Educational Policy

Educational Policy

  • Debra Sharon Ferdinand added an answer:
    What are some good methodologal references/resources for cross-cultural analysis of educational policy and practice?

    I am starting a research project that will involve data collection in three different countries. We are looking at educational policy and practice related to social and emotional learning in physical education. There are multiple methods being used and I am interested in methodological resources, seminal works, etc.

    Debra Sharon Ferdinand

    I have include some of my own work that unpack some of issues like cross-cultural elements in curriculum design and cultural insensitive in teaching:

    Best regards,


    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Growing ethnic student diversity (to include Caribbean students) on U.S campuses requires exercising cultural sensitivity in classroom teaching, in accommodating for the culturally/internationally diverse students in U.S. classrooms. A Midwestern university embarked on a diversity thrust that included workshops for boosting faculty cultural competence in facilitating culturally/internationally diverse learners. This descriptive study examined the extent to which cultural insensitivity existed in WED teaching delivery. A Within Stage Mixed Model research design and a pragmatic paradigm were employed to guide the study’s design and data collection/analysis of its census survey data consisting of quantitative and qualitative data from three student groups: Minority, Majority, and International. Findings included the following: International students felt that cultural insensitivity occurred in verbal and nonverbal communication with students in WED teaching delivery very often; U.S. majority and minority students felt it almost never or sometimes occurred respectively. Suggestions from WED graduate students for addressing this cultural deficit mainly include faculty diversity training and diversification of teaching styles, in keeping with multicultural education, ethnocentrism and critical race theory.
      Full-text Article · Apr 2015

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  • Kevin Larkin added an answer:
    Could someone kindly assist with a theory or a concept that could underpin a study on education policy on Technology Enhanced Learning?

    Am embarking on a research that has to measure the preparedness of stakeholders e.g. policy makers in national education about the introduction of M-Learning to replace an existing a text-based distance learning programme. Thanks.

    Kevin Larkin

    Hi Malick,

    Two theories to consider - Activity Theory or Activity Systems Theory; Transactional Distance Theory. I am happy to share some of my work in these areas if you require. Just message me via ResearchGate and I will send you the publications. 


  • Todd A. DeMitchell added an answer:
    Educational malpractice lawsuits have uniformly failed, will the focus on teacher accountability change this legal/policy response?

    Since the Peter W. v. San Francisco Unified Sch. Dist. (1976) case, lawsuits brought under educational malpractice have uniformly failed. Will the push for increased teacher accountability, the development of teaching standards, and the use of VAM models resurrect educational malpractice as a viable tort? Should it be resurrected?

    Todd A. DeMitchell

    Thanks Catherine. Four years ago I co-authored an article on educational malpractice and VAM. Our position follows your position regarding the the highly questionable use of VAM for high stakes personnel decisions. Four years later, after a number of states are using VAM as a portion of mandated teacher evaluation protocols, I  wonder if there is a movement toward using malpractice as a lever for personal teacher accountability for harm caused by a breach of a duty. As we articulate standards for teaching we define the duty (instructional) owed to students. If we use VAM as a vehicle that seeks to establish a link between what student outcomes should be attained will it be used to establish causation.

    I am currently reading Mark A. Paige's Building a Better Teacher: Understanding Value-Added Models in the Law of Teacher Evaluation (2016). He has an excellent analysis of the cases (e.g., Cook v. Stewart) that review the constitutionality of VAM models.

    Your comments are most helpful.



  • Nirmala S.V.S.G added an answer:
    Can anyone give references for studies/papers related to opinion leadership in (inter)cultural communication?

    I'm searching for recent studies in the field of international/intercultural communication related to the opinion leadership concept or similar papers (educational policy, gatekeeper etc.)

    Nirmala S.V.S.G

    Dear Melanie Brand 

    please check the resources related to your topic


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  • Konstantinos Karampelas added an answer:
    What is the relationship between research methodology and social change?

    research impact  on education due to social change. In special education, policies that bring about change in based on research. No Child Left Behind (NCLB) laws, Individual with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) laws.

    Konstantinos Karampelas

    A very interesting question. 

    On one hand, research (which requies methodology) aims to discover something new and contribute to social change. So research methodology affects change.

    On the other hand, social changes affect research methodology. For example:

    1) In the era of ICT, you would use computer assisted means in reserch methodology.

    2) New social trends are always food for research.

    3) The methodology you use will be affected by the social context (e.g. laws, you cannot defy laws when doing research in children with disabilities)

    So you can say it is a complex bidirectional relationship.

  • Nicoleta Hodis added an answer:
    Does anybody know of a research that used CDA (Critical Discourse Analysis) to analyze educational policy?

    I want to use CDA to analyze educational policy documents; more specifically US educational laws related to English language learners. Although I was able to find several studies that use CDA as a method, none of these studies analyze ed. policies' documents.

    Nicoleta Hodis

    Thank you so  much everyone for sharing with me all these resources!

    I am working on my dissertation which is focused on document analysis of ed. policy related to the ELLs in U.S. I want to use CDA as my interpretive approach. Whereas I am pretty comfortable with the document analysis  method, I am less comfortable with the CDA.  I am still reading Fairclough and Wodak  I tried to  find research that had used CDA on ed policy documents and I have not been that successful.  

    Once again, thank you for the articles and for all of  your suggestions.


  • Joel Hellier added an answer:
    Can anyone recommend me some articles related to education spending and income inequality?
    Human capital theory suggests that there is a direct relationship between the level of education and income, under this premise, the OECD encourages countries to invest in education to reduce existing wage disparities. However, for developing countries the effects of spending on education tend to be oscillatory. That's when the question arises about whether developing countries should substantially increase the level of spending on education, if so, it would be advisable to do so at all levels?

    Finally, it is possible to reach an optimal level of spending on education, which maximize the benefits of society? if so, under what arguments would be valid
    Joel Hellier

    Driskill & Horowitz (2002) and Su (2004) analysed the impact of the allocation of public funding between basic and further education upon growth, welfare and income distribution. Bertocchi & Spagat (2004) generate social stratification at the different stages of economic development from a model with basic and secondary education. Su (2006) shows that the upper class imposes larger expenditure on higher education for a minority at the expense of basic education in developing countries. Chusseau & Hellier (2011) generate different social stratifications with under-education traps depending on the public funding allocated to each cycle and on the strictness of admission. Herrington (2015) shows that differences in public spending and in public contribution to early childhood education are key determinants of the divergence in inequality between the US and Norway. As regards higher education, a number of works have been devoted to the analysis of its cost (e.g., Caucutt & Kumar, 2003, Akyol & Athreya, 2005, Gilboa & Justman, 2009).

    Akyol, A. and K. Athreya. 2005. Risky higher education and subsidies. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control. 29 (6), 979-1023.

    Bertocchi, G. and M. Spagat. 2004. The evolution of modern educational systems. Technical versus general education, distributional conflict, and growth. Journal of Development Economics, 73, 559-582.

    Caucutt, E. and K. Kumar. 2003. Higher Education Subsidies and Heterogeneity: A Dynamic Analysis. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, 27, 1459-1502.

    Chusseau, N. and J. Hellier. 2011. Educational systems, intergenerational mobility and social segmentation. European Journal of Comparative Economics, 8(2), 255-86.

    Driskill, R.A. and A. Horowitz. 2002. Investment in Hierarchical Human Capital. Review of Development Economics, 6(1), 48-58.

    Gilboa, Y. and M. Justman. 2009. University tuition subsidies and student loans: a quantitative analysis, Israel Economic Review 7(1), 1–37.

    Herrington, C.M. 2015. Public education financing, earnings inequality, and intergenerational mobility. Review of Economic Dynamics, 18, 822–842.

    Su, X. 2004. The allocation of public funds in a hierarchical educational system. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, 28, 2485-2510.

  • Harshvardhan Singh added an answer:
    Where can I get literature on space utilization in institutions of high learning?

    I need literature international standards regarding Average space per student in general classrooms, Average space per student in special classrooms such as libraries, computer laboratories, science laboratories, etc.

  • Manola Romero added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest a survey that i can use to know students perception on the policies of higher education in India ?

    Educationists , Researchers and All open for All

    Manola Romero

    Hi Richa,

    Harshvardhan Singh has provided an extended and documented answer, I hope that you will find in there the informations you need.

    BUT do not forget that the questionnaire you need is the one that really answers yours own concern ! So you must be very aware of your own concern! "Students perception on the policies of higher education in India" is not a well enough defined problem. What do you want to know ? Which students are concerned, those already in your academy, or those you want to attract ? What do they know of the policy ? What could you do of the answers you can get ?

    In a nutshell :before building a questionnaire for the students, defining a sample, and  which form (writing, interview, ..) you will choose, start the process by a thoroughly questionning of yourself : what am I dooing, for whom, for what, on what can I act to exploit the answers ?..

    Good luck

    Manola ROMERO

  • Closed account added an answer:
    The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages after 15 years: your personal views and findings?

    The Common European Framework plays a central role in language and education policy worldwide. Has it enhanced foreign language learning/teaching across Europe since 2001? Your opinions and findings are very welcome.


    Hi, Colleagues

    I think benchmarks are there (CEFR), we have to adopt, adapt and customize according to our fit for purpose requirement. I hope it helps!

  • El Hassane Sidibé added an answer:
    Ways of improving the relationship between education and employment?

    education and employment

    El Hassane Sidibé

    employment growth is qualitatively and quantitatively depending of education;EDUCATIONIS THE MIND OF SOLUTIONS OF UNEMPLOYENT.

  • Moanes H. Tibi added an answer:
    How can we measure the quality of collaborative skill for teacher team?

    We aware that "Communication and Collaboration" is a key skill for 21st century education. I would like to know is there any tool or measurement to test collaborative skill level or quality

    Moanes H. Tibi

    Attached my article "Improving Collaborative Skills by Computer Science Students through Structured Discussion Forums". I think it can help you find the concept behind the istr.

  • Ömer Bilen added an answer:
    Does the built environment affect the creativity among students of architecture?

    Architecture students require a highly creative skills to be developed. My concern is how much built environment of architecture schools can contribute to their creative skills.

    Ömer Bilen
    Yes Fazıla Duyan works on the colours' effect on succes students. She found that red purple has the most important effect on success after ignoring the learning effect.
  • Adriana Ghoul added an answer:
    Does instruction offered in English motivate students to continue their education abroad?

    There is a discussion about EMI and students' choices of studying in the United States. Is there a correlation between using English as a language of instruction in primary/secondary education and the number of students who choose to continue their education abroad (English-speaking countries)?

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This collective case study aims to investigate the effectiveness of the use of English in terms of the acquisition of both language skills and the academic content in three different approaches to language instruction, and to compare them in this regard. The approaches under question are: (1) English medium instruction (EMI), in which academic content is provided through the medium of English after a preparatory year, (2) English aided instruction (EAI), in which Turkish is used for lectures and English for exams and materials such as books and articles with the support of preparatory and post preparatory English courses, and (3) Turkish medium instruction (TMI), in which Turkish is used in all of the academic areas supported with preparatory and post preparatory English courses. The research was conducted in the Faculties of Economics and Administrative Sciences of three universities which used these approaches. The student and lecturer data concerning their perceptions of the use of English in the different faculty/language of instruction combinations were mainly collected by means of questionnaires and interviews in the 2003–2004 academic year. The population for this research consisted of 527 fourth-year students and 87 teaching staff. Although EMI is found to be the most effective of all in terms of language skill development, none of the approaches is considered to be sufficient and efficient to teach English alongside academic content. And, it is also considered that EMI fails to provide the academic content effectively.
      Full-text Article · Jun 2008 · System
    Adriana Ghoul

    It really depends on the type of instruction they are given (program, module), the amount of time they spend per week in the foreign language class, and the motivation and attitudes of the students in the class. In immersion situations where English is used daily, students might find it really easy to pursue an academic degree in an English-speaking country, for they feel at ease with the language and have the necessary confidence to embark upon such a long journey. 

  • Lali Giorgidze added an answer:
    What is the reason for the US-Government to change their educational system following the German Dual Modell?

    Thomas Perez, US-Secretary of Labor, announced a dramatic change of the US educational system in an interview with the "Wirtschaftswoche". The US government will follow the German Modell. What is your opinion for the reason and will they have success?

    Lali Giorgidze

    By the way, the government of Georgia (the country) has also announced on its intent to introduce this model in the educational system of the country.. :)

  • Mark E Gould added an answer:
    Do other countries/states/provinces give K-12 teachers tenure and if so, what is the impact on education?

    In Ontario, Canada K-12 teachers essentially have tenure and very little accountability.  Unless they commit a "serious" crime, they cannot be fired.  Is this the same in other places around the world?

    If so, was is the impact on teaching and education?  I wonder if countries (scoring high on PISA) like Japan, Finland, Singapore, China, Switzerland have similar accountability policies?

    Mark E Gould

    Emad, this is for students in primary and secondary schools NOT university or employees. ACER is Australian Council for Education Research. Geoff Masters is the CEO and is leading the research. He is trying to change the culture, political and educational around assessment and reorting to align with psychology of growth and resilience. An idea completely in line with my own research project from 2000 to 20005

  • Yinying Wang added an answer:
    Does anyone know of any archival sources on early school social work practice?

    I'm hoping to do some historical resesrch on the early days of school social work practice.  I know school social work practice began in the early 1900s in New York,  Boston, and Chicago.   Any leads on primary sources would be greatly appreciated. 

    Yinying Wang

    Relevant report in newspaper might be another source.

  • Kevin Larkin added an answer:
    Can someone provide me with the experience of universities applied BYOD methodology, and the policies adopted to employ this methodology?

    You know the importance and benefits of using BYOD methodology (Bring Your Own Device) in universities and educational institutions, but there are several risks facing this methodology may make universities reluctant to apply

    Please help us to provide me with the experience of universities applied BYOD methodology, and the policies adopted to employ this methodology?

    with alot of thanks

    dr / Mohamed. A. Ahmed

    Kevin Larkin

    Hi Mohamed,

    I have just completed a project with colleagues regarding the use of technology in higher education. One of the issues we looked at was BYOD - I have provided the link below. Regards, Kevin

  • Phil Barbonis added an answer:
    Does anyone have information on how technology policy in tertiary education impacts job retention and job satisfaction of faculty?
    There is minimal research surrounding technology in education outside of the K-12 arena. I am currently doing some preliminary research on the impact of policy surrounding technology for faculty in tertiary education. I am interested in the variation of institutional policy, job retention, and job satisfaction.
    Phil Barbonis

    It is unclear to me what the thrust of your question is. Without referring to other published work, and I am sure there are many out there, I will say this. The arrival of Microsoft’s Powerpoint has changed the way many lectures are delivered – instead of lecturers writing on blackboards /greenboards, the white screen is used, and that has often been replaced by video-screens today. I was at a church in Singapore in November, and was pleased to see that the worshippers could follow the texts used during the mass on strategically placed video-screens. Worshippers could see what the priest was going to say or was saying.

    Testing can be done using the same technology. In an effort to get my students to do regular studying instead of trying to do cramming at the 11th hour before the examination, I would conduct 15-minute long tests (only multiple-choice questions for obvious reasons) just before the new lecture started… the innovation, if you can call it that was to pass the individual answers to randomly selected students who would then assess the answers based on what they know or how they themselves had answered – so this means testing the students twice. The questions would appear on the screen but as students had different rates of reading, I switched to printed questions. Of course the answers can be given electronically and assessed automatically/electronically, but my method really worked.

    E-Learning is one R&D project that I funded as technology manager to develop an easy to use learning platform – engineers later produced learning material for what we called “on-demand, learning”… this helped engineers to learn at their own pace, and saved on travel costs. Today, there are MOOC ( massive, open online courses).

    Lectures can be recorded on video and replayed later, the only difference being that if there were no lecturers present, students could not ask questions, which is a huge negative aspect. But, you can discern it might be possible to replace some lecturers if lectures are recorded, especially if managements want to reduce costs, often to the detriment of student’s learning process. I would think lecturer-student interaction fosters learning better than if it was all video-based. If managements go the route, there will be dissatisfaction amongst teaching staff, and students might not want to come to lecture sessions…

  • Hussin Jose Hejase added an answer:
    Does anyone have the book name written by (Woronov, 2007), in which the phrase is written below?

    In Japan, Korea, and China, students take extremely competitive tests at the end of their schools years in order to be prepared for the admission to prestigious post secondary institutions (Woronov, 2007).

    Hussin Jose Hejase


    See attached paper as referred by Beatrice.

  • Art Menius added an answer:
    Is anyone out there a specialist in legal issues dealing with non-profit (501c3) organizations in the United States?
    I need some guidance in looking up laws and legal cases.
    Art Menius

    In many states the Secretary of State provides free guides as website downloads of the process in their jurisdictions.

    In rough generalities: First, organize a founding board of at least three people
    Second, file Articles of Incorporation with the Secretary of State in the state where you want to incorporate. The Articles need to state that the corporation intends to be organized under section 501(c)3 of then Internal Revenue Code, that no profits will inure to the benefit of any individual, the purpose for the creation of the organization, and that if dissolved the assets of the corporation will be donated to another 501(c(3

    This is a good time for the board to adopt bylaws, which mostly concern internal governance and procedure, and to adopt a corporate resolution permitting the organization to open a bank account/

    Third, once the Secretary of State returns your Articles with an official stamp, write to the IRS to obtain an EIN.

    Fourth, file a Form 1023 with the IRS with the required $400 application fee to obtain your 501(c)3 recognition

  • Florencia Maldia added an answer:
    Does the present model for secondary school education properly prepare youngsters for enhanced employability in the future?

    It has been observed that the training and educational models in several secondary schooling systems does not adequately prepare their youngsters for enhanced likelihood of successful employability outcomes. In many cases while the traditional grammar school education model still predominates as a one-size-fits-all approach,  student outcomes indicate that this approach may not be the most effective approach. The secondary school system has the unique opportunity to positively impact the futures of the cohort of 12 year olds that enter their space. At the end of that five years secondary school period the readiness of the emerging 17 year olds should be such that their life trajectory is upward. Too many students emerge after these five years without certification in any area of endeavour; grammar, technical, vocational, trade.  This is sub-optimal. Where are some of the best exemplars of effective future-oriented secondary education to be found ?

    Florencia Maldia

    Dear RG Colleagues:

    Wishing you and your family all the best, more power and success, and be blessed with love, peace, joy, good health, and prosperity, and with what your heart desires. Happy new year!

    Thank you for your up votes, endorsement, and following my posts.


    Florencia T. Maldia RN.,PhD

  • Benny Stein added an answer:
    What influences do teacher unions have in organised labor in the status of the teaching profession?

    I am writing a paper about the public status of teachers and the teaching proffession. I would like to get similar information from other countries where teacher unions are strongly active or that they are very weak and the consequences. I would like to see if there is correlation between the strength of these "Trade Unions" and the professional status of teaching.

    Benny Stein

    Hello Azizan,

    Thankyou for your contribution. Having already submitted my paper unfortunately I will not be in need for more information in the near future. You attention is most appreciated.  

  • Harshvardhan Singh added an answer:
    Does anyone knows how can get the recent list of the ISI for journals 2014?

    Does anyone knows how can get the recent list of the ISI for journals 2014?
    (Social Sciences Citation Index)

  • Debra Sharon Ferdinand added an answer:
    What changes in education policy related to technology do you think are necessary to fully embrace its potential for learning?

    In the US at least - we are somewhat hampered by policy related mandates on what should be taught and how it should be taught and assessed. This inhibits the integration of technology for many of the high impact practices that theory would lead us to believe will make a large difference in student learning. What changes do you think need to be put in place to change the current architecture in such a way to afford better technology-mediated/integrated learning? I would love to hear not just about changes to US policy - but also policies that other countries have put in place that are making a difference with respect to the use of technology in the classroom.

    Debra Sharon Ferdinand

    I think policies need to include incentives for faculty to use technology, especially complex initiatives such us blended learning implementation. Such incentives would help to motivate faculty to effectively integrate technology into learning activities and assessments. I have attached two conference presentations as examples of how I've used technology in learning and assessment that I hope would be useful in showing that the teacher is still "behind" both F2F and online classes in knowing how to use the technology for learning and assessment.

    Best regards,


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  • Florencia Maldia added an answer:
    What can help supporting schools in challenging circumstances improving their learning outcomes?

    I am at the beginning of working out an expertise, how schools in challenging contexts (socio-economically disadvantaged areas) can be supported.

    Aside at aspects, what teachers, school leaders and parents can do, I am especially interested in instruments, which education policy, education administration and regional politics can supply supporting those schools.

    In more details I mean: evidence-based improvement with support of experts for interpreting test data (what sort of social and learning outcome data are most important), additional ressources on the  basis of a social index (like additional teachers and other supporting stuff, smaller classes, more teacher time for developing strategies and reflecting the actual situation, money for additional media, …), better organized school catchment areas with better social-mixed school population (bussing?), networks of schools in the region with similar problems,  


    It would be helpful for me participating in your experiences and knowledge of relevant literature.

    Florencia Maldia

    I suggest strategic planning using SWOT analysis and PEST analysis to produce accurate data. It is never enough to simply have the data or information that emerged from PEST or SWOT analysis. The most important is the way the analysis of data will be used in order to improve the learning outcomes.

    What education programs your school is offering? basic education? college? My pleasure to help to the best I can.

  • Ljubomir Jacić added an answer:
    How would you formulate, or modify, education objectives of your community/country to meet the needs of a plural, multicultural, global society?

    Can we have an education system that prepares young minds to be TOLERANT of other cultures and religions?  Can we have an education system that teaches our young people to ACCEPT DIFFERENCES?  

    When I searched for papers on changes in education policies, this was the best match, but it’s just an abstract.  (I have asked for the full text.)

    • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neoliberal education policies have altered the operational environments of schools and affected school principals' job descriptions and requirements. As a result of managerialism, decentralisation and marketisation of education, principals are increasingly responsible for profitably, marketing and striving in competition, in addition to their role as pedagogical leaders. In this study, the opinions and views of European principals on the changes in the governing of education, relevance of education, educational transitions and different factors affecting coping with the demands of education are analyzed. The views of the principals do not consistently reflect the structures of the national education systems. Questions related to educational equality highlighted the clearest differences. The more unequal the education system, the more important supporting the students in the weakest positions is to the principals.
      Article · Sep 2015 · Compare
    Ljubomir Jacić

    Dear @Miranda, I find this might be productive contribution to this thread.

    Special Issue of EuroScientist on: The Common Good Economy !

    "This issue shares the perspectives from scientists and economics, as well as various actors involved in resolving societal challenges and changing the current economic order from a top-down hierarchy to a more distributed and horizontal governance, to favour localisation and greater equity between all involved...

    There is a clear emerging trend, at the age of networked living: we are all citizens of the world, as Bono, the U2 front man, pointed out at his first concert in Dublin on 23rd November 2015. Today, rock stars are not the only ones who can express themselves and be heard. We all have a role to play and chip in to define what we expect from the world of tomorrow..."

    An excellent collection of papers follow!

    Read more:
    Follow us: @euroscientist on Twitter | Euroscientist on Facebook

  • Sarah Lightfoot added an answer:
    What does research tell us about the importance or influence of teacher agency in professional development?

    What does research tell us about the importance or influence of teacher agency in professional development?

    Sarah Lightfoot

    I hope you find the following useful.

    + 3 more attachments

  • Michael Streifinger added an answer:
    E-learning contra man-guided education?

    E-learning is known as a very good and important instrument in the educational process. But: The role of a teacher will be reduced here to an assisting adviser.The pioneering study of John Hattie (Visible Learning. London, New York 2009) shows, that the personal influence in the educational sight is one of the most important factors of the educational process at all, before all the other influencing conditions in the interdependencies of teaching and learning.
    The success of an educational process results by the efficiency of learning (that means: a good quote of reproduction and a sustainable knowledge) and depends from both motivation and successfully reproduction. The teacher has to teach on the base of a good theoretic knowledge (i.m. cognitive competency) using some age-adapted methods (methodical competency) with an intensive engagement in the interactive cooperation and communication with his students (social competency).
    As a demand you can deduct: A good knowledge of the topics, a good transformation by age-adapted methods and a feeling for the cognitive capacity of the students and their questions round about their whole education situation are the best acquired needs for a good teacher.
    So it seems to be a problem, when an education policy reduces the number of teachers with the argument: E-learning may effect the same success by the students like a teacher.
    So you have to consider carefully: What is better: E-Learning or a learning under traditional conditions?

    Michael Streifinger

    Dear all,

    due to changing educational and educationary processes within all sorts of different school systems on a large scale, the quest for modern teaching methods has just begun. There is no doubt that  media-based triggers like e-learning will of course motivate "new-age" pupils and students more than a straight forward teacher's monologue. However, it must not be forgotten that  teaching nowadays implies an almost unlimited , flexible variety  of different tools, skills, and expert views, depending on classroom atmosphere, conditions and intentions. As a consequence, teachers will certainly not give up their position of being human guides in a technocratic world. In my eyes, their position will even be strengthened! 

    Best regards,


  • José Luis García Vigil added an answer:
    Do you know positive examples where evidence-based education policies have functioned?

    I´m very sceptical about the often propagadet promises of the empirical education research providing evidences, which can be transformed in fruitful developments in education policies.

    My opinion is, that most of the found evidences in studies cannot be generalized for the purpose of politicians.

    At the other side many researchers do not articulate their findings clearly enough for the public and policy or avoid drawing strong conclusions what the found evidences really mean.

    Second, politicians often ignore obvious evidences because they contradict against their ideologies or they pick out only parts of the findings, which they can use for their existing opinions and strategies.

    The empirical findings concerning the negative influences of the selective german school system with the different school types on the achievement of social disadvantaged students are a typical example for ignoring evidences by education policy, especially in Bavaria.

    I´m interesting what are your experiences and opinions about the question: Is evidence based education only an illusion?

    José Luis García Vigil

    The evidence derived from social and legal sciences in particular (Law)

    In medicine it has become operational and carried the designs and methodologies in clinical research, new drug research, epidemiological research and health systems.

    In medical education (training of general practitioners and medical specialists) have developed research models where interventions are the strategies, methods and teaching techniques to enhance and promote learning and evaluate curriculum, study plans and programs, in addition to the academic performance Classroom (operational educational research, action research)

    To operationalize and measure qualitative or categorical variable (as often happens in the field of education), becomes an evidence that can be traced from that one study is designed, when the protocol is initiated and implemented the hypothesis testing in the field (cynical, classroom, community), to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies, methods, techniques and tools to measure and assess the development and modification of educational activities.

    Sure you can implement in micro or macro (part of a system or complete system) eg in groups of medical students during their training in the health sector, clinical fields (clinics, hospitals), both in the community (villages sectors targeted population), such as schools or medical schools.

    You can also perform basic research (educational system institutions, health sectors, health or national) to support health policies that improve or correct the current course true or educational paradigm for physicians and other professionals in the health sciences ).

About Educational Policy

Education policy refers to the collection of laws and rules that govern the operation of education systems.

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