Science topics: GeoscienceEarth Sciences
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Earth Sciences - Science topic

Earth Sciences are fields of science encompassing studies and research from the disciplines of PHYSICS; CHEMISTRY; BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; and MATHEMATICS; that are related to the planet EARTH. Subfields include atmospheric chemistry; CLIMATOLOGY; ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; GEOGRAPHY; GEOLOGY; geophysics; METEOROLOGY; OCEANOGRAPHY; PALEONTOLOGY; mineralogy; and seismology.
Questions related to Earth Sciences
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Dear colleagues:
My field of work is not geochemistry, but a student working with me asked me about this topic and if this system is really as harmless as they say for the environment. I would love to hear from the experts.
Thanks
Daniel Patón
Numerical Ecology. Ecology Unit
Department of Plant Biology, Ecology and Earth Sciences
Faculty of Sciences. University of Extremadura
Avda. Elvas s/n 06071 Badajoz (Spain)
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Thanks Ahmadbek Jalilov and Mário A. Gonçalves for the interesting details.
There is a Li mine project 2 km from where I live (Cáceres, Extremadura, SW Spain). It would be the second largest Li mine in Europe. The experts said that "the material is formed by Ordovician slates, quartzites and sandstones crossed by a system of quartz veins and dykes and mineralized quartz and quartzpegmatites of Sn and Li, which constitute in general a superficial stockwork originated by the potential influence at depth of a granitic intrusion". The green hydrogen is what the company says they would produce by electrolysis. That is why I asked. It is clear to me from their answer that they should treat the ore further away from the city. Thank you very much.
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  1. Is the attention paid to the field of archeology and its importance less than in the past?Considering humanity's view of the future and the solution of the upcoming issues such as Corona 19, does archeology still have its importance in recognizing the past?
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Archaeology can be a fascinating, fun, and even adventurous hobby or career. But it also holds a more important place in society than many people realize. Not only is it important for historical research, it also has a great deal of community and economic value. Archaeology has the potential to provide new information on the human past, solidify one’s ties to their social or national heritage, and provide economic means to locations all across the world.
Archaeological Significance - Educational, Community, Economic Importance (jobmonkey.com)
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Example:
1. You use Material 1 in Biology and after using it, you recycle it in Chemistry to come up with Material 2.
2. You use Material 1 in Biology and then its product is used in Chemistry, Physics, Earth Science.
3. Or any related activities that make use of similar or related ideas.
If you can share also your related studies, I highly appreciate it. Thanks!
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I used 1 material in biology lab and recycle it that's used it in Field work
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I have downloaded data of 10 Aug 2015 from SABER instrument on the NASA TIMED satellite by choosing altitude (10 to 155 km), latitude (-90 to 90) and longitude (0 to 360) and converted in to .mat files. If possible then kindly help me selecting NO_VER for latitude of 69.58° N, altitude of 145 km and longitude of 19.23° E at (01 – 02 UT) from my MAT file of 10 Aug 2015.
THANKS
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This topic has been open for a wide range of researchers here and outside of RG, as open access to write and read comments related.
I encourage researchers with a deterministic view on earthquake nature for being proactive by trying to use resources of this space as much as possible in a way of understanding this phenomena by challenging their forecast models through forecast tests.
On forecast, I would like to find the method, data and time window for forecast, with magnitude range and probability of occurence. If the location of future event is possible, please specify. It's a test, and additional option to write about our successful forecasts and our correct models.
Also, please be concise, as possible.
In addition, I suggest to make references to own research, or other sources, for keeping the transparency on sensitive questions such as autor rights, originality and other aspect. For this, in case of not published yet ideas, I suggest to publish and come down in the comments with reference to official open to public source - article.
N.B. Regarding the forecasts based on statistical methods, and random nature of the EQ phenomenon view, are also welcomed.
Sincerely,
Sandu I.
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Dear Sandu,
You have right, In the zone happened three earthquakes around 'M: 7.4' onto the base of Google map see the attached file.
Regards,
Laszlo
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I am working on subsurface crustal modelling. I am looking for suggestions related to geophysical techniques and software interpretations.
Regards
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Dear Ayaz Mohmood Dar:
The Moho, the boundary separating the Earth's crust from the mantle, is defined from seismic methods, an increase in seismic velocity at the crust-mantle interface, gravity (an increase in density), and magnetic (a reduction in magnetic susceptibility).
As concerning the deep structures, geophysical studies based on seismic - deep seismic and wide-angle reflection/refraction profiling - and potential field data, providing information on the Moho depth. The seismic reflection/refraction is the finest imaging, but its coverage in general words is always not available or insufficient, or for low detail to carried out crustal velocity models by using depth distribution and kinematic info from hundreds of seismological focal mechanisms or by limited size-area. Therefore, I suggest that if your research is related to the Moho boundary, used integrating information from gravity, magnetic, seismological data, wide-angle reflection/refraction seismic, and structural geology.
A couple of software-related with gravmag modeling and inversion:
IGMAS+ is software for 3-D modeling of potential fields and their derivatives under the condition of constraining data and independent information.
IGMAS+ website for more information: www.gfz-potsdam.de/igmas
Geosoft Oasis Montaj (the best for me):
Geophysical Software Solutions Pty for gravity and magnetic:
Best regards, Mario E. Sigismondi
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Due to the progressing global warming process, the issue of necessary ecological reforms should be one of the most important issues shaping the processes of globalization in the 21st century.
Will ecology become one of the key aspects of globalization in the 21st century?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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Dear Garry King,
Yes you are right. I also believe that the growing risk of a global climate crisis at the end of the 21st century, the progressing global warming process and the need to urgently carry out a pro-environmental transformation of the global economy are becoming one of the important factors of globalization in the current 21st century. Yes, the key issue is whether this growing pro-environmental awareness of citizens will translate into appropriate decisions made by political leaders and decision makers. Unfortunately, the last UN Climate Summit COP26, which took place in the first half of November 2021 in Glasgow, Scotland, indicates that, unfortunately, the decisions taken and real actions in this matter are insufficient.
Thank you very much,
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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The threats that global warming has recently posed to humans in many parts of the world have led us to continue this debate.
So the main question is that what actions need to be taken to reduce the risk of climate warming?
Reducing greenhouse gases now seems an inevitable necessity.
In this part in addition to the aforementioned main question, other specific well-known subjects from previous discussion are revisited. Please support or refute the following arguments in a scientific manner.
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% ---------------- *** Updated Discussions of Global Warming (section 1) *** ---------------%
The rate of mean temperature of the earth has been increased almost twice with respect to 60 years ago, it is a fact (Goddard Institute for Space Studies, GISS, data). Still a few questions regarding physical processes associated with global warming remain unanswered or at least need more clarification. So the causes and prediction of this trend are open questions. The most common subjects are listed below:
1) "Greenhouse effect increases temperature of the earth, so we need to diminish emission of CO2 and other air pollutants." The logic behind this reasoning is that the effects of other factors like the sun's activity (solar wind contribution), earth rotation orbit, ocean CO2 uptake, volcanoes activities, etc are not as important as greenhous effect. Is the ocean passive in the aforementioned scenario?
2) Two major physical turbulent fluids, the oceans and the atmosphere, interacting with each other, each of them has different circulation timescale, for the oceans it is from year to millennia that affects heat exchange. It is not in equilibrium with sun instantaneously. For example the North Atlantic Ocean circulation is quasi-periodic with recurrence period of about 7 kyr. So the climate change always has occurred. Does the timescale of crucial players (NAO, AO, oceans, etc) affect the results?
3) Energy of the atmospheric system including absorption and re-emission is about 200 Watt/m2 ; the effect of CO2 is about how many percent to this budget ( 2% or more?), so does it have just a minor effect or not?
4) Climate system is a multi-factor process and there exists a natural modes of temperature variations. How anthropogenic CO2 emissions makes the natural temperature variations out of balance.
6) Some weather and climate models that are based on primitive equations are able to reproduce reliable results.  Are the available models able to predict future decadal variability exactly? How much is the uncertainty of the results. An increase in CO2 apparently leads in higher mean temperature value due to radiative transfer.
7) How is global warming related to extreme  weather events?
Some of the consequences of global warming are frequent rainfall, heat waves, and cyclones. If we accept  global warming as an effect of anthropogenic fossil fuels, how can we stop the increasing trend of temperature anomaly and switching to clean energies?
8) What are the roles of sun activities coupled with Milankovitch cycles?
9) What are the roles of politicians to alarm the danger of global warming? How much are scientists sensitive to these decisions?
10) How much is the CO2’s residence time in the atmosphere? To answer this question precisely, we need to know a good understanding of CO2 cycle.
11) Clean energy reduces toxic buildups and harmful smog in air and water. So, how much building renewable energy generation and demanding for clean energy is urgent?
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% ---------------- *** Discussions of Global Warming (section 2) *** ---------------%
Warming of the climate system in the recent decades is unequivocal; nevertheless, in addition to a few scientific articles that show the greenhouse gases and human activity as the main causes of global warming, still the debate is not over and some opponents claim that these effects have minor effects on human life. Some relevant topics/criticisms about global warming, causes, consequences, the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), etc are putting up for discussion and debate:
1) All the greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydro-fluorocarbons, including HCFCs and HFCs, and ozone) account for about a tenth of one percent of the atmosphere. Based on Stefan–Boltzmann law in basic physics, if you consider the earth with the earth's albedo (a measure of the reflectivity of a surface) in a thermal balance, that is: the power radiated from the earth in terms of its temperature = Solar flux at the earth's cross section, you get Te =(1-albedo)^0.25*Ts.*sqrt(Rs/(2*Rse)), where Te (Ts) is temperature at the surface of the earth (Sun), Rs: radius of the Sun, Rse: radius of the earth's orbit around the Sun. This simplified equation shows that Te depends on these four variables: albedo, Ts, Rs, Rse. Just 1% variation in the Sun's activity lead to variation of the earth's surface temperature by about half a degree.
1.1) Is the Sun's surface (photosphere layer) temperature (Ts) constant?
1.2) How much is the uncertainty in measuring the Sun's photosphere layer temperature?
1.3) Is solar irradiance spectrum universal?
1.4) Is the earth's orbit around the sun (Rse) constant?
1.5) Is the radius of the Sun (Rs) constant?
1.6) Is the largeness of albedo mostly because of clouds or the man-made greenhouse gases?
So the sensitivity of global mean temperature to variation of tracer gases is one of the main questions.
2) A favorable climate model essentially is a coupled non-linear chaotic system; that is, it is not appropriate for the long term future prediction of climate states. So which type of models are appropriate?
3) Dramatic temperature oscillations were possible within a human lifetime in the past. So there is nothing to worry about. What is wrong with the scientific method applied to extract temperature oscillations in the past from Greenland ice cores or shifts in types of pollen in lake beds?
4) IPCC Assessment Reports,
IPCC's reports are known as some of the reliable sources of climate change, although some minor shortcomings have been observed in them.
4.1) "What is Wrong With the IPCC? Proposals for a Radical Reform" (Ross McKitrick):
IPCC has provided a few climate-change Assessment Reports during last decades. Is a radical reform of IPCC necessary or we should take all the IPCC alarms seriously? What is wrong with Ross argument? The models that are used by IPCC already captured a few crudest features of climate change.
4.2) The sort of typical issues of IPCC reports:
- The summary reports focus on those findings that support the human interference theory.
- Some arguments are based on this assumption that the models account for most major sources of variation in the global mean temperature anomaly.
- "Correlation does not imply causation", in some Assessment Reports, results gained from correlation method instead of investigating the downstream effects of interventions or a double-blind controlled trial; however, the conclusions are with a level of reported uncertainty.
4.3) Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC) also has produced some massive reports to date.
4.4) Is the NIPCC a scientific or a politically biased panel? Can NIPCC climate reports be trusted?
4.5) What is wrong with their scientific methodology?
5) Changes in the earth's surface temperature cause changes in upper level cirrus and consequently radiative balance. So the climate system can increase its cooling processes by these types of feedbacks and adjust to imbalances.
6) What is your opinion about political intervention and its effect upon direction of research budget?
I really appreciate all the researchers who have had active participation with their constructive remarks in these discussion series.
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% ---------------- *** Discussions of Global Warming (section 3) *** ---------------%
In this part other specific well-known subjects are revisited. Please support or refute the following arguments in a scientific manner.
1) Still there is no convincing theorem, with a "very low range of uncertainty", to calculate the response of climate system in terms of the averaged global surface temperature anomalies with respect to the total feedback factors and greenhouse gases changes. In the classical formula applied in the models a small variation in positive feedbacks leads to a considerable changes in the response (temperature anomaly) while a big variation in negative feedbacks causes just small variations in the response.
2) NASA satellite data from the years 2000 through 2011 indicate the Earth's atmosphere is allowing far more heat to be emitted into space than computer models have predicted (i.e. Spencer and Braswell, 2011, DOI: 10.3390/rs3081603). Based on this research "the response of the climate system to an imposed radiative imbalance remains the largest source of uncertainty. It is concluded that atmospheric feedback diagnosis of the climate system remains an unsolved problem, due primarily to the inability to distinguish between radiative forcing and radiative feedback in satellite radiative budget observations." So the contribution of greenhouse gases to global warming is exaggerated in the models used by the U.N.’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). What is wrong with this argument?
3) Ocean Acidification
Ocean acidification is one of the consequences of CO2 absorption in the water and a main cause of severe destabilising the entire oceanic food-chain.
4) The IPCC reports which are based on a range of model outputs suffer somehow from a range of uncertainty because the models are not able to implement appropriately a few large scale natural oscillations such as North Atlantic Oscillation, El Nino, Southern ocean oscillation, Arctic Oscillation, Pacific decadal oscillation, deep ocean circulations, Sun's surface temperature, etc. The problem with correlation between historical observations of the global averaged surface temperature anomalies with greenhouse gases forces is that it is not compared with all other natural sources of temperature variability. Nevertheless, IPCC has provided a probability for most statements. How the models can be improved more?
5) If we look at micro-physics of carbon dioxide, theoretically a certain amount of heat can be trapped in it as increased molecular kinetic energy by increasing vibrational and rotational motions of CO2, but nothing prevents it from escaping into space. During a specific relaxation time, the energetic carbon dioxide comes back to its rest statement.
6) As some alarmists claim there exists a scientific consensus among the scientists. Nevertheless, even if this claim is true, asking the scientists to vote on global warming because of human made greenhouse gases sources does not make sense because the scientific issues are not based on the consensus; indeed, appeal to majority/authority fallacy is not a scientific approach.
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% ---------------- *** Discussions of Global Warming (section 4) *** ---------------%
In this part in addition to new subjects, I have highlighted some of responses from previous sections for further discussion. Please leave you comments to support/weaken any of the following statements:
1) @Harry ten Brink recapitulated a summary of a proof that CO2 is such an important Greenhouse component/gas. Here is a summary of this argument:
"a) Satellites' instruments measure the radiation coming up from the Earth and Atmosphere.
b) The emission of CO2 at the maximum of the terrestrial radiation at 15 micrometer.
b1. The low amount of this radiation emitted upwards: means that "back-radiation" towards the Earth is high.
b2. Else said the emission is from a high altitude in the atmosphere and with more CO2 the emission is from an even higher altitude where it is cooler. That means that the emission upwards is less. This is called in meteorology a "forcing", because it implies that less radiation /energy is emitted back into space compared to the energy coming in from the sun.
The atmosphere warms so the energy out becomes equals the solar radiation coming in. Summary of the Greenhouse Effect."
At first glance, this reasoning seems plausible. It is based on these assumptions that the contribution of CO2 is not negligible and any other gases like N2O or Ozone has minor effect. The structure of this argument is supported by an article by Schmidt et al., 2010:
By using the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) ModelE radiation module, the authors claim that "water vapor is the dominant contributor (∼50% of the effect), followed by clouds (∼25%) and then CO2 with ∼20%. All other absorbers play only minor roles. In a doubled CO2 scenario, this allocation is essentially unchanged, even though the magnitude of the total greenhouse effect is significantly larger than the initial radiative forcing, underscoring the importance of feedbacks from water vapour and clouds to climate sensitivity."
The following notions probably will shed light on the aforementioned argument for better understanding the premises:
Q1) Is there any observational data to support the overall upward/downward IR radiation because of CO2?
Q2) How can we separate practically the contribution of water vapor from anthropogenic CO2?
Q3) What are the deficiencies of the (GISS) ModelE radiation module, if any?
Q4) Some facts, causes, data, etc relevant to this argument, which presented by NASA, strongly support this argument (see: https://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/)
Q5) Stebbins et al, (1994) showed that there exists "A STRONG INFRARED RADIATION FROM MOLECULAR NITROGEN IN THE NIGHT SKY" (thanks to @Brendan Godwin for mentioning about this paper). As more than 78% of the dry air contains nitrogen, so the contribution of this element is not negligible too.
2) The mean global temperature is not the best diagnostic to study the sensitivity to global forcing. Because given a change in this mean value, it is almost impossible to attribute it to global forcing. Zonal and meridional distribution of heat flux and temperature are not uniform on the earth, so although the mean temperature value is useful, we need a plausible map of spatial variation of temperature .
3) "The IPCC model outputs show that the equilibrium response of mean temperature to a doubling of CO2 is about 3C while by the other observational approaches this value is less than 1C." (R. Lindzen)
4) What is the role of the thermohaline circulation (THC) in global warming (or the other way around)? It is known that during Heinrich events and Dansgaard‐Oeschger (DO) millennial oscillations, the climate was subject to a number of rapid cooling and warming with a rate much more than what we see in recent decades. In the literature, these events were most probably associated with north-south shifts in convection location of the THC. The formation speed of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) affects northerly advection velocity of the warm subtropical waters that would normally heat/cool the atmosphere of Greenland and western Europe.
I really appreciate all the researchers who have participated in this discussion with their useful remarks, particularly Harry ten Brink, Filippo Maria Denaro, Tapan K. Sengupta, Jonathan David Sands, John Joseph Geibel, Aleš Kralj, Brendan Godwin, Ahmed Abdelhameed, Jorge Morales Pedraza, Amarildo de Oliveira Ferraz, Dimitris Poulos, William Sokeland, John M Wheeldon, Michael Brown, Joseph Tham, Paul Reed Hepperly, Frank Berninger, Patrice Poyet, Michael Sidiropoulos, Henrik Rasmus Andersen, and Boris Winterhalter.
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Yes. Please see the following useful link for insights.
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Can in a sole vessel be demonstrated that the air temperature rises when CO2 concentrations rises by sun irridation?
Were there yet any trials to test the effect of increasing C02 concentrations in rates like of 300 ppm, 400 ppm, 500 ppm, 1000 ppm CO2 to prove that CO2 rises also air temperature in an simple experiment?
And how much air temperature rises, when there is the air only zero, 100 ppm and 200 ppm CO2?
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Just shine infra-red light on vessel and temp will rise faster the higher the CO2 conc. This is basically the mechanism for warming in the atmosphere and is so well understood that one way we measure atmospheric CO2 concs is using absorption of infra-red light
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Prolific Earth Sciences developed and markets microBIOMETER a rapid test for microbial biomass (MB) and fungal to bacterial ratio which we have shown correlated r = 0.94 with CFE. We want to fund an independent University study. That can be published. The study must include at least 50 agricultural soil samples that range from high MB to low MB and cover a wide variety of soil types. judy@microbiometer.com
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I do agree with Radia Djelloul.
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Dear Colleagues:
I would like to know where I can obtain DAILY Palmer Drought Index (PDSI) or SPEI data for any point updated to 2021.
Thank you
****************************************************************************
Daniel Patón
Numerical Ecology. Ecology Unit
Department of Plant Biology, Ecology and Earth Sciences
Faculty of Sciences. University of Extremadura
Avda. Elvas s/n 06071 Badajoz (Spain)
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Dear Daniel, I would suggest calculating daily SPEI manually using the E-OBS data (https://www.ecad.eu/download/ensembles/download.php). I have described the procedure in my paper (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2019.105868) and some R codes are available on GitHub (https://github.com/jernejjevsenak/analysis_european_tree-ring_network/blob/master/SPEI.R).
Hope it helps.
Jernej
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In connection with the warming of the Earth's climate, progressive global warming, some areas located in the sub-tropical zone in the future will not be fit for existence, and the migration processes of the population will be intensified.
Do you agree with my opinion?
Please reply
Best wishes
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El calentamiento global es un fenómeno físico q puede ocurrir al deterioro de la capa de ozono. Los científicos y expertos buscaran una solución para conservar la vida en el planeta Tierra. Por ahora debemos protegernos de los rayos solares y el cuidado del medio ambiente.
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What kind of scientific research dominate in the field of Proecological sustainable economic development implemented according to the concept of the new green economy?
Please, provide your suggestions for a question, problem or research thesis in the issues: Proecological sustainable economic development implemented according to the concept of the new green economy.
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
Best wishes
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In the context of the subject of this discussion, I propose the following research topic: Analysis of the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) coronavirus pandemic on a change in the scale of implementation of the goals of sustainable development, pro-ecological transformation of the economy, systems and instruments of nature protection.
Greetings,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Right now I am studying GRAVSOFT for geoid modeling to use it in my thesis, I tried to read the manual but it was not explaining the GUI Python version (it is explaining the Fortran version), so that I am still confused to understand the software clearly. I would like to understand clearly which data I have to use for determination geoid modeling and the steps (step by step) of doing that using GRAVSOFT programs.
please provide me any documents or any files that can let me understand all the programs inside the GRAVSOFT interface specifically for creating geoid modeling.
Thanks in advance and your comments are appreciated
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Anas Sharafeldin Mohamed Osman GEOCOL and GEOGRID for gross-error detection.
Good luck
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Currently, it is difficult to define this type of analytic problem. The key issue is forecasting future global problems. It is necessary to collect additional analytical data over the next years and perhaps in about 100 years in huge Big Data database systems supported by another generation of artificial intelligence, it will be possible to forecast what can happen to the planet Earth in the next 1000 years.
In view of the above, the current question is: Will I be able to precisely forecast in the 21st century what will be the future of planet Earth in the next 1000 years?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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Forecasting climatic, geological, natural and other processes that may occur in the next several dozen years is burdened with a very large scope of research error. Despite the progress made in the field of predictive analytics, the impact of the development of civilization on the climate and the biosphere of the planet Earth is still large and growing. Therefore, forecasting the development of climatic, geological and natural processes that may appear in the next several hundred years may border on the proverbial "fortune-telling on tea grounds".
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Belongs to Geology and Remote Sensing?
What are the main references available for free (pdf) in this field of knowledge?
Is it still a usual field within geology?
Best Regards.
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It is a branch of geology to study the geological features through aerial photography. There are three types of aerial photography like vertical, low oblique and high oblique. Yes, it is a usual field withing geology.
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When scholars conduct the acoustic emission monitoring in lab, they calculate the moment tensor mainly based on the P wave first motion data, polarity,or amplitude....
  • 0 Since full waveform moment tensor inversion is something common in the field. Is there a need to carry out full-waveform moment tensor inversion in lab? which mainly based on the micro-nano seismology, or so-called AE&Ultrasonic technology.
  • 1 What is the expectation of earth science community, rock physics community, ...?
  • 2 What is the most important information the industry want from this technology ?
  • 3 And, what are the intrinsical difficulties when carry it downscale? the small-scale problem and ?
  • 4 So, how to conduct a full-waveform moment tensor inversion in cm-to-dm scale geo-material experiment? Any advice?
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0) From my experience, practically there is no way to do it. The main problem to make waveform MT inversion viable in the lab using AE sensors is to account for transfer function of AE sensors that works, as you know, in resonant mode. Moreover, you have to apply this correction IN-SITU, in your pressure vessel, which make this problem time-dependent. There is enough problems with amplitude inversion in the lab experiments (see some of my papers), and enough difficulties with applying corrections for amplitude inversion. So putting it on even higher level is problematic for AE sensors.
3) We worked quite a bit so far in all scales of earthquake rupture processes (see full list of references here: https://induced.pl/about). If you want one sentence answer, the problem is frequency band of observation. If you want to analyze small event with standard seismological methods, you need to cover reliably much higher frequency band. For M -4 event (source size of couple of cm) you in theory need band up to ca. 50 kHz to cover most of seismic energy (I rely here on assumption posed at some point be Ide and Beroza, that you need to integrate energy flux to ca. 10x the corner frequency of seismic event). This is not achievable with pendulum based sensors, so you have to go to AE sensors. And AE sensors, as you certantly know, is completely different ball game.
4). Judging the difficulties listed above, go for amplitude inversion first to get a feeling. Follow up: Any approach that removes transfer function, site effects and suppresses as much the propagation effects is the way to go (calibrating AE sensors in-situ, relative moment tensor etc.). Please see some of my papers for results on amplitude moment tensor inversions in laboratory tri-axial experiments and in the in-situ laboratories (DOI: 10.1029/2017JB014715; DOI: 10.1130/G39147.1; DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrmms.2013.11.005; DOI: 10.1002/2014GL060159).
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Dear all, I'd like to open here a sort of forum for understanding how the geodesists community is moving in view of the X-band SAR satellite constellation. The new constellation will offer new "free, near real-time SAR data" with the "latest information about any spot on the planet within the hour". This will open completely new horizons for InSAR monitoring of ground deformation especially for rapid phenomena such as eruptions and seismic crises. The huge amount of so frequent data acquisitions will open also new needs for rapid and automatic processing. My question are: who knows more? Are you planning a routine use of these data? How?
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Wow, thank you. I'm looking for understanding their high-frequency repeated interferometry for ground deformation monitoring. Will data be open or should they be bought?
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The scientific journals that are needed are:
- Environmental.
- Earth sciences.
- Hazard and risk analysis
Thanks.
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Hi
I think sir you first seek the perspective or goal or purpose of UNDP. ...
Once cleared you will get your answer with respect to publication
For me it is a global development network which connects whole world for advocating experience and resources to help people.. Upliftment them through skill and knowledge and provide better life to them...
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Dear colleagues,
There is already a number of threads on predatory journals on Research Gate but not a specific one for the domain of Geology and Earth Sciences. So I thought it may be a good idea to start one. I'd like you to share here your experiences with predatory publishers so we make sure you and your colleagues around you know about this bad behavior which is very harmful for science.
My mailbox is slowly getting drowned by emails of predatory publishers and this makes me really angry. So today I will report the invitation I got from medwin publishers, who are notoriously predatory so this is definitely not their first feat. but I was invited to contribute to one of their new Journals.
To my opinion, Paleontology, in particular invertebrate paleontology, is unfortunately a field that struggles a bit nowadays with respect to the number of academics in position. The last thing that it needs is a journal that does not meet the scientific standards. Instead of publishing bad papers and books with these flaky editors, there has been two great recent initiatives to offer the possibility for open-access, with a respectable review system, and free for authors: PCI paleontology and the Journal of Cephalopod Palaeontology, while the excellent Palaeontologia Electronica remains more active than ever. Let's promote the good journals such as the three above that deserve it.
Links on Medwin publishers:
While it is of course not easy to clearly identify predatory publishers and journals, it could be a good occasion here to report any journal in the domain of Earth Sciences that has been reported as notoriously "predatory".
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Dear Nicolas
Raising awareness and having a discussion on predatory journals and alike (depending on the definition) is a good thing, but I'm not sure whether RG is the best place for naming, shaming and listing.
Yet, I’ll share some thoughts and practices that pertain directly or indirectly to this matter:
When I receive an ‘invitation’ from a predatory journal (or should we say anti-scientific journal?), I immediately mark the sender in my spam filter. With a bit of experience it takes about 1/10 of a second to recognize such a journal. I currently receive just a few invitations per week and this was much more in the past, so I assume it helps.
Occasionally I check Beall’s list https://beallslist.net/ when I come across a published paper or publisher of unknown reputation to me. This is not full proof, but at least provides some information to consider.
For the field of paleontology, I occasionally browse through the excellent journal list of Kenneth De Baets in order to find a suitable journal to publish. https://www.gzn.nat.fau.eu/palaeontologie/team/wissenschaftler/de-baets/journals-for-paleontological-research/
If the name of a journal in the field of paleontology is not on this list, it may be a good indication of an anti-scientific journal. This list is particularly useful to early career scientists in the field, since it contains also information on metrics, like impact factors, and that is considered very important by our administrators and funding agencies (but rather unscientific – other discussion).
I once wrote a critical comment in the newsletter of The Micropalaeontological Society (TMS) on a specific new journal in the field of paleontology by a predatory publisher and called for a reaction by editorial board members including the Editor-in-Chief that were also (esteemed) TMS members (see pdf for details). Perhaps surprisingly, this reaction never came. None of the editors took a stand. Perhaps some or most did not even know they were listed as editor. On the positive side: the journal was terminated after some years for lack of submissions.
This brings me to a core problem with predator journals: as long as established scientists fall into the trap of being ‘honored’ by becoming an editorial board member we exacerbate the problem of predatory/anti-scientific journals.
I planned to keep this reply short – and utterly failed. I’m looking forward to seeing more responses.
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What kind of scientific research dominate in the field of globalization?
In developed countries, knowledge-based economies are characterized by the development of information services, and production processes are increasingly determined by the quality of such factors as information, technology, innovations, patents, etc. In addition, analogous standards of telecommunications, transaction, market, financial systems, etc. operate in different countries. Globalization is therefore still progressing.
In connection with the above, the communication, transactional and information aspects of globalization are characterized by a positive meaning. It is referred to as "the Earth as a" global village. "Through more and more modern communication, the global circulation of information is carried out in real time via Internet teleinformation systems.
But not all aspects of globalization have positive aspects.
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
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nuclear and chemical weapons
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I have been working in the field of forest research for a decade and a half so far.
I have experienced different events during submitting manuscripts and revisions and I think the process of reviewing manuscripts isn't fair and is only in the favor of the editors.
Let me explain a real situation, I have submitted a manuscript in "Arabian Journal of Geoscience" ( https://www.springer.com/earth+sciences+and+geography/journal/12517) on 12 Mar 2019 and today it has been 196 days since I made the mistake and the status of the MS is still "pending for editor". I have sent several emails to the editor and the manager, but mostly I receive no response or the same email which I think is only copy and past of the same text.
Now, my student so far has lost half a year and I can't even withdraw the ms.
I even sent springer "contact us' ID explaining the problem, but still, nothing happened.
I am really getting more and more disappointed to see that the whole process is mostly a marketing job rather than a scientific responsibility or an ethical act.
Yours
HORMOZ
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Due to COVID-19, maybe there is some suspension in the review process. But if you feel a wastage if time simply, withdraws that paper and submit to another journal of the same field for timely publication.
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Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) or Geographical Data Infrastructure (GII) is known for sometimes for providing the need for spatial science research as well as many other purposes in science and practice. I am looking forward to the further explanation on the question around - how does the contemporary topic of "Research Data Infrastructure" on spatial science will make a difference in regard to "SDI or GII"?
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Spatial Data Infrastructures provide a platform that offers an interaction between spatial data, with networks, standards and policies. This framework can be used to develop institutional arrangements, legal and political tools, social resources to facilitate the integration of spatial data and its maximum potential use. To do this, there must be a channel involving data providers, resellers and users, helping to interact with technical, policy and standards tools to coordinate and use the data correctly. SDI offers minimization of costs and time when integrating data from multiple sources. However, this has not yet been achieved. More research is needed to achieve efficient data integration in the context of the SDI project; the results can assist in the development of technical, political, institutional and management tools. When this is achieved, data integration will facilitate sustainability.
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Should i use a software or can i do it manually?
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First, you need to know the resistivity curve types.
Second: you must first know to interpret the data manually using master curves and auxiliary graphs.
Third: you can use after that software to reduce time and search for high quality data. Some software as Winsev, Risexp, Res2D ....etc based on your data is 1D, 2D or 3D
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ImageJ software has a plugin for Fractal dimension analysis known as FracLac. It is very user friendly. However, I am not exactly sure about how accurate the results are. Most of the other fractal analysis softwares are premium ones and does not provide open access with fractal analysis being a growing field in Earth Science, will be very useful to know the correctness of the results produced by this software.
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Thankyou for your response Stephen!
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Dear colleagues, could you help us confirm if the algorythm is creating the right categories in our website?
We are optimizing a new search engine with machine learning and it would be really important to know if the categories are correct, according to the research area.
We have automatically generated the following categories and need volunteers to validate if they makes sense...
Could you please check the images in you category and comment if they are accurate? That would be a big help. Also, if you could click in any image and check the related figures (below)... thanks a lot in advance. Appreciate the help!!!
Cardiology
General Medicine
Gastroenterology
Gynecology & Obstetrics
Immunology
Infectology
Neurology
Oncology
Orthopedics
Pediatrics
Surgery
Urology
Virology
Others - Human Medicine
Biomedicine
Food Science
Nursing
Nutrition
Odontology
Pharmacy
Physical Education & Therapy
Veterinary
Health
Animal Sciences
Cell Biology
Climate Science
Embriology
Histology
Marine Biology
Microbiology
Parasitology
Plant and Forest Sciences
Biology
Biochemistry
Chemistry
Genetics
Molecular Biology
Nanotechnology
Neuroscience
Pharmacology
Molecular Sciences
Earth Sciences
Engineering
Geography
Physics & Astronomy
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Microbiology works well I guess! Very nice effort and detailed illustrations; Kudos to the team!
Well done #Mindthegraph
Rushika Patel what do you say?
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With oil reaching historic lows, massive layoffs, a growing stigma against fossil fuels, new fields of science with a futuristic feel, retirement of legend professors from academia, lack of fundings, take over by climate change and global warming, supress the fundamental geology, hard working field based surveys etc. The ease of modeling lab work and software support in Geosciences snatch the heal of learning geology. It is understandable why studying the geosciences – particularly for careers in petroleum – might strike a student as a bad idea.
Share your review/opinion to uplift the descending trends in Earth Sciences.
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"Geology has not brought losses in any country of the world" (Antoine de Saint-Exupery, the author of "The Little Prince").
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I want to know the mobility of the plates because it's generally understood that thickness is proportional to the mobility of plates. Please share your ideas and articles related with this question.
Thank you.
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Dear all, I whole-heartedly agree that there is no straight-forward answer, but there are a few hints out there. Concerning crustal thickness, there are a few papers tackling that (Dhuime et al. 2015 Nat Geosci; Cawood and Hawkesworth 2019 Gond Res). Although saying nothing about the rate of thickening, the fact that there are old diamonds is many cratons indicates that the lithosphere has thickened (and cooled) to at least the depth of the graphite-diamond transition at the time of diamond formation (see review paper by Gurney et al. 2010 Econ Geol on diamond formation ages on various cratons; Eaton and Perry 2013 Nature Geosci for modelling). I hope this helps a little. Cheers, Sonja
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Dear my college,
I'm building the landslide image dataset for CNN. In this process, I'm finding landslide data reported. This data includes the landslide appeared time, location (GPS), size... I found the Global Landslide Catalog by NASA (https://data.nasa.gov/Earth-Science/Global-Landslide-Catalog/h9d8-neg4). But the lasted data updated until 2015. I'm looking for a new version of this data or other data.
I need your help.
Thanks for your interest.
Best,
Trong-An
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I think USGS is the best agency to provide up to date landslide inventory on a global scale. A while ago, I could find global inventory, but today I could not locate it. You might want to contact one of them from the contact list. I think NASA has developed a list of rainfall-induced landslides only.
For example, for the USA
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If you think you have some amazing pictures of clouds, please share here. Don't forget to mention the location, time and date, and picture credits (if picture is taken by someone else). Would be helpful if you can also add the cloud type.
Note: This activity is only for the discussion. Not for any commercial or research activities.
Cheers,
Shipra
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Hi Shipra,
Your observation is correct, this is indeed the example of mammatus clouds.
When we talk about interesting cloud shapes, we most often think about the forms visible from the surface. Recently, I realized that after expanding the scale of observations by considering satellite images, we can observe even more astonishing forms such as the Actinoform clouds, of the coast of Australia, January 29, 2020, from NASA which are shown in the attached image.
These cloud forms are too large tom be seen from the surface.
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I am looking for published (preferably open-access) articles on geoscience education with a focus on the geoscience curricula in basic education. Thank you!
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Christoper Jan Landicho , thank you, and I hope you are doing great.
That information should be easily available from school or university websites as was suggested above. Information on this from Universiti of Brunei Darussalam is given below. Earth Sciences is not taught at school or college levels here, so, this should cover the entire country for you.
Hope this helps.
Kind regards
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I am using ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) data for ambient noise H/V with a target of nearly 5 Km. To consider the water layer effect, it is important to know the theoretical concept of P-wave contribution to ambient noise H/V peaks. The frequency range I use is 0.03 to 2 Hz.
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ambient noise consist of body and surface waves and their complex interference (diffarciton, scattering, dispersion etc.). Within this scope P waves echos in the range of 'broad band' frequencies between 0.1-2 Hz. You can use therotical p wave/s wave amplitude spectrum in order to obtain h/v transfer function for deep basin (as your case-5 km)
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What reference studies (Book, Article, Tesis etc) you know used ER Method was applied using the Vertical Electrical Survey (SEV) technique (Wenner-Schlumberger, dipole-dipole arrays) for definition of intrinsic vulnerability index to water contamination underground?
Are there any studies that have used this method to set parameters for analyzing groundwater vulnerability to contamination por geoelectric layers?
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The question is pertinent because I have long been embarked on an idea and that is to use cockroaches to process household waste. I keep three species: Aeluropoda insignis, Eublaberus spp. "ivory" and Blaptica dubia. I'm ruling out the latter because of its higher thermal requirements. I want a species that is voracious, do not climb too much (the Aeluropoda does but it is slow) or fly, non-selective, non-invasive and with not very high thermal requirements, that is, that can be raised at room temperature (~20ºC). I have determined that these animals eat on average half their weight per day, i.e. about 2 g to 20ºC. I need to have more data to see which species is more appropriate and how much I could consume. As there are many species and life is short I would like to contact people who are doing these studies and ask about their species and consumption rates.
Thank you
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Daniel Patón
Numerical Ecology. Ecology Unit
Department of Plant Biology, Ecology and Earth Sciences
Faculty of Sciences. University of Extremadura
Avda. Elvas s/n 06071 Badajoz (Spain)
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Woodlice have an appetite for willow foliage and potato peels.
Regards,
Joachim
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Hi, I'm using Ansys Transient Strctural for my thesis. I need to change the friction coefficient MU in order to generate a Stick-Slip behavior. The idea is based on a paper by X. B.. Wang ("Numerical simulation of stick-slip.....")(attached) in tis scenar MU is a function of the plastic shear strain oscilating between te max and min value. I am using Commands snippets (APDL) to modify MU, but it is not working.
¿How could I do this?
PS: the model is attached
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If friction was a function of another input parameter, the it was more straight forward and you could set up a function in ANSYS Workbench, however, since it is a function of an output parameter the situation is a bit different and you can can do this with scripting method.
a simple way of manipulating Ansys is connecting an Excel file with Ansys workbench. this way you extract the output from Ansys and transferring it to Excel and calculate the new friction value and running next iteration.
The thing is that you need to be familiar with Python scripting a bit. Attached please find a sample that is showing how Ansys can be connected and manipulated with Excel. After you learned the concept, then you can extend the Python script and put it into a loop and complete your analysis.
Hope this answer helps.
Good Luck!!
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Normally, the lithosphere thickness is thicker in craton than tectonic areas. But in subduction zones, the lithosphere thickness of overriding plate is inaccurate and rough. I did not find any papers or publications that give a relative accurate vales for this thickness. Who can give me a link or paper regarding that?
As I know, the surface wave (love, Rayleigh wave)can reach the deep part (over 100km) of Earth and reflect some information by seismic technology ( maybe tomography earthquake seismology). The classical model of subduction zone is that the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary of overriding plate should be over the position of primary melt in subduction zone, should it be? Or it is possible that this boundary is below the position, where the primary melt happen. In other words, the primary magma could be in the lithosphere of the subducted plate?
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Dear László and colleagues:
It is not an easy answer your doubt, even more: it is my doubt too. Keep in mind that certain of plate boundaries are not defined so simple than others by earthquakes, such as the South America – Nazca – Antarctica example that I made to Jeffrey´s original question.
To try to answer the László´s question, "What is the Lithosphere thickness in ‘subduction zones’ of Mediterranean?" I researched using satellite data from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and I got an estimate of the Crust – Upper Mantle boundary. Also, I use the earthquakes database from the USGS to map the main earthquakes between the period 1919 – 2019.
Please, allow me to share with you and colleagues four images of the results obtained, in the PDF file attached in this answer: 1- gravity anomaly; 2- Moho depth; 3- earthquake depth and 4- earthquake magnitude.
If you have a specific database of Europe region in mind it might be worth looking up these data. It’s also worth noting that I will help you to understand better your question. This means your focus should be on getting quality gravity and, also, magnetic data, I will do my best job.
Best regards
Mario E. Sigismondi
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What is the conceptual difference between Geological Map and Stratigraphic Map?
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The geological map shows the distribution of the formations and their contact ( different kinds of rocks and faults).
There are three major types of maps they use: topographic, cross-sectional, and structural.
A structural map shows the geologic features of an area. Its appearance is similar to that of a topographic map, but a topographic map displays elevations of the Earth's surface and a structure map displays the elevation of a particular rock layer, generally beneath the surface. a geologic map shows the distribution of geologic features, including different kinds of rocks and faults.Rock units or geologic strata are shown by color or symbols to indicate where they are exposed at the surface. Isopach maps detail the variations in thickness of stratigraphic units.
A cross-sectional map shows the cross-section from the side.
So you can't talk about stratigraphic maps, but rather structural maps at different stratigraphic levels,
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Which are related to technical knowledge as well as to knowledge about the environment
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Water Mnagemmet techniques either applied to crops or settlment is the need of the hour. The water scarcity on both sides drinking as well as the agricultural use is getting worsed day by day which draw attention of researchers to develop innovative technologies for judicious use of available water. It may include growing of less water requiring crops, application of drip irritation systems and using lazer leveling in the fields to ensure the evenly distributed water. Secondly wastage of water should be stopped. Water supply needs to meterd if necessary to curb water wastage. The water saved can be provided to the areas where it required or may be stored for future use through the water shed management..... Ctc....
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Dear colleagues:
I want to download CO2 maps at least for years and from the longest period possible. My idea is to incorporate them into QGIS and make a weighted determination on the sampling points I have.
I've been searching for days and what I find is not appropriate, as it gives me total data...
Thank you.
***********************************************************************
Daniel Patón
Numerical Ecology. Ecology Unit
Department of Plant Biology, Ecology and Earth Sciences
Faculty of Sciences. University of Extremadura
Avda. Elvas s/n 06071 Badajoz (Spain)
***********************************************************************
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I think it will be best if you make your own georeferenced map by collecting the data for years. Then you can make weighted the determination of sampling points.
This is the link for preparing the georeferenced map of your research - https://blog.cartographica.com/mapping-co2-emissions-world-wide.html
You can collect the CO2 data from this link-http://www.carbonmap.org/sources.html
If you need any help, I would be happy to help you
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Hi every one, I'm working on seismicity of north Africa, and i would like to use historical intensities' information. I would like to know, what empirical relationship is more appropriate, between intensity and magnitude (Mw) and between Mw and Mb, Ms. for west of mediterranean sea and california region. Thank you.
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Please refer to a document ...NMSOP....written by GFZ groups.
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Dear RG experts in Earth Science and Geomorphology
Upper part of the topographic slope is "convex" while lower part is "concave"; what are the factors shaping such a topographic slope morphology?
Regards
Ijaz
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In A Report on the Geology of the Henry Mountains (1877), p.118 Gilbert writes ‘Every slope is a member of a series, receiving the water and waste of the slope above and discharging its own water and waste on the slope below . . . And as any member of the system may influence all the others, so each member is influenced by every other’ (Young 1972).
Let us now follow Gilbert’s observations to the top of the hill where the divide or watershed is. Here, water plays a minor role except in weathering processes. If, for example, frost shattering breaks a rock fragment off, the fragment can only fall sideways or down and only then if there is no rock debris to stop it. This underlies the convexity found at divides. Creep of soil and rock debris downslope then clears the summit ridge allowing further weathering to continue. Further downslope water takes on an extended role as sheet wash begins to combine with soil creep to increase the convexity of the slope.
There comes a point when sheet wash and mass wastage such as debris and mud flows, slides etc. gradually comes into play. The change is transition, as any sudden change would result in a break of slope. With increasing water and waste movement the slope begins to develop a concave form, unless a river is eroding into the base of the slope.
Think carefully on what G. K. Gilbert said all these years ago. They laid the basis for Process/response geomorphology and also introduced the idea of dynamic equilibrium. I hope these thoughts help you Ijaz
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Always buildings are damage by an Earthquake. So we have prevent to lose the people poverty, How?
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I recommended the following presentation
Best Regards Javan Doloei
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Please let me know the characteristics of MEGA Projects.
Which type of projects is termed BIG RESEARCH PROJECT or MEGA project?
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Dear Dariusz,
Many thanks to you indeed for your suport.
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There is a project plan to provide a 130m deep well in this area but I am concerned about the transmissivity of the underlying granite. I have no info on the condition of the rock, or any aquifer it contains, potential yield etc. Any evidence as to likely success in this formation would be welcome.
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To All who provided answers and insight to my question above: thank you. Your suggestions are entirely sensible and valid, and clearly come from good knowledge of relevant disciplines, and from experience. I apologise for my delay in replying. Our concern at the time was the seemingly random recommendations and 'geophysical survey' results we had received. But then we discovered a company who had previously drilled several boreholes in the area without success. Even though I suspect they did not use any advanced techniques to identify the locations, this did not bode well for our project, which had enough for a single drilling effort only. But the village in question does have access to a surface waterhole in a shallow ground depression, so I think this was the most obvious way to address their water security needs - even though it needs treatment. Many thanks again - I just thought I would give you feedback on how it turned out. Kind regards.
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Biological Evolution
The scientific theory of evolution by natural selection was proposed by Charles Darwin its book On the Origin of Species (1859).
BEFORE DARWIN : Fixism and transformism are adopted by the scientifics to explain the living beings.
DARWIN : On the Origin of Species (1859): (Introduction ; CHAPTER I. Variation under Domestication. CHAPTER II. Variation under Nature. CHAPTER III. Struggle for Existence. CHAPTER IV. Natural Selection. CHAPTER V. Laws of Variation. CHAPTER VI. Difficulties on Theory. CHAPTER VII. Instinct. CHAPTER VIII. Hybridism. CHAPTER IX. On the Imperfection of the Geological Record. CHAPTER X. On the Geological Succession of Biological Beings. CHAPTER XI. Geographical Distribution. CHAPTER XII. Geographical Distribution—continued CHAPTER XIII. Mutual Affinities of Organic Beings: Morphology: Embryology: Rudimentary Organs. CHAPTER XIV. Recapitulation and Conclusion. Darwin has published a large number of books and articles on geology, biology, ect ..
Today, evolution (Synthetic Theory of Evolution) is based on a very large number of specialty : Paleontology and other Earth sciences, taxonomic, Molecular biology, Ethology, Ecology, Physiology, Cel. Biology, ..........
TODAY, HOW RESEARCHERS SEE THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION IN THE LIGHT OF INNUMERABLE DISCOVERIES OF MODERN SCIENCE?
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Just a thought; evolution is an essential aspect of a dynamic world, i.e., in which time exists. Let us assume two states, A and B occur at different times. From a dynamics point of view, a stable system will reach an equilibrium point after the introduction of certain disruptions in the system. The disruptions cause the system to undergo transient state, i.e., an evolution from one point (A) to another (B) until it reaches an equilibrium point, thereafter the system state becaomes constant if no further disruption is introduced to it. A world can be viewed as a system with a collection of all matters (animated and unanimated) and energy (in all sorts of forms). From time to time certain species of plants, animals or insects emerge while others disappear, however the total mass-energy remains the same in the system. The animals or plants that continue to exist from state to state must evolve according to the criterion (or criteria) imposed by the system, otherwise, they too will completely disappear and replaced by other forms of objects, whose existence fulfill the crietrion set by the system. The question now becomes, in our world what is this criterion? If we know about this criterion, then it is possible to predict our next evelotuion, and the evolution of our enviornments even before they take place.
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Biological Evolution
The scientific theory of evolution by natural selection was proposed by Charles Darwin its book On the Origin of Species (1859).
BEFORE DARWIN : Fixism and transformism are adopted by the scientifics to explain the living beings.
DARWIN : On the Origin of Species (1859): (Introduction ; CHAPTER I. Variation under Domestication. CHAPTER II. Variation under Nature. CHAPTER III. Struggle for Existence. CHAPTER IV. Natural Selection. CHAPTER V. Laws of Variation. CHAPTER VI. Difficulties on Theory. CHAPTER VII. Instinct. CHAPTER VIII. Hybridism. CHAPTER IX. On the Imperfection of the Geological Record. CHAPTER X. On the Geological Succession of Biological Beings. CHAPTER XI. Geographical Distribution. CHAPTER XII. Geographical Distribution—continued CHAPTER XIII. Mutual Affinities of Organic Beings: Morphology: Embryology: Rudimentary Organs. CHAPTER XIV. Recapitulation and Conclusion. Darwin has published a large number of books and articles on geology, biology, ect ..
Today, evolution (Synthetic Theory of Evolution) is based on a very large number of specialty : Paleontology and other Earth sciences, taxonomic, Molecular biology, Ethology, Ecology, Physiology, Cel. Biology, ..........
Today, how researchers see the theory of evolution in the light of innumerable discoveries of modern science?
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Today, we have the record of pre-existing life, the fossil record. There is no need for theories as the record shows the progression of life from microscopic algae through invertebrates into vertebrates and humans.
Society learned a bit about it from "Jurassic Park", but geologists know all the details which anyone can find and study on the internet.
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Not really a question here but attempting to initiate a discussion on a problematic issue that is getting widespread across various journals. I see more and more papers in my field (Geology) that use and abuse of the words "evidence" and "inference" without having the slightest idea of what these words actually mean. If you use "Evidence" in the title of your article, please precise Evidence for what. An evidence is a proof of something. If you use evidence in your title without precising the fact or the hypothesis that it supports, then your title is a nonsense.
Similarly for inference, it may be expected to either add an adjective to that word or to use "inference from (...)" in order to precise what kind of inference is referred to with respect to, for example, the adopted methodology (chemical, biological inferences) as well as to where these inferences lead to, i.e. the fact or hypothesis which is the main conclusion of the paper.
In the past 6 months, I have seen at least 5 papers in well-established journals in Earth Sciences that use either one of these words in their title without making any sense at all, some either use these two words without the actual fact. I understand that non-English native authors have a hard time writing their manuscript but the least we can expect is to provide a comprehensive title. I understand that Editors and Reviewers are worked up and do this job for free, but the least we can expect from a well-respected journal is for them to focus on ensuring that papers are published with a comprehensible title.
P.S.: I will not provide evidence for such grammatical inferences of a decreasing quality of language in high IF journals
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Nicolas has brought an interesting point. "Sexy" paper titles ARE IMPORTANT but need to be grammatically correct and fit the paper content and conclusions. A few hint regarding this and other issues on scientific publishing can be found in the link below. Regarding titles we have:
Titles and Abstracts
Title and abstract are the first things a reviewer will see.
First impressions count. The title and abstract are the first things that a reviewer will see. They are more likely to decide to review a paper that starts off with a clear scientific message. Here are some simple things to avoid.
Titles need to be about the science and findings, and not about how you did the science. For example, avoid titles with “Disentangling Impacts of …” or “Analysis of …” or “Revisiting …” or “Study of …” or “On the …” or “Insights into …” or “Toward the …” or “Assessing …”.
Abstracts should not have sentences such as, “The results of the analysis are discussed” or “the impacts are studied quantitatively.” Give the actual new science, and not a description of what you will discuss in the paper. You have to explain your methods, but then tell what you found.
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The warming climate of the Earth causes a multitude of secondary effects, usually adverse weather anomalies and climatic disasters. As a result of these weather anomalies and climatic cataclysms, the area of the undesignated natural environment and areas developed by man for the needs of the development of civilization, including arable land areas in the field of crop production, may gradually diminish. Every year, more and more cases of weather anomalies and climatic cataclysms are coming, which may confirm such a research thesis.
Currently (end of October / beginning of November 2018) numerous weather anomalies such as snowfall in Spain, floods in Italy, almost summer temperature in some places in Central and Eastern Europe are recorded in Europe. From year to year, more and more warm winters are recorded in many places around the globe. In addition, for several years, higher and higher annual average temperatures have been recorded. More and more areas in Africa are covered by droughts, lack of rainfall and higher heat temperatures. In some coastal locations, off the coast of the oceans, in America, in Southeast Asia, in Polynesia tornadoes appear more and more dramatic. However, in Alaska, Canada, Norway and other countries where there are glaciers in the mountains, there are fewer and fewer glaciers. In the 20th century, a significant part of these glaciers melted. does it mean that the greenhouse effect on Earth is progressing so fast and is it already an irreversible process?
In view of the above, I am asking you: Will the areas of natural environment suitable for human life decrease as a result of the progressing greenhouse effect on Earth?
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
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I think that it happens naturally and it effected our settlement.
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For instance what roles does emergence play in inorganic chemistry, in the earth sciences, in organic chemistry, the molecular biology of the cell, physiology, psychology, sociology, in ecology, economics, or in astrophysics?
I am studying the development of emergence up through the levels of the hierarchic organization of material reality, from elementary particles to the emergence of galactic clusters.
Another goal is to reveal the isomorphic aspects of the stages of emergence as they occur throughout that development.
I am interested in the following:
1. What are the initial components of the process of emergence in cases of emergence in your field of research?
2. What are the major stages of the process of emergence in those cases?
3. How does the list of components change with the changing stages of your processes of emergence?
4. What then are the components that constitute the final emergent product, whether it be a quality, an object, or a pattern-of-organization of material structure or process?
An Emergence Primer
Ø In its simplest form, emergence is the coming into existence of newly occurring patterns-of-organization of material structure and process due to the motion of units of matter.
Ø Emergence is a creative process, and is the source of the organized complexity of the material universe.
Ø There are two basic stages of emergence—first there is the process of emergence, and second there is the event of emergence that occurs as the consequence of the prior process.
Ø Emergence develops. It occurs in simple forms in simple situations in which few other factors are playing roles, and in progressively more complex forms in progressively more complex situations where increasing numbers of other factors are playing roles.
Ø Emergence is isomorphic because the simplest form of emergence also occurs within the core of all developed forms, giving them their intrinsic-identity as cases of emergence. An isomorphy is a pattern-of-material-organization that occurs in two to many different situations or systems. What is known about an isomorphy and the role it plays in one situation can be used to enhance the understanding of a different situation in which that isomorphy also occurs and plays a role. Thus what is known about emergence and its role in one situation can be used to enhance the understanding of a different situation where emergence also occurs and plays a role.
The Intrinsic Nature of Emergence—With Illustrations.
Vesterby, Vincent. 2011. The Intrinsic Nature of Emergence—With Illustrations. Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the ISSS, Hull, U.K.
Emergence Is an Isomorphy
Vesterby, Vincent. 2017. Emergence Is an Isomorphy.
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Vincent said:
"HOW WOULD AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE PROCESS OF EMERGENCE ENHANCE THE ABILITY AND ACCURACY OF PREDICTION IN YOUR FIELD OF RESEARCH? For instance, what roles does emergence play in inorganic chemistry, in the earth sciences, in organic chemistry, the molecular biology of the cell, physiology, psychology, sociology, in ecology, economics, or in astrophysics?"
Dear Vincent ...
Before answering this question I need to provide my understanding of emergence, because it seems nobody agree what emergence means.
As we know, the emergence was first introduced by early British emergentists at the end of 19th century. That time it was assumed to be a the mystical, almost Devine phenomenon that cannot be in principle explained by science. The chemical reactions were the best examples they come up in support of this theory.
In beginning of the 20th century after booming successes in physics and chemistry provided a satisfactory explanation for those chemical reactions, emergentism was rejected by most philosophers as the theory without any scientific foundations and as the idea that discounts the progress in sciences and obstructs the scientific quest to deeper knowledge. Since then emergentism has been sitting in the background, often ridiculed for its mysticism.
At the end of 20th century the expectations for the traditional reductive approaches failing short of expectations that led to the rise of interest to holistic philosophy, emergence concept started gradually creeping into the mainstream because of its claim that reductive methodology cannot explain the complex systems in terms of underlying natural laws. Emergence always strives on inability to explain phenomena to its roots. In the past, this thesis was nourished by lock of understanding of chemistry, but it was fell apart when chemistry was explained in terms of physical laws. These days emergence learned its lesson and now it is aligned not with mysterious divine-like forces, but united with the cutting-edge science of complexity and computational methods. Within complexity sciences emergence means an inability to provide accurate prediction due to limitation of computational methods. This limitation believed is fundamental because required unlimited computational ability to predict dynamic behavior of non-linear systems. We need to remember that this limitation is based on the notion of digital computer which concept, known as Turing machine, was invented in the 1935.
Based on this understanding of emergence I believe it is purely epistemological concepts that designate our inability to understand some phenomena. Now lets me to answer your question:
“HOW WOULD AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE PROCESS OF EMERGENCE ENHANCE THE ABILITY AND ACCURACY OF PREDICTION IN YOUR FIELD OF RESEARCH?”
My answer is: NONE
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Just for confirming that whether vibrating wire earth pressure cell (rst instrument)provides accurate result or not, I put 2 kPa pressure (taking weight of a sample and divided by its area)in one sensor but in data acquisition system it shows only around 0.8 kPa. I have calibrated all the five sensors using the calibration file provided by the provider. What would be the possible solution to get proper value?
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Unqualified comment: Such instruments are very intelligent and inherently wrong. Understand definitions. Calibrate it to communicable scale or calibrate/understand your "subject" limitations.
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"I am inviting you to submit interesting structural geological snaps and captions in the "Atlas of Structural Geology" (2nd Edition, Elsevier) that will be edited by me. Elsevier has approved this re-edition.
Open to take- natural secondary and primary, and also human-induced structures developed in all scales, acquired by any techniques.
To know the detail or to discuss, please drop me a mail at  
Deadlines:
1. Expression of interest: 30-Sept-2018
2. Submission of contributions: 30-January-2019
Best,
Dr. Soumyajit Mukherjee
Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, INDIA"
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Dear Sir
I have some collection of Field photographs pertaining to my previous project. The following attached field structural photographs are from part of Bastar Craton Central India
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Coriolis deflection for east-west moving objects
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Not to resurrect an old question but the answers here are... deeply wrong. I'd be having sharp words with undergrads who turned out these answers.
Point 1: Yes obviously there is a Coriolis force for E-W travel at all latitudes. Look at the equation $\Omega \cross v$. Eastward travel gets pushed up from the Earth's surface, Westward travel pushed down. These forces are invariably pathetic compared to gravity but they do exist.
Point 2: Without using equations, Coriolis is all about reference frames. For classic equator-to-pole travel, as you move away from the equator, the ground under your feet is moving West-to-East more slowly, so unless a force is applied to slow YOUR Westward velocity, you increasingly move west relative to the ground
For East-West travel, consider the Great circle corresponding to your latitude and your personal cartesian axes: North, East,Up. By heading "East" you move on a tangent to the great circle. The ground East of you has some component Downwards by your reference frame (and West ground moves "Upwards"). Thus, relative to the ground you seem to be accelerated Up as you go East and Down as you go West. Thus the Coriolis force we expect from the equation.
If you maintained an Eastward trajectory in your original cartesian frame, you start to have an Upward motion relative to the ground's reference frame and thus we get the third coriolis force direction, where you would appear to move East or West more slowly as your velocity vector is less and less aligned with the motion of the Earth's ground.
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it contains all about stromatolites and early atmosphere related applications and palaeoenvironmental studies.
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Dear Sir
The following is the link of the requested book
Best Regards
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How to interpret the TRe model age of mantle peridotite if it was proved to be highly metasomatised by the S saturated magmas? 
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A gravimetric marine geoid for the Red Sea was computed using the remove-compute-restore method with RTM reduction and the 1D-FFT technique with Wong-Gore modification , using shipborne gravity , the DTU13 altimetric gravity and the GOCE DIR_R5 GGM up to degree/order 160 and the EGM2008 from degree/order 161 up to degree/order 2190. The question is how to evaluate this model taking into account the absence of costal GPS/Leveling data?
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Dear Sir: I recommend to read the article attached, by Wong and Gore.
Also, look out the table (picture) from "Gravity, Geoid and Height Systems Proceedings of the IAG Symposium GGHS2012, October 9-12, 2012, Venice, Italy": "After removing the effects of the global model and residual terrain corrections, anomalies had a mean of 0.18 mGal and standard deviation of 4 mGal if you take the EGM2008 model. If you take EIGEN-6C model, the mean residual anomalies are about 0.17 and the standard deviation 6 mGal."
Best wishes, Mario E. Sigismondi
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Dear Dr. LazarusChapungu ,
Good day!
On behalf of the Organizing committee, we are delighted to invite you to be a speaker at our upcoming "International Conference on
Earth Science & Geo Science” (Earth & Geo Science-2018) which will be held from August 13-14, 2018 in Amsterdam, Netherlands.
Earth & Geo Science-2018 will focus on the theme “Stimulating and Analyzing the Changes of Earth & Climate".
Please find the details of the conference here: http://scientificfederation.com/earth-science-2018//
Kindly avail your participation by submitting the abstract at: http://scientificfederation.com/earth-science-2018/abstract-submission.php
Please use this occasion to share your scientific excellences and be a part of this esteemed congress.
Feel free to ask further information.
Looking forward to hear from you.
With Best Wishes,
Manoj
Earth & Geo Science-2018
Scientific Federation
T: +91-779-979-0002
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Scientific Foundation is completely bogus. Some of our staff have been scammed by this company. Their conferences are to be avoided at all costs. This is a useful guide to predatory conferences:
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Recently, many scientific applications such as:
In geology, the inversion of the geoid is used for Petroleum Exploration.
I am looking for studies and research in this field
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Dear Abd-Elrahim , I suggest reading this book:
Best regards
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I am new for Generic Mapping Tool (GMT), but I would like to work through a few simple examples of generating legends (ie. multiple points or lines plotted on a single figure using psxy). In the following example, I want a set the location of Legend in the southwest (Inside bottom-left of axes).
gmt psbasemap -R-108/-105/31/35 -JM6i -Ba0.5 -K -P> New_Mexico.ps
gmt pscoast -R -J -Df -Gwhite -O -K -P>> New_Mexico.ps
gmt psxy Data1.txt -R -J -Sc0.5c -Gblue -O -K -P >>New_Mexico.ps
gmt psxy Data2.txt -R -J -St0.5c -Gred -O -K -P>>New_Mexico.ps
gmt psxy Data3.txt -R -J -Ss0.5c -Ggreen -O -K -P>>New_Mexico.ps
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Dear Abd-Elrahim Ruby,
I am also new in GMT, but I have found a good manual "Getting Sterted with GMT: An Introduction to Seismologists" by Matthew R. Agius, you can request a full-text, hope it will help you.
Best regards,
Katerina
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I have list of ~3000 geographical locations from various parts of India. I want to find out their Latitude and Longitude co-ordinates. I want to know if there is any tool / software that will together find out the co-ordinate and put the location on the map.
Thanks
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Google Maps has the most reliable and accurate database for geocoding (assigning lat lon coordinates to addresses), here are instructions for their API: https://developers.google.com/maps/documentation/geocoding/intro
If you're familiar with QGIS (https://www.qgis.org/en/site/forusers/download.html), you can install plugin called MMQGIS and easily geocode list of locations in CSV format, here are instructions how to download and use the plugin: https://www.lib.uwo.ca/madgic/projects/gis/Geocoding%20Using%20QGIS.pdf
You should prefer using Google as a source rather than OpenStreetMap (OSM).
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Hi everyone
The future of farming and food security in different region of the world seems to be changing under the influence of climate change. Developing countries are at greater risk of food security than developed countries. Planning to human food beings in the future should be taken into consideration now. In some areas, water resources are in critical condition. Considering the population growth and the fossil fuels ending probability in the future, the importance of extraction of energy in the future than nowadays will be much higher and will be a serious challenge for different countries. Perhaps policies for agricultural products in some countries may change.
In your opinion, what needs to be done in order to have food security in the future?
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Decentralizing the food system will be unavoidable because the large scale agroindustry that supports monoculture will not be able to survive the losses of water, soil, yields. Already, food production and security on the global scale is insured by small, family farmers. These produce quality foods on very small land surfaces. Their garden/farms are biologically diverse and integrate also medicinal plants, herbs as they learned from their ancestors. Conserving this knowledge is very important because our centralized food system and agriculture have become very homogeneous. Consequently, preserving seed germplasm and breeds of domestic animals is now becoming more and more important to counteract the whims of unpredictable weather patterns. Therefore, agroecology, which is the science of sustainable food systems will gain more traction in the restoration/regenerative type of agriculture that all countries in the world need to insure food security despite global climate change.
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Dear RG Researchers
Who like to share the most favorite research interest produced/published (classic work) in Earth Science?
Regards
Ijaz
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Dear Mr. Ahmad,
whenever I deal with a special geoscientific issue I find some more interesting ones. It is an endless process as long as you are engaged in this discipline. I spend my time roaming the inorganic fields of geosciences with emphasis on their application.
With kind regards
H.G.Dill
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HI, all
I want to get the program to extract Digital terrain models (DTM’s) or
Digital height models (DHM’s) for a certain area from Global Gravity Field Models related to Topography For example  dV_ELL_RET2012 
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In Mathcad writing
Elevation ==
Sum, for n = 1 to 2190,
for m = 1 to n, of
Coefficient C.m Cosine Lamda + Coefficient S.m Sine Lamda
is so easy, since the proper notation is available, but in Mathcad, we can *write*
d^n / d cos^n (theta) inline but it won't expand, even with Live Symbolics *on*.
So what is needed is to write it out of line, with Live Symbolics on, Evaluate Symbolically, and Paste the result. However, even at order 5, the result may be what Mathcad calls Huge. Too big. So we shall see.
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Hi everyone
I have an article that will be published soon. In this paper, precipitation is predicted by MPI-ESM-MR model in Tabriz (The largest city in northwestern Iran). The results showed that, according to the both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, the winter precipitation will be increase over the three future periods (2021-2040, 2041-2060 and 2061-2080). Even in the RCP4.5 scenario, the trend will be ascending. While Tabriz's winter precipitation trend is descending in the base period until 2015! It seems to be a contradiction. This means that over the next three years, the winter precipitation will suddenly rise! Is this possible?? What's your opinion?
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Models of any kind are either research/simulation models or predictive/forecast models or hybrid. GCM's have only a small amount of predictive value, depending in part on what variables they are used to forecast and for how long into t