Educational Policy

Educational Policy

  • Napoleon Ono Imaah added an answer:
    14
    What is the reason for the US-Government to change their educational system following the German Dual Modell?

    Thomas Perez, US-Secretary of Labor, announced a dramatic change of the US educational system in an interview with the "Wirtschaftswoche". The US government will follow the German Modell. What is your opinion for the reason and will they have success?

    Napoleon Ono Imaah

    Dear Michael,

    The reason for the US-Government to change their educational system following the German Dual Modell is simple: Probably, the Americans find the German Dual Model better in several ways. In my considered opinion; the advanced American educational would not change for frivolous, but weighty pragmatic reasons.

    The American internship system, attached to their educational system is not as efficient as the German apprenticeship system built into the German Dual Modell. The present  American educational system does not seem to prepare the student ready for the specificities of industries; compared to the German Dual Model which make the student a ready part of continuous industrial specificities. By applying the German Dual Model of efficient apprenticeship that effectively make the graduate readymade and relevant for specific industrial needs; it seems to me that the Americas want to minimize the graduation of unemployable graduates in spite of available vacancies without relevant graduates to employ to fill them.

    Regards,

    Napoleon

  • Yinying Wang added an answer:
    3
    Does anyone know of any archival sources on early school social work practice?

    I'm hoping to do some historical resesrch on the early days of school social work practice.  I know school social work practice began in the early 1900s in New York,  Boston, and Chicago.   Any leads on primary sources would be greatly appreciated. 

    Yinying Wang

    Relevant report in newspaper might be another source.

  • Arif Jawaid added an answer:
    15
    The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages after 15 years: your personal views and findings?

    The Common European Framework plays a central role in language and education policy worldwide. Has it enhanced foreign language learning/teaching across Europe since 2001? Your opinions and findings are very welcome.

    Arif Jawaid

    Hi, Colleagues

    I think benchmarks are there (CEFR), we have to adopt, adapt and customize according to our fit for purpose requirement. I hope it helps!

  • Kevin Larkin added an answer:
    4
    Can someone provide me with the experience of universities applied BYOD methodology, and the policies adopted to employ this methodology?

    You know the importance and benefits of using BYOD methodology (Bring Your Own Device) in universities and educational institutions, but there are several risks facing this methodology may make universities reluctant to apply

    Please help us to provide me with the experience of universities applied BYOD methodology, and the policies adopted to employ this methodology?

    with alot of thanks

    dr / Mohamed. A. Ahmed

    Kevin Larkin

    Hi Mohamed,

    I have just completed a project with colleagues regarding the use of technology in higher education. One of the issues we looked at was BYOD - I have provided the link below. Regards, Kevin

  • Phil Barbonis added an answer:
    3
    Does anyone have information on how technology policy in tertiary education impacts job retention and job satisfaction of faculty?
    There is minimal research surrounding technology in education outside of the K-12 arena. I am currently doing some preliminary research on the impact of policy surrounding technology for faculty in tertiary education. I am interested in the variation of institutional policy, job retention, and job satisfaction.
    Phil Barbonis

    It is unclear to me what the thrust of your question is. Without referring to other published work, and I am sure there are many out there, I will say this. The arrival of Microsoft’s Powerpoint has changed the way many lectures are delivered – instead of lecturers writing on blackboards /greenboards, the white screen is used, and that has often been replaced by video-screens today. I was at a church in Singapore in November, and was pleased to see that the worshippers could follow the texts used during the mass on strategically placed video-screens. Worshippers could see what the priest was going to say or was saying.

    Testing can be done using the same technology. In an effort to get my students to do regular studying instead of trying to do cramming at the 11th hour before the examination, I would conduct 15-minute long tests (only multiple-choice questions for obvious reasons) just before the new lecture started… the innovation, if you can call it that was to pass the individual answers to randomly selected students who would then assess the answers based on what they know or how they themselves had answered – so this means testing the students twice. The questions would appear on the screen but as students had different rates of reading, I switched to printed questions. Of course the answers can be given electronically and assessed automatically/electronically, but my method really worked.

    E-Learning is one R&D project that I funded as technology manager to develop an easy to use learning platform – engineers later produced learning material for what we called “on-demand, learning”… this helped engineers to learn at their own pace, and saved on travel costs. Today, there are MOOC ( massive, open online courses).

    Lectures can be recorded on video and replayed later, the only difference being that if there were no lecturers present, students could not ask questions, which is a huge negative aspect. But, you can discern it might be possible to replace some lecturers if lectures are recorded, especially if managements want to reduce costs, often to the detriment of student’s learning process. I would think lecturer-student interaction fosters learning better than if it was all video-based. If managements go the route, there will be dissatisfaction amongst teaching staff, and students might not want to come to lecture sessions…

  • Hussin Jose Hejase added an answer:
    3
    Does anyone have the book name written by (Woronov, 2007), in which the phrase is written below?

    In Japan, Korea, and China, students take extremely competitive tests at the end of their schools years in order to be prepared for the admission to prestigious post secondary institutions (Woronov, 2007).

    Hussin Jose Hejase

    Hi 

    See attached paper as referred by Beatrice.

  • Art Menius added an answer:
    3
    Is anyone out there a specialist in legal issues dealing with non-profit (501c3) organizations in the United States?
    I need some guidance in looking up laws and legal cases.
    Art Menius

    In many states the Secretary of State provides free guides as website downloads of the process in their jurisdictions.

    In rough generalities: First, organize a founding board of at least three people
    Second, file Articles of Incorporation with the Secretary of State in the state where you want to incorporate. The Articles need to state that the corporation intends to be organized under section 501(c)3 of then Internal Revenue Code, that no profits will inure to the benefit of any individual, the purpose for the creation of the organization, and that if dissolved the assets of the corporation will be donated to another 501(c(3

    This is a good time for the board to adopt bylaws, which mostly concern internal governance and procedure, and to adopt a corporate resolution permitting the organization to open a bank account/

    Third, once the Secretary of State returns your Articles with an official stamp, write to the IRS to obtain an EIN.

    Fourth, file a Form 1023 with the IRS with the required $400 application fee to obtain your 501(c)3 recognition

  • Florencia Maldia added an answer:
    12
    Does the present model for secondary school education properly prepare youngsters for enhanced employability in the future?

    It has been observed that the training and educational models in several secondary schooling systems does not adequately prepare their youngsters for enhanced likelihood of successful employability outcomes. In many cases while the traditional grammar school education model still predominates as a one-size-fits-all approach,  student outcomes indicate that this approach may not be the most effective approach. The secondary school system has the unique opportunity to positively impact the futures of the cohort of 12 year olds that enter their space. At the end of that five years secondary school period the readiness of the emerging 17 year olds should be such that their life trajectory is upward. Too many students emerge after these five years without certification in any area of endeavour; grammar, technical, vocational, trade.  This is sub-optimal. Where are some of the best exemplars of effective future-oriented secondary education to be found ?

    Florencia Maldia

    Dear RG Colleagues:

    Wishing you and your family all the best, more power and success, and be blessed with love, peace, joy, good health, and prosperity, and with what your heart desires. Happy new year!

    Thank you for your up votes, endorsement, and following my posts.

    Sincerely,

    Florencia T. Maldia RN.,PhD

  • Benny Stein added an answer:
    16
    What influences do teacher unions have in organised labor in the status of the teaching profession?

    I am writing a paper about the public status of teachers and the teaching proffession. I would like to get similar information from other countries where teacher unions are strongly active or that they are very weak and the consequences. I would like to see if there is correlation between the strength of these "Trade Unions" and the professional status of teaching.

    Benny Stein

    Hello Azizan,

    Thankyou for your contribution. Having already submitted my paper unfortunately I will not be in need for more information in the near future. You attention is most appreciated.  

  • Harshvardhan Singh added an answer:
    3
    Does anyone knows how can get the recent list of the ISI for journals 2014?

    Does anyone knows how can get the recent list of the ISI for journals 2014?
    (Social Sciences Citation Index)

    Harshvardhan Singh

    Dear Colleagues,

    Good Day,

    Merry Christmas and Happy New Year 2016.

    May New Year Bring Happiness, prosperity, Good Health and Academic Achievements for you.

    Regards

    HarshVardhan

  • Debra Sharon Ferdinand added an answer:
    39
    What changes in education policy related to technology do you think are necessary to fully embrace its potential for learning?

    In the US at least - we are somewhat hampered by policy related mandates on what should be taught and how it should be taught and assessed. This inhibits the integration of technology for many of the high impact practices that theory would lead us to believe will make a large difference in student learning. What changes do you think need to be put in place to change the current architecture in such a way to afford better technology-mediated/integrated learning? I would love to hear not just about changes to US policy - but also policies that other countries have put in place that are making a difference with respect to the use of technology in the classroom.

    Debra Sharon Ferdinand

    I think policies need to include incentives for faculty to use technology, especially complex initiatives such us blended learning implementation. Such incentives would help to motivate faculty to effectively integrate technology into learning activities and assessments. I have attached two conference presentations as examples of how I've used technology in learning and assessment that I hope would be useful in showing that the teacher is still "behind" both F2F and online classes in knowing how to use the technology for learning and assessment.

    Best regards,

    Debra 

    + 1 more attachment

  • Florencia Maldia added an answer:
    9
    What can help supporting schools in challenging circumstances improving their learning outcomes?

    I am at the beginning of working out an expertise, how schools in challenging contexts (socio-economically disadvantaged areas) can be supported.

    Aside at aspects, what teachers, school leaders and parents can do, I am especially interested in instruments, which education policy, education administration and regional politics can supply supporting those schools.

    In more details I mean: evidence-based improvement with support of experts for interpreting test data (what sort of social and learning outcome data are most important), additional ressources on the  basis of a social index (like additional teachers and other supporting stuff, smaller classes, more teacher time for developing strategies and reflecting the actual situation, money for additional media, …), better organized school catchment areas with better social-mixed school population (bussing?), networks of schools in the region with similar problems,  

    and...

    It would be helpful for me participating in your experiences and knowledge of relevant literature.

    Florencia Maldia

    I suggest strategic planning using SWOT analysis and PEST analysis to produce accurate data. It is never enough to simply have the data or information that emerged from PEST or SWOT analysis. The most important is the way the analysis of data will be used in order to improve the learning outcomes.

    What education programs your school is offering? basic education? college? My pleasure to help to the best I can.

  • Ljubomir Jacić added an answer:
    66
    How would you formulate, or modify, education objectives of your community/country to meet the needs of a plural, multicultural, global society?

    Can we have an education system that prepares young minds to be TOLERANT of other cultures and religions?  Can we have an education system that teaches our young people to ACCEPT DIFFERENCES?  

    When I searched for papers on changes in education policies, this was the best match, but it’s just an abstract.  (I have asked for the full text.)

    • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Neoliberal education policies have altered the operational environments of schools and affected school principals' job descriptions and requirements. As a result of managerialism, decentralisation and marketisation of education, principals are increasingly responsible for profitably, marketing and striving in competition, in addition to their role as pedagogical leaders. In this study, the opinions and views of European principals on the changes in the governing of education, relevance of education, educational transitions and different factors affecting coping with the demands of education are analyzed. The views of the principals do not consistently reflect the structures of the national education systems. Questions related to educational equality highlighted the clearest differences. The more unequal the education system, the more important supporting the students in the weakest positions is to the principals. http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/AnJ24PFrP6GDRGxAxSUJ/full
      No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Compare
    Ljubomir Jacić

    Dear @Miranda, I find this might be productive contribution to this thread.

    Special Issue of EuroScientist on: The Common Good Economy !

    "This issue shares the perspectives from scientists and economics, as well as various actors involved in resolving societal challenges and changing the current economic order from a top-down hierarchy to a more distributed and horizontal governance, to favour localisation and greater equity between all involved...

    There is a clear emerging trend, at the age of networked living: we are all citizens of the world, as Bono, the U2 front man, pointed out at his first concert in Dublin on 23rd November 2015. Today, rock stars are not the only ones who can express themselves and be heard. We all have a role to play and chip in to define what we expect from the world of tomorrow..."

    An excellent collection of papers follow!

    Read more: http://www.euroscientist.com/common-good-economy/#ixzz3u0LBY3MZ
    Follow us: @euroscientist on Twitter | Euroscientist on Facebook

  • Sarah Lightfoot added an answer:
    2
    What does research tell us about the importance or influence of teacher agency in professional development?

    What does research tell us about the importance or influence of teacher agency in professional development?

    Sarah Lightfoot

    I hope you find the following useful.

    + 3 more attachments

  • Michael Streifinger added an answer:
    9
    E-learning contra man-guided education?

    E-learning is known as a very good and important instrument in the educational process. But: The role of a teacher will be reduced here to an assisting adviser.The pioneering study of John Hattie (Visible Learning. London, New York 2009) shows, that the personal influence in the educational sight is one of the most important factors of the educational process at all, before all the other influencing conditions in the interdependencies of teaching and learning.
    The success of an educational process results by the efficiency of learning (that means: a good quote of reproduction and a sustainable knowledge) and depends from both motivation and successfully reproduction. The teacher has to teach on the base of a good theoretic knowledge (i.m. cognitive competency) using some age-adapted methods (methodical competency) with an intensive engagement in the interactive cooperation and communication with his students (social competency).
    As a demand you can deduct: A good knowledge of the topics, a good transformation by age-adapted methods and a feeling for the cognitive capacity of the students and their questions round about their whole education situation are the best acquired needs for a good teacher.
    So it seems to be a problem, when an education policy reduces the number of teachers with the argument: E-learning may effect the same success by the students like a teacher.
    So you have to consider carefully: What is better: E-Learning or a learning under traditional conditions?

    Michael Streifinger

    Dear all,

    due to changing educational and educationary processes within all sorts of different school systems on a large scale, the quest for modern teaching methods has just begun. There is no doubt that  media-based triggers like e-learning will of course motivate "new-age" pupils and students more than a straight forward teacher's monologue. However, it must not be forgotten that  teaching nowadays implies an almost unlimited , flexible variety  of different tools, skills, and expert views, depending on classroom atmosphere, conditions and intentions. As a consequence, teachers will certainly not give up their position of being human guides in a technocratic world. In my eyes, their position will even be strengthened! 

    Best regards,

    Michael 

  • José Luis García Vigil added an answer:
    8
    Do you know positive examples where evidence-based education policies have functioned?

    I´m very sceptical about the often propagadet promises of the empirical education research providing evidences, which can be transformed in fruitful developments in education policies.

    My opinion is, that most of the found evidences in studies cannot be generalized for the purpose of politicians.

    At the other side many researchers do not articulate their findings clearly enough for the public and policy or avoid drawing strong conclusions what the found evidences really mean.

    Second, politicians often ignore obvious evidences because they contradict against their ideologies or they pick out only parts of the findings, which they can use for their existing opinions and strategies.

    The empirical findings concerning the negative influences of the selective german school system with the different school types on the achievement of social disadvantaged students are a typical example for ignoring evidences by education policy, especially in Bavaria.

    I´m interesting what are your experiences and opinions about the question: Is evidence based education only an illusion?

    José Luis García Vigil

    The evidence derived from social and legal sciences in particular (Law)

    In medicine it has become operational and carried the designs and methodologies in clinical research, new drug research, epidemiological research and health systems.

    In medical education (training of general practitioners and medical specialists) have developed research models where interventions are the strategies, methods and teaching techniques to enhance and promote learning and evaluate curriculum, study plans and programs, in addition to the academic performance Classroom (operational educational research, action research)

    To operationalize and measure qualitative or categorical variable (as often happens in the field of education), becomes an evidence that can be traced from that one study is designed, when the protocol is initiated and implemented the hypothesis testing in the field (cynical, classroom, community), to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies, methods, techniques and tools to measure and assess the development and modification of educational activities.

    Sure you can implement in micro or macro (part of a system or complete system) eg in groups of medical students during their training in the health sector, clinical fields (clinics, hospitals), both in the community (villages sectors targeted population), such as schools or medical schools.

    You can also perform basic research (educational system institutions, health sectors, health or national) to support health policies that improve or correct the current course true or educational paradigm for physicians and other professionals in the health sciences ).

  • Igor Babou added an answer:
    13
    Are there similar instances in history where social sciences and humanities were successfuly abolished by the state?

    Recently this year, Japanese Universities are supposed to start scaling back/abolish social science, humanities, and law courses due to intervention from its Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.

    My questions specifically are:
    Have there been instances wherein states were able to succcessfully abolish social sciences and humanities from education and pedagogy? Success may be in terms of actual nationwide implementation for the intended schools/universities, even for short periods of time.
    And, how successful were they in terms of achieving its intended goal?
    i.e. in Japan it is supposed to "serve areas that better meet society’s needs", focus and increased productivity on engineering, science, etc.

    See:
    https://www.timeshighereducation.com/news/social-sciences-and-humanities-faculties-close-japan-after-ministerial-intervention

    http://www.japantimes.co.jp/opinion/2015/08/23/commentary/japan-commentary/humanities-attack/#.ViIp3WO6LnT

    Igor Babou

    "Would you say that the fate of French universities was already sealed in the 19th century?"

    I think there are two aspects to bear in mind. First, since its foundation in the early 12th century, the university has always been fighting against all types of power to insure its relative independence. Second, between the 19th and the end of 20th century, there was the may 68 event, the transformation of French university (with new laws ending - or nearly - with the old system of "mandarins"), and the emergence of the French critical theory (Foucault, Sartre, Bourdieu, Barthes, etc.). I think the convergence of those three factors strongly shaped the image of the French university for its actors, for the politicians, and for the general public: the idea of its independence from economical and political powers has been strongly rooted in our minds and practices (even if, sometimes, it can be seen as a sort of foundation myth). That's why I don't think the Napoleonic origin of our institution (and not of the university per se) was such an important thing in our cultural and academic history.

  • Jae Park added an answer:
    9
    In what ways can the Reggio Emilia Approach inform U. S. classrooms ?

    In respect to the Reggio Emilia Approach as a product of Italy and the professionals who have worked so hard to provide such an informative model for the rest of the world.

    U. S. schools continue to utilize teacher-directed, highly structured, and assessment-oriented instruction, even for very young children. 

    How can we seek more balance in our classrooms? Through strategies demonstrated by the Reggio Emilia Municipal Schools that more child-directed learning, in-depth project work, larger chunks of time for children to explore and ask questions, have parents become more integral in our classrooms, and come to value the learning process more than the final product or outcome?

    Jae Park

    I read about it while doing my doctoral studies. I remember that the original idea was systematic efforts to reconstruct education of an Italian region during the post-war period. 

    In the US, there have been new initiatives. For example, this one is not the R. Emilia but it has similar features:

    Berger, R. (2003). An ethic of excellence : building a culture of craftsmanship with students. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

    The book is a must, in my view

  • S G Deshmukh added an answer:
    14
    How can we regain and sustain mentorship in academia?

    The non professionals ad para-professionals are taking the field of play.By non professional  I mean those who resorted to academia because they could not find their level in the field they originally chose and chose academia as second choice.Business world is characterised by snake- swallow -snake,the academia is a mentor-ship game.This characteristics is fast fading away in academia.

    S G Deshmukh

    A strong sense of nurturing must prevail. Technology can aid in mentoring. Mentoring is a must , especially for young faculty.

    They need to be slowly but steadily introduced to the culture of the workplace and the traditions. Today's generation of faculty  , at times, is patient. I had a senior faculty who used to attend my classes and I also used to attend his classes. Then we used to exchange notes which helped me improve .

  • Todd Eistetter added an answer:
    6
    Do you know of a relationship between agency theory and K-12 principal evaluations?

    Agency theory seems to have been incorporated into the education reformation in New Zealand schools from several years ago and to some degree in the UK.  I am experiencing challenges determining its use in other countries, particularly in Canada where I am. 

    Todd Eistetter

    Thanks again Paul...the link worked.

  • Victoria Blue added an answer:
    13
    Are there any cases of judgements by law courts which affect curriculum matters (English language or more generally)?

    I am currently writing a paper together with an Indonesian colleague which discusses a case in which the Constitutional Court of Indonesia banned a school programme which had CLIL-like characteristics (CLIL = content and language integrated learning). Is anyone aware of other cases anywhere in the world where LAW COURTS (not legislators in parliaments) made decisions which impacted on education policy and practice, particularly in relation to curriculum? Our interest is not restricted only to the teaching of English. Thank you.

    Victoria Blue

    Hello Hywel,

    Below are several links to the ongoing issue of the Mexican American Studies Program in Tucson, Arizona. USA.  Yes, it is in the courts because the ban was made into law.  The constitutionality of it is being challenged.  I'm not sure if this issue (that began several years ago) is relevant to your research but sending it along.  There is much to discover about the situation including a documentary,  banned books, and an independent audit.

    http://www.ischoolguide.com/articles/17701/20150710/court-arizona-law-banning-mexican-american-studies.htm

    http://www.scribd.com/doc/58025928/TUSD-ethnic-studies-audit

    http://azethnicstudies.com/banned-books

    http://www.pbs.org/independentlens/precious-knowledge/

    Best,

    Victoria

  • Edward-R ONeill added an answer:
    20
    How can we measure the quality of collaborative skill for teacher team?

    We aware that "Communication and Collaboration" is a key skill for 21st century education. I would like to know is there any tool or measurement to test collaborative skill level or quality

    Edward-R ONeill

    Thanks to those who posted links. They were very helpful!

  • Viswanadha Gupta Puvvada added an answer:
    7
    What are the three to five critical issues related to literacy facing the nation?
    In 1996, we were asked to address this question by the Journal of Literacy Research Editors. We addressed this question by asking the second question: What are the three to five critical issues related to literacy facing the nation? We concluded the arguments in our response with the question of who counts as a policy maker. I wonder what others would add to the arguments and which would be re-envisioned given the developments of the past two decades. What are today's challenges that could not be envisioned in 1996 when the article was written?
    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: For the remainder of Volume 23, the Critical Issues section of JLR will be devoted to a discussion of literacy and educational policy. A survey of our editorial advisory board indicated that this topic was one of the critical issues facing the field. Likewise, a survey of the entire membership of the NRC, JLR's sponsoring organization, indicated that members hold strong feelings about whether the organization should “become more proactive on policy issues” (NRC Newsletter, Sept., 1995, p. 10). To further a dialogue about literacy and educational policy, we began by inviting three literacy researchers with diverse perspectives to address the topic of literacy and educational policy (Judith Green, who writes here with her colleague Carol Dixon, P. David Pearson, and Sharon Quint). We asked them to comment on the ideas they believe to be most crucial for policymakers to know about literacy. We also invited Donna Alvermann to read and to react to the three responses. Those familiar with the field will immediately surmise that these individuals represent not only diverse perspectives on literacy research, but that they are imminently qualified to reflect on what implications their research perspectives have for educational policy. Their responses are published here as Part 1 of a three-part series.
      Full-text · Article · Jun 1996 · Journal of Literacy Research
    Viswanadha Gupta Puvvada

    the problem of illiteracy in India which houses the largest number of the world’s 771 million illiterates.

  • Melanie Brand added an answer:
    5
    Can anyone give references for studies/papers related to opinion leadership in (inter)cultural communication?

    I'm searching for recent studies in the field of international/intercultural communication related to the opinion leadership concept or similar papers (educational policy, gatekeeper etc.)

    Melanie Brand

    Thank you all for helping me out!

  • Ropate Qalo added an answer:
    17
    Should we re-frame our education system or just continue with conventional way?

    Our education system is going on in traditional way, as it served us in the past but is no more effective in the present, when knowledge is freely available through the internet and can be accessed just by click, when most thinkers acknowledge that present education system kills the creativity of children etc etc, what should we follow next?

    Ropate Qalo

    Conventional education of the 3Rs and computer literacy will always be basic but taught or disseminated capturing students' interest and passion. What will be new is questioning and answering from a pool of knowledge provided by books and the web. Re-framing the system is basically to dominate learning by allowing questions by students that will be answered by their peer through thoughts that connects knowledge to a logical end at high school level. Of course supervised by qualified people. To do that efficiently in a large scale will be the aim and the challenge of a new system. 

  • Michael Marston added an answer:
    15
    How can we measure teacher`s efficiency?

    I new some variables to include in measuring teacher efficiency.

    Michael Marston

    Very true, which means interpreting teaching evaluations much be done with considerable care and awareness of context and limitations...

  • Jestin Mandumpal added an answer:
    9
    Can you recommend any references which discuss the future of education in developing countries (such as Pakistan, Bangladesh and African countries)?

    I'm looking for references which discuss future of education in countries where lack of education funding is connected to the poor standard of living. I'm curious about how could the circle of poor standard of living and low quality education be resolved in the future or what are generally the possible scenarios in the future for such countries in terms of education and standard of living.

         
    Jestin Mandumpal

    Ziauddin Zardar's Introducing Philosophy of Science, a graphic guide might give you the background reading as to how one would approach this issue. This book provides some background information regarding the nature of knowledge from different theoretical perspectives. He correlates the imbalance in scientific development to lack of public participation. In the countries like Pakistan and Bangladesh the system of democracy is in infancy, let alone active public participation in science. Interestingly he mentions about Science shop which was first instituted in the Netherlands that helped the country to popularize science and harness science for the sake of betterment of society. 

    This book is not expensive,  very small and contains numerous illustrations. 
    http://www.amazon.com/Introducing-Philosophy-Science-Graphic-Guide/dp/1848312962

About Educational Policy

Education policy refers to the collection of laws and rules that govern the operation of education systems.

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