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The argument is often made in stemflow research that “reporting stemflow as a percentage of rainfall disconnects it from its input area" - thus, we should use the funneling or enrichment ratio. However, is this true? Does expressing stemflow as a fraction of rainfall  create a "disconnect" between stemflow and its input area? I believe it does not, i.e., estimating relative stemflow across the canopy says nothing about stemflow's input area. Perhaps this is, unwittingly, a rhetorical statement, used to persuade others to report stemflow in a way that makes it look important "despite being a small fraction of rainfall"?
Of course, stemflow CAN be important hydrologically, ecologically, and biogeochemically. However, I am not sure these funneling metrics can tell us when/how stemflow is important. I'm also not sure how these metrics fit into theoretical and numerical models. So far, these thoughts have been shared through static presentations and publications. But, that really limits the conversation. So, I figured I'd ask the RG community: why do we, in the stemflow community, still report stemflow in these unitless (funneling and enrichment) ratios? In what ways do these ratios actually improve our understanding of stemflow, stemflow-environment interactions, or integrate stemflow into theory/models?
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Another thought: Can reporting dimensional stemflow (either as mm per canopy area or as % of rainfall across canopy area or even L tree-1 storm-1) be more powerful than reporting several different dimensionless derived values of stemflow? My favorite example is the yield of C per unit canopy area - which can be quite large in comparison to forested watershed. See attached meme ;)
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Although hydrological studies in latinoamerica are common, the interactions with the ecology and the human dimension is rarely undertaken. I would like to know if it has been performed any study related to coupled not only hydrology with the biochemical cycles, but that also had related the hydrology with the environmental awareness. Moreover, I would like to know the project features.
Kind regards
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I suggest reading this new paper by di Baldassarre et al in the "Grand Challenges" series of WRR. Regards
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Range of Variability Approach, is introduced in the D. RICHTER 1997 article , "How much water does a river need?" for designing "management targets" for the eco-friendly river management.
My question, is how one can or what are the considerations to design hourly targets based on that approach and those 32 indices he introduced in his seminal 1996 article.
( Should we obtain daily or hourly streamflow records ? but the indices Richter designs targets from are monthly )
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Dear Alireza:
Are you referring to hydropeaking? In this case you will need sub-daily data. The hydrologic statistics proposed by Richter are oriented to define environmental flows. For hydropeaking, I suggest you to read the following paper where indexes are proposed to operate reservoirs on sub-daily flow regimes.
Regards, Alvaro
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I'm new to calculating GPP/CR from diel oxygen curves, and have been getting negative GPPs and I am trying to figure out what this means.  I know one large source of error is the reaeration coefficient. I understand there are lots of opinions about estimating reaeration coefficients- we cannot afford to do injection tests. So, I have been getting the coefficients by looking at the slope between DO deficit and DO change per hour at night based off our understanding of Heffernan and Cohen 2010/Owens 1974. The resulting coefficients are reasonable- 5 to 20 day-1. But, continuing the one-station calculations results in negative GPPs.  I have noticed that, despite having a clear diel curve, our streams are almost consistently undersaturated in DO- would that be the reason I am getting negative GPPs?  I am looking for advice on interpretation or different methods to try! 
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how important is snow interception by plant for central Himalayas. Any reference articles.
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It is an important component of snow hydrology as it influences accretion and melt process. Most watershed hydrological models can simulate this process at regional scale using land cover and the threshold temperature for snow as precipitation. 
Here are some related papers:
Brown, Brown, M. E., Racoviteanu, A. E., Tarboton, D. G., Gupta, A. S., Nigro, J., Policelli, F., ... & Hummel, P. (2014). An integrated modeling system for estimating glacier and snow melt driven streamflow from remote sensing and earth system data products in the Himalayas. Journal of Hydrology, 519, 1859-1869.
Li, H. O. N. G., Beldring, S., Xu, C. Y., & Jain, S. K. (2014). Modelling runoff and its components in Himalayan basins. 7th Global FRIEND-Water, Montpellier, France.
Verdhen, A., & Prasad, T. (1993). Snowmelt runoff simulation models and their suitability in Himalayan conditions. IAHS Publications-Publications of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences, 218, 239-248.
Nepal, S., Krause, P., Flügel, W. A., Fink, M., & Fischer, C. (2014). Understanding the hydrological system dynamics of a glaciated alpine catchment in the Himalayan region using the J2000 hydrological model. Hydrological Processes, 28(3), 1329-1344.
Hope this helps.
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Currently, my research looking for a relationship between interception, infiltration, runoff, water uptake by the roots of plants, and groundwater. I'm trying to develop a model of water conservation. My hypothesis, interception and plant roots play an important role in the hydrological cycle.
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The choice of the model depends on the scale of your study. If you are planning to use data from pot studies or field experiments, you could build a water balance model to study the influence of interception and effects of roots. If you are looking at studying large regions, some models like SWAT (http://swat.tamu.edu/) will be useful as they simulate plant growth at a coarse scale. Rainfall-runoff models like TR-55 can help in general changes in water budgets (https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detailfull/national/water/?cid=stelprdb1042901).
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In my research area, lot of pond are very old and due to decomposition of organic matter, the depth of pond has going to reduced. If any technique to determine the original depth, please discuss .
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Arvind,
An acoustic sub-bottom profiler can be very accurate (see jpg), but sediments containing high amounts of decomposing organic matter can be charged with biogenic gas, which will create voids in the data. This can obscure or prevent any data from being acquired below the biogenic gas zone. If the pond is shallow, a soil core would probably be your best option.
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Good day,
I am doing some research in river habit modelling and I am looking to see the effect of resolution of topography description has on 2D modelling of river habitat.
If there is anyone who has knowledge in this field of modelling rivers and willing to share their information, please don't hesitate to contact me
Any help would be appreciated
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First:
LIDAR: in principle Lidar does not has to be "low resolution". Just as conventional surveying, you can achieve very detailed results. It is just a matter of how you carry out your survey. But I guess you are talking about some sort of readily available Lidar survey, wich of course has a given resolution that you cannot modify.
Second:
I would start with a differente question: What is or could be a characteristic size of the habitats I am planning to modell? Lets say you are working at some mountain stream with about 2 meters width. A pool in this river system (within a pool / riffle system) is likely going then to be smaller than the whole width of the river. Lets say 1 meter. If you want this niche to be diferentiated from the sorroundings, then your survey hast to have at least this resolution. If you want to know something about the dynamics within this niche, then you need a finer resolution.
Another issue that you may want to take into account is that detail among cross sections (downstream direction) tends to be  more important than the detail within one cross sections. The reason: that is the direction of the movement.
Finally, to carry out any hidrological survey efficiently you may want to focus on the break points instead of having a regular network of points.
 
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How to take a deep sediment core from a very shallow and a hard to reach lake? I can't use a platform. Lake is only 3 metres deep. The area around the lake is wooded. Any methods/ideas?
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I Would talk to geologist, well driller and logger who are used to aerial cable systems (skyline or high lead).  The logger is to rig up cable system to pile drive or use suspended heavy log for weight to push in core, and extract pipe with core using cable and connections.  The geologist and well driller for more ideas, such as on whether coring needs to be rotated periodically to break bond with soil, core.  They should know the feasibility of this.  Coring at an angle from stable bank may also be considered with core sampler.  They should know the feasibility of that option.  
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I'm looking for case studies of biological observations in floodplains that could follow the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis. The study noted below seems to be one of the only ones, but I'm guessing there should be similar observations looking at biota.
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Dear Mauricio
Budke, J. C., Jarenkow, J. A., & de Oliveira-Filho, A. T. (2010). Intermediary disturbance increases tree diversity in riverine forest of southern Brazil. Biodiversity and Conservation, 19(8), 2371-2387.
Montero, J. C., Piedade, M. T. F., & Wittmann, F. (2014). Floristic variation across 600 km of inundation forests (Igapó) along the Negro River, Central Amazonia. Hydrobiologia, 729(1), 229-246.
Rosales, J., Blanco-Belmonte, L., & Bradley, C. (2008). Hydrogeomorphological and ecological interactions in tropical floodplains: The significance of confluence zones in the Orinoco Basin, Venezuela. Hydroecology and Ecohydrology: Past, Present and Future, 295-316.
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Dear Tolu,
GIS provide several techniques for hydrological modelling while RS provide datasets in order to validate these techniques (and models). So by coupling those two tecnhlologies you are able to do a lot of things. It's up to you what you want to do exactly each time.
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We are studying the hydrodynamic processes and riverbed stability self-recovery in alluvial streams of Lithuania and flow dynamics equilibrium If as well.
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Yes, what is your question?
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Using LIDAR to model rainfall interception is advantageous to other interception models in many respects (e.g., Gash, Revised Gash, Rutter, and etc.). While published models on rainfall interception have shown to be highly accurate, most require many parameters and long-time measurements.
To understand regional or watershed-level eco-hydrological processes, LIDAR can provide both the spatial coverage and resolution needed to address such questions.
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There are many phenology models, each of them need threshold to decide the phenology event should occur or not. The threshold often set by emprical and differs between PFTs or vegetation types. In a distribute ecohydrology model, the temperature and soil moisture and other variables vary among grids, so do these thresholds also need to vary among grids? 
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     Thanks for all your reply! All of your answers give me useful information. I just add some additional information as follows:
     I want to simulate the interactions between water and plant growth in a watershed with several different land uses, use a distribute ecohydrological model. In such model constructure, the study area is divided into many grids. Every  grid has its own data to describe the meteorology, topography and so on. Phenology palys an important role in this simulation.
      For different plant species, the thresholds may be different. But if a  plant species covers majority of the watershed, should the threshold specified for this plant type varies among different locations?   
     Best regards!
Wei
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There are different phenology models based on different conditions or their combinations, such as temperature, VPD, soil moisture, photoperiod and so on. In a watershed, when conduct ecohydrology simulation, phenology plays an important role because it represent the vegetation dynamic. In a distribute ecohydrology model, the limiting resource is different among locatinos, does it need different phenology appoaches among different grids to discribe this difference?
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The size of the watershed and the slope of the watershed would determine if phenology is needed on a different grid. Relatively flat watersheds would have slightly varying differences in vegetation phenology whereas relatively steep watersheds would have widely varying vegetation phenology due to changes in air and soil temperature and light availability. 
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I am working on a wetland, I wanna correlate water quality with phytoplankton and macrophytes present in the said water water bodies
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There is a very large literature on this, but you could start by looking at the reports and papers on our work in the SAFRASS project in Africa, mostly available to download from my Research Gate pages. This study used macroinvertebrtaes, benthic diatoms and macrophytes to indicate river and floodplain waterbody quality in tropical conditions.
I see you are in Jammu. There is a recently completed, and mostly now published, project looking at river biomonitoring in the Hindu Kush, which might also give you some ideas, see for example
Hartmann, A., Moog, O., Stubauer, I., 2010. “HKH screening”: a field bio-assessment to evaluate the ecological status of streams in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan region. Hydrobiol. 651, 25-37.
Otto Moog is on RG and his work should be easily available.
Best regards
Kevin
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Landscape commuity genomics is related to eco-evolutionary processes in complex environments, such as stream and riparian ecosystems. However, its framework is not clear at the moment, because we don't know how genomic variation is affected by dynamic interactions between abiotic (environmental) and biotic (community) effects..
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Thanks to Francis for linking in Hand et al.'s essay. Very interesting, and one of those concepts that's obvious...after it's pointed out. As Edward Tufte reminds us "It's More Complicated Than That!". The research implications? As usual, it's a case of a big idea that needs to be translated into testable hypotheses on scales that can be studied on practical levels. In riparian corridors, you might expect -for example- genetic variation to be more highly correlated along the corridor, where conditions are similar, than across a stream-to-upland gradient. Or maybe the opposite, depending on the organism.
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I want to have information about the of species, plantation area, plantation age as well as hydrological effects of these species in the semiarid and area climate zones.
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Dear Seyed
You can find information in the FAO web site or look at this old book (Evans, Tree Planting for Industrial, Social, Environmental, and Agroforestry Purposes) or try others approach like remote sensing to obtain some information. 
have a nice day
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Surface runoff may response quickly to rainfall, evapotranspiration may be different from day to day, groundwater may change slowly, vegetation growth also changes slowly.  Could I set a fixed time step value for different processes in a given region in an integrated ecohydrology model?  How to do this and what do I need to limit these values?
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If the temporal resolution for different processes is different, why not change them? Why not to adapt them according to the processes? If it is raining and run-off must be calculated, you increase the temporal resolution, if run-off has finished, and only evaporation and translocation of water in the soil is to be calculated, you can increase the time-step. (calculating all processes in the same small timestep would be a waste of resources, while calculating everything in a too low temporal resolution results in loss of accuracy)
Good Luck, Thomas
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Soil erosion is an important soil degradation process in many regions in the world. The practices performed for erosion control are multiple (soil tillage, mulching, fascine,...) but often not enough integrated in ecological engineering including the plant traits effect on reduction of erosion and runoff. 
Practices performed and published study are often regional and focus on capacity of species of regional flora and little on plant traits reducing erosion and runoff. 
What are the main shoot and root traits influencing erosion and runoff?  
 
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In attach a review about important root traits for ecological engineering
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A bit of epistemology.
My current official job title is 'hydro-ecological modeller', and I am coming from hydrology. I was looking for topics on this network but could not find any 'hydroecology' topic, only 'ecohydrology'. I would be interested to know how you define this field between fields that is hydro-ecology or eco-hydrology (or are they two different fields actually). It is not such a trivial question as I often struggle with which keywords I should use when referencing papers.
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Interesting discussion! I like the idea of using ecohydrology for terrestrial ecosystems, and hydroecology for aquatic ecosystems. In addition to a difference in the focuses (ecohydrology more on water, and hydroecology more on ecosystem), I think there is another difference in the degree of interactions between the hydro and bio parts in the two systems. In terrestrial ecosystems, plants play important roles in influencing water balance. While in an aquatic ecosystem, more interest is probably on fishes and other animals.  Biological impacts on water is very limited. Not sure this understanding makes sense to you.
For ecohydrology, some time eco-hydrology is also used. Using two different words for the same thing causes some difficulty in referencing papers. It would be good to use one. I think most of us prefer "ecohydrology".
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Several literature discussed Ecohydrology as a multidisciplinary science but there are also some which discussed it as a transdisciplinary science and also some literature used it as an interdisciplinary science.
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If we understand that overland flow is modified by surface features, such as clumps of grass, litter and rocks, can we ever scale-up to hillslope scales to understand how flows are affected by landscape structure. For example, the difference between pasture-only land use compared to pastured hillslopes with scattered trees, bands of trees, or fallen timber?
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Do you mean if you can scale-up your understanding of point-scale hydrologic processes to hillslope-scale? If so, one of the most critical things you need to incorporate into the hillslope-scale simulation or understanding would be overland routing, which describes interaction between landscape elements such as pasture and tree cells (or parcels) along flow paths. Routing (especially overland routing) would be the key process to connect the point-scale processes to the hill-slope processes. If you want to expand the spatial scale to a watershed, channel routing would be one of the important processes you need to tackle in order to understand watershed-scale responses to inputs including rainfall and land use changes.
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I am using stable isotopes to study source water of different forest species, and I would like to separate pools of water whith different availability. Classic soil methods (e.g. Richards Chamber) are not specially designed to recover the water at different water potentials. Other alternatives I have seen are soil equilibration with water vapour, CO2 etc. I would like to get some practical hints from anybody who has already tried some of these methods.
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It's a nice challenge and interesting too, also from a soil physical point of view! I would be interested to hear some of the results. Using the pressure plate apparatus (Richard's chamber) extracts water from your sample when starting from saturation. Then the only possible way it can contaminate your sample is via diffusion. Measure the diffusion coefficient prior to the actual measurement on a dummy çlean 'sample' to be able to take account for this. You can also think of pre-wetting the plate with the same solution as your sample.