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# Electrical Energy Conservation - Science topic

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This discussion aims to show how the world's investment in power generation is. In Brazil, the current investment is made more in photovoltaic and wind power.
In Ecuador, the fossil energy source is widely used, because this is an oil exporting country. On the other hand, the most widely used renewable source of energy is hydroelectric, because the mountainous regions of Ecuador have favorable conditions for this energetic practice.
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Hi everyone,
I am working on a project on digsilent, and i would like to know how i can run this optimal power flow analysis.
Please take a look at these sites
Best regards
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Resistances in transmission system are negligible, so 1.0pu voltage assumption holds. However, in distribution system, resistances are not negligible. Please provide information about some simple ACOPF relaxation method. Thanks.
In distrib. systems u cant neglect resistances of lines, so I think u should use full AC OPF not just the linearized DC OPF.
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Could you please send examples along with the frequency , size of the inductor and charge and type of charge
because I want to compare my derived formulas for the Q factor .
Q factor is essentially defined as Maximum energy stored in the induction system with reference to energy dissipated as heat loss. Q factor formula for series load and parallel load is different and exactly reciprocal. By this definition Q factor is defined as wo*L/R, in series circuit. w0 being the resonant frequency given as 1/sqrt(LC). Thus Q factor is totally depends on R-L-C parameters and not the frequency of excitation source. Q for work-piece changes during a heating cycle for ferrous material and varies with temperature affected reflected electrical parameters. For instance, initially Q is between 3-5 at cold state. Then at middle temperature, it rises to 20 suddenly and again changes to 10 at curie temperature depending on the type of material
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A constant AC voltage is desired from a variable supply voltage. The constant output gives known benefits such as energy savings and prolonged lifespan of equipment.
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electrical
Nice. . !
Most of loads are 3-ph loads,  design cost and required power electronic interface including switching losses and control technique
Yes,  sure
for induction motor as example by returning its stator windings and 6-ph inverter.
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How to calculate the cost of a solar power plant? what are the components used in calculation?Please also comment on the losses which are considered in solar power generation?
Thank You.
The cost of solar PV in the sum of costs of its components including:
1) PV wafer panels. This will depend on the power requirements.
2) Power electronics (e.g., current inverters, etc)
3) Labor cost to install the units.
I recommend that you visit the Department of Energy website to get the detailed cost. Here is the URL:
Professor Yehia Khalil
Yale University
USA
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We know that ground vibration resulting from blasting operation can be measured using Geophone. But how about measuring vibration of an electric pole?
Dear Nutan,
The vibration due to blasting operation done in a mines is a dynamic vibrations. So latest MEMS accelerometers have the capability measure the same. Later, with that data you can analyze the effect that virbration on the  steel structure using suitable methods.
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data or orientation are welcome
Hello Slimane,
In general, Electrical Energy Storage (EES) Systems are categorized as follows:
1. Pumped Hydroelectric Storage (PHS);
2. Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES);
3. Flywheel Energy Storage (FES);
4. Battery Energy Storage (BES) [ Lead–acid batteries, Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, Sodium–sulfur (NaS) batteries,  Nickel–cadmium (NiCd) batteries and others ];
5. Flow Battery Energy Storage (FBES)  [ Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (VRB).  Zinc Bromine (ZnBr) ﬂow battery, Polysulﬁde Bromine (PSB) ﬂow battery ];
6. Capacitor and Supercapacitor;
7. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES);
8. Solar fuels;
9. Hydrogen EES and fuel cell;
10. Thermal Energy Storage (TES); and
11. Hybrid electrical energy storage.
Among these systems,Solar fuel is relatively new technology of EES. Solar fuel technology is currently at the development stage. The power rating of solar fuels is potentially up to 20 MW and the speciﬁc energy estimate is from 800 W h/kg to 100,000 W h/kg.  The storage duration can range from a few hours to several months.
Currently, Hydrogen EES with fuel cell technology is in the development and demonstration stage. The electricity generation by using fuel cells is quieter, produces less pollution and is more efﬁcient than the fossil fuel combustion approach. Other features include easy scaling (potential from 1 kW to hundreds of MW).
TES for power system and grid applications, there are many active research projects worldwide and demonstration projects are built, under construction or planned. UK based company Highview Power Storage designed and assembled a pilot LAES facility (300 kW/ 2.5 MWh storage capacity) which has been in operation at Scottish and Southern Energy’s 80 MW biomass plant since 2010.
When EES is adopted for bridging power, they are required to have moderate power rating (100 kW–10 MW) and response time (up to around 1 s), in order to provide the continuity of power supply at energy gap periods (up to several hours), such as the time interval for switching the system from one source of power generation to another. Conventional batteries and ﬂow batteries are suitable for this application. Flywheels, supercapacitors and fuel cells are also reported for such types of applications.
I share the excellent article: "Overview of current development in electrical energy storage technologies and the application potential in power system operation" by Xing Luo et al.
All the Best!
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I can use both of these electric generators because of importance of efficiency in power generating i don't know which type is better. the dimensions and working conditions are similar.
That explains it, Farid. I almost had a heart attack !!! :-) :-)
Anyway, the "output" part is a tricky question - probably both can be designed suitably to get appropriate output.
But the rotary has several advantages over the linear, that can never be ignored:
1. Requires less space, and is more compact.
2. Because of #1, more portable.
3. Size reduces further if you eliminate the commutator by a BLDC structure.
4. Easier to cool, easier to maintain.
At micro sizes, however (say in MEMS, for example) linear generator structure can be advantageous for some specific applications.
BTW, what is the application you are thinking of ?
-Sanjay
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I want to make a simulation model for the three phase voltage source inverter using PWAM Scheme. The magnitude of the input DC source varies according to requirement with the inverter switching. I have to understand the switching pattern for it. I have gone through the literature available for it, but bit confusion about it. If some one has done some work on it, can just provide me the model? I need 230 V output with 50 Hz Frequency.
you can refer to the pdf file.
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I am currently doing a literature review on this topic.
Thanks Diego. I will check these links
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How to calculate reactive power consumption by star connected capacitor bank at the output of three phase inverter? Is it 3*V^2/Xc ? what should I take V as line voltage or phase voltage?
Before using such so-called PF meter  It may be useful to identify the way rhe AC current is converted into the DC current.as requested by the equipment being investigated.
If a Switching Modes Power Supply is used, it may deliver a periodic althouh not necessarily compliant with  a sine waveform . Then, when you calculate the ACTIVE POWER {mean value of the square root of the (v*i)²}, the rest of the consumed power is nothing but the NON-ACTIVE POWER, not automatically the so-called REACTIVE POWER you are regarding.
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Can i design grid synchronizing inverter without  PLL..can you suggest me any other or alternative methods of designing grid synchronizing inverter. The main area of focus is in Renewable energy grid integration.
The role of the PLL is to regenerate a clean copy of the the grid waveform. It acts merely as very narrow adaptive band pass filter for the unclean and distorted power network waveform. From principle point of view you can substitute it with a  complex filter or even  a narrow band pass filter with acceptable distortion and noise level as proposed by  Jyoti.
In fact the most elegant solution for the synchronization is the phase locked loop. Really it is the circuit of synchronization.
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Hello, Can anyone tell me why we have a greater electric consumption in a reciprocating Freon compressor when we increase the evaporation temperature?
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Dear Rajeev,
As far as I know, in Perfect Power System (See the book of Clark W. Gellings regarding  Smart Grid), DC microgrid which includes small-scale DGs, ESS, and some other batteries is normally interfaced through power electronics converters. Moreover, AC loads are also connected to the grid via this kind of interface.
Since such converters tend to maintain the load power constant under fast current and voltage disturbances, from the DC bus viewpoint, they behave as an electrical constant load.
I hope this piece of information would be helpful for your research.
Regards,
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Both the tests let us know about the core losses and copper losses in single phase transformer, then why is sumpner's test preferred over "open circuit and short circuit test" ?
The Sumpner's test(back to back test) is the very practical, convenient, efficient and minimum power consumption without actual loading(heat run(Temp. rise) test for Hrs.) method to find regulation and efficiency of large power transformer, used in practice. Only needed are two identical power transformers, and is very conveniently used by large power transformer manufectorers, compare to O.C&S.C test. It can be compered with the back to back test, used for D.C machines(Hopkinson's test), power consumption would be equal to no load power consumption of machines/equipments. Two transformers can be tested at a time.
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Currently, thin films from nanoparticles are widely used in solar cells. What are the other properties that can be improved to improve solar cell efficiency?
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I am not talking only about air pollution. I am asking any type of pollution from hydro power plant.
Dear Rasbnidu,
Nuclear power creates radioactive waste which are harmful to living organisms (can cause cancer, genetic mutation),  also require substantial amount of cooling water.  Solar and wind energy may be good in the subcontinent and can create local jobs  and supply of local electricity
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Is it possible, considering fluid mechanical problems and temperatures in the selection of materials? Do you know of any cases? Is it feasible economically?
Joachim's example brings up the topic of how ignorance of the second law of thermodynamics can lead to logical impossibilities. Not in Joachim's case, rather the folks at Wow Energy. In America, we call that 'snake oil.' Despite Wow Energy's assertion of near 100% recovery (efficiency), I'd be shocked to see their design exceeds 1%. In fact, I suspect the design will actually consume energy rather than deliver it. I'm not surprised they never built even a prototype, much less find a commercial application.
I actually like Gyorgy's use of the thermoelectric effect better. At least there you have a single step conversion from heat to electricity. NASA has been using this technique since the 1960s. In fact, Arthur C. Clark first suggested their use back when he patented the communication satellite in 1950. For example SNAP 3 was the first satellite to use an RTG,(Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator), Pioneer 10 and 11, Voyager 1 and 2, and the New Horizons probe to Pluto all use RTGs. But, thermocouples are notoriously inefficient (5% is typical). Again, this could be expected because the temperature difference is quite low. But, if money is no option, and the energy source is large (ie: nuclear), and there's no other mechanism, a thermocouple design might be the way to go.
But, that brings up the economics issue again. One thermocouple isn't very expensive, but 10's of thousands, maybe millions is another story. Conventional construction techniques aren't likely to produce an economical solution. (NASA doesn't have to worry too much about economics.) On the other hand, nanotechnology offers some hope. At the moment, nano scale self assembly is in its infancy. But eventually, I expect the technology will mature to the point where it's possible to construct mol quantities (that's 10^23) of devices for little more than the cost of the materials. When this happens, we won't be just recovering waste heat from smokestacks, but everywhere there's a small temperature difference.
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I am currently working on the development of a control module, using the PSpice tool, in which we developed a driver circuit - the problem I face is that I am not able to simulate the relay part in the simulation.
Could anyone please lend their expertise in this field?
The following reference may help you in writing the circuit used in a control loop with relay as a component. to represent the action of the relay contact - on or off.
PSPICE SIMULATION OF TH E PRECONDITIONER CIRCUIT
P.S.
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Are there any devices designed for this purpose?
It depends on what final shape has your piezo device. In principle you need a charge amplifier, so something that has an extremely high input impedance, that is low input current (thinking of bias and offset current of an Op Amp). See e.g. datasheet and app. note for LMC6001 (National).
Alternatively, you may use an accelerometer, that outputs an already conditioned signal that can be read with an oscilloscope.
Or, if you are interested in locating the frequency and less in the amplitude, a microphone like the ones for cellular phones and similar applications using an electret (made e.g. by Panasonic).
If you don't want to go too high in frequency than you can used also a strain gauge and measure it with a Wheatstone bridge and again an oscilloscope.
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