Science topic

Ecotoxicology - Science topic

The study of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION and the toxic effects of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS on the ECOSYSTEM. The term was coined by Truhaut in 1969.
Questions related to Ecotoxicology
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I need to know this information in order to develop an ecotoxicology bioassay, but I have not find the exact data.
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I hope that following paper is interesting for you.
Milan B. Arambasic
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I'm curious to understand how possible it is to bridge the gap between Data Science and Spatial Ecotoxicology in developing countries. Dearth of information and lack of data is a major setback in developing countries. It will be interesting to understand fully the intricacies involved and the way forward. Thanks.
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Here's a possible example for you. Best wishes David Booth
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Free software resource for environmental illustrations/graphical abstracts..
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Perhaps you can try: https://www.diagrams.net/
free, high quality diagramming software for flowcharts or diagrams, which allow online collaboration as well...
Next, I recommend to check this website:
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What is the experience of researchers with male individuals of Folsomia candida in laboratory populations? What is their share in the total number?
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Here below you will find the pdf file of the paper mentioned above. Just take a look at it may give you useful tips.
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I am currently evaluating the possibility of studying Culex pipiens in an ecotoxicological context by applying the dynamic energy budget (DEB) theory and effect modeling. For this, I am searching available life-history data of Culex pipiens to parameterize a standard DEB model. Specifically, I need length (or weight) data and egg numbers over time at different temperatures.
Does someone work with this species or know where to find growth and reproduction data measured over time?
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Currently, microplastics (MPs) occurence researches in coastal and marine animals are performed in huge amounts, but their results concerning MPs abundances are not always given with the same unity.
  • From what I can tell from studies I read, most provide data using MPs/individual. There are some studies that sample in pools, and then, after ending samplings, calculate the MPs/individual data. It would be an issue if we compare MPs/individual data of two different studies: one that sampled in each individual and another that sampled in pools?
  • Should a specific study provide just the MPs/individual data? I think this study it would be sort of incomplete, considering that this data would not totally reflect the abundance of animals with different sizes, weights, and possibly ages, etc.
  • What is the best approach between other unities, such as MPs/g of the whole sample, MPs/g of their dry or wet weight? That are some formulas to convert samples weight for dry and/or wet. This is applicable for MPs?
I know much of that depends on the study's biological samples, and objectives, but I would enjoy reading researchers opinion about it.
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Dear Victor
Mostly expressed as items/m3, but you use another unites according to your specified work too!
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> Animals are kept in accordance with ABNT standards.
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Algae
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The term "micropollutants" is used in many scientific papers. It seems like chemicals of emerging concern are often thrown into the micropollutant box. But how can a pollutant be classified as micro if chemicals are all quite microscopically small!
Are the users of the micropollutant buzz word not as guilty as the "heavy metals" fans? Fortunately a few papers have spoken out against the misuse of the term heavy metals (E.g. Duffus 2002, Pure and Applied Chemistry 74(5):793-807). Will micropollutants have their turn as well? :)
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Nanopolutants term is a new trend)
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Hello,
Amphibians eggs are surrounded of a jelly coat constituted by one to several layers depending on the considered species. The composition of these layers depends on the considered layer and species. The functions of this layers are multiple. Indeed, the jelly coat is for instance known to be involved in fertilization, to avoid polyspermy, to act as a sperm chemoattractant and to play an important role of barrier against UV, infection and contaminants. But, the role of barrier against contaminants is not so clear. Indeed, the complex structure of the jelly coat provides to it an affinity to specific molecules. Therefore, certains molecules are stopped by the layers while others penetrate to the embryos.
In spite of this, most protocole for testing effect of toxicants on amphibians suggest to dejelly the eggs before the exposure. From my point of view, this recommendation lead to a loss of ecological relevance and I'm wondering if dejellying should not be reconsidered.
How about you ? Is there something that I don't see ?
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Hi Laurent ,I agree that removing the jelly reduces ecological relevance in the toxicity testing. However, one reason could be to create a worst-case (tier 1) laboratory experiment with enhanced exposure. For increasing realism, the next step could be to test eggs with jelly (tier 2). This of course would assume that jelly protects the embryo by lowering exposure.
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I'm currently working on ecotoxicology and I'd like to know what my colleagues from the same area think, especially in South America. Too much of microplastics in my opinion, but few studies regarding their potential effect on the organisms (either continental or marine).
But what about the so-called emerging concern pollutants?? I believe they were left aside because of the microplastics... Which would be the main pollutants that will be our concern in a nearby future by the ecotoxicology? Let's start the debate! I bet nanoparticles...
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That's a really great question.
I am currently working with Ecotox. and MPs here in Brazil. Maybe I'm part of the 'problem' you highlighted. Anyway, I think this is an important debate and will give my insights.
In fact, in my case, it was the MPs that brought me to work with the Ecotox. theme, considering that I came from an area of Engineering and Education. I think this should be the case for some new people who come to work with Ecotox.
I don't believe the arrival of researchers in Ecotox by MPs is a problem. For example, in my case, I can transgress to a more chemical ecotoxicological area by analyzing other contaminants, since now I know a little bit more about how it all works.
What I do believe it is a problem is maybe the 'low quantity' of studies that analyze these other contaminants (there are a lot of them!). But I don't believe that MP research is 'hindering' their development. If there's one thing it is doing, it's potentiating it. If research with MP and Ecotox. did not exist, maybe your question would be something like 'How can we potentiate Ecotox. studies?'.
About the contaminants, I do believe that, for a short and medium-term period in the future, licit and illicit substances, such as drugs, would grow. In Brazil case, the sewage treatment is poor for this and most of all contaminants, basically.
I hope I could contribute to your question.
Best regards.
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Could you please introduce suitable references and reviews about the methods(any systems or organisms) for evaluation of the toxicity of organic micropollutants in WWTP effluent? and short summary how it happens?
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In my opinion, you can use all the aquatic tests available including the one not requiring ethical approval for in vivo experiments (required for fishes). Interesting and fast results can be obtained with Daphnia magna (acute and chronic tests available), algae, Microtox with vibrio fisheri (the fastest one among the test suggested). You could find all the information on the OECD website and also on ISO guidelines. For these tests, less techinical instruments are needed compared to the fish test. Moreover you have to consider the amount of treated samples you can dedicate for the test. Algae, daphnia and microtox require lower volume compared to the fish test.
I can also suggest to include in your test battery a mutagenicity/genotoxicity assay such as the Ames test because several papers in literature suggested that some treatment can generate more reactive genotoxic intermediate or by-products.
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Hi everybody: i am looking for recent datas about the amount of registered biocides containing silver nanoparticles. The most recent data i found is in this paper from Nowack et al. (2011) which explains that about the 53% of biocides registered at EPA contains nanoAg and the 7% of it contains AgNPs. I looked for more recent datas/numbers about biocides cointaining nanoAg/AgNPs, but from main sites like EPA's, REACH's and ECHA's or from the huge amount of papers i read nothing came out. I was wondering if someone has something (papers, reviews, sites etc..) to share with me to help my research. Everything is accepted but it must be referred to biocides containing nanoAg/AgNPs.
Thanks a lot to everyone who will share his/her time with me
Mattia
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Silver nano-particles are toxic to varieties of organisms. Silver-based biocidal material is used for commercial & healthcare textiles.They have exhibited 99% efficacy against the spread of bacteria. They also showed a broad spectrum.fungicidal activity. As far as the mechanism of action is considered Silver nano-particles release silver ions, which act as the biocidal species .
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Hello, Do you know where I can find any critics on ecotoxicological studies which are focused on exposure aquatic organism to drugs? I am looking for papers that critic actual exposure concentration of drugs.
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Dear Kateřina,
A very relevant source in this respect is the following: Harris et al., 2014 Environ Sci Technol 48: 3100-11. DOI: 10.1021/es4047507.
The paper discusses the general quality of ecotoxicological research by identifying common points of criticism on the adopted methodology in the field (including the point that the realised exposure concentrations are not always measured). Moreover, they suggest several points that could/should be considered to optimise ecotoxicological assessment.
Best of luck,
Eli
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Hi everybody. I am facing an issue about reproduction data analysis in chronic toxicity test with C.dubia. US EPA Method 1002.0 ( https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-08/documents/short-term-chronic-freshwater-wet-manual_2002.pdf) instructions tell:
" The response used in the statistical analysis is the number of young produced per adult female, which is determined by taking the total number of young produced until either the time of death of the adult or the end of the experiment, whichever comes first. An animal that dies before producing young, if it has not been identified as a male, would be included in the analysis with zero entered as the number of young produced "
Including dead animals in the count gives me back too high standard deviation values which don't fit well in my analysis. I would like to know if alternatives are available: feel free to link me to other papers, works, methods etc.. which could help. Thanks a lot to anyone will spend time to help me.
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Hi! I am looking for an paper that the authors conducted a study on natural soil with undisturbed samples.
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Please find the answer in this article:
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I want to improve my knowledge on ecotoxicology/aquatic toxicology. Whereas there are many book available. Do you have a good recommendation? Thank you very much!
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Fundamentals of Aquatic Toxicology. Its very good.
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The question aims to know what types of species are most used in ecotoxicological tests of effluents from industries in the oil sector.
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Or Guppy, for instance. But fish may not die in your polluted water (unless you already find them on the shores), but are affected sublethally. That's complicated to measure if you don't have the experience. More sensitive is Daphnia magna, when you can easily measure survival.
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In the current EFSA Guidance on the risk assessment of plant protection products on bees (Apis mellifera, Bombus spp. and solitary bees) related to the Regulation (EC) 1107/2009 valid test methods for bees are in place. Beside bees (honeybees) several other pollinator groups are affected by pesticides and biocides such as lepidopterans or beetles. In order to improve the risk assesment for pesticides and biocides it is important to have a whole overview of exisiting guidelines beside the European regulations, OECD framework or the US EPA regulatory.
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It`s about 150 micra wide. Fixed with formol.
Found in small river; winter.
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Hi, I know this post is old.. but... have this application I'm working on.. maybe can help at least get closer
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Dear researchers,
I would much appreciate if you could explain or suggest good research papers regarding the effects of ocean acidification on the chemical composition of the valves of mainly Mytilidae and Pectinidae species and damage, growth, development or biomarker assessment.
Thanks in advance
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You can also get help searching engine of the below doctoral thesis by Alexander Ventura :
Bivalves in the face of ocean acidification
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Dear Colleagues, we would be most grateful if you could complete this very short survey on Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs). This survey is intended to inform the wider scientific community about the progress and impediments to endocrine disrupter research in invertebrates. We welcome views from those working outside invertebrate toxicology
Please follow this link https://forms.gle/tZAbHnhn6fArnAZR8
By participating you will be giving consent to your anonymous data entries being used as part of the survey. Due to the anonymous nature of this survey participation can't be removed. For further details on this project and how the data will be used please feel free to contact alex.ford(@)port.ac.uk [Please remove the () around the @]
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Hello ;
Dear Alex
Several effects of PE on invertebrates
Disturbances of larval stages
Egg malformation
Disruption of the nervous system at the target level; receptors
Modification of biosynthesis; metabolism and elimination of natral hormones
Risk for the species and the higher-level food chain by bioacumulation of persistent substances
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I am Pr Abderrazak Kaaya professor of ecotoxicology in the faculty of IBN ZOHR university AGADIR (Morocco)
We have found some death fish in khnifiss lagoon (south of morocco)
We want to study the source of this observation
All samples are conserved at -18°C
We ask you if we can collaborate and if you can help us in this study
Thank youvery much
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Hi professor
Many causes of this death:
Laboratory conditions
Concentration of polluant
Type And situation of animal (physiology)
Génétic factor And resistance structure And chemical nature of polluant (pesticide ).
Thanks
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I have searched many papers for allowable concentration of Copper and Chromium in industrial wastewater but I didn't find anything useful.
I would be so grateful if you help me with this matter.
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No permissible limits for Copper (Cu) and Chromium (Cr) in waste water.
The available permissible limits in guidelines are for drinking water
Cu = 2 mg/L
Cr = 0.05 mg/L
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2nd Springer Euro-Mediterranean Conference for Environmental Integration (EMCEI 2019: www.emcei.net), 10-13 October 2019 in Sousse, Tunisia
1. EMCEI-2019 has now opened to receive submissions until 15 May 2019. 2. Accepted papers will be published in the proceedings by Springer before the conference. 3. EMCEI-2017 proceedings by Springer was indexed in Web of Science (ISI). 4. Best extended papers of EMCEI-2019 will be published in Springer journals after the conference. 5. More details at: https://www.emcei.net/
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Following............
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It is often easy to measure effects of chemicals on organisms using various endpoints. However, chemicals can also influence ecosystem services. How can we measure effects of chemicals on ecosystem service delivery using ecotoxicological approaches? Any functional frameworks?
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Very good question. I am currently working on a similar project in soils. I used structural equation models to build Adverse Ecosystem Service Pathway (AESP) models that used disrupted interrelationships between soil properties and endpoints that represented ecosystem services in the presence and absence of contamination or toxicity. The latent endpoints included climate regulation, food production, water protection, organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling. A change in the relationship between impacted and non impacted soils implied an effect on ecosystem services.
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Recently we got a review of a manuscript saying that "data did not follow dose-response patterns". I know about linear models of response, as well as log-logit and probitos-like distributions. However, I was wondering should all biological responses fit in those models?
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Dear All,
I just found this blog http://ourstolenfuture.com/newscience/lowdose/nonmonotonic.htm a bit old but potentially interesting to some of you.
Cheers
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I am about to prepare a lecture for my university students and here in Madagascar books are difficult to get.
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Here is the link where you can search any book.
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I am a Masters Student of Ecotoxicology at University of Koblenz-Landau Germany. I am entirely new in this field and gradually developing interest in aquatic ecotoxicology. I will remain grateful to receive materials that will help me develop in this area of interest. Thanks.
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Environment and Toxicology Studies Journal is a peer - reviewed, open access publication that used by readers in the following fields: Eco-toxicology, Sources of environmental toxicity , Aquatic toxicology. Refer to. https://www.imedpub.com -- focus - scope. Also Fundamentals of Aquatic toxicology effects, Environmental Fate, and Risk Assessment, 2nd. edition Refer to https://www.contamsites.landcaresearch.co and Development and Application of Aquatic Toxicology Studies for the assessment of impacts due to chemical stressosrs refer https://digitalcommons.flu.edu.cgi.vie
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Is it possible just comparing only the element concentration in biota and sediment, excluding the TOC and lipid?
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I think that if possible, but doing the analyzes separately
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I have a long term dataset which includes a variety of chemical and physical water variables sampled from an inland river. These variables include: metal loads (Al, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Na, K, Pb, Ni, Zn); in Situ measurements (Electrical conductivity [EC], water temperature, air temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH); water nutrients (Ammonium, Chloride, Nitrate, Phosphate, Sulphate, Total Organic Carbon [TOC], Dissolved Organic Carbon [DOC]); and others (Acid capacity, base capacity). Some of these variables (e.g. chloride, EC, ammonium, nitrate, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, pH, sulphate, TOC and water temperature) were sampled consistently and therefore have a good resolution, whereas others (e.g. metal loads [Al, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Ni, Zn], acid capacity and base capacity) were sampled less frequently and therefore do not have the same data resolution.
With that said, the focus of my research is not exactly the chemical interactions of DOC and other chemical constituents per se, but rather the interaction and effect of DOC on freshwater macroinvertebrate taxa. I do, however, understand that the interaction of DOC with other water chemical properties is of vital importance and ones needs to consider these interactions.
Therefore, I would like to know what variables (from the lists mentioned above) are the most likely to interact with DOC within the freshwater environment. This will aid in my selection of the relevant variables that I will carry into further statistical analyses.
Any help in this regard would be greatly appreciated.
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Hi Nathan, we have high DOC and highly colored waters here in Maine. DOC is both an acid and contributes to alkalinity. We tend to have alkalinity even below pH 5 where the carbonate system is exhausted. DOC makes are streams and lakes more acidic for a given alkalinity, but DOC also supplies acid neutralizing capacity when pH is below 5. DOC is negatively charged and attracts and binds cations. This make heavy metals and Aluminum less toxic. Because lakes are solar collectors and because DOC is digested by UV light, there is a lot of clearing of water color in lakes. Maine streams are often tea or even coffee colored while lakes can be crystal clear. This digestion process releases Al, Fe and phosporus, generates alkalinity (or was it acidity? any chemists out there?), and precipitates TP as aluminum and iron compounds. Ferrous iron binds P, but will release it during reducing conditions (such as low oxygen conditions in the winter). Aluminum does not do that and is a permanent loss of TP in the bottom of the lake. Fish and macroinvertebrates benefit from DOC when soils are acidic and Al is mobilized. Ionic Al is bound by the DOC and particulate (POC) forms. Episodic pH drops can release Al and put in back into the toxic form and can lead to fish kills. Macroinvertebrates may also be killed and will drift downstream. So for the most part DOC is natural, important, and helpful for wildlife. Climate change probably increases the decomposition of organic matter in soils, leading to more DOC export from watersheds.
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I am doing my research on wetlands especially ecotoxicology aspect. Please suggest some peer reviewed journals which do not charge for processing and publication.
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Transylvanian Review of Systematical and Ecological Research - The Wetlands Diversity (http://stiinte.ulbsibiu.ro/trser/archive.html)
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I need to find out if the test is relevant.
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I wish this paper will help you.
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Scientific progress depends upon the proper dissemination of results and can only be fully achieved when access to the broad picture of the scientific knowledge is provided. Notwithstanding, there is a concerning low publicity of null results (i.e. findings do not support the experimental hypothesis), controversial data that could not be predicted according to current theories, and methodological "failures" due to lack of standardized procedures. Researchers tend to communicate more results with statistically significant differences, and negative results are often considered not "publishable" by authors, journal editors, and peer-reviewers. Null results should not be regarded as no results especially in environmental science. Well-grounded assessments on possible pollution sources that were found to not contribute to environmental contamination, ecotoxicological tests that could not detect toxicity under certain circumstances, or expensive analytical methods that are not particularly more efficient than cheaper options constitute very relevant information for improving strategies on environmental management, policy, and research practice. If you have found this kind of result, your results are relevant to our session that might take place at SETAC Europe Meeting (Rome, 2018). Submissions are welcome until November 29th 2017.
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Abel, you have asked a very interesting question where you think people fear to report null results. This is only so, when people choose to be unrealistic and forget that there are interventions put in place where ever problems are historical and this could affect preconceived findings, as those set in a hypothesis. I passed through this situation when I was doing my graduate work.
I was evaluating water samples for micro-biological quality to establish suitability of the water for drinking purposes. My hypothesis was that the level of feacal pollution in open water sources would be low in the dry season; get elevated with the on-set of the rains; and, tail-off with dilution in my study area which relied on on-site sanitation systems for human waste management. Such systems, like the pit-latrines, soak-pits etc would be the sources of the elevated coliform and e-coli counts in my samples initially, which with more rains, would start tailing off, with dilution as a factor. With this in mind, I started my research. I took my first batch of samples to establish the baseline during the dry season. When the rains started, I went for the next set of samples. The microbiological pollution levels were very high in the first week, I was elated as this conformed to my hypothesis. However, to my surprise, subsequent sampling did not show the tailing off, instead it produced nil levels of pollution from micro-bacteria. It shattered my hypothesis, and as a young researcher, i was confused. How would I report and explain my findings? This became a predicament for one eager to get my graduate certificate.
The results had to be reported anyway. What could I do? In fear of reporting a results outside possible established findings, I sought the wise counsel of the Chief Public Officer of the Count. Presenting my findings to him, and seeing the worries of a youngster, he simply laughed and said " cholera had been a major waterborne disease in the County". So, immediately the rains set in, he continued "chlorine balls were lowered in all open wells. This effectively killed the micro-bacteria. Your findings, "he went on" were therefore correct. With this in mind, I reported the results in my thesis with confidence, and the examiners were very happy when I went ahead to explain the otherwise unexpected results.
The import of this is that, we must recognize that when there is a problem affecting the population, intervention can, and do change otherwise preconceived findings as those we set in hypothesis. However, as hypothesis are set in both positive and negative, we should have open minds. Having such a mind-set helps one to have an thinking -an attribute that promotes and facilitates the need for further inquiry as was in my case.
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Metal nanoparticles are showing promise in tackling different problems in different domains of environment. How they can be used in aquatic ecosystems? What are different likely interactions? What may the possible toxic effects on different ecosystem components (planktons, bacteria, macrophytes and fish)? How can we track the ecotoxicological linkages? How could we manage metal nanoparticles for positive (beneficial) uses and avert the adverse/untoward consequences?
RG friends and researchers you all are welcome to participate and help to promote a sustained brainstorming on pros and cons of apllyting metal nanoparticles in aquatic systems like, ponds, lakes, rivers, etc.  
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The best review article on "Nanoparticles in aquatic systems". I hope this review addresses most of your questions. Here is the link to access the paper.
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I'm looking for data regarding ecotoxicological parameters (EC50, LC50) expressed as INTERNAL BODY CONCENTRATIONS for the metals CD, Zn and Pb to Enchytraeids and Eisenia andrei species. If someone knows some papers in which this work has been done I would appreciate it. Thanks in advance!
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Thank you for the answer,
We also included measurements of internal conc. in our ecotox tests, and thus I was looking for some references to compare our results. I appreciate your comments.
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Most of the cases, various metals having species and their toxicity varied largely; so how we can quantify the effect of these metal species on other metal present in soil system.
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Thank you your suggestions.
I have worked with few metal combinations................
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what these parameters imply in surfactant chemistry? and what are the methodologies for it?
I have observed these two parameters being used in the quality assurance of certain ethoxylated alkyl phenol formaldehyde resins.
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Between them these two terms get exactly one hit on Google Scholar. The hit concerns HPLC of sterols. I have never heard of them in more than 30 years of colloid science. So,  please tell us where you have seen them.
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I need to analyse plant rinsate for analysis of heavy metals as part of a Mine spill contamination project. Do we have any standard protocol for plant rinsate analysis?
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Please follow EPA protocol for heavy metal analysis.
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I'm looking for microcosm design that can be used in running water in the field, that can house some macroinvertebrates and substrate.
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Hi,
I have used wooden poles and plastic canvas to create in situ flumes in rivers. See paper in attachment. It worked perfectly and we could follow up the growth of macrophytes and flow patterns around patches under different discharge regimes (different sizes of the inlets of the flumes). It was also a cheap setup. It might also just work for macro-invertebrates. I also see many people have already suggested other studies? It might be an idea to write a review about this topic?
Good Luck
Jonas
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I'm trying to determine heavy metal speciation in food samples (vegetable, meat and seafood)  by HPLC-ICP-MS. I am not sure about effective method to digest each kinds of sample. plz help me...
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You can use standard methods given in APHA
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Hello, I am trying the evaluate the toxicity of Zn to freshwater microalgae P. subcapitata with a 72h toxicity test. I was wondering if I should add EDTA in the test medium or not. The obtained results will have to be compared with those obtained with natural water containing Zn.
Can the presence of EDTA alter the bioavailability of Zn?
Can this influence the comparison with results obtained in natural water?
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Ciao Michela, 
I never worked with your test organism, but here follows some information on the the toxity that applies for most of aquatic species.
EDTA has potential to bind metals, and therefore affect the free ion concentration. As the free ion concentration (bioavailable metal) is normally accepted as the one responsible for most of toxic effects, adding EDTA has potential to affect toxicity.  Naturally, how much it would affect the toxicity of Zn would depend on the water chemistry of your experimental media. In other words, it is difficult to say whether you would be able to measure the effect of EDTA without knowing the concentrations of EDTA, Zn treatments, and other cations, anions, and ligands in your media. While the effect of EDTA is always there, the question on whether you would sense it depends on your experimental setup.
Regarding the comparison to natural water, again it depends on the EDTA concentrations and the binding capacity of the EDTA you are using. 
I would be careful to add EDTA to metal exposures, especially if you want them to be comparable to natural waters. There are other metal complexing agents that could be more useful for that, as humic acids for instance.
I hope it helped
abel ;)
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Hello everyone, I am studying the behaviour of nematodes against heavy metal toxicity. I want to perform comet assay, but finding it difficult to optimize the protocol. Although, in C. elegans comet assay has been reported with exposure to BPA, but, I can't find a protocol where nematodes are exposed to toxic metal-containing pollutant under a natural environment in presence of multiple elements. If anyone can suggest a method for the experiment, I remain grateful!
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Hi Linee
Toxicity of Chromium III is very different from that of Chromium VI
That is the first thing you need to define
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I am working on heavy metal contamination of soils at mechanic site and i need international, regional and even national permissible limit of the metals am working on
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Dear Linus Aposu
You can following the attached paper too.
regards
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I'm staining fish blood smears and searching for micronuclei. I have seen methods that have only used a 6% Giesma stain solution in Sorenson's buffer (Nwani et al. 2011). I've also seen slides being stained initially with a May-Grunwald Stain and followed by a Giesma stain solution, but I was wondering if it was necessary to stain initially with May Grunwald Stain. I've already stained my slides with a 6% giesma in Sorenson buffer solution at a pH of 6.9 for 45 minutes, however I'm struggling to see the micronuclei. Additionally, if the May-Grunwald stain is needed, can I put my slides back in methenol to strip the stain from the cells and start over? Any insights on my methods would be greatly appreciated. Thanks! 
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dear Jillian, 
I am using the Giemsa stain for fish RBC. it works good and you can see the  micronuclei clearly. you should find if your toxin causes micronuclei. if the trouble is due to higher stain absorption by the cells you can try a few dips in methanol. good luck
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Toxicity values for Ni on Coastal and marine organisms especially diatoms and copepods from coastal waters of India through toxicological bioassays
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Yes, the LC50 values derived based on the dose-response of toxicity bioassays by exposing organisms to gradually increasing concentrations. We have conducted such toxicity bioassays on eight species of marine organisms from coastal waters of Tamil Nadu, India and derived toxicity values. In order to compare and derive safe limits for Nickel the toxicity values for nickel on marine organisms of Indian coasts is required.
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I need some authentic procedures for the determination of PAH in soil and plant samples, possibly some recent referenced methodologies.
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Which device is better for PAH analysis of soil and plant samples- 
GC/ GC-MS/ HPLC
Please help me to find out the proper extraction method for the same?
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I am working on phytoremidation of  Lantana camara to heavy metal by tissue culture technique
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Lead sulphate is hardly soluble in water and lead acetate is well soluble in water. (See solubility data in chemical handbooks)
This difference might influence the results considerably.
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I have attached a photo of the aphids. They are located over vallisnelias, amazonias, elodeas and many other aquatics.
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pull them outside of the water, spray on them diluted dish soap with a fine drops sprayer.  wipe gently with a cloth. dilluted dish soap will attack the waxy epicuticle of the aphids. \it is not dangerous for the fishes if it is very diluted. At the contrary - it is rich of phosphate qhich can be good for the plants  
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Nanotechnology is being promoted as a new generation environmental remediation technology with immense potential to provide cost-effective solutions to many of the most challenging environmental cleanup problems.  Silver,copper, gold, iron oxides, titanium oxides are some of the commonly used nanoparticles (NPs) that can be used in environmental remediation. Further, nanoparticles can be used as selective and sensitive sensors to monitor toxins, heavy metals and persistent organic contaminants (POPs) in soil, water and air environments. But there appears pitfalls in the horizon! Toxicity issues have raised important environmental concerns. Although we need to make a trade-off but scientist are hopeful about benefits of this new "magic bullets", which far exceed their put-down-able drawbacks.
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Dear Dr kumar
I will send you soon in this regards.
Regards
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My partner and I are working on determining the efficacy of the jade vine (Strongylodon macrobotrys) as a soil pH indicator in rain forests where this plant is most commonly found. We are then trying to formulate the criteria for determining its efficacy.
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Thank you for your helpful comments, Mohammed, Andrew, and Paul! I will definitely look into it!
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This common aquatic plant is known to have heavy nutrient uptake. In an aquatic ecosystem, is the accumulation of certain nutrients in the hyacinth sufficient to determine the state of said ecosystem with regards to pollution? 
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Bio-monitor is useful as indicator for water pollution and scientists are used different living organisms for this purpose, as Dr. Yusoff mentioned and suggested, and before you are selected any living organisms such as fish or plant is necessary to know the conditions of water bodies like is native or invasive (import) moreover the history  of this species and is there any factors can effect on distribution of pollution like bacteria which is usually living as symbiosis with root of plant and may be can play role in pollution reduction.          
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Can any body please suggest some literatures describing the bio-available proportion of metal from contaminated/polluted soil to animals (e.g., Bivalve mollusc/polycheate etc.) ....Advance thanks due to your kind cooperation. 
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It depends on the forms of metals, solubility of the metal forms, the demands of the organism in terms of the metal (e.g. essential metals like Fe, Si for e.g. the exoskeletion of marine organisms) or their analoges, the life cycle of the organism etc. Usually, pollutants are concentrated in the organisc phase of the sediments.
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Dear all,
I am interested in literature documenting massive die off due to algal poisoning from different cyanobacteria species ( Microcystis sp., Anabaena sp., etc) of herons, pelicans, ducks. So far I am aware about some papers relating the deaths with poor water quality. I am more focus on cyanotoxin contamination in tissues, lethal dose and so on. Any feedback will be highly appreciated.
Regards, 
Konstantinos
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Dear All, thank so much for your contribution.
Konstantinos
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The Daphnia magna toxicity test of silver nanoparticles always chooses moderately hard water from EPA. But from EPA the the culture media of  Daphnia magna is hard water. I have no ideal for choose the test media. Could you give me some suggestion ? 
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Dear Zhang
Indeed this is a bit tricky... the culture media needs to be quite hard but if you do short term testing this is not strictly needed. By reducing the hardness you will better be able to control the agglomeration of NPs. We have explored this further in our 2016 paper in Ecotox Environ Safety www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26829068
However, if your AgNPs are sterically stabilized the hardness will not influence the agglomeration much and in this case I would recommend the medium hard medium to make your study comply with the OECD requirements.
Best regards
Anders 
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Can anyone help me with detail information on how macrophyte and phytoplakton can be use simontaneously in assessment of the ecological state of aquatic environment. what statistic can be use to present the result and what parameters i can use for the monitoring method? is it neccessary to analyse the plants for heavy mental too?
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Dear  Enodiana,
 for assessment of the ecological state of the aquatic environment, you can quantify of chlorophyll-a concentration in collected water sample to predicting the level of eutrophication using Trophic State Index (TSI) according to Carlson (1977).
using Phytoplankton species diversity
and calculate Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H′), where it is one of the most
widely used indices for measuring diversity. It can change with key ecological factors such as competition, predation, and succession altering the diversity through changes in evenness without any change in species richness. also, you can use Shannon-Wiener index as a pollution index in diatom communities and suggested the following scale: 0–1 for high pollution, 1–2 for moderate pollution, 2–3 for marginal pollution, and 3–4 for incipient pollution or use palmer′s pollution index (Palmer, 1968) as an organic pollution index. you can determine Physico-chemical parameters in water samples like temperature, pH, TDS, DO, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate,...  
use canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) to examine the environmental variables influencing the phytoplankton community and it is very good analysis to present your final data.
good luck,
Sara Sayed
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currently, I am now conducting my research for my final year project. the title is a biogeochemical exploration of a gold deposit in Sokor, Tanah Merah, Kelantan, Malaysia.
1) firstly can someone give me an idea about the species of plant that can be an indicator for a gold deposit which suitable with the climate here?
2) secondly about the method. can some give a clear explanation about the sample preparation and digestion for plant and soil sample?
thank you.:)
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Hi Nursyasya,
In terms of the species I won't be much help, but if you look into the literature on phytomining, I'm sure someone will have an example of a tropical plant that is a good bioaccumulator of gold. 
With regard to the analysis you have plenty of options, particularly with the low detection limits of ICP-MS. Firstly the soil - this depends on whether a significant proportion of your gold is associated with silicates, if not then it's relatively simple. Make sure your sample is dry, then digest the soil sample in aqua regia (3 parts conc HCl, 1 part conc HNO3) with a solid to liquid ratio of no more than 0.1. Due to the hazard involved in this stage, do this in small batches, generally a few grams in 50 mL depending on the expected content in the sample. Then filter and dilute the sample for analysis. Where you have silicate-associated gold, you may need to grind the sample significantly finer to release it. This is because silica phases will not dissolve to a significant extent in aqua regia.
The plant samples are most likely best dealt with by burning the plant matter and treating the ash as with the soil above. The issue here is trying to make the procedure reproducible so that you're experiments can be compared to each other. Therefore, you'll need the same part of the plant, with similar moisture contents, etc. The moisture is best removed by freeze drying to minimise potential plant decomposition during conventional drying. 
I'll add a caveat here that I'm by no means a biologist and so am happy to be corrected about my suggestion for the plant treatment.
If you need more detail or advice just ask. Good luck!
Cheers,
Laurence
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I already know that blubber is the best tissue to analyze to invastigate on these pollutants. 
I was unable to find papers showing results of contaminants in cetacean skin.
The goal of my question is to know if it is relevant to explore that tissue and see if there are some issues in analyzing hydrophobic contaminants in cetacean skin.
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Thank you for all your answers. Before going further, I need to consider all your  good advices and redefine my objectives more accurately before going further. I will let you know what emerges from my reflexions.
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Does anyone here work with wild mice (mus musculus)? I would like to know how to determine the age of these animals? Lens eye weight? Currently I am using the fresh body weight, but this methodology is frequently refuted by several paper reviewers. Thanks!
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The samples were fixed using glutaraldehyde.
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Dear colleagues,
Thank you a lot for the help! 
Regards
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Please can you help me to find Standard and guidline of the permissible limits of toxic heavy metals (copper and silver) in sediment, bivalve and sea water ?
Thx in advance
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 Dear   Khouloud BOUKADIDA 
Please follow the 
standard EPA documents
and also the best references which dear Mikhail reffered.
Best Regards
Parisa Ziarati
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OECD medium is the standardized tool for soil toxicity studies. Usually sphagnum peat was recommended as ogranic matter for OECD medium. I recently read in an article about the modified OECD medium. I can't catch it in the OCED website. Thus asked the question
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Yes, soil ecotoxicology in Brazil.
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I need it to assessment the sediment of heavy metal .
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Bioturbation is the soil/sediment reworking by animals. It has a definite role in ecosystem engineering too by modifying and modulating different physicochemibal transformations and biological/microbiological interactions. Toxicants' transfers may be affected and ecotoxic effects may be modified. Can bioturbation be manipulated in reducing toxic effects of some toxicants and how?
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Dear Prof. Beauchamp & friends,
You have talked about bioremediation for cleaning up toxicants by different methods like biofiltration, biosparging, biostimulation, bioventing, composting, etc and dif methods of phytoremediation. Can you provide concrete information and research papers reflecting bioturbation induced enhanced microbial remediation.   But the focus of  my query has been bioturbation of soil and sediment. definitely different bioturbative mechanism like, burrowing, resuspension, bioirrigation/respiratory irrigation, filter feeding, benthic/bottom grazing, secretions, etc  exert considerable influence in altering the physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of soil or sediment habitat. Such bioturbation mechanisms had been dealt in my paper "Bioturbation potential of chironomid larvae for sediment-water ................"  published in Ecological Engineering (Elsevier) 35(2008):1444-1453. These mechansims might have significant impact on bioremediatin of toxicants mediated by microorganisms or by some other means and mechanisms. I am looking forward to some insightful intellectual and scientific exchange of ideas and relevant papers.
Regards
Jayanta
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We are planning on developing a project on potential use of fly ash generated from thermal power plants. It has both a number of potentials and pitfalls for use in aquaculture. There is risk of a number of environmental risks especially heavy metal contamination. It used in fish pond there will be risk of transfer of contaminants along the food chain. How the project's aim and objectives can be drawn, the technical design and work plan can be made. Above all, how the pre-application treatment of fly ash can be thought for removal and inactivation of heavy metals and other toxic contaminants. 
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Interesting discussion...
Fly ash leachate induces  stress in freshwater fish Channa punctata (Bloch). Source : Environ Int. 2004 Sep;30(7):933-8.DOI:10.1016/j.envint.2004.03.00
 
Abstract : Oxidative stress inducing potential of fly ash leachate (FAL) was studied in a freshwater fish, Channa punctata (Bloch). Fish were exposed to fly ash leachate for 24 h and lipid peroxidation (LPO) was studied as a marker of oxidative stress. Catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities and levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) were also estimated in the exposed fish. FAL (1 ml/l) induced LPO in all the organs and most prominent response was in the gill. It also caused induction of enzymes and glutathione. Liver showed highest level of induction of enzyme activities. The results of this study demonstrate that fly ash constituents have potential to induce oxidative stress in fish and gills are the most vulnerable organs. It is also suggested that in case of exposure to FAL, along with LPO antioxidant defense is also activated to counteract the reactive oxygen species (ROS) at least partly in the initial stages of exposure.
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Mn is important  to aquatic organisms 
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In traces it doesn't produce any toxic effects infact it is required for various enzymes. however the elevated concentration may produce oxidative stress due to generation of free radicals and lipid peroxidation of membrane of vital organelles 
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I want to calculate Igeo for sediments heavy metals. is the SPSS software helpful for it???
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Ms Excel is suitaible and easier for calculating Igeo. Simply draft your formula in Excel, input the metal conncentation in the sediment and the reference/background concentration of the particular metal and the correction factor......
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The is toxic elements on aquatic organisms
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I have used to study lead toxicity on crab Carcinus aestuarii hemolymph, and I have found an significant increase of ALT and AST enzymes as well as oxidative stress enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase).
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Can anyone please suggest me some of the suitable SCI (Science Citation Index) Journals, which publishes paper rapidly pertinent to "Distribution of Heavy Metals and Contamination Assessment in the Water Environment of Coal Mining Area”. 
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In the dynamic light scattering studies of cutinase of Fusarium solani pisi what is the Z-Average (d.nm) value generally observed or reported?
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Thank you Laith Al-Ani
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Hai,
I would like to know what actually cause some benthic macroinvertebrate sensitive toward pollution?
I read that they required high oxygen to sustain and some pollution could damage their gill. Is that what actually happen?
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Hi Akmal,
your question is very broad and there is no definite yes or no answer as there are so many benthic species and many of them tend to react differently to pollution.
But the two aspects you have mentioned are certainly important:
Many species have delicate gills (e.g. many Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera taxa) that are sensible towards acidification. A lower pH value due to the inflow of pollutants can reduce the efficiency of the gills and physically damage them.
The other aspect is that each species has a specific tolerance towards the level of dissolved oxygen. Prime examples for this are for instance many Plecoptera taxa. And adding pollutants into the water (especially those that are bioactive - like nutrients - Nitrate, Nitrit, Ammonium, Phosphate) increases the metabolic rate of a freshwater ecosystem (increased algae growth, increased microbial activity etc.) which overall increases the oxygen consumption, which in turn affects the more sensitive benthic organisms.
A third aspect is the toxicity of certain pollutants (e.g. pesticides or heavy metals) which directly influences the lethality of many benthic taxa.
And as you were asking about the resistance towards pollution - a fourth aspect can be the water temperature. The oxygen saturation, the solubility of pollutants and the enzyme activity (both for the macrozoobenthos and for germs/parasites) are all controlled by the water temperature which thus also affects the overall fitness of a species and its ability to tolerate less than optimal environmental conditions.
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I am planning on investigating the impact of the use of pesticide treatments on the trophic web ‘cultivated plant/phytophagous insect/parasitoid’, and I reckon it would be much more realistic to directly test commercial formulations. But I need to know if there is any restriction to the testing of commercial formulations.
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Rules probably vary by country. I would expect that if you were to apply DDT at 500 lbs/m2 and turn several hundred hectares into a superfund site that there would be legal consequences. So there are restrictions in that sense. Within the context of your question there are no restrictions. Depending on how and where you are applying the materials you might need a pesticide applicator's license. I need an applicator's license, but I check the box that restricts the license for research purposes.
Essentially some equivalent must exist in all countries because otherwise there is no mechanism for developing new products. On the other hand, regulation is necessary otherwise one could dump toxic waste under the ruse of pesticide application. Someone at your university must know the relevant regulations as it applies to your university. You need to find them.
Also know the regulations for disposal of hazardous waste. If you are building microcosms in isolated tanks you may not need an applicator's license, but you will generate considerable waste that will need to be handled properly.
For this type of study it is important to use the formulated product. The formulation changes how the product is atomized, how droplets stick to the surface of the plant, and how long it lasts. It would affect penetration into the plant and how much toxicant is available for translocation. It would affect how much toxicant is transferred to the insect if the insect contacts a wet deposit while walking over a leaf surface. Atomization affects the distribution over the plant surface as the number of deposits and deposit size per square cm. Depending on how you are applying the product, you may want to address how your application method was different from a field application and how such differences might influence your outcome relative to a field outcome.
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I am just looking for some toxicology protocols using Acartia tonsa as their bioindicator. Does anybody have Parcom or APHA 1992, or ASMT protocols too? I would appreciate! Because I need some details of their methodology!
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Dear Lopes,
i would like to send you the SMEWW 22nd edition 
hope u find it useful