Questions related to Economic History
Why is Keynesian theory not considered as a theory of economic growth? Although it simply suggests that income, which Keynesian theory assumes equals output, can be changed by increasing effective aggregate demand, it all takes the case from the demand side rather than from the supply side.
I am looking for a a framework to write a critical review from an economic and historical perspective, which is unfamiliar to me. You will find joined files of both articles I have to review. All suggestions, plans, guidelines are welcomed. Thank you.
I am wondering if there exists any good paper that has analyzed the relations between climate change and the standard of life before the Industrial Revolution. As we know the real wage rates for British building workers since 1200, I am particularly interested if we can detect any correlation between temperature in England and the real wage before 1750 or before 1850 before England shows a sharp growth in real wage rates.
In Wikipedia (English), the article "John Wanamaker" tells that
- the first "Fixed Price" retail Price Tag appeared in 1861 at Oak Hall, at Sixth and Market Streets in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. This was the invention of John Wanamaker.
- Oak Hall grew substantially based on Wanamaker's then-revolutionary principle: "One price and goods returnable".
The article notes:
- One could argue that the Sumerian culture established some of the concepts of Fixed Pricing along with perhaps Bennetts Of Irongate in Derby, United Kingdom, however these are not the system-wide retail Fixed Pricing systems and Tags we know in a modern context.
- Wanamaker was an innovator, creative in his work, a merchandising genius, and proponent of the power of advertising, though modest and with an enduring reputation for honesty.
- Although he did not invent the fixed price system, he is credited for the creation of the price tag; he popularized it into what became the industry standard and did create the money-back guarantee that is now standard business practice.
In article "Department Store" (Wikipedia), we read
- One of the first department stores may have been Bennett's in Derby, first established as an ironmongers in 1734. It still stands to this day, trading in the same building. However, the first reliably dated department store to be established, was Harding, Howell & Co, which opened in 1796 on Pall Mall, London.
In the textbook of History of Japanese Economic History, the story of Mitsui Takatoshi is famous (Mitsui is family name and Takatoshi is his given name.).
In 1673, he founded a cloth shop in Edo (now Tokyo) named Echigoya and started the system "payment with no overcharges" (meaning fixed one-price) and "selling cloth by inches". Although there was harassment from other shops, it prospered and it is told that this fixed one-price system spread afterwards. Echigoya was the origin of all Mitsui companies.
I wonder if Mitusi Takatoshi is the first person who publicly announced fixed one-price policy. Does someone know a case of older date where a kind of fixed one-price policy was announced publicly?
Ashraf and Galor published a paper in American Economic Review in 2013:
Quamrul Ashraf and Oded Galor (2013) The 'Out of Africa' Hypothesis, Human Genetic Diversity, and Comparative Economic Development. American Economic Review VOL. 103, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2013, pp. 1-46.
I am interested of how this paper was received among mainstream and heterodox economists. I know that several responses were made by anthropologists, even before the official publication of the paper. But, I cannot find any specific papers written by economists. Does this mean that the paper was accepted as one of ordinary plausible papers? Or is it either rejected as invaluable or ignored as nonsense?
I have a project to evidence Thomas Robert Malthus theory about a principal of population (Malthusian Spectre/Malthusian Trap). I want to attest, his theory about a relationship of population and earth production/environment. is that applied in a country that i would like to attest or not? But i was confused, what variable that i can use to analyze it empirically?
I am working on the economic history of Switzerland and I would like to know which determinants foster industrialization during the 19th century.
I am working with time-series. My dependent variable is the Gross added value of Swiss industries and I have 5 explanatory variables (like education, railway, tariffs etc.). The times period studied runs from 1890 to 1913.
I first used a VAR model but reviewers are not so convinced... They prefer panel data (but I don't have !) or they think that VAR is unusual...
So, do you have any idea about the macroeconometric model I should use to deal with my research question ?
Thanks a lot !!
Is it time to re-examine the labelling of Africa's regions as North Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa? Should there not be a more modern term for the larger subdivision of Africa. One that communicates its larger land mass, population , historical, anthropological, genealogical and economical significance. While not sure of the origin, but sometimes these terms originate with cartographers or journalists and then persist in the language? We seem not to have persisted with labels such as Asia Minor and Asia Major (see map). On the other hand, in the Caribbean there is an historical division of the Antiles as Greater Antiles and Lesser Antiles. Is the label Sub-Saharan Africa still apprpriate? If not, what would you recommend the larger Africa be referenced as ? Greater Afica ? Africa Major ? Some other reference ?
I'm looking for books or other works of culture that would help me write about hikikomori in Japanese literature and popculture. I already know "Welcome to the N.H.K!" and Murakami's "South of the Border, West of the Sun", also some of anime series with hikikomori characters in it - but I'm looking for something that shows the way of thinking of these people, or some interesting points of view on the topic.
Data starting in the early 1900s or before, with a broad cross-country representation would be great.
In recent years, the United States has experienced economic growth, low inflation, debt and deficit growth, low interest rates and rising stock markets simultaneously. Classical economic theory tells us that the presence of these economic phenomenas are incompatible. In fact, economic history tells us that they have not coexisted historically, except recently, and I believe that if this has been because of the expansionary activity of the monetary policies promoted by the Fed.
Do you think that this scenario of simultaneity of economic growth, low inflation, debt and deficit growth, low interest rates and rising stock markets is going to be extended much more over time and what will be its final consequences?
I am now writing a paper (one of four chapters in my present project) on the negotiation and transactions between two parties. The two parties may include relations between firm to firm and between firm to consumers. I am thinking that this form of transaction is more fundamental and typical of all forms of transactions, of which organized markets like security and commodity exchanges are uniquely highlighted in the textbooks.
A possibility is face-to-face transaction. This term is fairly good in indicating the difference against the organized markets. The inconvenience is that it is opposed to transactions through internet or telephone transactions in legislation. I want the term to included transactions by internet between two parties.
Another possibility is two-party transaction. This term seems to have also some special connotations in law, but engenders fewer confusions.
Do you know any other good expression? If you do not, which of the above two possibilities do you judge more preferable for my study?
In addition, is there any paper which argued my question, i.e. the opposition between organized market transaction and transactions between two parties?
I am writing a forecast over the future of Emden, a 51,000 inhabitants town in the north west of Germany which is heavily dependent on the automotive industry. The Volkswagen Group now plans to re-structure its plant here switching from fuel-driven to electronic cars and set ambitious goals as to the year 2023.
Yet, given the sluggish technological and sales performance of electronic cars so far, it is questionable whether this aims can be achieved. If not, I guess there would be major disruptions to the regional economy, in terms of rising unemployment, decreasing tax income, repercussions for the real estate sector, and others.
Detroit is a major example to what might happen to a city or region when the major employer(s) vanish or decline. That is why I want to include a case study over Detroit into my research.
I now ask you, if you know somebody who made some research over the economic history of Detroit, up to the presence. People who can offer economic, statistical, regional development and/or city planning expertise are welcomed for an exchange of ideas.
Don’t hesitate to contact me over this platform or my e-mail:
Alternatively, you give me a hint where to find the appropriate person. Also, if you have any ideas what other towns or regions had to suffer from a decline of one leading industry or company.
Thanks a lot for your ideas, your efforts, and your support!
Reiner, Professor for Economics, University (HS) Emden-Leer
US President Donald Trump's decision to leave TPP , stop negotiations about the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), and the announcement of the revision of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) may be the most important events in the world economic history after the Second World War.......
I read the contribution by Ferguson and Voth QJE 2008 who applied event analysis to "measure" the value of political connections in Nazi Germany. May your suggest other contributions about the same methodology applied to political and economic history?
For a small project, I want to deflate a variable to make it easier to compare.
The data at hand is bilateral trade data from 1800 to 2010. The data was converted in (current) British pound sterling by the authors.
Now my question is whether I could as a first attempt simply deflate the series by:
Deflated Trade Series = [Total trade_t / (Price Level index in England)_t ] * 100
Is there any preferable treatment which I could apply to the data?
The method used will be estimating a gravity equation.
The dataset used is Two Centuries of Bilateral Trade and Gravity Data: 1827-2014 by Michel Fouquin & Jules Hugot (2014).
The price level data is obtained from the BoE.
I would be happy about any comment or reference.
I read few books, including Beverly J. Silver on global proletariat (and automotive industries), but while writing about private automobilism from Marxist perspective and still feel, that something is missing. Maybe You know analysis of the cars as commodity fetish, or its role in alienating people from each other and from nature?
My recent book might help since it converts the current pseudo-science of macroeconomics into a true one. Write to me at firstname.lastname@example.org and get a free e-copy, that does extend the past sincere ideas.
I can found a lot of scholarly studies about the technique of futures markets (both commodity and financial produces), about they work and about their general utility, but I am searching ideas about explaining why a government or international organisations would prefer a future trade instead of other forms of market governance and pricing system.
After a PhD about the public land registries from the rural spaces of medieval and early modern Southern France, I am beginning new researches about the role of the surveyors in the same region.
I am very interested in improving our knowledge of this underestimated microcosme, which inserts between the masses and the notables of the countryside, whether these last ones were noble persons or commoners.
I will take with pleasure any bibliographical information or archives references.
I am interested to know how many foreigners worked in India in 1890's (any particular year will do, a rough figure is also fine) serving the British Empire at various capacities. I want to put this number in a comparative perspective with that of the foreigners who were employed by the Japanese govt. during that period. I am very much aware about the limitations and shortcomings of such a comparison. I just want to get a general idea. Thanks for any help well in advance.
Utility value theory has vanished classical political economy out of mainstream economics in the turn to the 20th century as economic science became influenced by the socialist movement. Piero Sraffa initiated a critique of marginal value theory in the 1960s but his perspective could not destroy neoclassical economics. Oskar Lange had a different approach to the marginalist revolution and tried not to destroy it, but to make a political use of it. Whose approach is superior considering the standpoint of the communist movement?
Economics uses classical game theory (John von Neumann, Oskar Morgenstern), but there is also combinatorial game theory (Elwyn Berlekamp, John Conway), which I find potentially fruitful. Combinatorial games have been put in an auction play framework, essentially using a hybrid approach of classical and combinatorial games. In combinatorial game theory, hot and cold games could be useful, as well as thermography and sente/gote. Where is the state of the art of combinatorial games in economics?
Dear colleagues! Do you happen to know books or articles (in English, French, German) on how empires (especially European colonial powers in Asia and Africa) used their minting of coins not only according to its intended purpose (pertaining to economy), but also to the purpose of propagandizing the ideas of their invincibility, beneficial character etc. with the help of certain images on coins (like the portraits of kings etc.)? I mean the symbolic role of coins to make imperial rule more acceptable for colonial subjects. So far I know just one such book: Abramzon M.G. Coins as the Means of Propaganda of the Official Policy of the Roman Empire (Moscow, 1995, in Russian).
Please imagine: an important business man, who wanted to manage his enterprise in a deviant way, not according the patriotic (= regime) line. At what point of deviance or opposition would this enterpriser be threatened not only by penalties or prestige losses or other social pressure, but of his or/and his family’s life? Could you tell me examples of this hard way of keeping discipline in the economic sphere? Do you know real cases, that are documented with some evidence?
For instance, the Stahlhof and the Walzstahlhaus in Düsseldorf (North Rhine-Westfalia) are of such kind. These syndicates resp. their buildings, I am searching for, may have existed pre WW II.
Do the two terms study different variables or different time periods?
What is the real difference between Economic History and New Economic History?
In what sense the New Economic History is NEW?
There are now number of papers with a title which includes "processing trade." One can say that processing trade is now a flourishing subject matter in the research of international trade. The concept is now well established but it is enigmatic that this concept remained obscure in the 20th century.
Papers and books with titles which include "processing trade" before 2000 are rather rare. For example, we can cite these titles:
- Kang, C. K., & Chang, S. I. (1987). Processing trade and industrial organization. KIET, Seoul.
- Kalyuzhnova, Y. (1995). Outward processing trade between the European Union and the associated countries of Eastern Europe: the case of textiles and clothing. Economic Bulletin for Europe, 47, 109-127.
- Dapei, Z. (1997). China's Present Processing Trade and Processing Trade Policies [J]. Productivity Research, 2.
- Eichengreen, B., & Kohl, R. (1997). The State and the External Sector in Eastern Europe: Implications for Foreign Investment and Outward Processing Trade. In Conference held by the Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy and the Kreisky Forum for International Dialogue:" Will There Be a Unified European Economy (pp. 5-6).
At around 2000, the titles with "processing trade" increased suddenly. For example, I can cite many papers in the year of 2000 alone.
- Görg, H. (2000). Fragmentation and trade: US inward processing trade in the EU. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 136(3), 403-422.
- Fabbris, T., & Malanchini, F. (2000). Patterns of vertical specialization and European Outward Processing Trade (OPT): a comparative analysis between Mediterranean countries and CEECs. Is there real Competition.
- Baldone, S., Sdogati, F., & Tajoli, L. (2000). Patterns and determinants of international fragmentation of production: Evidence from outward processing trade between the EU and the countries of Central-Eastern Europe (No. 134). Queen Elizabeth House.
- Zhao, C. (2000). Developing overseas investments with overseas processing trade as the new starting point'. Almanac of China’s Foreign Economic Relations and Trade 2000, 45-46.
Of course, processing trade has been discussed inside the text. For example, let me cite papers which appeared before 1990.
- Watanabe, T., & Komiya, R. (1958). Findings from Price Comparisons Principally Japan vs. the United States. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 81-96.
- Murakami, M. (1968). Geographical analysis of the industrialization in Singapore. Geographical Review of Japan, 41(9), 541-570.
- Watanabe, S. (1972). International subcontracting, employment and skill promotion. Int'l Lab. Rev., 105, 425.
- Haitani, K. (1973). Japan's Trade Problem and the Yen. Asian Survey, 723-739.
- Yamazawa, I., & Hirata, A. (1978). Industrialization and External Relations: Comparative Analysis of Japan’s Historical Experience and Contemporary Developing Countries’ Performance. Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics, 18(2), 33-61.
- Nakajō, S. (1980). Japanese direct investment in Asian newly industrializaing countires and intra-firm division of labor. The Developing Economies, 18(4), 463-483.
- Oda, H. (1984). The Administration of Foreign Trade in the People's Republic of China. The Developing Economies, 22(2), 155-168.
- Grunwald, J., & Flamm, K. (1985). The global factory: Foreign assembly in international trade. Brookings Institution Press.
My question is why the notion of "processing trade" did not become major subject matter before 2000. As you see from the list above, early papers on processing trade have been written mainly by Japanese. This can be explained by the fact that promotion of processing trade (加工貿易) has been national policy (or 国是=national principle) for Japan since many years. At the first phase of Meiji period, Japan depended heavily on the exports of Silk and Copper, but soon it started to export cotton textile which was a typical processing trade, as Japan imported cotton flower and processed and exported it.
The story was the same for Great Britain in the time of the Industrial Revolution. It imported cotton from India, United States and others and exported cotton textile. Lionel McKenzie emphasized that "Lancashire would be unlikely to produce cotton cloth if the cotton had to be grown in England" (McKenzie 1954, p.179). Processing trade promotion is also a vital question for newly developing countries now.
Processing trade was one of the most important forms of international trade from the beginning of modern industrial economy. It remains to be so even today. It is enigmatic why this important category of international trade remained in the background until the arrival of fragmentation and global value chain.
Perhaps the easiest answer is to point the lack of trade theory which can treat intermediate or input goods. Despite the fact that McKenzie and Jones pointed the necessity to build a theory of intermediate or input goods, no such general theory was provided during the 20th century. In view of its importance, one may ask again why the theory of input trade was not developed much earlier.
Do you have any good explanation?
I am in need of authentic literature on the subject of the historically occurred land enclosures in Europe. I will be thankful for your help with regard to any information, document, resource, source, opinion, reference etc.
Your views and opinions on the subject are also very humbly anticipated.
With kind regards to all.
I am looking for examples of zakat being levied on the proceeds of mining, either in the historical or current context. I am especially interested in gold, platinum or coal, but any analogous product would be adequate. Thank you.
I am currently looking at rural domestic energy production and usage in China using data from John Lossing Buck's Land Utilisation in China. Given this was primarily an agronomist's study it is sketchy on actual domestic use and markets for the biomass byproducts. I would also be interested if anyone knows of a digitised database version of Buck's data.
Is measurement the ultimate common denominator between these three movements?
I am interested in the implementation of the initiatives based on the solidarity economy in indigenous communities. Can someone suggest me a good theoretical work that will give a wide perspective about the main discussions issues?
Considering that Keynes was an active speaker of Hayek and that he was politically engaged with issues related to new forms of economic coordination that emerged with the end of the laissez-faire age, why was he absent in the Socialist Economic Calculation Debate conducted by Mises - Lange - Hayek?
I am working on a study regarding the particular case of Romania in the past 25 years and would be interested in other approaches of this subject.
Towards the end of General Theory by J. M. Keynes, chapter 23, there is an apparently surprising passage:
"I was brought up to believe that the attitude of the Medieval Church to the rate of interest was inherently absurd, and that the subtle discussions aimed at distinguishing the return on money-loans from the return to active investment were merely Jesuitical attempts to find a practical escape from a foolish theory. But I now read these discussions as an honest intellectual effort to keep separate what the classical theory has inextricably confused together, namely, the rate of interest and the marginal efficiency of capital.
For it now seems clear that the disquisitions of the schoolmen were directed towards the elucidation of a formula which should allow the schedule of the marginal efficiency of capital to be high, whilst using rule and custom and the moral law to keep down the rate of interest."
This passage seems very close to Saint Thomas Aquinas' thought:
Money is not an end but a means of buying goods and services. Putting money out for the generation of more money is an evil unto itself.
(a first contribution to the discussion may be the Massimo Amato's paper presented during the XIV International Economic History Congress, Helsinki 2006 http://www.helsinki.fi/iehc2006/papers2/Amato.pdf )
There are many studies of the18th century that cover the Royal Economic Spanish Societies but not with regard to the similarities and differences in the educational area with other foreign societies. We believe that a comparative study between both might help.
I believe economic historians have reached more or less a consensus on net positive welfare effects for the first generations of industrial workers in England so that the push effect of the enclosures was in effect compensated by positive welfare effects. Thus the historical record seems to contradict Marx's famous Chapter 24 of Capital where he more or less assumes that the welfare consequences of the rural exodus were negative. I have looked for but not found good references on this. Can anybody direct me?
Was it the second world war, disagreement with Bretton woods with US Dollar dominance or the aftermath of 1929 great depression?
Unusual clay rollers have been found in the excavations at Ban Chiang the use of which is unknown. The one pictured is about 70mm long by 30mm in diameter. Suggestions as to use include design stamping onto cloth, pottery, bark-cloth or even onto the bodies of the deceased. A further suggestion, that is of particular interest to me, is that by Folan and Hyde that they are part of an Accounting system.
Information on these can be found in the link below:
The Significance of Clay Rollers of the Ban Chiang Culture by Folan and Hyde
“…tokens forming part of … an accounting system..…..a precursor to writing…. and….. tokens representing various quantities of goods.”
However, the following link seems to disprove the “Accounting” theory as the rollers seem to be linked only with the burials of very young children.
Introduction to Ban Chiang Archaeological Site
“Among some of the children’s burials were some intricately carved baked clay rollers, the purpose of which is currently unknown. The carefully patterned rollers are from low-fire clay and are about 7-9cm long. They may have been used to add patterns to cloth or used as seals to make an ownership mark on other clay objects. The rollers were buried with children aged just 1 to 6, too young to have been artisans, but this must have been significant. No adult burials had rollers.”
There are a number of links on the Internet relating to the rollers but I can’t find anything new on the subject.
I would appreciate any information that would help to explain these rollers.
Curiosities as well as commodities shaped the emerging strategies for the empirical study of Nature. But what is your opinion?
History of financial crisis of XX and begin XXI centuries says what we are not learning. Russian default – 1998 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1998_Russian_financial_crisis); Brasilian crisis – 1981-1993, Brasilian currency crisis – 1999 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_history_of_Brazil); Asian financial crisis – 1997–1998 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1997_Asian_financial_crisis); dot-com crisis – 2001 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dot-com_bubble); Argentine crisis 1998-2002 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1998%E2%80%932002_Argentine_great_depression); economic and financial crisis 2007-2009 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Financial_crisis).
May be there is another formulation idea of that question?
For years I've been frustrated with the textbooks I've seen on Economic History. Either they are focused on Why Countries Develop - and thus on Britain in the 18th and 19th centuries, the US in the 20th and 21st - or else they are focused on a particular region or country. Admittedly, I haven't dedicated a lot of time to an exhaustive search. Are there any recent Economic History books out there that consider the truly global effects of the important events, like the European "discovery" of the Americas, the Industrial Revolution(s), and the Cold War?
I am interested in the Kaldor-Kuznets-Solow consensus on the connection between Equity and Economic growth. Does anyone have some good reading suggestions on the subject ?
I am looking for the historical and empirical underpinnings as opposed to the theoretical.