Questions related to Electrical & Electronics Engineering
What is difference in LORAWAN class A , B , C devices and what is spreading factor relation with time to air??
I have started to work on my research project and I actively search for information on measuring electrification charges.
In the future I have to measure the charge of a tube with a fluid being pumped through it (a conductive tube connected to non conductive ones, the fluid is also non conductive, but will have some conductive additives).
I found a lot of theoretical works, but can't seems to find practical examples or equipment to use. The stuff I found are barebone depictions like: "There is a grounded tool installed along the pipe, that measures the charge", with no links to the source.
So I need some help to find methods and tools I can use to mesure the electrification charges.
Dear all, I applied positive bias on gate, there is significant high leakage current on the transistor. However, when I applied negative bias on gate, the leakage current is insignificant. What can I infer from this?
AI and machine learning (ML) are being utilized to tackle complicated issues and increase efficiency in a variety of sectors. Here are some instances of how AI and ML are being applied in various industries:
- AI and machine learning are being utilized in healthcare to evaluate medical pictures, aid with diagnosis, and build individualized treatment regimens. They are also used to identify people who are at risk of developing certain diseases and to create novel medications.
- Finance: AI and ML are being used to detect and prevent fraud, evaluate financial markets, and generate predictions about market movements. They are also utilized to deliver customized financial advice and to automate a variety of typical financial duties.
- Retail: Artificial intelligence and machine learning are being used to optimize prices and inventory, customize suggestions, and increase supply chain efficiency. They are also utilized to assist merchants in better understanding their clients and improving the online purchasing experience.
- Manufacturing: Artificial intelligence and machine learning are being utilized to streamline manufacturing processes, increase quality control, and minimize downtime. They are also used to forecast equipment breakdown, allowing maintenance to be arranged ahead of time, and reducing downtime and expenses.
- Transportation: Artificial intelligence and machine learning are being utilized to streamline logistics, route planning, and traffic control, boosting overall efficiency and lowering costs. They are also used to monitor the fleet and forecast repair needs, resulting in less downtime and lower expenses.
- AI and machine learning are being utilized in agriculture for precision farming, crop monitoring, and weather forecasting. They also aid in the optimization of irrigation and fertilization, the reduction of pesticide usage, and the improvement of agricultural yields.
In general, AI and ML may aid in the automation of repetitive operations, the processing of vast volumes of data, and the making of predictions and choices. This can result in increased efficiency, cost savings, and fresh insights in a variety of industries.
Any researcher who is interested in working together in the field of Powers Electronics & Drives, Converter & Inverter Design, MPPT Techniques, Solar Photovoltaic Systems, Microgrid, EV Charging Stations. And also interested in publishing good quality paper. Kindly contact me. And also here Give your suggestion and feedback.
I will really appreciate it if somebody could share the software. My lab owns the stimulator but when we acquired it we didn't get the software nor the drivers. Grass doesn't exist anymore and "Natus" which is the company that bought it told me that "S88X" is a discontinued product and they do not longer provide support for it.
Its crucial for us to control the device from a PC.
Thanks in advance
I am a Research Student working on Beamforming in MATLAB. I want to generate a beam, track and investigate it. I want to send that beam in a specific rectangular region, pointing to a UE and then further track down the movement of the same.
I have been trying to get realtime ecg data from arduino using matlab.
I am able to visualise the real time data using this code.
Here the issue is I cannot get the filtered output at the same time as I am not aware of the fs.
Would like to know how we can process the signal realtime and plot the output.
I am attaching the result I am getting with this code (0 to 200)
The output is taken from arduino pin A0
%get some user settings
%ledPin = 'D13'; %For blinking the led we should access this pin
%deltaT_blink = 0.5;
port = 'COM5';
board = 'Uno';
a = arduino(port,board); % we are creating an arduino object with this specific board and this specific port
%write a small for loop that flashes the LED on and off
% for k = 1:20
% %turn the arduino LED on
% %turn the arduino LED off
init_time = 1;
f = 0;
b = readVoltage(a,"A0");
x = [x,b];
% fs = 16; % Sample rate in Hz
% fc = [5 15]
% Passband frequency range in Hz
% [b1, a1] = butter(4, fc/(fs/2), 'bandpass');
% ecg_filtered = filter(b1, a1, x);
% f1 = fft(x);
% s1 = spectrogram(x);
% f = [f,f1];
% s = [s,s1];
init_time = init_time+1;
I am happy to share my new paper related to EV applications, which is currently an emerging area of research. I request everyone to please share my paper with your knows or groups.
Conference Paper Hybrid Energy Source Based BLDC Motor Drive for Electric Veh...
If you are willing to work in MPPT then I suggest you to follow this paper. This paper helps you to choose the best MPPT algorithm for your system.
Just a question i didn't have idea about and wanted to know as if we can generate electricity from cold waves then we can set power stations in polar regions.
When we Launch rocket to put our satellite in orbit , how it is put in orbit so accurately? Because as I know their are debries in Leo, Meo & Geo so how they find their way out by going through debries , are their any radars to detect the debries , how they avoid this debries ??
How do our Radars get the location of the Planes , jets or Missiles when they are moving ? like how does the stationory radar works?
Options for development of RES are based on FIT or TGC models of energy generation payment ?
What is better solution for country/investor? Why?
Is this Correct That I can reduce Distrotions to Ideally zero and reduce noise upto a limit but no completly zero? right ,In digital communication
As till now after the matched filter or correlator we get a projection of vector and now with with Maxmimum liklehood AND with MAP criteria how we arrive to decission ?
I hope this message finds you'll well. My name is Onyero Walter Ofuzim. I am reaching out to express my interest in collaborating in the field of Electrical/Electronic Engineering mainly in Control Systems Engineering, Dynamic Networks, Machine Learning, IoT, and/or Robotics.
I am deeply passionate about these areas and have been actively involved in research and projects related to them. I firmly believe that collaborating with others in this field will not only increase my chances of getting into a foreign-funded Masters or Ph.D. program, which is my ultimate goal but also help drive innovation and advancements in the field.
I am eager to share my ideas and knowledge and learn from others to contribute to the growth and development of these cutting-edge technologies. I am confident that my skills and experience will be a valuable asset to any team, and I look forward to the opportunity to work with anyone who will be nice to have me.
Thank you for considering my request for collaboration. I look forward to hearing about a possible invitation.
Feel free to explore my profile as I am optimizing it to make my chances high.
Dear Professor, Scientists and Technicians in the field :
I'm looking up on how to determine the Charging Current in a distribution (15, 25 or 35 kV) overhead power line.
These lines are Polyethylene-covered cables. But, since there is always a non cero Capacitance between Ground and the line, there always exists a Charging Current in the direction from the phase, to the Ground.
Does anyone know about the subject ?
How I can compute such result ?
Dear Professor, Scientists and Technicians in the field :
I'm trying to compute the Charging Current for a particular distribution Overhead line (25 or 35 kV).
And I found a paper where I found a couple of equations which allows you to calculate it.
However, in both of the equations you need to know the value of the Capacitance; between the line and the Ground
(in the attached image the equivalent electric circuit of this can be seen)
Two different circuits are shown here (a & b), because the paper where I took that, gives two different sub-methods to calculate the Charging Current of the line. Bith in both the Capacitance is needed.
I have no clue how to be able to figure out the value for the Capcitance.
Does anyone know about this subject ?
By the way, the formula for the Charging Current which appears in this paper is :
I = omega * C * [ V_phase-phase / sqrt(3) ]
I will really thank if someone can help
PS. Paper attached too
I hope all of you doing well. My name is Mamunur Rashid, and I am a final-year student in Electrical & Electronic Engineering. I'm about to start my final year project/thesis. I'm struggling to find a novel/innovative topic to carry on this. My primary interests are Renewable Energy Systems, Smart Grid, Energy Management Systems etc. Is there anyone who can help me to find a suitable topic to start the review on. So I'm hoping for the best. Regards...
How to calculate the power dissipation for different switching activity in sequential elements?
I'm looking for a simple idea that can detect holes in a line of printed aluminum foils. I attempted to put an LED light in the back of the foil so that if a hole is detected, the light can be seen with human eyes. But what basic electrical sensor can detect this light and alert me?
I am trying to drive around 9 strain gauges with a 5V battery, after connecting the strain gauses to the battery, I found that the gauge outputs are very noisy. (since the strain gauges are used on moible platform, I can only use batteries rather than other power sourse with low noise)
To reduce the noise, I added a LM358N op amp as a voltage follower between the battery and the strain gagues. When the output pin of the op amp connects to no load, the output is 5V. However, when I connect that 5V output to the strain gauges, the output voltage of the op amp drops significantly as the number of the strain gauges increases. (even drops to less than 1V)
I think that the voltage drop may be caused by the low impedance of the strain gauges, which the LM358N can not handle. So my question is:
1. Are there any recommendations on op amps that can be used as voltage followers for low impedance outputs like strain gauges?
2. If proper op amps doesn't exist, what other components can I add in my circuit to eliminate or at least to reduce that voltage drop?
Looking forward to your suggestions and thank you in advance!
In terms of short circuit capability, IGBT used in UPS/motor drive/welding/white goods/PFC are required.
For Inductive Heating, there are mainly two topologies (shown attached): half-bridge and single-ended. Why SC capability is not required here?
Thank you in advance!
Hallo every one,
I did nanoidentation experiment :
1 photoresist with 3 different layer thicknesses.
My results show that the photoresist is harder when it has thicker layer..
I can't find the reason in the literature.
Can any one please explaine me why is it like that??
is there any literature for this?
Thermal management of electronics/PCB boards purely depends on the power it dissipates (component power dissipations). But the power dissipation values provided by the component suppliers are the maximum power dissipation and in realty on field the power dissipation is far from this max values. So, i am looking into other possible ways to determine this values, through physic or analytically maybe.
Any bit of information would be highly helpful !
Thanking in advance !!!
I am delivering power to my device using a VNA with frequency ranging from 300kHz to 8GHz. I am trying to figure out the current that passes through my sample, or DUT. I can set the output power of the VVNA and measure the S11. Here is my approach.
Since the total current (the sum of the incident and reflected waves) at the DUT can be expressed as:
then, use P0=I*V0, so current becomes
I=sqrt(P0*(1-Gamma)/Z0), where Gamma=10^(S11/20)
Is this approach current? Another method that I thought of is to first measure the DC resistance, R. Then, the current can be derived as:
Is any of these correct? Any help is much appreciated.
In a hypothetical situation where I have two wires, ones cross section is a cylinder, and the others a star. Both have the same cross section area, both have the same length. What are the differences in electrical properties ?
Are there any experiments done looking into this ?
Also what would happen if a wire had a conical shape, by length ?
I want to simulate a circuit having pin diode to verify switching function of PIN Diode in x-band. What are the softwares that i can use..?
It is a network of 30 earth pits. 3 sets of10 pits.
I have disconnected all the 3 sets. However, when I check for the resistance between the network of first 10 and that of the second set, I get 45ohms. Should it not show in k or M ohms as they are not galvanically coupled. One thing is for sure that they are not shorted as the resistance is as high as 40+
If I disconnected one pit from the remaining 9 in the first set, I get around 250ohms with multimeter.
I am trying to decouple all the 3 sets from each other but to no avail.
is it due to the high conductive compound that has gone into these pits?
Meanwhile, I'll try to explore more on this
Out of these 5 universities can you rate them from top to bottom which is best for coursework and research opportunities for Masters in Antenna Specialization.
Arizona State University, North Carolina State University, Virginia Tech, The Ohio State University, UT Dallas.
I was working on a thesis project on a portable ECG device, I checked these
So it was basically biopotential->Amplifier->logging->displaying using Teensy(Programmable chip), Adafruit(Bluetooth Module), SPI LCD Screen, and resistors and capacitors.
I developed and assembled all except Teensy, adafruit, SPI LCD screen, as I don't have circuit on how to connect output to these 3 devices.
Can anyone share some other resources it would be very much valuable.
case1 : when Radio frequency wave transmision line is loaded with matched impendace, then entire signal is taken by load without any reflections..
case 2: when a Radio frequency wave transmision line is loaded with short circuit, then entire signal is reflected back...
Now what happens when both the above cases are combined?
where will the signal go and how much will be the reflection coefficient?
will the matched impedance load get any signal?
I am trying to design a PIN Diode switch for a WR90 Rectangular waveguide ( X - Band) using HFSS software. I have learnt from some discussion that PIN Diode can be modelled using sheets and boundaries but how exactly that model i can use inside a waveguide as a switch? what are the parameters or extra devices i need to add? I couldn't find any open publications on PIN Diode switch in x-band rectangular waveguide Can someone recommend me some books or publications or blogs for better understanding of PIN Diode simulation in HFSS inside a waveguide.
We have chips on which there is tin, which disappears after a while. Tin is used on the chips to glue the heatsink.
What is your solution for chips that have lost their tin?
Due to the lack of poor heat transfer, we can not use silicone paste.
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I hope you are doing well.
Do you know, which camera is used recently for the GRENOUILLE technique in order to measure the pulse length of ultra-short pulses?
what features the camera should provide? Should it be fast or regular camera works as well?
This article names a camera but I am not sure it is used recently in experiments or it is out of date!
Attached is a document in this regard.
I appreciate your time and any feedback.
I have just designed a fuzzy system, and now I want to redesign it based on the fractional order. However, I have no idea where to start from and what to do. Could you please tell me what I should do and mention any related sources to study?
I would like to request your collaboration to take part in the survey, available at the links: (EN): https://lnkd.in/djVdWne (IT): https://lnkd.in/dnvK3eJ (PT-BR): https://lnkd.in/dVGWmHv This questionnaire is part of the project aiming to analyze the transition from a linear economy to a circular economy, comparing developed and developing countries, at a macro level (nations, regions, cities). The project is a partnership between the University of Brasilia (Brazil), coordinated by Professor Patricia Guarnieri and the University of Bologna (Italy), coordinated by Professor Augusto Bianchini.
Your participation is very important to us. Please share with your network! Sincerely,
From Few Discussion i got to know about PIN Diode Equivalent RLC circuit. Then in hfss created 2 cylinder blocks both in contact to each other, then for one cylinder i gave inductance and for other i gave resistance and capacitance for Diode off condition. Similarly for DIode ON condition, for one cylinder i gave inductance and for other resistance. But it is not working as expected. Please need some help to design it.
I am trying to solve the differential equation. I was able to solve it when the function P is constant and independent of r and z. But I am not able to solve it further when P is a function of r and z or function of r only (IMAGE 1).
Any general solution for IMAGE 2?
Kindly help me with this. Thanks
Is it possible to replace a flyback transformer with a common transformer in a high voltage power supply by modifying the circuit? and if yes, what kind of modifications are needed?
I ask this because making a flyback is harder than making a common transformer.
I have updated my manuscript but its the third time the reviewer send me this comment again.
What are the probable redox reaction during cyclic voltammetry?
Could anyone guide me on this, please
Thanks, A lot in advance for your precious time.
If you refer to the images attached of opamp, one is open loop config of opamp and the other is the closed loop config of opamp. In both of these equations, the formula to obtain output voltage remains the same including the common mode signal affects. However, the Adm term, called as the differential gain of opamp or the circuit, in open loop config refers to the open loop gain of opamp while the Adm term in the second circuit refers to the closed loop gain of opamp. The books I have referred are: Microelectronic Circuits (Seventh Edition) by Sedra Smith, and Op-Amps and Linear Integrated Circuits (Fourth Edition) by Ramakant A. Gayakwad.
Is the reason because the Adm and the Acm in the first circuit refer to the differential gain and the common mode gain of the circuit and the circuit is opamp itself so Adm and Acm are the differential gain and the common mode gain of the opamp itself? While in the second circuit, the Adm and the Acm are the differential mode gain and the common mode gain of the whole circuit? But I saw in Sedma Smith that for the second circuit, output voltage formula of opamp being used in terms of open loop gain without including the affect of internal common mode gain of opamp.
I have been studying quantization in context of Digital Image Processing. I referred to the 4th edition of the book titled "Digital Image Processing" by Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E. Woods.
In the book, the intensity quantization levels are defined as
where k is an integer.
Now the first thing that comes to my find is why is that the quantization levels should be integer multiple of two and why not just any integer in general.
A paragraph has been attached regarding this from the book.
Then I found a homework problem and its solution online which are both attached as images.
In the homework question, I believe n is used in place of k to calculate bits per pixel or bits per picture elements. While k was defined as integer in Gonzalez, here n comes out to be 3.32 bits per pixel (not an integer). Isn't it a contradiction?
I want to make a decision making device by nearby active bluetooth devices using HC-05 bluetooth module with arduino nano but I stucked at programming algorithm to find active devices.
It is similar as arogya setu app's concept.
Kindly give your attention on this question and provide me its resolution.
Dear Researchers :
If someone is proficient in COMSOL and knows about the physics and applications of Electric Power Cables
Can help me on solving this model? What am I doing wrong ?
I need to compute the Temperature Distribution of this 2D model of a MV (35 kV) Power Cable.
The configuration is simple, and the application if for 25 kV AC.
I used a Study in two Steps
Step 1: a Frecuency Domain Analysis to solve first the Electric Currents (ec) and the Magnetic Fields (mf) physics. Followed from a
Step 2: a Stationary Study to solve the Heat Transfer phenomenon and its coupling with the (ec).
I'm attaching this image to shown how I can't get a Temperature Gradient, the Gradient I am getting is so tiny that practically the Temperature is uniform across all the Cable.
I'm doing something wrong
I'll appreciate the help,
Best Regards !
We know wind turbines extract energy from the wind in order to produce electricity, the wind downstream of a turbine has a lower energy content than the wind upstream. Suppose, the understudy region is formed of two zones (Figure attached). In the dark red zone, the initial wind velocity is greater than that in the light red zone.
Bearing in mind the different initial wind velocities, How to determine the resulting wind speed, due to the wake effect of turbine 1 on turbine 2 (case 1) and of turbine 3 on turbine 4 (case 2)?
Scenario: The problem in case 2, perhaps the recovered wind speed at turbine 4 is greater than V0 =8 m/s (initial speed at light red region)
how can i plot the same figure ( desired figure ) for Required leakage inductance with respect to operating power rating and phase shift for DAB converter i tried so many times i think i have problem with my Matlab code , can anyone help me with it ,
I'm sharing my MATLAB code and ( desired figure )
Kindly suggest which routing algorithm is better to implement for finding the optimal route in wireless adhoc networks?
Performance criteria :end to end delay , packet delivery ratio, throughput
Journals with review time of 2-4 weeks and publication time of <6 months.Impact factor journals >1.
IS there any literature that analyze selection of window length of window in rooling/moving RMS of voltage signal?
I log data from oscilloscope, and then I calculate RMS voltage, but I am not sure the length of the window? Are there any rules about this?
As you know, non-technical energy loss is a major problem in distribution networks especially in traditional ones with no smart meters. I know that the huge amount of non-technical energy loss is caused by electricity thefts mostly in rural areas. Nowadays, the novel configurations of networks are prevailing which can prevent at least electricity theft. However, it is still happening and results in huge amount of money loss! Here are my questions:
1. What are the other causes of non-technical loss and how can we reduce them?
2. Who must pay for it?
3. How can we consider it in novel electricity market places?
4. What is the easiest way to detect and prevent/reduce this type of loss in networks?
Any ideas would be appreciated.
Thank you in advance.
Are there any models to predict when an "Electrical Tree" or a "Water Tree" will occur inside an electrical insulator (dielectric materials as Polyethylene, Polypropylene, etc.) working on its normal operating conditions for Medium Voltage or High Voltage applications ? i.e. the Electric Insulator material covering the conductor cable in underground power cables (MV and HV)
Are there any theoretical or empirical models to predict these phenomena ? When treeing will occur along the life of an electrical power cable?
Hello Dear colleagues
in the figure below there are two relaxation oscillator circuits they do the some function that generate triangular and signals. However, what are the technical difference between these circuits? and in particular when i use the circuit in figure (a) and when i use circuits in figure (b)?