Questions related to Early Modern History
For a source to be considered reliable it must contain accurate historical information.
But how does one determine the accuracy and reliability of sources in modern and recent history since not much has been written on the subject matter?
What do you think of this information and does the language of conspiracy exist? Analysts estimated that the revenues that "Pfizer" and "Moderna" could reap from the "Covid-19" vaccine will reach 32 billion dollars in 2021 alone. Pfizer and its German partner Biotech are set to generate nearly $ 19 billion, according to estimates by Morgan Stanley, indicating that the two companies could generate nearly $ 30 billion in vaccine revenues by the end of 2023. Pfizer expects to produce up to 1.3 billion doses of its vaccine in 2021, while Moderna expects to manufacture between 500 million and 1 billion doses.
as we know the specific frequency of sound stimulate the specific part of cochlea of ear that was named cilia(hair cells). subsequently ,the cilia convert the amplitude of the sound to corresponding frequency. nevertheless, is the brain sense the rhythm of the sound?
Archduke Leopold-Willem of Habsbourg, emperor Ferdinand III's brother, lived from 1647 to 1656 in Brussels, where he was general governor of the Low Countries. He was a great collector of paintings; he bought no less than 1400 paintings of, among others, Holbein, Bruegel the Elder, Van Eyck, Mantegna,Giorgione, Veronese.
On May 6th, 1656, Léopold-Willem goes back from Antwerp to Vienna, bringing with him his collection of paintings, which he made install in 1657, partly in the Stallburg, in the Hofburg palace, partly in the Neue Burg. He makes the Flemish painter Jan Anton van den Baren his manager of his collection. In this collection, stands the Tower of Babel, as testifies the inventory written in 1659.
In this inventory, the painting is described as follows : «581. Ein grosses Stückh von Öhlfarb auf Holz, warin der babilonische Thurn. In einer alter Ramen mit verguldten Leisten, 6 Spann 4 Finger hoch, vnndt 8 ½ Spann braith. Original vom älten Brögel.» (f° 255)
My question is : which was the value (in cm) of a Spann in this time ? I didn't find a more recent book about the ancient measures than this (a bit old) one : Horace DOURSTHER : Dictionnaire universel des poids et mesures anciens et modernes, contenant des tables des monnaies de tous les pays, Bruxelles : M. Hayez, 1840. But the author says nothing about the Spann. Can anyone help me ? I would be very glad, and thankful.
(Please, forgive me my bad english; I do my best, but it is not my mother language.)
Xavier de COSTER
I am researching the topic of martial law in the early modern period, 1550-1700 (as it was utilized upon social undesirables e,g, vagrants, rebels, criminals), primarily with a view to examining its impact upon the British Atlantic Empire (such as Ireland, Scotland, and the American Colonies). I'm looking to answer a number of questions including but limited to the ideology behind it, its role alongside the common law, its importance in our understanding of government in the Early Stuart Period, its operation within different jurisdictions (how can we differentiate the practice of this law from the mainland i.e. England and its superfluous colonies?), and most important of all, can it be taken as a serious catalyst for the 1641 rebellion in Ireland and the constitutional crisis that led to the English Civil War?
After a PhD about the public land registries from the rural spaces of medieval and early modern Southern France, I am beginning new researches about the role of the surveyors in the same region.
I am very interested in improving our knowledge of this underestimated microcosme, which inserts between the masses and the notables of the countryside, whether these last ones were noble persons or commoners.
I will take with pleasure any bibliographical information or archives references.
As indicated, I'm interested in when and where the Politics may have been written? I suspect that it was begun in Athens when Aristotle was at the Lyceum. Hopefully someone will be aware of internal or external clues as to just when. Also, how long did Aristotle live after he was forced to flee Athens? Could he still have been working on the work up to his death? And how close do scholars think the work was to being finished?
The castle is located in the Galal valley near Qawila village at the southeast of the Barzinja Town. The age of the building and using the castle is controversial; some research aged it more than 500years old while others referred younger ages of less than 300years.
I'm specifically looking for sources on othering in relation to religion, either between Catholics and Protestants or between other, smaller groups in Britain at that time.
Dear colleagues! Do you happen to know books or articles (in English, French, German) on how empires (especially European colonial powers in Asia and Africa) used their minting of coins not only according to its intended purpose (pertaining to economy), but also to the purpose of propagandizing the ideas of their invincibility, beneficial character etc. with the help of certain images on coins (like the portraits of kings etc.)? I mean the symbolic role of coins to make imperial rule more acceptable for colonial subjects. So far I know just one such book: Abramzon M.G. Coins as the Means of Propaganda of the Official Policy of the Roman Empire (Moscow, 1995, in Russian).
Are there any resources focusing exclusively or primarily on this topic? Doing a research that (among other things) concerns the inculcation of Confucian values by non-elite social strata in Joseon Korea, as well as the various responses to these processes by the so-called commoner and lowborn people; so far found a few interesting texts but I am wondering what others can recommend me. Could be on Ming/Qing society as well (since I am considering to add comparative elements to my research); detailed elite (ie. by scholars, aristocracy, etc) opinions on lifestyles/beliefs of lower social strata are fine as well.
Does anyone have information regarding the establishment of a French Naval Base on Martinique in 1784?
Full title: Historiesch verhaal: van het begin, voortgang en teegenwoordigen staat der koophandel, van de Generaale Nederlandsche geoctroyeerde Oost-Indische Compagnie.
Digital version is available on the Internet.
The book has two volumes, was published in Arnhem, by Wouter Troost (1768 and 1772), and is related with the Dutch East India Company - VOC
I especially would be interested what sources did the author use for compiling this book. As I am not familiar with such 18th century compilations and have not found any references so far, any article/book/part of book/chapter is highly welcome.
I think it is possible that military ranks as officer were given to persons as a sign of honor...
However, I found that in a fictional narrative and I would like to know, if there is historical evidence for that or not...
How would you translate the German term Verbürgerlichung? I am interested in a comparative study of European thinking of /about townspeople or city-dwellers, from the perspective of the history of political thought. I am familiar with the research around Jürgen Kocka, but I wonder if there are updates to it, and whether there are English language researches in the topic.
I'm working on the collection of mortality data in London during the mid-1550s, That effort was established (or perhaps confirmed as official) by two ordinances, one in 1553 and the other in 1555. I have found the first but no one seems to have seen the second since London was bombed in WWII.
James Christie and others quoted bits and pieces of both ordinances, but I would love to see the whole of the second and what other specific measures the City took when which it was passed.. Any suggestions - including secondary literature - would be appreciated.
The context is a diplomatic visit. One (lay) Catholic was trying to get assistance from devout Protestants and attended their church services. His (Catholic) rival sent a delegation of clerics who chose not to attend those services. Canadian Jesuit historian Couillard-Desprès, in the early 20C claims that according to Catholic doctrine, Catholics who attended Protestant services, especially when they sort of had to, were not running the risk of being considered sinners, let alone apostates. Couillard-Desprès doesn't give any evidence supporting his claim. Would anyone have references to suggest supporting his claim? Many thanks.
A small lutheran community coming from Germany exists in Lyon from the 16 century. This group owned a church, settled in Geneva from 1707.It was mostly composed of traders who went to Geneva four times a year for the holy communion. But, from 1770 onward, when the Calvinists from Lyons got their priest, the Lutherans went more and more to that church, letting down Geneva. For about 75 years, the Lutherans disappeared from Lyons. At the turn of the eighteen and nineteen centuries, the community spent her life in the shade of the Calvinist church. Between 1800 and 1850, the immigration movement of swiss, germans and Alsatians was quickening. In 1851, after multiples fruitless tries during the last fifty years, the Lutheran reverend Georges Mayer create an evangelic german church which is quickly linked with the Augsburg Confession. The german community managed the church for nearly 30 years until the arrival of the first French vicar in Lyons .For another 30 years, the relations were stormies between the two communities. The first world war marked the death of the german parish. The French church survived with difficulties during the twenties and thirties. The “renaissance” was due to two extraordinary personalities: André Desbaumes and Henry Bruston The Lutheran church became an inescapable part of the Lyons’s oecumenism and opened itself to the world.2007 marked the beginning of the merger between the Calvinist and Lutheran churches.
I'm interested in the early modern period (1500-1800)
Emotions in general and fear in particular can hardly be quantified, measured and visualized but I'm looking for symptoms of fear that could be quantified and tracked over time. One idea is religious processions.
Curiosities as well as commodities shaped the emerging strategies for the empirical study of Nature. But what is your opinion?
I am familiar with Geoffrey Parker's work on Military History. I want to read the original military revolution essay by Michael Roberts. I am doing a battle study on a battle in early modern Japan. The concept of military revolution is driving a lot contemporary research. The introduction new firearms technology into 16th century Japan was a factor in the success of Japan's unifiers. I hope to have something useful to say and compare about events in both Europe and Japan? Thanks in advance.
Manufacture and consumption of candies in Europe of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
I've a lengthy paper connecting the two countries with Shakespeare and the birds in his plays, but something's missing. It needs more depth. One area might be about the general function of birds in storytelling -- as prophets, omens, etc. Other ideas?