Questions related to Earth Observation
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The general characteristics of Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR): The photons returning are usually fewer because the transmitting laser and retroreflectors both have a divergence. This means that the laser beam spreads out as it travels, which can affect the accuracy of the measurement. How can this divergence be minimized?
August 25th, 2023
Those methodologies, we have to assume that are not the better ones, are being used to claim humans are 'making progresses' with regards the 2030 SDGs agenda.
As the ongoing human-sparked climate crisis and the huge Earth's ecology breakdowns seem unstoppable, scientists must ask what are the methodologies that are being used by other scientists to support those claims.
A generalized optimism keep asking time we (humans) do not have to fulfill those goals.
The 21st century science will be all about try to avoid a major planetary disruption sparked by just the biology-based dominant species.
We need metrics to avoid groundless discourses. That task will imply to create a system of systems regarding Earth observation in all scales.
It is relevant to say that the problem is not suitable for a technological perspective only... The problems we are facing are behavioral in nature.
Hernan L. Villagran
August 28th, 2023.
The institutional control and governance concerning the human-boosted pressure on the outer space environment is deteriorating very fast. Amid a speeding-up and overlapping climate and Earth's ecology breakdowns it is being hard to understand and to find a rational explanation to the deployment of the 'New Space Economy' while humans are discarding any collective effort in focusing all the space-related agencies and capabilities to give priority to Earth observation and damage control (as much as possible) on the Earth's Life Support Systems (ELSSs).
The attached letter is a public position paper that was sent to the acting Head of UNOOSA (United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs) last year.
As the entire world adopted the 'weak' definition of Sustainable Development (SD) humans can not get surprised to realize the entire 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) agenda is being compromised.
The huge lack of rationality in the outer space domain is a signal that tells us the same situation is taking place in all of the remaining 'global commons' and the associated institutional architecture (treaties).
Could the space affairs researchers here in ResearchGate provide me with your inputs and papers that logically and analytically challenge that risky trend in the space domain...?
Somebody interested in writing a research paper with measurable policy-implications...?
Somebody intersted in developing a funded research proposal regardless the country where that proposal would be submitted for funding...?
Hernan L. Villagran
We are software company in The Hague that has developed several tools and systems to process Earth Observation data (multispectral, radar) with specialization on the European Copernicus programme.
The European Space Agency is planning to publish tenders this semester in the following topics and we would like to match up with researchers and institutions in Europe that could lead a consortium:
- Innovative Analytics: Industrialization of AI Methods in EO
- EO for ClLimate and Seasonal Adaptive Agricultural Decision Support
- World AgriCommodities
- Ecosystem COnservation actions with CSOs/NGOs
- Embedding EO - regional porfolios for Central & South American monitoring & management support
Please contact us at email@example.com if you would like to discuss further.
In an atomic clock: instability in the oscillator and environmental changes can cause frequency drift, although it is often hard to identify between drift and oscillator aging. So, is the frequency drift value constant, linear, or nonlinear variation? If you have any information about this, please post it here.
I am looking for some quality biophysical data products (ocean temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Chl-a etc.), especially in-situ ones, for the water bodies situated near the arctic sea and Antarctica. Profiling Floats, Ice-Borne Observing Systems, Ice/Snow Surface Drifters etc. are some of the systems for acquiring polar ocean datasets. So far, I have come across the following sources:
- International Arctic Buoy Program: https://iabp.apl.uw.edu/data.html
- USGODAE Argo GDAC Data Browser: https://nrlgodae1.nrlmry.navy.mil/cgi-bin/argo_select.pl
- Biogeochemical-Argo: https://biogeochemical-argo.org/data-access.php
Are these sources good enough to represent ocean dynamics within the polar circle? I would much appreciate it if you could point out some other sources, whether it is in-situ, satellite or model, for understanding polar ocean dynamics.
Finding the seismic pressure is an important parameter to quantify the damages on structures during large earthquakes. Since soil force equilibrium in wedge approach can be used in site conditions there are no finite methods for laboratory experiments to study the seismic earth pressure behavior. A simple demonstration in this research area would help many students to understand its basic concept with good insight.
Interested to join the launched 'Climate and Environmental Change Network' at the biggest university and research association "Unimed" for multilateral scientific cooperation.
Get more info at https://t.co/bSnMWFIVy7
Deadline : July 30th. Don't miss it ↗️
I'm about to start some analyses of vegetation indexes using Sentinel-2 imagery through Google Earth Engine. The analyses are going to comprise a series of images from 2015/2016 until now, and some of the data won't be available in Level-2A of processing (Bottom-of-Atmosphere reflectance).
I know there are some algorithms to estimate BOA reflectance. However, I don't know how good these estimates are, and the products generated by Sen2Cor look more reliable to me. I've already applied Sen2Cor through SNAP, but now I need to do it in a batch of images. Until now, I couldn't find any useful information about how to do it in GEE (I'm using the Python API).
I'm a beginner, so all tips are going to be quite useful. Is it worth applying Sen2Cor or the other algorithms provide good estimates?
Thanks in advance!
I am working on a project to access the coastal vulnerability. I have different variables like elevation, LULC, bathymetry, etc. of the entire study area.
My analysis steps would loosely be based on the value extraction method followed in this paper (
My problem is, I have no idea how to transfer these input values to point.
It will be very helpful if anyone could give some hints. I am doing processes in ArcMap.
The image shows part of my study area. The area is covered with elevation raster. The red, green, and yellow points are the points to which I want the data to be extracted.
Can in a sole vessel be demonstrated that the air temperature rises when CO2 concentrations rises by sun irridation?
Were there yet any trials to test the effect of increasing C02 concentrations in rates like of 300 ppm, 400 ppm, 500 ppm, 1000 ppm CO2 to prove that CO2 rises also air temperature in an simple experiment?
And how much air temperature rises, when there is the air only zero, 100 ppm and 200 ppm CO2?
Right now I am studying GRAVSOFT for geoid modeling to use it in my thesis, I tried to read the manual but it was not explaining the GUI Python version (it is explaining the Fortran version), so that I am still confused to understand the software clearly. I would like to understand clearly which data I have to use for determination geoid modeling and the steps (step by step) of doing that using GRAVSOFT programs.
please provide me any documents or any files that can let me understand all the programs inside the GRAVSOFT interface specifically for creating geoid modeling.
Thanks in advance and your comments are appreciated
I am currently advising a young student in the National University of El Salvador and he has an interest in working with remote sensing data to study freshwater quality (turbity, pollution, algae blooms, etc). The available data to use is the Copernicus/Sentinels open data from the European Space Agency. The university periodically conducts in-situ studies of the water and collects samples along with the National Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources.
We think that exploring the correlations between temperature, suspended matter, clorophyll (algae) and data from Sentinel 2/3 (some initial exploration attached). But this is just a very initial/raw idea.
Therefore I would like to be advised on relevant topics in this field of research that are of interest to the global community and not just El Salvador. My ambition is to conduct a research task that can be contributed to international peer-reviewed journals and establish relationships with experts and research groups abroad.
Any suggestions, ideas, contacts will be greatly appreciated.
Currently, it is difficult to define this type of analytic problem. The key issue is forecasting future global problems. It is necessary to collect additional analytical data over the next years and perhaps in about 100 years in huge Big Data database systems supported by another generation of artificial intelligence, it will be possible to forecast what can happen to the planet Earth in the next 1000 years.
In view of the above, the current question is: Will I be able to precisely forecast in the 21st century what will be the future of planet Earth in the next 1000 years?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
I am investigating thermospheric mass density vertical profiles between 300-800 km altitude. I would like to validate/compare the variability with other sources/parameters, including, e.g., temperature, pressure, density, etc.
In the relativistic theory for synchronization between satellite and ground atomic clocks, the major sources of relativistic effects are relative motion between the two clocks and the movement of clocks in a gravitational potential.
I am looking for the recent research and adapted clock correction models that have been modified on this topic as well as what are factors must be considered when comparing the proper/coordinate time of a clock at rest on the geoid and a clock in Earth orbit satellite?
Does anyone know any sources of the multispectral/panchromatic satellite imagery, dated before 2000, which provide higher spatial resolution, than 30-60m (Landsat 1-5). We contacted Scanex, and searched in online catalogues, such as Geocento Earth Images, USGS...but couldn't find any images we need, in the catalogues. Unfortunately, the spatial resolution 30-60m is not enough for our studies.
Something like SPOT1-5, Corona, DMC, etc. could be perfect, I think.
If there is a way to get at least several images captured in 1970 ths-1990 ths, please let me know ASAP.
Dear all, I'd like to open here a sort of forum for understanding how the geodesists community is moving in view of the X-band SAR satellite constellation. The new constellation will offer new "free, near real-time SAR data" with the "latest information about any spot on the planet within the hour". This will open completely new horizons for InSAR monitoring of ground deformation especially for rapid phenomena such as eruptions and seismic crises. The huge amount of so frequent data acquisitions will open also new needs for rapid and automatic processing. My question are: who knows more? Are you planning a routine use of these data? How?
Spaceborne Hyperspectral observation (i.e. hyperspectral remote sensing in uv-visible-infrared spectral range) of Earth and for Planetary science, plays a very important role in improving scientific understanding, environmental and resource monitoring.
Signal to Noise ratio (SNR) is a very important parameter (or quality metric) of any Hyperspectral instrument indicating its potential to meets its desired observational goals.
Due to demanding need on higher spectral and spatial resolutions, it become challenging to good / high SNR to meet the desired observational goals.
In view of this I wish to discuss or seek suggestions of various options or ideas by which SNR of Hyperspectral instrument can be improved. Ideas or options may be either for instrument design aspects or for image or data processing aspects.
Would you please let me know if the following is accurate as an answer to the question:
Suppose we have sensors which measure the volumetric soil water content of a soil layer for a long period (more than 6 months) and also high temporal resolution (half-hourly). Could I assign the maximum in this dataset to the saturation point?
I understand that we do need to have a lengthy rainfall event, how long the event should be so that the above proposal works?
And if there is any other way that I can get to the saturation point of a soil layer from the volumetric soil water content data/sensors, please let me know.
Mostly focused on the topsoil and preferably only using the dataset.
In common view mode, the ground to ground time transfer by Two- Way satellite Time and Frequency Transfer (TWSTFT), What are the different models which reduces the noise of the space clocks?
Are environmentalists concerned about global warming because our sun's outer shell is cooling down while the inner shell is heating up, which has a big impact on Earth?
Is EO suitable only to provide global food production monitoring or it can help also to farmers in developing countries? Is the resolution of current EO limitation? Where EO could help to farmers? What could be killing applications? Are this climatic analysis or some other analysis? This and more other questions we are trying to answer in EO4Agri projects http://www.eo4agri.eu/ . See our gap analysis report https://www.researchgate.net/publication/336022413_EO4AGRI_D22-Initial-Workshop-User-Requirements-and-Gap-Analysis-in-Different-Sectors-Report-v10 and try to help us identify additional possibilities or comment our conclusion. During the project we already discussed our ideas with African community during Nairobi INSPIRE Hack https://www.plan4all.eu/2019/04/team-1-progress-report-i/
I am interested in knowing about the lifetime of a chemical species in the atmosphere. What are the techniques that can be applied in order to estimate the lifetime of a certain chemical species in the atmosphere based on the physical and chemical properties at different length and time scales? Is there any analytical or computational technique that can be used to estimate within limits of permissible errors? or can it be analysed from Earth Observation data?
When you look at a waveform and/or a seismograph you will see many oscillation on that. so identifying the waveform of an earthquake is a matter in signal processing. Then doing this job automatically can be more interested. So how we can do that?
Unlike Optically thick clouds, Cirrus Clouds are thin, high altitude clouds formed in the upper troposphere layer of the Earth's Atmosphere. These Cirrus Clouds are not easily identifiable in the satellite images acquired with Passive Remote Sensing Sensors such as Landsat MSS, TM, ETM+, ASTER, SPOT, etc. Although there are different kinds of Cirrus Clouds, the sub-visible Cirrus Clouds are particularly of interest because they can be hiding in plain sight and affect the measurements. However, they can be detected within the Short-wave infrared (SWIR) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, specifically at ~1.38 µm bouncing off of the ice-crystals in these clouds but are absorbed by water vapor in the lower part the atmosphere. Due to the benefits of this wavelength at 1.38 µm, MODIS (1999 onwards), VIIRS (2011 onwards), Landsat 8 (2013 onwards) and Sentinel 2 (2015 onwards) were introduced with their respective Cirrus Cloud detection bands.
However, in the absence of Cirrus detection bands in passive satellite sensors operating before 1999, is there anyway to pin-point the presence of Cirrus Clouds in historical satellite images? It may be possible to identify Cirrus Clouds in satellite images acquired without cirrus band by comparing it with contemporary/concurrent satellite images acquired with sensors having cirrus band. But otherwise, is there any other alternative way? Is anybody aware of any operational tool/algorithm/products that can identify cirrus clouds in past satellite imagery and provide means for their masking/correction?
This topic may be of particular relevance in time-series studies where historical satellite images are frequently compared with the present. For example, if cirrus scattering affects are not corrected, they can lead to incorrect interpretation in Vegetation Indices such as NDVI.
I am doing a research to get an overview about EO-Systems which help companies to fulfil their commitments towards Zero Deforestation.
More and more research centers operating in different countries and investigating climate change state that the progressing greenhouse effect on Earth is already a fact. As a result, the risk of increasingly frequent and increasingly dramatic climate disasters is increasing. Man has less and less time to counteract these negative processes.
It is necessary to change the development strategy based on intensifying the exploitation of the Earth's resources on the sustainable development strategy. It is necessary to develop new energy technologies based on renewable energy sources to slow down the progressing greenhouse effect of the Earth in order to reduce the risk of dramatic natural cataclysms. It is necessary to develop ecological innovations, while it may not be too late. It is necessary to save the Earth through destruction for future generations.
In view of the above, I am asking you to answer the following question: Is the greenhouse effect on Earth already objectively recognized by the climate research centers as an irreversible process?
I invite you to the discussion
Recently, many scientific applications such as:
In geology, the inversion of the geoid is used for Petroleum Exploration.
I am looking for studies and research in this field
I am new for Generic Mapping Tool (GMT), but I would like to work through a few simple examples of generating legends (ie. multiple points or lines plotted on a single figure using psxy). In the following example, I want a set the location of Legend in the southwest (Inside bottom-left of axes).
gmt psbasemap -R-108/-105/31/35 -JM6i -Ba0.5 -K -P> New_Mexico.ps
gmt pscoast -R -J -Df -Gwhite -O -K -P>> New_Mexico.ps
gmt psxy Data1.txt -R -J -Sc0.5c -Gblue -O -K -P >>New_Mexico.ps
gmt psxy Data2.txt -R -J -St0.5c -Gred -O -K -P>>New_Mexico.ps
gmt psxy Data3.txt -R -J -Ss0.5c -Ggreen -O -K -P>>New_Mexico.ps
I want to get the program to extract Digital terrain models (DTM’s) or
Digital height models (DHM’s) for a certain area from Global Gravity Field Models related to Topography For example dV_ELL_RET2012
Does anyone know how frequently sand storms and dust storms that arise from middle east or north africa travel to Pakistan and North India? I was wondering, in view of the already worsening air pollution levels in North India, events such as dust and sand storms reaching the subcontinent may exacerbate the situation. How rare or common are such sand and dust storms being carried from their place of origin (usually middle east and north africa) and intermix with fog or haze intensified by smoke or other atmospheric pollutants in another far off location? Has there been any similar, possible mixing of phenomena (dust storm and smog) reported/documented/studied anywhere around the globe at any time, preferably that was also caught by polar or geostationary satellites?
I was looking at a true-color or natural color satellite image acquired on 29th Oct. 2017 by the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on board the joint NASA/NOAA Suomi-National Polar orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite around early afternoon. I've attached a screenshot of the image as well as provided the full link to access the satellite imagery. These satellite images have been stitched together to create a global mosaic. Unlike MODIS, VIIRS do not show any data gaps (except sun glints!). I found this satellite image particularly compelling because it clearly shows the sand storm picking up over northern Saudi Arabia and moving around Iraq, Iran, Caspian Sea towards Afghanistan with the movement of wind. I also think the Earth's rotation from west to east has a role to play in the movement and direction of the wind laden with sand and dust. But it seems difficult to understand their dynamics. The smog over North India and parts of Pakistan can be differentiated from the sand storm over middle east in this satellite image. In North India this is the time of the year when there are intentional crop fires due to the traditional slash-and-burn agriculture practice.
The SRTM90m v4.1 is a digital elevation model with a resolution of 90 metres (3'' Arc-Sec) and available through the CGIAR-CSI data centre web page at http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org/SELECTION/inputCoord.asp.
While, the SRTM30_Plus v10 is a 30'' Arc-Sec resolution global topography and bathymetry model and available through the Satellite Geodesy Research Group web page at http://topex.ucsd.edu/WWW_html/srtm30_plus.html
there are some user-friendly softwares to manage and study time series from satellite imagines (e.g. sentinel-2 data) with the implementation of change detection analysis?
I try to select nighttime images of Landsat 8 through the option "night" in the browser: https://earthexplorer.usgs.gov/ (Additional Criteria tab) and the answer is always "No Results Found". Anyone knows if it's possible to download nighttime images of Landsat (in general)? by google engine/lv.eosda.com/usgs... I thought that some time ago it was possible to download Landsat nightime images.
Thank you in advance!
I processed, using SeaDAS, a complete year of L2 files (with hi-res - 500 m). Also using the seaDAS software, I created the L3 bin files with 8 days temporal average but the .hdf file is completely different from the .hdf of the level 2 and I can't understand how to open it and map the ocean color products using the matlab software.
Without using seadas, is it correct doing a weekly average just with gridded and interpolated L2 files with matlab software. If yes, how is the correct procedure to do it?
I am looking for a research about:
Comparison between the three dedicated gravity fields mapping mission, [CHAMP (1996), GRACE (2002) and GOCE (2009)], in geoid modeling (when using the satellite-only model related to these three mission)
Conversion between different permanent tide systems involves either modifying one spherical harmonic coefficient or adding a zonally uniform correction to the geoid undulations.
More information sees
Hello. i would like to ask it here because i have found values between 9-11.5 degrees. Where could i find some guaranteed number? Thanks a lot.J.
Global warming = Ice melting = Sea level rise = More water availability for evaporation and (possible) decrease of salinity = More evaporation = More clouds = Less solar radiation to earth = Global cooling = Fresh ice formation = Sea level fall = Less water availability for evaporation and (possible) increase of salinity = Less evaporation = Less atmospheric clouds = More incoming solar radiation = Global warming again.
(1) Are these consequences always true?
(2) If not, then what are the alternative circumstances?
(3) How does ever-changing Global Climate maintain its Dynamic Equilibrium with Global Water Cycle? Which one is the initiator of Change? Any evidence?
(4) Is there any long term record of salinity of oceanic water?
**Note: Above are the physical factors (components) for global change and associated consequences... excluding biological factors such as changes of concentration of Oxygen/Carbon-dioxide/Methane etc. and their inter-relation which also influence the global cycle.
UPDATE: Few Related & Interesting References (referred by the experts with their answers)
(IPCC Working Group Reports, referred by Harry ten Brink and Commenter)
https://nsidc.org/sites/nsidc.org/files/files/NRCabruptcc.pdf (referred by Alastair Bain McDonald)
https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn11462-climate-change-a-guide-for-the-perplexed (referred by Yuri Yegorov)
http://isthereglobalcooling.com/ (referred by Yuri Yegorov)
https://nsidc.org/cryosphere/sotc/ (referred by Yuri Yegorov)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Past_sea_level (referred by Yuri Yegorov)
http://www.antarcticglaciers.org/glaciers-and-climate/ (referred by Steingrimur Stefansson)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenhouse_gas (referred by Henrik Rasmus Andersen)
http://www.giss.nasa.gov/research/ (referred by Alastair Bain McDonald)
https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatology-data/education-outreach [Click Introduction to Paleoclimatology] (Commenter)
http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/ [For Global and Regional Analysis of (1) Climate, (2) Hazards, (3) Snow & Ice, (4) Upper Air, and (5) ENSO events .....during late 1990s to till date] (Commenter)
...for refence see the Global Major Climate Events (originally source & compiled map credit NOAA-NCDC and WMO) during year 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 and some images related to historical trend of global temperature (Images collected from various webpages referred here)...
- 418.25 KB2012_NOAA Climate Events.gif
- 336.57 KB2014_NOAA Climate Events.gif
- 698.85 KB2013_NOAA Climate Events.gif
- 362.09 KB2015_NOAA Climate Events.gif
- 69.73 KB1-ScoteseClimateHist.png
- 185.22 KB4-28601700033e49a2b9d53ffc9c8114a4.png
- 8.40 KB2-PhanerozoicCO2-Temperatures.png
- 47.80 KB5-Foster_20k.jpg
- 197.13 KB6-AR5_Emissions_all_GHGs.png
- 117.43 KB7-temperature history.jpg
W0: defines the vertical datum of a height system ,Also it can be introduced as a primary parameter for the definition of a reference mean Earth ellipsoid (hence, level ellipsoid that best fits the geoid.)
So, How to estimation of W0 and best value?
For Earth the formula is: r = cos(L)i + sin(L)cos(e)j + sin(L)sin(e)k
Where L is the Sun's ecliptic longitude, and e is the axial tilt.
I need a way to quickly estimate unit direction vectors from Sun to other planets throughout the year. I tried to use the same formula, but when I compared results with ephemerics data I observed high discrepancies, with k being the worst.
I calculated Sun's ecliptic longitudes using ephemeris data
I currently analyzing diurnal and seasonal pattern of sporadic-E occurrence over Indonesia (equatorial or low-latitude region) and found that the occurrence drop at 12:00 local time during which solar irradiation is maximum. It is hard for me to find specific reference related to this subject. Is there anyone who can discuss about this matter?
I am beginning research into using Earth observations to identify current streams and water bodies in Idaho. I am looking for suggestions/recommendations for different satellites and sensors to use that I may have not know about. Thanks in advance.
Which one is correct: weather variables or weather parameters?
For example: Air temperature is a weather variable or weather parameter?
Air Temperature: A measure of the average kinetic energy of air molecules at 2 meters (~6 feet) above the surface.
Please suggest clear sky models/techniques/formulas which can be employed using a dataset containing the following given meteorological measurements to identify clear sky days in a year.
- Daily Global Solar Radiation (GHI) : Avg,Max,Min
- Daily Extraterrestrial Solar Radiation : Avg
- Daily Air Temperature : Avg, Max, Min
- Daily Relative Humidity : Avg, Max, Min
- Daily Sunshine Duration : Avg, Max
- Daily Wind Speed : Avg, Max, Min
I intend to implement the suggested equations/formulas/models in matlab.
Good day, can anyone please share the equations and the methodology which is employed for calculating the empirical coefficients for the Bristow-Campbell model?
Hello ladies & gentlemen,
Does anyone know where I can source high resolution chlorophyll concentration data for the North Sea region from present day back to 2004 for free other than NASA Earth Observations (NEO)?
Any help would be greeted with the upmost appreciation.
if not then please Suggest/Provide me the URL for further information?
here i am performing Classification of Satellite image, for this purpose i need Ground truth image/Data, can i proceed without having GT information? please share your experience.
I am looking for a program to compute into Theoretical (Normal) Gravity (γ) value on the surface of the ellipsoid (WGS84) and Free-Air Anomaly (Δgf) with knowing Observed (or measured) Gravity (g) on the earth surface
I have some questions about Global Gravity Field Models (ICGFM).
Where How to Calculate Coefficients of this model? I.e. I need the program to compute spherical harmonic analysis of EGM model.
in the program GRAVSOFT , two Sub programmes
- Python Interface to “EMPCOV” (Program empirical covariance functions)
- Python Interface to “COVFIT” (Fit empirical functions to analytic models)
in figure below , what is empirical covariance functions and analytical covariance functions
I know how to be compute empirical covariance, but How can be obtained analytical covariance functions
I would like to interpret mechanisms driving vegetation change particularly structure and composition in arid rangelands using multi-temporal data acquired by the sensors onboard the Landsat Satellites.
If it is possible, I am interested in getting information to explain some of catastrophic vegetation change for the last 40+ years corresponding with the Landsat History & Legacy.
The sensors are Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS) onboard Landsat 1-3, Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS)/Thematic Mapper (TM) onboard Landsat 4-5, Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus onboard Landsat 7 and Operational Land Imager and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) onboard Landsat 8.
I would appreciate suggestions on methods of data processing, models to study long term vegetation dynamics in arid environments and sharing of references.
I would like to subtract the contribution from a global gravity model (here EGM96 and EGM08) from the free-air anomalies (Δg) . And the height anomalies (ζ) .
Can you suggest a program to do this?
I am doing the Atmospheric correction of Compact Airborne Spectrometer Imager Data.
and also is the Refined Empirical Line Method in ENVI performed better or not?
I'm looking for a program to converted ellipsoidal to spherical harmonic coefficient .
The GSI Inventory is the most accepted inventory for Indian Himalaya but if compared with the ICIMOD inventory the data does not seem to match for most of the glaciers.
There are number of algorithms available in the literature for soil moisture down scaling especially derived from satellite data. Can these algorithms be used for soil nutrients also? what corrective actions should be taken in that case?
For example, I was trying to get a initial condition for the date of 1998-01-01. If I firstly ran a case using the default forcing CLM4.0CN to get the initial condition of 1998-01-01. And then using my own atmospheric forcing to drive the initial condition as the spinup, how long do I need to spinup the model?