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Western Philosophy has its foundation in the Greek world and Greek philosophers such as Aristotle, Plato and Aristotle were its founders and it deals with idea's such as epistemology (knowledge), empiricism, rationalism, metaphysics, realism, logic, language, mind and body, morality, ethics, aesthetics, politics and science. What is the basis of Islamic Philosophy? Where did it start, who are its founders and what are the major issues it deals with. If the issues are the same as in Western Philosophy, how do they differ from the Western approach or the Eastern approach?
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What is Islamic Philosophy about? Islamic philosophy is a development in philosophy that is characterised by coming from an Islamic tradition. Two terms traditionally used in the Islamic world are sometimes translated as philosophy—falsafa (literally: "philosophy"), which refers to philosophy as well as logic, mathematics, and physics; and Kalam (literally "speech"), which refers to a rationalist form of Islamic theology.
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Plato, Socrates, Kant are some names which come to mind when we talk about Western philosophy and Loa Tzu, Confucius, Mencius, Sun Yat-Sen, Ghandi are some when discussing Eastern philosophy. But when we talk about Africa, are there African philosophers. And if there is an African philosophy how does it differ from Western and Eastern philosophy?
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We should respect the Phylosophy of each country .( Both classical & new ).
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Are there any resources focusing exclusively or primarily on this topic? Doing a research that (among other things) concerns the inculcation of Confucian values by non-elite social strata in Joseon Korea, as well as the various responses to these processes by the so-called commoner and lowborn people; so far found a few interesting texts but I am wondering what others can recommend me. Could be on Ming/Qing society as well (since I am considering to add comparative elements to my research); detailed elite (ie. by scholars, aristocracy, etc) opinions on lifestyles/beliefs of lower social strata are fine as well.
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Do you think possible that eastern cultures, being more inward looking, do not understand well the extreme activity (hyperactivity) in contemporary western societies and consequently cannot follow it, and sometimes cannot tolerate it ?
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Assuming "west" to mean "Greco-Roman", and "East" as a connotation of the cultures of the Middle East, Russia right up to Japan; and taking the dichotomy to relate broader to philosophies, then it would be an affirmative, "yes" to the question. As the west represents the logical, and the east, the intuitive. Another interesting glimpse into this dichotomy is afforded by the study of mystical elements in comparative religion. One work I have in mind is Evelyn Underhill's Mysticism. By definition contemplatives dwell on the inner life and the idea  of simply being. The logical, Western emphasis is on ends, and the idea of becoming. Activity and projects function as milestones towards a final goal. So yes there can be a clash of cultures due to a clash in philosophy. Contemplatives focus on detachment and contentment, while the "actives" focus on engagement and achievements. Both are aspects that are vital towards a healthy dialectical existence as a human being. Just like the left and right hemispheres if the brain. Throughout history, individuals coming from opposite sides of the cultural-philosophical divide have yearned for the "greener grass on the opposite side of the fence".
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Yoga, or what passes off as Yoga in the western world, is a $30 billion industry in the United States.. People of all ages contort themselves into positions like 'downward dog' and believe that they are doing Yoga. Due to the limitations and failures of modern allopathic health systems, increasingly people are turning to alternative and complementary eastern health systems in the hope of a cure for their mental and physical ailments. Capitalist tendencies are quick to capitalize on this ignorance/demand and quick to offer a number of services and goods(gadgets) to fool the consumer even further.
All the Yoga texts state that Yoga is a mental process to achieve equanimity, mental poise, stillness of the mind, 'Chitta vriddhi nirodaha'. 'Asana' is mental balance and stability in whatever you do in life, not a physical pose to hold for a convenient time, or at a convenient place(studio). How come its so far away from the truth when it comes to western understanding & practice of Yoga? What has been "Lost in Translation"? If individuals continue to choose the 'juicier' parts of Yoga philosophy(for example the health benefits) and twist it to suit their own convenience in the name of 'freedom' (due to the munificence of the original seers who sought no exclusive rights and patents) and ignore the ethical, spiritual, human, environmental and disciplinary parts, is there a danger of Yoga losing its meaning? By only taking the parts we want, isn't the very purpose of Yoga lost? Why bother calling it Yoga at all and add to the deepening confusion everywhere? Should the charade of the emperor's new clothes continue or an attempt made to define the science for what it actually is?
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David:
1. Yoga is not ancient Indian philosophy. It does not belong to anyone, or to Hinduism. It is the heritage of all mankind who have arose from a single source. The geographical, cultural, political and demographical entity known as India now, received it & practiced it to preserve the science of Yoga faithfully. Other inheritors lost it, while India preserved it as a sacred science, recognizing its essentiality. But all mankind are the inheritors. You have the same right as anyone from India has over Yoga. This is probably difficult for Americans to comprehend in the times of cutthroat copyrights, intellectual property rights and patents. The ancient seers of Yoga never claimed patents(not even signing their names, preferring to remain anonymous)and gave the science to all the children of mankind, saying that they themselves received it, proclaiming 'Loka Samastha Sukhinoh Bhavanthu"! May All Worlds be Happy! This is long before any religion even came into the picture.
Yoga is 'open source', but please don't misinterpret and use it to misguide humanity to make your own living. Using wisely, responsibly, remaining true to its actual content is a way of showing respect to the 'original' giver.
2. It is not based on the Patanjali Yoga Sutras. Patanjali is a seer who organised & codified the science into sutras, terse aphorsims, in the recent past, recognising that in the age of Kali, man's limited intelligence is liable to lose the science altogether. It is not even known if he is a human being as he is usually depicted with the lower half of his body coiled like a snake(pic). The snake is a representation of Time in Yoga. He is also known as the Lord of Time. In the Bhagavad Gita(circa 3200 BC), Krishna states that the ancient science was lost many times in the hoary past and every time He descends to deliver the same science to Man to subjugate evil. The science of Yoga is the original 'Operations manual' of man. It is the 'Science of Man'. We descended from a source and the way back to the source is Yoga. The path and the goal is Yoga. 
Hatha Yoga Pradipika is a recent (15th century )abridged work that lays emphasis on the physical posture part so that the main goal of Yoga is achieved without bodily interference.
3. I would rather not comment on the level of absurdity Yoga has been misinterpreted by commercial interests in America. Cherry-picking is both harmful and counterproductive. What would happen if the government let people cherry pick the American constitution and interpret it according to their own comfort zone?
4. There's no mud slinging going on here, only concern that the 'adulterated ' version may become 'mainstream' and the truth lost forever. Blowback effect ?
5.On the contrary, this is an attempt to prevent people from getting hurt by clearing the air. Are you stating that the "Ignorance is Bliss" mode, status quo, is Ok? Am I throwing a spanner in the well oiled sham?
Regards