Science topic

# Electric Vehicles - Science topic

Electric vehicles, their design, control and optimization.
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I am trying to calculate the heat generation (during charging) from a li-ion battery and I used Bernardi equation for that. Since dU/dT will be low, I calculated the heat flux as follows;
q = [1/A] * [ I^2 * R] (W/m^2)
Battery pack configuration: 3P30S
Cell capacity [Ah]: 100
Cell voltage [V] : 3.2
Cell’s bottom area [m^2]: 0.00405
Battery’s bottom area [m^2]: 0.3645
Internal resistance (at 25degC / 0% SOC): 0.001546 [ohm]
Since the C-rate is 2, I calculated the cell current as 200 [A].
When the values are put in place, the heat flux is 15.270 (kW/m^2) for a single cell. I couldn't understand where and how I made a mistake. Could you give me your opinions about it?
Hello Djef Brak ,
Apologies for the delay.
I did a discharge test in amesim with 150 [A] and waited until 0% SOC. I've got 900 [W] heat loss so it's approx. 2,5 [kW/m²]. I thought it's an acceptable value for this type of configuration but i am not an expert :D Does this seem reasonable?
Thanks,
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Normal car uses Radiatior system to cool down the engine system. But in Electric vehicle that there is no nead of radiators i think.
Someboby told me electric vehicles using heatsink. Please clarify what type of heatsink is used and how heat in Electric vehicle is controlled.
Hello Nekin Joshua ,
You can find the answer to your question on the Internet by simply typing the phrase "do electric vehicles have radiators" into the Google search field. One of the most important EV components that needs to have its temperature regulated is the battery. If the battery overheats, it can catch fire or explode. Most EV batteries are liquid cooled with the heat dissipated by a radiator.
Regards,
Tom Cuff
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What would be the future trends of solar and energy storage for large-scale asset management for improved reliability, increased revenue, higher energy cost reduction and better asset life extension?
According to the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, the following are some advantages of combining storage and solar energy:
1- Balancing electricity loads – Without storage, electricity must be generated and consumed at the same time, which may mean that grid operators take some generation offline, or “curtail” it, to avoid over-generation and grid reliability issues. Conversely, there may be other times, after sunset or on cloudy days, when there is little solar production but plenty of demand for power. Enter storage, which can be filled or charged when generation is high and power consumption is low, then dispensed when the load or demand is high. When some of the electricity produced by the sun is put into storage, that electricity can be used whenever grid operators need it, including after the sun has set. In this way, storage acts as an insurance policy for sunshine.
2-“Firming” solar generation – Short-term storage can ensure that quick changes in a generation don’t greatly affect the output of a solar power plant. For example, a small battery can be used to ride through a brief generation disruption from a passing cloud, helping the grid maintain a “firm” electrical supply that is reliable and consistent.
3-Providing resilience – Solar and storage can provide backup power during an electrical disruption. They can keep critical facilities operating to ensure continuous essential services, like communications. Solar and storage can also be used for microgrids and smaller-scale applications, like mobile or portable power units.
These are three emerging technologies:
1- Longer charges.
2- Saffer batteries.
3- Storing sunlight as heat.
Batteries are useful for short-term energy storage, and concentrated solar power plants could help stabilize the electric grid. However, utilities also need to store a lot of energy for indefinite amounts of time. This is a role for renewable fuels like hydrogen and ammonia.
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Electric vehicles are still a relatively new technology, and as with any new technology, they tend to be more expensive than established technologies. Can any body tell me some top 10 reasons why do electric vehicles so expensive?
Electric vehicles are still a relatively new technology, and as with any new technology, they tend to be more expensive than established technologies. Here are 10 major reasons why electric vehicles are so expensive:
1. Development and production costs: Developing and producing electric vehicles is expensive. The technology is still new and there are a lot of costs associated with getting electric vehicles on the road.
2. Batteries: Batteries are one of the most expensive components of electric vehicles. They are also one of the heaviest, which adds to the overall weight of the vehicle and increases production costs.
3. Charging infrastructure: Electric vehicles need to be charged and charging infrastructure is still in its infancy. There are costs associated with building out this infrastructure, and those costs are passed on to consumers.
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Any researcher who is interested in working together in the field of Powers Electronics & Drives, Converter & Inverter Design, MPPT Techniques, Solar Photovoltaic Systems, Microgrid, EV Charging Stations. And also interested in publishing good quality paper. Kindly contact me. And also here Give your suggestion and feedback.
Yes sir, I'm interested..
I would like to work on Multi-level converters
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Electrical vehicles have been touted as one of the major ways to combat global climate change. Without combustion of fossil fuel producing gases harmful for human health is a major step towards using electric vehicles but it requires some drastic steps to replace the gas fired vehicles. The cost of vehicles and the lack of supercharging stations are some of the obstacles need to be overcome before making it a potential solution. Unfortunately, this type vehicles are not yet available in many countries. What are your comments?
Does your government encourage electric or(and) hybrid cars? Why? How?
The differences between them are greats. They only car that I have now is an electric one. I will not repeat these differences between the two norms of cars that are already known by our honorable colleagues. But, I want to point to another point. These cars are not suitable for petroleum countries where the petrol price is very cheap. My government does not actually encourage them for some reasons that there is no need to be mentioned here. To prove that, the electric stations are mainly only in the capital of Jordan, Amman. If you go to other cities, you will find only zero or one station that can serve two cars at most.!!
For instance, I went to Irbid and wait in the queue for more than 6 hours; otherwise, I should upload my car in the car winch! Anyhow, I will not repeat that black experiment. My beloved car is only for Amman.
My government can solve the problem in few seconds by issuing the following decision: every gas station must have also two electric stations for serving at least two cars simultaneously.
Image' source
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Electric vehicles (EVs) are now widely regarded as mature and promising for the future of mobility. As the markets expand, the next battery technologies are being marketed as a miraculous answer for the energy transition to zero-emission automobiles. EVs are seen as the silver bullet for end-user electrification and a major weapon for combating global warming, allowing us to shift without having to change any of our lifestyles or mobility, which are based on the private car. Unfortunately, the electric vehicle is not a clean or carbon-free technology. Is there a future alternative to our current mode of transportation? How will knowledge and cutting-edge technologies change and solve our transportation problems?
The answer is yes. Electric vehicles are a very promising area of ​​development and will see tremendous growth in the coming years. This long-awaited growth process is due, in large part, to the reduction in the load of environmental damage that this type of artifact produces in the first place.
It cannot be determined from now on how long electricity in transport will be a sustainable solution because from now on technological changes will occur at an increasingly accelerated rate, which will contribute to generating new and unexpected proposals for solutions.
The current problems that make electricity viable for public transport are also based on the wide possibilities of mass movement of people in all directions and in all countries that can take on this challenge.
The irregularities of the land are solved with the construction of tunnels and this helps in a satisfactory way to take advantage of the spaces and optimize the routes of the vehicles, that is to say that the use of the vehicle itself is not everything, it is also about investing in infrastructure .
The infrastructure, of course, is also an expense because if you only have vehicles and you don't have roads, good railways, airports or cable cars, then you simply won't have how to use these means.
Humanity belatedly began to enter the use of electrical energy in public transport but, finally, it seems that we are going down that path, other solutions will come later, but what is in the short term, we all know that it is an inevitable fact.
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I'm looking for a data showing details of EV charging events, preferably in the US.
For example, a data showing that out of a total number of annual EV charging events, X% are using level 2 and Y% are using DCFC, or out of total X kWh EVs annually gained, Y% is gained via level 2 and Z% is gained via DCFC.
This data is held by car manufacturers (measured by the car and centralized via data plans), or the charging network providers.
On the car manufacturers side, the process is long for classic car builders, Tesla has a reputation to help research, and have an open-data policy, try to have a contact there.
To have the correct data, you'll have to connect with these professionals, and negotiate the access.
Another source could be virtual charge operators, that give you acces not only to one network, but their aggregated group of providers they give access to (like GreenFlux, GreenLots, ChargePoint, EVConnect, FLO...).
One last source could be academics (universities), or EV promotion non-gov associations.
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need clear view about future research in Electric vehicle, also need drawbacks in domine. it can be anything in that field like battery management, power issues, thermal management and power charging
Technically, the electric car is ready. Of course, there is still a lot to improve in it, for example, battery life and charging time (as well as fire hasard - see Dinesh Kumar Madheswaran answer), but we can already ride. The problem is that there has developed a negative aura and many people see it as something that scientists, governments, and car companies are pushing. A small number of consumers who chasing novelty do not make a mass character (I know a few people who, for example, buy "Yourphone" X + 1 before they even have time to master "Yourphone" X...) The electric car has not yet become a "workhorse", something familiar and understandable. The required number of breakdowns and troubles has not accumulated yet (nothing brings close like problems experienced together), there is not yet a single fiction book (I can name dozens about regular cars) or a movies. It will, but for now, an electric car is a very expensive toy with excellent prospects.
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Does anyone have data on "Electric Vehicle Battery Health" and "Landscape Architecture"? If possible, please provide a link to the datasets repository.
What kind of data for "Landscape Architecture" do you need?
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As EV charging stations are now available at residential places as well as offices and malls.
So can we say that now 80% of the EVs will always be available to support the grid?
Shubham Tiwari Dear, I completely agree with what you have stated "increase in charging infrastructure in the future undoubtedly will have the ability to perform both G2V and V2G, thereby EV will be available for 24 hours to support the grid".
Some argue that EVs will make the grid unstable, which could mean hefty investments. Facts and data show why they are wrong.
If 80% of all passenger cars become electric, this would lead to a total increase of 10-15% in electricity consumption. Moreover, When it comes to managing the peak electricity demand and low-voltage grid, smart charging can solve most of the challenges at the local level and in residential areas.
On the other hand, it relies on the grid source. Renewable is the perfect option in this. SO there is something absolutely certain is the investments (either govt. or corporate) must be targeted to updating infrastructures powered by renewable(s) for the sustainable future.
Best wishes.
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Impact of EV and Solar
In the near future, electric vehicles are likely to gain a significant market share. Apart from the numerous benefits of massive usage of electric vehicles, this can lead to some problems in the electrical system, such as the power quality and reliability of the electric distribution system. For example, when the battery is charged, the transformer may get overloaded and a faster-aging may occur. The use of solar photovoltaic (PV) in electric vehicle charging stations or in car parking spaces could be a solution. While intelligently coupling photovoltaic system and electric vehicles on the electric grid have the advantages like a significant reduction in energy and carbon emissions of the transportation sector, increased reliability of the system
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Electric Vehicles are gaining acceptability all over the world . Further, carbon emission concerns could bring in policy changes in future, thus, hampering the growth of IC based vehicles. EVs could be disruptive in nature slowly killing the market . If that scenario is going to take place, how would the leading manufactures and their ancillary units are going to gear up for the future. I request learned members to provide answers to this critical question which is going to impact the existing auto ecosystem.
I think the major car manufacturers already have at least one or two electric car models (I cannot actually name each of them for I don't know that much.) But I understand the strategy is that "good amounts of net profits from market IC cars is going into R&D, innovation side of the electric vehicles which is definitely a good sign that they are getting ready for the shift." The rise in jobs for power electronics and electrical machines within electric vehicle sector also signifies this fact. Personally, I was getting many calls from automotive sector as an electrical engineer.
But I think we need to see the numbers of new refineries or extensions that are happening all over the world too in terms of new projects. This shows us how much is going into investing under petroleum refineries. but that can be again for textiles or chemical manufacturing.
The shift from IC to EV will take longer in developing countries as everyone knows, that way, the major car manufacturers know that they still need to innovate in IC vehicles as well.
I want to know if anyone gives statistics for some of my answers. I can evaluate my approach towards it then!
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Is there any specific test method to prove that battery has 1C capability (Charge C rate @1C, Discharge C-rate @1C, Cycle life @1C)?
Any testing method that would confirm the battery technology to have specific C-rate capability ?
Thank you.
Hi Asla,
I would suggest you perform a capacity test first by applying a very low current rate. Then, you could perform the current rate of 1C which should be calculated based on the practical capacity you've got. I think this is the proper step if you really want to examine the specific current rate capability of a specific material.
Best,
Egy
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I created Electric vehicle dynamic model in Matlab Simulink.IT is showing the perfect result. But I am facing the difficulties when I am integrating that EV in any system or MG. Its either not running or its taking too much time to run.How to solve this issue,can anyone find the solution please let me know.
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Electric Vehicles (EV) Technology are now considered as mature and promisingfor the future of mobility. As the markets are growing, the next batteries technologies are presented as a miraculous solution for the energy transition to zero emissions vehicles. EV are considered as the silver bullet of the electrification of end users and a key tool for fighting against global warming, allowing us to enter into transition without changing any of our lifestyles and mobility built around the private car. Unfortunately, the EV is far from being clean and carbon free technology. Is there another alternative solution for our mobility in the future? How knowledge and innovative technnologies will shape and solve our transportation issues?
With the legal regulations on the European level (e.g. green deal / especially fit for 55), the need for a large share of purely electric passenger cars but also electrically powered commercial vehicles has been significantly increased in the coming years. Current estimates assume a share of 50-75% in the sales of purely electric vehicles by 2030 on EU level to meet the strict requirements. In Germany alone, the new coalition agreement calls for 15 million electric vehicles on German roads by 2030. Furthermore, in my view, all efforts that are technologically possible are needed to further advance the reduction of emissions. This includes hydrogen technology for heavy-duty applications, stationary applications and synthetic fuels, for example for aviation.
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Take an example, where a battery is to supply two power electronic converters separately. If we switch the contacts of the battery from one converter to the other using two contactors, will it create a significant loss in the converter paths? How much will the efficiency get affected by this method (using contactors)?
What are the other problems that can arise, like the effect in control (due to the resistance or any other component of the contactor)?
Make sure that (1) the contactors haaveRC networks to absorb transients and (2) the system is proof against the condition of both contactors being open or closed (by some fault condition). For safety!
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I want to perform research on EVs (hybrid and plugin EVs) using MATLAB/Simulink.
Reducing environmental impactas arising from batteries disposal
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Up to date, what is the rated/maximum power of different electric vehicles on the market (if possible, can list some examples)? And how is the development trend in the future?
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Many countries have plans to deploy electric vehicle charging stations (EVCS ). As researchers, how do we start with that?, What about the expected issues that will occur in the power system and ways to solve them?.
EVs charge their batteries from the power grid and may cause severe effects if not managed properly. On the other hand, they can provide many benefits to the power grid and get revenues for EV owners if managed properly. A good overview of potential negative impacts of EVs charging on electric power systems mainly due to uncontrolled charging and how through controlled charging and discharging those impacts can be reduced and become even positive impacts is provided in the following paper.
Nour, M.; Chaves-Ávila, J.P.; Magdy, G.; Sánchez-Miralles, Á. Review of Positive and Negative Impacts of Electric Vehicles Charging on Electric Power Systems. Energies 2020, 13, 4675. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13184675
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I need GA algorithm for Electric Vehicle Charging/Discharging using MATLAB/SIMULINK where i can change the data required and find some solutions. Thank You
Mohamed-Mourad Lafifi thank you sir for such nice articles but i am looking for some codes to get more in depth knowledge.
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I want to optimize the usable SOC range of hybrid vehicle in order to improve fuel economy. So. how to choose maximum and minimum SOC values for running an optimization algorithm?
You need to consider the aging of the batteries because the Depth of Discharge of the battery will be a very important stress factor. This can be tested with the cyclic and calendar aging test. Have a look:
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The idea is to find supplier and prices of the most used batteries for EVs.
check this paper for values:
Standard suppliers are CATL, Samsung, LG, BYD
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Electric Vehicle chargers are two following types:
- on-board
-off-board
You have to work around series of standard for various tests like CISPER 25 for emission, ISO 11452 ISO 7637 for Immunity, etc.
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What parameters should be metered?
What are the other considerations?
Remote monitoring?
Relevant sensors?
Relevant mathematical tools?
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Hello everyone,
All lithium ion battery pack/system in the Electric vehicle (EV) needs to achieve certain certification before entering the country's market.
So does anyone know all the standards, norms to satisfy USA for Electric vehicle battery packs?
I know a few examples like UN GTR Nr. 20
Any references or links will be usfeul
Regards,
Praveen
I would suggest reading the following papers:
1-ttps://www.nfpa.org/-/media/Files/Training/AFV/Research/rfusnevsssummit.ashx?la=en&hash=76D02082FA84EFB8CD5E8539427C97291286A43B
2- ttps://www.nfpa.org/-/media/Files/Training/AFV/Research/rfusnevsssummit.ashx?la=en&hash=76D02082FA84EFB8CD5E8539427C97291286A43B
3- Understanding U.S. And European Standards For Electric-Vehicle Charging | Electronic Design
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Labor Reforms in Saudi Arabia under Its Vision 2030 aims to address the problem, two of my research papers are based on the subject.
1) EXPLORING SAUDI REASONS FOR ECONOMIC REFORMS AND NEED TO STUDY THE SOCIAL IMPACT FOR ITS SUCCESS
2) 'Nitaqat' Law: Labor Market Reforms in KSA and its Impact
In continuation of it, I would like to discuss points that could address Gulf countries position and highlight future struggles for economic resources.
The only solution is to expand the development of other economic sectors to avoid the country's dependence on the oil industry in the future.
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Electric cars have been introduced world wide with the idea that there will be some decrease in carbon footprints along with decrease in air pollution. But we have to charge an electric car on regular basis. From where that energy will come, is a big question. Some countries have hydel power generation, and some have thermal energy, the other may have solar also.
Second question is about water, air and soil pollution? If we shifted from air pollution to water and/or soil pollution, we have the ability to handle such mega scale pollutions?
In the light of the above, what is your analysis and views?
Hi. Mainly yes.
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I would like to raise this question to the scientific community. Please provide your opinion and your arguments.
Hi. Renewable energy resources as biofuel is good but if the electrical car use water as a fuel will be better . Electrical cell used to make electrolysis for water to produce hydrogen then the produced hydrogen is input for fuel cell to produce electrivcty and oxygen .
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What should be the multidimensional nature of EV charging station in urban and rural areas?
For immediate infrastructure creation, all Fuel filling stations should also have EV charging stations.
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Hi everyone,
I am working on a research project on an Electrical Vehicle Charger. So, I need a model of it in Simulink. Can anyone have the model of it? I need it to get a high startup for my research paper.
Thanks in anticipation.
Regards,
Engr. Mujtaba Farrukh
Mujtaba Farrukh This example already in available on MATLAB, a vehicle-to-grid system used to regulate the frequency on a microgrid for a full day.
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In the transportation sector (Electric vehicles), Lithium ion batteries particularly LFP and NMC are the most utilized battery packs today! What are the other expected options within Lithium-ion or other options could be possibly used in the future?
Dear Muhammad, this is certainly an important technical question of broad general interest to many RG members. As an organometallic chemist I not a proven expert in this field. However, I can recommend to you a potentially useful review article which might help you in your analysis. Please have a look the the following paper entitled:
Li-Ion Batteries: A Review of a Key Technology for Transport Decarbonization
Besides LFP, NMC, and LTO type lithium ion batteries, LMO (lithium manganese oxide, LiMn2O4) and NCA (lithium nickel cobalt aluminium oxide, LiNiCoAlO2) technologies are named here.
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I am trying to simulate the following case: A three-phase source in a Matlab is connected to a Vienna Rectifier which is supposed to supply power to a resistive load of 50KW. Output DC voltage to be 800V DC and the input voltage is 400V AC. Technically a Vienna rectifier after rectification also improves power factor, that is, reduces the input current distortion to be less than 5%. I have designed almost everything correctly still neither the Vienna rectifier is reducing the input current distortion nor it is boosting the output voltage at the DC link to be 800V. I cannot figure out what is wrong. I am trying to solve this problem for the past 2 weeks still no solution.
To run the simulation, first, run the Vienna_rectifier_data.m file and then simulate the test.slx
The Matlab version is 2020b. If you need me to convert to an older version I can do that too.
Any kind of help is highly appreciated.
Thank you
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What can I do as a graduation project for my Mechatronics Engineering BS degree , im interested in EV's
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I hope all the researchers are fine.
Is there is any way to calculate the failure rate per year of lithium ion battery ( as we can calculate failure rate of converters by using MIL-HDBK ).
I suggest to use FIDES methodology since it has models for Li-ion batteries.
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Generally, the HPPC test is used to calculate the battery peak charge/discharge power. However, I wanted to calculate the battery peak charge/discharge power under drive cycle test condition such as UDDS, US06 and FUDS.
You can have a look at our shared data.
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Hello everyone,
All lithium ion battery pack/system in the Electric vehicle (EV) needs to achieve certain certification before entering the country's market.
So does anyone know all the standards, norms to satisfy China compulsory certification (CCC) for Electric vehicle battery packs?
I know a few examples like GB 38031-2020
Any references or links will be usfeul
Regards,
Praveen
Thanks for your quick response. I will have a look
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Are they any sources of public charging station data recorded of EVs, and what are the most common public data for residential or even non-residential session datasets?
check our publicatons of Werner Schmid and in the project Me
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Dear Professors,
My research area is solar photovoltaic systems..
At present, I started to work on PV integrated Electric vehicle/Hybrid Electric vehicle...
I need your support to model the Electric vehicle/Hybrid electric vehicle in MATLAB/Simulink..
Instead of Electric vehicle, Is a DC/AC motor is connected at the output of PV system?
Hybrid Electric vehicle is modeled by any tow of the sources, then in case if Hybrid electric vehicle, what are the two types of loads need to be considered to model the hybrid vehicles?
Please guide me to model the Electric vehicle/Hybrid electric vehicle in MATLAB/Simulink.
Thank You..
Try our open source libraries:
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As per a latest report, 22 of world’s 30 most polluted cities are in India. What strategies need to be adopted to bring down this number to say half (11) in the fastest possible timeframe.
For example, strategy could be like stopping all new construction activity within the polluting city, shifting all no strategic offices to rural areas, fixing the allowed population density per unit area, shifting of airport traffic etc.......Please give suggestions in this context.
There are various types of pollution, so each one or combination may take a specific survey or inventory, and assessment. Some of the various types may include solid waste, sanitary waste (human, animals, pets, etc.), industrial wastes, air pollutants, water pollutants, soil pollutants, etc. Coming up with a working proposal would probably necessitate involvement of leaders, community, landowners, and others interested, such as industry, hospitality such as hotels, citizens, etc. Leaders might include political representatives, health, religious, agencies, police or enforcement, various technical pollution experts, etc. Funding to develop comprehensive plans, improvements and management as well as monitoring may be another important area to address. Plans or programs might be developed to help address specific types of pollution, or circumstances, and some of these might be voluntary citizen responsibilities, and some might be legalized or regulated, and funded by taxation, communities, industries, or government actions.
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I have seen it in multiple research articles that authors use certain approaches to predict electric vehicle battery's state of charge(SoC) and then they compare it with battery's true SoC. So I wanna know how can I get this true SoC curve? Is it obtained using OCV method or Coulomb Counting method or any other technique?
Best Regards
Hi Syed, the validation of the SOC estimation methods are always conducted with the battery testers. The current sensor of the battery testers need to be quite accurate so that Coulomb Counting method can be used to calculate the real value of the SOC of the battery with the initial SOC of the battery determined based on the OCV-SOC relationship. The OCV-SOC relationship can also be measured by the battery tester under OCV test or qOCV test.
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I wanted to calculate the probability of one consumer shifting from using a petroleum-fueled vehicle to an electric vehicle. Since my background is in engineering I do not know much about how to measure the consumer willingness to change. Has anybody has the knowledge to measure consumer behavior to change and then kindly explain to me with understandable words?
من خلال كثره الطلب على سلعه معينه بهذه الطريقه ممكن ان نعمل إحصائية
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What if we put a Flywheel Energy Storage System between a Renewable Energy Source (Solar, Wind, etc) and an Electric Vehicle Chrager?
Would be possible to really improve charging time by taking advantage of key cababilities like high power density and also the capacity of several charge/discharge cycles?
Hi Mr. Vostrov, first of all thanks for your detailed answer! That was a free expression thought looking to improve mass EV adoption within renewables and improved charging time.
You are right the Flywheel itself won´t be able to improve the charging time if the battery still figures as the bottleneck. But if there is a huge power available to be quick discharged as the Flywheel can perform, maybe it would motivate battery technologies be improved as well. That might figure as a shortcut instead of waiting for Grid improvement that hardly rely on Government actions.
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For example, if I have the following data for a LiNi0,8Co0,15Al0,05O2 compound used in the cathode:
- Specific capacity = 200 mAh/g
- Average voltage = 3,7 V
I have no information about the anode.
Is it possible to know how much energy is stored in a battery which uses this compound as a cathode? Otherwise, what information is missing to know that?
Thank you very much.
Article : Characterisation of a 200 kW/400 kWh Vanadium Redox Flow Battery
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Early innovation by Toyota via the Prius established an early adopter crowd for electronic vehicles. Since, competition in many offerings: GM (Volt, Bolt), Nissan (Leaf), and the rise of Tesla set the stage for vehicle transportation energy transformation. However, what are the most impactful underlying factors(?), social adoption, introduction of valid market place products, technology advances, supporting infrastructure, policy...?
The main factors in the development of the automotive industry producing electric cars include systemic instruments for supporting the development of electromobility, including, in particular, the system of financial subsidies for the development of this type of industry and / or subsidies for citizens and companies purchasing electric vehicles. In addition, significant determinants of the development of electromobility include the development of the infrastructure of battery charging stations located in many public places, by roads and in garages of individual vehicles, as well as the state of general environmental awareness of the society and the need to participate in the pro-ecological transformation of the economy.
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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The speed estimation of induction motor at low speed is not precise and this affects the sensor less control of induction motor . I like to know whether the above limitation affect performance of Electric Vehicle when the sensor less induction motor is used to drive vehicle
As I know, even though there are a lot of works, where the sensorless control works nicely in no-load condition, the control often goes wrong when the load torque is applied. Also, the control accuracy at low speed remains an actual issue.
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Which forecasting method should I use to project EV market size in the next 5 years? This is for a developing country where penetration of EVs is relatively low for four-wheelers but high for two- wheelers.
I think this problem is difficult to predict on the basis of quantitative data only (through econometric modeling), because in developing countries the electric vehicle market depends primarily on government regulation and the national government's approach to it.
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Is there a way or suggestion to some works that can give me some informations how the signals of the battery in the BMS are estimated especially the actual maximal capacity of the battery in Ah (in order to supervise the aging of the battery).
The signals I have:
actual SoC [%]
actual energy in the battery or power capacity [Wh]
current [A]
voltage [V]
There are different methods which can measure or estiamte the capacity of the cell during opeartion. Ah counting is a quite standard way to do that together with the voltage measurement. There are also more advanced methods like: equivalent circuit model based methods and machine learning based methods. You can refer to the following two papers from our group for further information.
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The battery pack used for an electric vehicle consists of several series connected batteries. Is there a need to monitor the charging status of each battery?
The battery packs used in electric vehicles are consisted from hundreds of battery cells. Due to energy capacity and weight, mostly the lithium cells are chosen today's EV industry. After several charging and discharging cycles, each battery cells needed to be balanced in same voltage level. Battery management systems are for balancing them and SOC level is monitored in pack level. So, each battery cells need to be monitored and balanced. But SOC level is monitored in battery pack (mean all the serially and parallel connected cells).
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I noticed that many studies which treat Electric Vehicle charging (in a V2X scenario) as an MILP (Mixed-Integer Linear Problem) problem, consider a constraint to prevent that an EV (Electric Vehicle) could simultaneous charge and discharge during the same time slot (the duration of this inteval varies from a study to another; the most used are: 15 minutes, 30 minutes; 1 hour).
I'm agree in considering that charging and discharging an EV at the same continuous time instant is not a realistic scenario, but which could be the reason of preventing this situation during a time inteval which lasts 15 minutes or 1 hour?
PS: I guess that it's done to simplify the complexity of the problem, but I'm wondering if there are other reasons.
Dear All,
I'm totally agree with colleague Paul Oke.
Best regards
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Here as We all know different changes are being made in the Electric vehicles for the improvement of the output. Now, We know that Batteries are the thing that are need to be improved the most as of Now in the Electric vehicles but is it the Only one to be Improved?
Don't we have other Improvement to be done in ELECTRIC VEHICLES.?
How can electric cars be improved?
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Hi everyone, i am making optimization for energy management system of EV charging station. I established the mathematical model objective function (minimization of electricity cost) and constraints then i made a Python simulation. In the simulation results, i got the charging station load profile (power profile and energy profile) the energy charged in the car is discharged later on in the charging station and i got in the end 0 cars charged. Anyone can help with ideas on how i limit the energy discharged to be equal only to the initial amount of the car and not every EV charged it discharge later. Thank you.
Energy is equal to a half of capacity time square of its voltage
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Dealing with LLC resonant converter simulation and would like to plot the efficiency curve. How Can I do that ? eff = Pout/Pin ( Pout I can calculate from Output voltage and current but input current seems to be partial sinusoidal and cannot deal with any calculation !)
You can use the following link:
Copy the IGBT model from here and use it with your DC converter. You can use any IGBT's datasheet to update the library. Efficiency calculation and plotting is also shown in the given model. Hope it will help.
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As you all know, the TSO and DSO need Ancillary Services (AS) to maintain the security and reliability of the power system. What kind of Ancillary Services the Electric Vehicles can provide to the TSO and DSO?
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Do all know that the EV influence the voltage drop at the DSO network, are there any other impacts on the TSO and DSO networks?
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I have designed a synchronous buck-boost converter for the supercapacitor. I've set the rated voltage to 32v and the number of series capacitors to 1. However, on the input side, the voltage displayed is 10.3v. The voltage doesn't add up either when I change the number of series capacitors. Where am I going wrong?
The model of Supercapacitor chosen is from electrical drives.
I think you must explain your problem more clearly.
If I understood you you have a source composed of supercapacitors connected in series. The open circuit avolated of the one capacitor is eqaul to its rated voltage of 2.7V. You have 12 capacitors connected in series with a series resistance of one capacitor= 8.7 10^-3 Ohm.So the total resistance will be 12x8.7 10^-3.
About .08 ohm. So, there is about 4 V drop on this resistance and the current amounts to approximatively to 4/.08= 50 A.
So, you have to measure the current withdrawn from the capacitor bank to check that the drop is the voltage is due to the current flowing in the series resistances.
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Although current volumes are limited, E-Mobility is expected to grow in a big way. Primary questions on top of investor's mind are : Is this the right time to invest in E-Mobility? If so, where?
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Hello all,
By modifying the PWM of the CP signal, I can change the charging current of Electric vehicles in AC charging.
But how the current is controlled/reduced accordingly? Which side does this current control?
Does charging station (EVSE) supply the corresponding charge current? or EV controller in the vehicle side reduces the incoming current?
Any literature/references/docs/links will be useful. I tried searching, but couldn't find how the current is controlled/reduced
Regards,
Praveen
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One of my doctoral students is working on Electric Vehicle adoption. For the purpose of completing the thesis, it is essential to collect the responses from potential users. Kindly take your time to fill the following survey.
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I am designing a control for bi-directional LLC-SRC DC-DC converter. The converter charges a battery from the grid. But during reverse operation, i.e when the current flows from battery towards the grid, what may be the impacts of current on the resonant capacitor (Cs as attached)? Do I need to wait for the discharge of DC link capacitors (fast/slow anyhow) on both sides? I cannot see any abnormal change or fluctuations during simulations. For practical approach, I am not sure. Any suggestions?
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We have performed the DWC of electric vehicles in network topological order, where charge was transferred among paired EV(s). I need journal suggestion for its paper publication.
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Given values are:- top speed is 120kmph and average is 60 kmph,total weight of bike 135kg.l=1800mm b=700mm and h=1100mm.
Suppose the wheel dia is 10inch.
Please someone find the power rpm and torque.
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Dear colleague, Electric vehicles in today's world are leading with special controlling mechanism which are easily operated for every one. Even-though, they are vital and they do have better control mechanism still in our country Ethiopia there is shortage of electric vehicles. Therefore , what are the challenges in Electric vehicles to implement in Ethiopia for mass production?
Hagos Abay As you know, one of the challenges is electricity supply. There are options for electric Bajaj and vehicles, but this would significantly increase demand on an already constrained and inconsistent electricity grid. The is one of the reasons for the government's effort to increase electricity supply. This presents a significant barrier mass adoption at this time, but hopefully will be alleviated as major hydroelectric dam projects add capacity.
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Biodisel is one of the important renewable source of energy. Biodiesel also hepls to decrease the pollution if we use used as transportation fuel, so Is there any effect of Electric vehicle on future scope of bio-diesel?
See some related work on my researchgate page
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Which types of electromobility or alternative solutions for the environmentally-friendly supply of motor vehicles are being developed in your countries?
Are they based mainly on purely electrical or hybrid engines that connect electric power with petrol or other, or power based on the combustion of hydrogen with oxygen?
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
Comparative study on Japan n Korea... In recent years, the development and market participation of major makers of next-generation eco-green vehicles has been accelerating. Consumer interest has also increased. Consumer characteristics, consumption type, characteristics of next-generation eco-friendly vehicles, and government policies on next eco-green vehicles. In Korea, there was no significant difference by gender, age, monthly average income, and consumer type. However, there was no significant difference in purchase intention by gender, age, and monthly income, Respectively. In the case of Japan, there was no significant difference by gender, age, monthly income, and consumer type. In Korea, on the other hand, images such as brand, color, and design have positive effects on eco-friendly vehicles. In the case of Japan, image and stability have a positive effect on consumers' purchasing behavior. Therefore, it is important for Japanese consumers to consider not only the image of purchasing an eco-friendly vehicles, but also the safety of the vehicles body, appear. In the case of Korea, the socio-environmental value-seeking type has a significant relationship with the purchasing intention. In the case of socio-environmental value-seeking type, the government's support policy such as carbon dioxide tax, direct support from the national or local governments, gasoline tax, Carbon tax and fuel related tax relief showed positive effects. In the case of Japan, the price-seeking type and the socio-environmental value-seeking type were found to have a significant relationship with the purchasing intention. Both the price-seeking type and the socio-environmental value-seeking type showed that the carbon dioxide tax, Direct support, gasoline tax, gasoline tax, and carbon tax, etc. have positive effects... Yim, K. H., & Chong, M. Y. (2017). A Study on the Influence of Consumer Type on the Choice of Next-Generation Eco-Friendly Vehicle and Consumer Purchase Intention-Comparative Study on Japan and Korea. Journal of digital convergence, 15(11), 133-146.
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Lead acid or lithium ion batteries etc possesses harmful element's. Openly, disposal will get serious harm's to environment.
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I am currently designing a BMS for a 48 V Battery pack of an electric vehicle. One of the major challenges regarding the BMS is to equalize the voltages of the cells (as different cell have different ageing) of the battery pack. How can one address this issue??
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Hi,
I built a Simulink vehicle model with Dugoff's tire model that requires two parameters to calculate Fx and Fy; namely, the longitudinal stiffness and the cornering stiffness. Now I would like to verify my Simulink model by comparing the results with MSC ADAMS. ADAMS does not have Dugoff's tire model. How can I get these two parameters from ADAMS ?
you can validate your data by using Dugoff's tire model which you made in matlab. in other world you should use adams matlab co-simulation. first made tire model in matlab. Then use this model as adams input. then run adams model.(your adams model with matlab tire model.)finally compare the adams vehicle model with matlab vehicle model.
Furthermore, you can use magic formula pacajka model to compare .It is more accurate.
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Hello,
i hope you all are good. i am modeling a system for charging and discharging cost minimization for different EV (Electric vehicle) agents like households, business buildings and and industrial park. i need electricity price for these different users.
El precio va a depender del país donde lo quieres conseguir, puedes utilizar una variable constante como referente para incluir costo en el lugar de uso.
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I preferably consider a Lithium Ferro Phosphate cell (32650 type) 3.2V 6Ah cell.
I have few cells both used and fresh. How to determine how much of Life cycle is used and how much remains.
What all equipment or procedures need to be done to check life cycle? I am not considering a battery pack with BMS for this Life cycle test.
Hope to get some information in this regard.
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As we tend to use the batteries in general they start to degrade and in purchase of an electric vehicle more than 50% cost would be of the battery. If it tend to degrade then again investing in buying a new battery is an additional expense. How can we cope with this issue?
As another solution which is conceptually different, instead of using batteries one can use what is called SOLAR HYDROGEN. Energy can be stored in solar hydrogen
and used to power the hydrogen fuel cells to drive cars.
This solution is now under development.
Best wishes
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I want to use "adv_no_gui" functionality of ADVISOR in order to implement a new power management strategy and an optimization routine for a parallel hybrid electirc vehicle. But there is not enough information available in ADVISOR help. If anyone have experience in this field, please help me.
Are there tutorials for this software?
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Does anyone know the heat release from 48 V, 10 kWh Lithium battery module? This is to know what happens during Abuse testing
Nice Dear Markus Lienkamp
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