the voltage on the capacitance will be zero. With elapsing of time the diode capacitance will be charged and the junction voltage increases. This will continue to the end of the time of the pulse where a part of the voltage will be dropped on the junction and the rest will be dropped on the series resistance. Since the time constant is large because the solar cell is large then the pulse ends with with only a fraction of the voltage is dropped on the junction and the current is still smaller that the maximum forward current that can burn the solar ell.
The series and shunt resistances will remain the same except some heating of the series resistance which may then increase.
In summary the behavior of the solar cell is similar to the behavior of the power diode.
For more information please follow the link:
Best wishes
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
8 answers
So, I have a design, two dipoles working at UHF and VHF. We fed using a diplexer. I am having difficulties with the testing using network analyzer. VHF passes but UHF, specially at 400 MHZ, the VSWR shoots to 2. 1 or even 2.3.
Is there anything I am missing and replace to pass vswr for UHF too?
Thank you
Relevant answer
Answer
You have to investigate and improve the matching between the source impedance and the input of the UHF port. You can measure S11 and see whether the resonance center frequency is lies at the minimum of S11. The minimum must at least lower than S11= -10dBs. May be you need to fine tune the path to the UHF antenna. Also, the radiation resistance may be smaller much deviated from the source resistance.
Best wishes
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
8 answers
I would like conduct DMFC experiments. Which instrument or tester to be used for measuring 0-1000 mV voltages and 0-5000 mA current. The peak power generation by the cell is 0.5W. Is it possible to make my own set up for this experiments?
Relevant answer
Answer
General Multimeter is simpler and easier instrument for measuring voltage and current.
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
14 answers
How can I know how much power an antenna can handle? I know P = I^2*R, but here I only know R = 50 ohms. how to determine, this antenna can handle this much power? I am working on dipole and helix antenna.
Thank you in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
You got a number of good answers and I want to make somethings more clear.
The antenna has certain specific resistance which is the radiation resistance Rr and has also some loss resistance Rl
So the input power P= I^2 Rt , Rt=Rr+Rl
I is the effective value of the current.
So, as a rating of the antenna one must construct it to withstand the maximum current in the antenna conductors. This is due to thermal fusing effects of the wires.
The other rating is the maximum voltage that can be applied on the antenna
where P= V^2/Rt
So the antenna must be constructed to withstand the maximum voltage defined by the maximum power the relation given above. The maximum voltage is limited by the breakdown of the gap between the two poles of the antenna as these two points are the nearest from each other.
These simple analysis may answer your question in a simple manner.
Best wishes
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
3 answers
So, I have a helix antenna designed for 400 to 900 MHz. This antenna is designed using fabric and as a fabric, it gets wavy and scrambled which changes the performance of the helix. I am thinking of sewing a stabilizer (a thick fabric), which embroiders use so that the fabric can be stabilized as much as possible. But, I need suggestions on this idea as I do not know if I am making antenna LOSSY after sewing a stabilizer behind the fabric. I am attaching the stabilizer picture
Please advise.
Relevant answer
Answer
Good question
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
4 answers
I’m using COMSOL for circuit breaker PSS-1 2D time-dependent simulation. I have coupled all moduls: Heat Transfer in Fluids, CFD-Modul, Electric Currents, Magnetic Fields, Moving Mesh
in HT-Modul I use 3 HeatSources for Simulation of radiation, Joule-Heat(ec volumetric los), enthalpy transport.
in CFD Modul I use Force for Lorenz-Force consideration
EC and MF moduls are coupled with external current density.
MF:full field, ”in plane“ field, gauge A-fixing
boundary conditions: walls
initial values: T=293K, P=1atm(with hydrostatic correction), DC terminal 100A and ground.
between electrodes T=10000K or I tryed to use Gauss-Pulse function (quasi same effect)
Solver: fully coupled
Method: High-nonlinear Newton
Goal: to simulate plasma in switching device correct and watch internal thermo-hydrodynamics and V-A characteristics of circuit breaker.
when I start to calculate my modell, I receive no convergence in both Stationary and Time-Dependent cases.
when somebody need a comsol-file, just ask it
Relevant answer
Answer
Agreed with the link provided by dear Ijaz Durrani
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
3 answers
While feeling the shared pain of costly and slow PCB Manufacturing process. Which also makes the hardware creativity and education much costly and slow. I was trying to figure out how can we decrease the cost of PCB manufacturing, get it made quickly and still maintain the level of quality we currently get. I came across the concept of using UV laser for Board cutting boards and drilling board plus using Masked SLA type of process for UV expose.
  • To me, this seems like a revolutionary setup.
  • You can make every board different, which makes enables mass customization
  • Very less wear outs as there are no drill bits to die
  • Automation can be a much higher decreasing need for costly labour and faster lead time
  • Fewer machines and setup costs which makes the footprint of the plant smaller
  • Above 2 points can make PCB Manufacturing feasible outside china as well
  • Maybe we can mitigate the setup cost of PCB and bring down the cost of proto PCBs to the cost of PCB manufactured at scale
All these seem that for at least 2-layer rigid or flexible PCB, a lot of initial costs can be mitigated and prototype PCB manufacturing cost can be decreased.
So what am I missing? What are the technical or commercial challenges you see in making with this way of manufacturing a PCB?
Relevant answer
Answer
Much costly and slow process
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
2 answers
Some Mathematical expressions will be helpful.
Relevant answer
Answer
No
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
3 answers
Hi! I am an independent researcher working on Mobile Cherenkov detectors and their application in quantitative biology. Will any researcher with relevant credentials be kind enough to endorse me?
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
4 answers
I am searching for a review article or report on net metering policies....
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
Question
20 answers
Do you think that artificial intelligence will be implemented in the control systems of driving and orientation in the field in autonomous cars?
What are the effects of artificial intelligence implemented in the field of driving control systems and orientation in the field of autonomous cars?
Will autonomous cars be safe?
Will autonomous cars be mostly electric cars at the same time?
Please, answer, comments.
I invite you to the discussion.
Best wishes
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you for your response. I agree with you. You added some very interesting information to our discussion. I also believe that the importance of artificial intelligence is growing in the implementation of this technology in various applications, in various fields, branches and sectors of the economy and in the improvement of research works. Thank you very much for proposing an article on this important issue artificial intelligence.
Greetings, Have a nice day,
Dariusz Prokopowicz