Science topic

Elections - Science topic

An election is a formal decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office. Elections have been the usual mechanism by which modern representative democracy has operated since the 17th century. Elections may fill offices in the legislature, sometimes in the executive and judiciary, and for regional and local government. This process is also used in many other private and business organizations, from clubs to voluntary associations and corporations.
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Publications related to Elections (10,000)
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Most US activists place a high priority on elections. The default strategy for those seeking policy change is some combination of electoral campaigning and pressure campaigns targeting politicians. Yet policies show a high degree of continuity across recent presidential administrations. Despite substantial differences in rhetoric and legislative ag...
Article
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The extant literature on electoral behaviour has been confined to voter turnout and the dynamics of voter choice, with scanty evidence on the predictors of invalid voting in developing countries. To this end, this study examines the patterns and predic-tors of invalid voting in the 2019 presidential election in Nigeria, which recorded the highest i...
Article
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The media are partners in a democracy because they ensure political participation in the democratic process. Audience perception of the media is vital as it affects credibility and believability of the media and their messages. Credibility and believability of the media are predicated to an extent upon the source of media messages. These issues pro...
Article
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The literature on democracies in the developing world paints a picture of rampant vote buying. A growing research field has shed light on how politicians decide whom to target, how individuals view vote buying, and the consequences of such practices. Yet, most research compares support for candidates offering handouts to those who do not. It fails...
Article
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Every day millions of people use social media platforms by generating a very large amount of opinion-rich data, which can be exploited to extract valuable information about human dynamics and behaviors. In this context, the present manuscript provides a precise view of the 2020 US presidential election by jointly applying topic discovery, opinion m...
Article
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The high popularity of Twitter renders it an excellent tool for political research, while opinion mining through semantic analysis of individual tweets has proven valuable. However, exploiting relevant scientific advances for collective analysis of Twitter messages in order to quantify general public opinion has not been explored. This paper presen...
Article
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Online Social Networks (OSNs) offer new means for political communications that have quickly begun to play crucial roles in political campaigns, due to their pervasiveness and communication speed. However, the OSN environment is quite slippery and hides potential risks: many studies presented evidence about the presence of d/misinformation campaign...
Article
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Social media is commonly used by the public during election campaigns to express their opinions regarding different issues. Among various social media channels, Twitter provides an efficient platform for researchers and politicians to explore public opinion regarding a wide range of topics such as the economy and foreign policy. Current literature...
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Çağdaş demokrasilerin kalitesi, halkın iradesini özgürce temsil organlarına yansıtabilmeleri ve seçim hukukunun da demokrasinin evrensel değerlerine dayanması ile mümkün olabilir. Kuşkusuz ki güçlü ve nitelikli bir demokratik rejimin oluşturulmasında genel, eşit ve gizli oy prensipleri, özgür seçimler ve siyasi partilerin ya da adayların eşit şartl...
Article
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The energy hole is one of the problems that wireless sensor networks cannot completely avoid. The existing energy hole suppression strategies lack the analysis of the development trend of energy holes and effective measures. In order to solve these problems, this paper deeply studies the formation process of energy hole, constructs an energy topogr...
Chapter
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Wu Qi: In the past few years, scholars inside and outside of China have been paying close attention to international news treating the US election and BrexitBrexit, and their moods have varied widely, but they have come to feel that the progress of globalizationGlobalization is in crisis. What are your thoughts about this? Has this influenced your...
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We study the problem of selecting a single element from a set of candidates on which a group of agents has some spatial preferences. The exact distances between agent and candidate locations are unknown but we know how agents rank the candidates from the closest to the farthest. Whether it is desirable or undesirable, the winning candidate should e...
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Economic reforms since the 1980s resulted in weaker wage growth and the retrenchment of the welfare state. Labor's declining share of income in conjunction with consistent asset price inflation, created an environment where the electorate increased its demand for credit to which politicians, driven by opportunistic re-election motives, respond posi...
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This article aims to study the challenges faced by the ICJ in the international dispute resolution processes by analyzing the case between Ukraine v. Russia emphasizing the decision of the court on claims of provisional measures to stop Russian military operation in Ukraine. The qualitative approach was utilized in this research referring to both p...
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Not long after his election as prime minister of Ethiopia, Dr Abiy Ahmed declared that the country would privatize state-owned enterprises (SOEs) such as Ethiopian Airlines and Ethio Telcom, opening up sectors once considered off limits to foreign capital as part of his medemer reforms. On the surface, it might appear as if the Ethiopian leader was...
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Cette étude examine la soutenabilité de la dette extérieure de la Côte d’Ivoire, pays à revenu intermédiaire avant et après son élection à l’IPPTE[1] en 2012, date cruciale de son histoire par l’approche de l’Indicateur de Soutenabilité de la Dette (ISD). Les résultats de l’étude montrent que son niveau d’endettement extérieur pose un problème de s...
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This study is a critical analysis of press coverage of the 2015 presidential election by three national dailies-Daily Trust, The Nation and Guardian newspapers. Using content analysis as methodology for the study, the researchers examined the prominence, forms of coverage, themes of political advertisement and sensational stories reported by the th...
Article
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The election of Democratic Party candidate Joe Biden as President of the United States did not change Washington’s negative attitude towards the activities of the World Trade Organization (WTO). The historically established consensus of the Republican and Democratic parties, expressed in the general similarity of the approach of the legislative and...
Preprint
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Search engines play a central role in routing political information to citizens. The algorithmic personalization of search results by large search engines like Google implies that different users may be offered systematically different information. However, measuring the causal effect of user characteristics and behavior on search results in a poli...
Research
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QUALITIES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD CONSULTANT, HOW TO MAKE IT AS AN ELECTION OR POLITICAL CONSULTANT
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The political phenomenon of the empty column is something that has just happened in the world of Indonesian politics, especially in Makassar City. In general, Social Movements in local and global elections tend to win over one pair of legislative candidates. Different things happened in Makassar City; in fact, the form of the social movement made h...
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Dynamics politics in Malaysia already exists before independence again. Before independence, political in Malaya can be explained by looking at the political action and participation of the people who resisted colonization. This study examines the dynamics of change culture and development politics in Malaysia. This study also examines the dynamics...
Preprint
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Election speeches play an integral role in communicating the vision and mission of the candidates. From lofty promises to mud-slinging, the electoral candidate accounts for all. However, there remains an open question about what exactly wins over the voters. In this work, we used state-of-the-art natural language processing methods to study the spe...
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Elections form the bedrock of a genuine democratic system and have become the commonly accepted means of legitimising government around the world. The conduct of elections in Nigeria came with violent character of its own such as kidnappings, political killings, political clashes, rising youth restiveness, political thuggery and ballot snatching. T...
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The 2020 U.S. Presidential Election required voters to not only form opinions of leading candidates, Donald Trump and Joe Biden, but also to make judgments about the integrity of the election itself and what—if anything—to do about it. However, partisan motivated reasoning theory (Leeper and Slothuus, Political Psychology, 35(Suppl 1): 129–156; Lod...
Preprint
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Sentiment analysis is a natural language processing (NLP) tool that uses automatic methods to capture the opinions of the masses over social media such as Twitter, especially for election monitoring and predictions. However, recent researches have explored mining of public sentiment in tweets neglecting using tweets location features and ensemble l...
Article
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In this article, we study the local political mobilization effects of political protests in the context of the Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement. We analyze monthly voter registration data from 2136 US counties across 32 states, leveraging variation in the exposure to BLM protests across counties in a two-way fixed-effects framework with a matched...
Article
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A evolução dos meios de comunicação tem contribuído com a disseminação de fake news, principalmente após o surgimento das redes sociais digitais. A velocidade com que estas notícias se espalham tornaram inviável a checagem manual desse imenso volume de dados. Diante deste contexto, trabalhos em diversas áreas têm sido realizados a fim de tentar min...
Article
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Are the voter preferences clearly heard in a plurality voting system? Alternate voting schemes wherein the voters rank their choices instead of just voting for their first preference certainly capture the voter preferences in a richer format, but they do not explicitly capture the negative preferences. Here we propose a voting scheme that blends ne...
Chapter
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Zusammenfassung Media are by far the voters’ most important source of information about elections and election campaigns. Therefore, it does not come as a surprise that the analysis of election (campaign) coverage is a long-standing tradition in communication science. Central questions in the analysis of media reporting on elections and campaigns a...
Chapter
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The field of election campaign communication is concerned with any form of communication by political elites, parties or professional interest groups with the aim of informing, persuading, interacting and mobilizing citizens and, ultimately, influencing the result of a particular election. Electoral campaigns are one of the most populated research...
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method with the use of simple random technique and administration of forty (40) structured questionnaires in all the five (5) wards of the LCDA was adopted by the study. The results of the findings showed that the major factors causing political violence perpetrated by the youths were not limited to; political rivalry, unemployment, greed, poor edu...
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Recent developments in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have led to the introduction of a wide variety of innovative applications, especially in the Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) field. UAV swarms are suggested as a promising solution to cope with the issues that may arise when connecting Internet of Things (IoT) applications to a fog platform. We are...
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Studies of American Jewish preferences in the 2020 US presidential election reveal striking variability in partisan choices from one survey to the next. We believe this variability is due in part to different approaches to the measurement of Jewishness across surveys and survey research firms. Drawing principally on social identity theory, we argue...
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We analyze how parties respond programmatically to populist parties in power abroad. Political parties often copy the policies of governing parties in other countries–a phenomenon that contributes to waves of transnational policy diffusion. We report the first large-scale comparative study showing that populist parties in government abroad trigger...
Preprint
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Is it possible to govern Brazil without a strong coalition in congress? After Jair Bolsonaro won the Brazilian presidential election in 2018, political analysts and pundits have expressed doubts about his ability to govern without sharing ministerial and state-owned companies positions with allied political parties. We design a simple signaling mod...
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Background If voter turnout reflects social or health inequalities, then these inequalities can reduce equal political representation. Research suggests that poor health impedes voting and contributes to low turnout, especially among the oldest-old (80 years and older). Therefore, we examine the determinants of voting behaviour in more detail, with...
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We analyze the effect of electoral turnout on incum-bency advantages by exploring mayoral elections in the German state of Bavaria. Mayors are elected by majority rule in two-round (runoff) elections. Between the first and second ballot of the mayoral election in March 2020, the state government announced an official state of emergency. In the seco...
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Covid-19 is part of the topic for blogging. The aim of the article is to identify of changes of organization and conduct of elections in connection with of the COVID-19 pandemic by the monitor of the blogs in September 2021 in Russia and aboard. To write this article, we used monitoring social media Brand24. In September 2021, 18.3% of all election...
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US President Joe Biden’s pledge to return values, morals and ethics to politics and policies is 18 months into his presidency more of an aspiration than a reality. It is called into question by the crisis in democracy in the United States in the wake of his predecessor, Donald Trump, who questioned the legitimacy of the election that brought Mr....
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The win of Donald Trump in the 45 th Presidential American Elections has perverted the World's political views. This study focuses on the analysis of News Discourse presented in the reporting of Donald Trump's victory by the two Pakistani News channels-PTV and Geo News. The study employs Bednarek and Caple's (2017) Discursive News Values Analysis (...
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The article deals with the membership of the most important Czech political party, ANO (meaning “yes” in Czech), led by Andrej Babiš, in the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE). Our goals are to reconstruct how Babiš’s party joined ALDE and to discuss the ideological differences between ANO and ALDE. The paper shows that ALDE’s off...
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The October 2 Brazilian presidential election campaign is now in its final stage. It is no doubt one of the most globally significant elections this year. Former moderate-left president Lula Inácio da Silva of the Workers’ Party (Partido dos Trabalhadores, PT) is leading in the opinion polls with between 40 and 45 percent support in the first round...
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This article examines how challenger parties enter the political arena and the effect of this entry by looking at the Italian 5 Star Movement (Movimento 5 Stelle – M5S). We explain the M5S's entry strategy in 2013 using the spatial approach to party competition and employing expert survey data collected for each national election between 2008 and 2...
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Research on populist attitudes has bloomed in recent years, especially among political science and communication scholars. While this trend is undoubtedly positive to unravel what the causes and consequences of individuals' populism are, rapid accumulation of knowledge is also challenging, as numerous articles are published simultaneously using div...
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The climate of division and polarization in the US politics is increasing, going beyond the time in the office of a specific leader. Several political or technological challenges have ended up eroding this trust, making social cohesion difficult. In this context, this research examines the communication strategies of the elected president Biden aft...
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While the electoral process in established democracies has been characterised by relative peace due to the adequacy and effectiveness of their security arrangement, among others, what has been observed in the history of elections in developing countries in Africa, especially Southwest Nigeria is that, it has often been replete with security crises...
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All over the world, politicians fancy up their language in a special way to give extract effect and force their message on the electorate to achieve their objective of winning more votes. This language can be embodied in rhetoric, propaganda, promise, colloquialism, word coinages, pidginised, and figurative expressions. Attractive political slogans...
Preprint
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Simultaneous general elections have a lousy tendency by several people but do not see a large future impact on national development planning in 2025–2045. The purpose of this article is to present a new perspective on viewing simultaneous general elections by linking national development planning as a future impact on public welfare. This research...
Conference Paper
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In Spain, Criminology was established as a university degree only some decades ago, contrary to other well-rooted syllabus. This still short tradition led us wonder whether high school students would choose Criminology as their university degree of preference and whether they would show some homogeneous profile of interests. Therefore, we administe...
Conference Paper
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Positional analyses in political science target the identification of (dis)similarities between parties based on their stance on a given policy or political demand (claim)-which are, unsurprisingly, a well-explored source of information for text-as-data approaches to this task. Political actors, however, do not only make claims regarding a given po...
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This article investigates the incumbent’s curse in the candidacy process in Indonesia by using Bahrain Kasuba’s failure in the running for re-election in South Halmahera in 2020 as its case study. This study diverges from the traditional scholarship on the incumbent curse, which focuses on the election stage. Instead, we focus on the candidacy stag...
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The prevalence and spread of online misinformation during the 2020 US presidential election served to perpetuate a false belief in widespread election fraud. Though much research has focused on how social media platforms connected people to election-related rumors and conspiracy theories, less is known about the search engine pathways that linked u...
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RESUMO Este estudo evidencia a influência dos ciclos políticos orçamentários sobre os gastos públicos municipais e estima seu efeito sobre a dívida pública local. Para isso, foram analisados os dados dos municípios do Rio Grande do Sul, do período de 2005 a 2016, por meio da técnica de análise de dados em painel. Os resultados sugerem que os gastos...
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Strategies and Voter's Apathy and Elections in Nigeria. Through self-administered questionnaire, data was collected from 384 respondents and were descriptively and inferentially analyzed. The findings generated from study objectives and the hypotheses showed that INEC use various media outlet such as the mainstream media, social media, town hall me...
Preprint
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Digital Photography on social networking websites like Facebook is one of the most popular medium used by the mass media during the election campaign. This was seen in the latest Municipal Corporation election in Delhi in 2017. Delhi MCD has more than 15 groups and 10 pages on Facebook. To win the hearts of people and voters, political parties like...
Preprint
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Social media provide a fertile ground where conspiracy theories and radical ideas can flourish, reach broad audiences, and sometimes lead to hate or violence beyond the online world itself. QAnon represents a notable example of a political conspiracy that started out on social media but turned mainstream, in part due to public endorsement by influe...
Article
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Young adulthood is a critical developmental life stage and a period of enhanced vulnerability to stress. In 2020, young adults in Northern California were faced with a series of unforeseen, collective stressors: the COVID-19 pandemic, extreme wildfires, social tension associated with the murder of George Floyd, and a contentious election that culmi...
Article
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Far right movements are waging a battle against pluralistic and democratic societies in Germany and beyond. Insofar as they seek to reorder the relationship between society, power, and space, they are inherently geographical and geopolitical projects. It is therefore no surprise that the rise of a new far right in recent years has sparked attention...
Article
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Political actors often resort to electoral violence to gain an edge over their competitors even though violence is harder to hide than fraud and more likely to delegitimize elections as a result. Existing explanations tend to analyze violence in terms of the same factors as fraud, or to treat violence as a means of last resorts given its overtness....
Article
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Objective-The main objective is to examine the role of digital leadership mediated by digital skill in improving organizational performance in line with digital transformation efforts within the General Election Commission of North Sulawesi. Design/methodology-The sample used in this study amounted to 78 people who are elements of the commissioner...
Article
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The birth of 1992 democracy in Kenya called for a multi-party participation in Kenya's electoral system. This also marked the emergence of the fourth republic, the longest republic after the attainment of independence in 1963. To have a successful administration of elections in Kenya, there are some key processes followed by the Electoral Commissio...
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The following article covers the “constitutional mechanisms of succession” specific to the era of the “soldier-emperors” as they are reflected in the Latin literary sources from the IVth - Vth cen-turies, specifically the factors involved in the ascension and confirmation of the imperial power, the used formulas in order to describe this process, t...
Article
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Social media has become a latest source of political communication, through which politicians address the electorate directly with the public. Twitter is one of the most popular social media tools in recent years. The discourse of politicians on Twitter requires attention towards linguistic strategies to uncover the figurative language. For this pu...
Preprint
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In this paper, a new method of detection of election fraud is proposed. This method is based on the calculation of the ratio of two standard normal random variables; estimation of parameters of obtained sample and comparison of these estimates with known theoretical values of parameters. Also in the paper, there is an example of the application of...
Chapter
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This paper outlines the causes of the aversion towards the military caste, as reflected by some sources of the fourth to fifth century. On one hand, we are talking about the excessive involvement of the army in the election of sovereigns, and on the other, about the humiliations incurred by the soldiers on the inhabitants of the provinces, such as:...
Preprint
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Population protocols are a relatively novel computational model in which very resource-limited anonymous agents interact in pairs with the goal of computing predicates. We consider the probabilistic version of this model, which naturally allows to consider the setup in which a small probability of an incorrect output is tolerated. The main focus of...
Article
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The events of the so-called "Ploshcha" [Square] in 2006, when youth activists pitched a tent camp in the center of Minsk to protest against election fraud, caused some social theorists to predict the revival of civic protest in Belarus. Those assumptions, however, proved to be wrong: rather, a slow decay in both the number and the intensity of prot...
Article
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We study the problem of exchange when 1) agents are endowed with heterogeneous indivisible objects, and 2) there is no money. In general, no rule satisfies the three central properties Pareto-efficiency, individual rationality, and strategy-proofness \cite{Sonmez1999}. Recently, it was shown that Top Trading Cycles is $\NP$-hard to manipulate \cite...
Conference Paper
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Socrates (470-390 B.C.) stated democracy is based on education. When there is a lack of education, election problems develop. The 2020 presidential election has raised questions of being rigged. Through election technology & security education, such questions can be resolved. The purpose of this paper is to propose a curriculum on election security...
Article
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Although the presidential election in the United States of America (USA) in November 2020 took place under the shadow of the COVID-19 pandemic, it has become one of the important points in terms of digitalization and the agenda. Donald Trump, who lost the election to Joe Biden, challenged the results, and even refused to concede for some time. Joe...
Article
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Almost two years after about 80 per cent of Chileans voted for comprehensive constitutional reform and the election of a Constitutional Convention, the new draft constitution was roundly rejected by the voters in a 4 September referendum. Since the majority of those who rejected the proposal are in favour of a new constitution, the constitution-mak...
Conference Paper
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Elections are necessary for a democratic government to function. The people elect their country's rulers through an election process. India, being one of the world's largest democracies, organizes elections as a mega-event which extends over many days. Over 900 million people are eligible to vote, there are over 1.2 million electronic voting device...
Article
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In this paper we examine three forms of regret in relation to the UK’s hugely significant referendum on EU membership that was held in June 2016. They are: (i) whether ‘leave’ voters at the referendum subsequently regretted their choice (in the light of the result), (ii) whether non-voters regretted their decisions to abstain (essentially supportin...
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We study public persuasion in elections with binary outcomes, like referendums. In our model, one or multiple senders attempt to influence the election outcome by manipulating public information about a payoff-relevant state. We allow for a wide class of sender preferences, ranging from pure self-interest to a broad set of social welfare functions,...
Article
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As each state readies for a further five-year presidency under their incumbent President, Chinese and French foreign policies are at a critical juncture. With the geopolitical context dominated by a broader China-US rivalry, the next five years augur a period of confrontation, raising concerns of a Cold War-style bloc paradigm in the present contex...
Article
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Developing clustering algorithms for energy optimization, for the Internet of Things (IoT) applications based mainly on wireless sensors networks services, is a major research challenge. The large amount of data generated by this type of networks, requires a huge quantity of energy and a large number of Internet connections to support communication...
Article
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This paper published in 2006 to examine recorded crime and victim surveys in relation to violent offences since crime was crucial issue in Japan`s 2003 general election (for the first time since WWII). The researchers found that in the late 1990s, a specific series of police scandals in Japan fundamentally changed the way the press reported policin...
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