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For a source to be considered reliable it must contain accurate historical information.
But how does one determine the accuracy and reliability of sources in modern and recent history since not much has been written on the subject matter?
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The first key points historians want to check about a source is whether the source is based on accurate knowledge and understanding. To do this, they might check whether the author was there at the time, whether the author was involved in the event, whether the author understood the overall context.
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What do you think of this information and does the language of conspiracy exist? Analysts estimated that the revenues that "Pfizer" and "Moderna" could reap from the "Covid-19" vaccine will reach 32 billion dollars in 2021 alone. Pfizer and its German partner Biotech are set to generate nearly $ 19 billion, according to estimates by Morgan Stanley, indicating that the two companies could generate nearly $ 30 billion in vaccine revenues by the end of 2023. Pfizer expects to produce up to 1.3 billion doses of its vaccine in 2021, while Moderna expects to manufacture between 500 million and 1 billion doses.
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Dear Dr Mutasem Z. Bani-Fwaz , this is a pertinent question. You have rightly pointed out the issue. If we carefully analysis the sequence of events that unfolded over the last one year, I suspect that there could be bigger conspiracy. This is a powerful question. Warm regards Yoganandan G
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as we know the specific frequency of sound stimulate the specific part of cochlea of ear that was named cilia(hair cells). subsequently ,the cilia convert the amplitude of the sound to corresponding frequency. nevertheless, is the brain sense the rhythm of the sound?
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May not be relevant but there have been many studies of 'sonic driving' during trance experience and other situations. Personally, I was trained in facilitating shamanic trance postures using rattle by Felicitas Goodman, Spirits Ride the Wind, etc. In my search at least in English Neher 1961 was a pioneer on this topic. Goodman also mentions in her books EEG studies of practitioners of shamanic trance. Somewhere I read a study recently that sonic driving is an independent variable for trance; not necessary.
Best regards,
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Archduke Leopold-Willem of Habsbourg, emperor Ferdinand III's brother, lived from 1647 to 1656 in Brussels, where he was general governor of the Low Countries.  He was a great collector of paintings; he bought no less than 1400 paintings of, among others, Holbein, Bruegel the Elder, Van Eyck, Mantegna,Giorgione, Veronese.
On May 6th, 1656, Léopold-Willem goes back from Antwerp to Vienna, bringing with him his collection of paintings, which he made install in 1657, partly in the Stallburg, in the Hofburg palace, partly in the Neue Burg.  He makes the Flemish painter Jan Anton van den Baren his manager of his collection.  In this collection, stands the Tower of Babel, as testifies the inventory written in 1659.  
In this inventory, the painting is described as follows : «581. Ein grosses Stückh von Öhlfarb auf Holz, warin der babilonische Thurn.  In einer alter Ramen mit verguldten Leisten, 6 Spann 4 Finger hoch, vnndt 8 ½ Spann braith.  Original vom älten Brögel.» (f° 255)
My question is : which was the value (in cm) of a Spann in this time ?  I didn't find a more recent book about the ancient measures than this (a bit old) one : Horace DOURSTHER : Dictionnaire universel des poids et mesures anciens et modernes, contenant des tables des monnaies de tous les pays, Bruxelles : M. Hayez, 1840.  But the author says nothing about the Spann.  Can anyone help me ?  I would be very glad, and thankful.
(Please, forgive me my bad english; I do my best, but it is not my mother language.)
Xavier de COSTER
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Xavier,
maybe the link, that I used in my last comment, does not work right in your computer without the cookies saved in my computer.
One of the searched citations is the book Palma Vechchio by Annemarie Spahn (1932). She also mentions the inventory of the collections of archduke Leopold Wilhelm from 1659 and she supposes the length of the Spann 20,8 cm (see page 110). The same length mention also other publications (e. g. Jahrbuch der Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen des Allerhöchsten Kaiserhauses, 1911-1912 - page 70, footnote 4 - see http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/jbksak1911_1912/0082 - I hope that this link will work better).
I cannot be sure that the authors are certainly right, but I suppose that they have some good reasons for their statements.
Good luck with your research!
Jakub
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I am researching the topic of martial law in the early modern period, 1550-1700 (as it was utilized upon social undesirables e,g, vagrants, rebels, criminals), primarily with a view to examining its impact upon the British Atlantic Empire (such as Ireland, Scotland, and the American Colonies). I'm looking to answer a number of questions including but limited to the ideology behind it, its role alongside the common law, its importance in our understanding of government in the Early Stuart Period, its operation within different jurisdictions (how can we differentiate the practice of this law from the mainland i.e. England and its superfluous colonies?), and most important of all, can it be taken as a serious catalyst for the 1641 rebellion in Ireland and the constitutional crisis that led to the English Civil War?
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The procedures of the courts in the colonies have largely coincided with the proceedings of the English courts for their simplicity and the primitiveness of the formation. They are available to every person and have a number of purposes. These include alleviating the tensions and conflicts within the colonial society as well as the differences between the inhabitants of the colonies and the rulers who administer them. (English).
       Decisions taken in the courts by judges are based on previous decisions rather than the legislation and laws issued at the time. Most of the cases and crimes brought before the courts are divided between two main types of crimes: felonies and misdemeanors. (Including the use of a body of several persons known as Jury), allows the citizen to participate in the criminal justice process, by representing citizens in the composition of the indictment or trial - or Both- In their capacity as nationals and not as specialists who decide whether there is sufficient evidence to prosecute.
     The number of judges in the colonial courts has been markedly fluctuated since the inception of the courts, with each court having one judge of two, and their number increasing in subsequent years to ten. The judge in the administrative hierarchy of the colony comes after the post of governor. They are either political leaders or clerics in the colony who believe that their role in society is to apply the will of God, and to take the confession and repentance of the accused to the best of their ability to punish him.
       The cases are classified as small, directly served by the judge, and major and dangerous crimes that require lengthy procedures and complex investigations. Most of the crimes brought to court are from cities and nearby areas. The remote or remote areas rarely resort to the courts because of their ignorance of the courts, Courts in their areas.
legal procedures:
     The legal procedures in the colony courts are applied according to simple rules. Once a crime has been reported, it is investigated and the evidence is submitted to the court for consideration by the judge. After the examination it is determined that it is a real crime. When the judge obtains evidence of the offense, The accused shall not be involved in this part of the case. When hearing the answers and clarifications of the accused, the judge shall determine whether there is a need for a trial or release of the accused on bail until such time as the accused Trial.
     The trials are sometimes conducted in public, and the governor of the colony appoints a public prosecutor to pay his fees. This is in contrast to what was followed in England when the trials were held in secret with the accused being charged. The position of the prosecutor becomes a political office in the colonial government. As prosecutors.
     The weakness of the lawyer's role in the trials has caused widespread controversy within the American colony community, as he has been denied the role he is required to do. He has interpreted the tradition of the colonial courts as English courts that refrained from the role of defense lawyers. Due to pressure exerted by the judges on the colonial rulers to allow them to refrain from interfering in their work and the high standard of living of the colonists who contributed to the costs of lawyers assigned to defend the accused.
Punishments
      The sentences imposed by the courts on the accused varied, and did not differentiate between men and women engaged in sorcery, witchcraft, infanticide, adultery and other crimes. These trials were called witch trials, and the trial was conducted in public and in front of a group of persons. The punishment of the accused is to evaluate his behavior and make it a lesson to deter others so as not to violate the laws in force in the colonies.
     There are many forms of execution in the colonial courts, sometimes whipped, and practiced widely and openly in the courts of the southern colonies, especially with the slave (), and sometimes the perpetrator of the crime and the slander of the perpetrator of the crime among the inhabitants of the colony, the death penalty is few, and less common than it In England, this punishment was carried out against the perpetrators of murder and rape. The prison sentence was not common at the beginning but was used over time after the construction of a number of prisons that were used to detain the accused and then bring them to trial. The prisons are simple, in it The problem is that prison overcrowding is a persistent problem that continued even after the beginning of the 19th century, in addition to the spread of epidemic diseases in prisons, At a time when the task of arresting criminals was not only between their walls, but through the detention of the homeless and the unemployed, especially the slaves fleeing their masters, the poor and the homeless, and even the debtors who are held at night and released on the day to work and pay their debts. .
     The prisons are protected from persons assigned by the Governor-General of the colony for low wages. They are exchanged for a period of time for fear of their agreement with the convicted and to smuggle them out of the prisons in secret. The police apparatus in the colony prisons has not been formally accredited. The time of Louis XIV (1676) was founded by Louis XIV in 1667 with the aim of establishing a system of security and security in the city of Paris,
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After a PhD about the public land registries from the rural spaces of medieval and early modern Southern France, I am beginning new researches about the role of the surveyors in the same region.
I am very interested in improving our knowledge of this underestimated microcosme, which inserts between the masses and the notables of the countryside, whether these last ones were noble persons or commoners.
I will take with pleasure any bibliographical information or archives references.
Thanks !
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Dear Mr. Jaudon and Mr. Pizzati
It's a lecturer from Department of Economics in University of AJK Pakistan.
I would like to invite you in the class to give 30-60 Minutes Skype lecture about European History in undergraduate course class of History of Economic Thought.
In response to that we can volunteer for your students in any affordable virtual activity. 
The class will be every Monday to Wednessday at 11am (Pakistan time)
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As indicated, I'm interested in when and where the Politics may have been written?  I suspect that it was begun in Athens when Aristotle was at the Lyceum.  Hopefully someone will be aware of internal or external clues as to just when.  Also, how long did Aristotle live after he was forced to flee Athens?  Could he still have been working on the work up to his death?  And how close do scholars think the work was to being finished?
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The castle is located in the Galal valley near Qawila village at the southeast of the Barzinja Town. The age of the building and using the castle is controversial; some research aged it more than 500years old while others referred younger ages of less than 300years.
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Dear Dr. Varoujan;
The first answer: Shakir Fatah published a booklet. The title is Journey to Srochik in 1933. The booklet is in Kurdish.
The second answer:  I published a paper in 1989 about Carbon-14  and its usage in archaeology in Kurdish (abstract in Arabic you may read it and it is in the end of article). I mentioned that some material can be used to determe the age by using C-14. If one of these material exist there, then the age can be determined easily.
Many other things would help such as design  of the castle, the way of burring the dead bodies, type of pottery, and etc.
Regards,
Rzger
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I'm specifically looking for sources on othering in relation to religion, either between Catholics and Protestants or between other, smaller groups in Britain at that time. 
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I think you should perhaps look at colonial perceptions of the 'other' in the Early Modern period, there are depictions of slaves included in portraits of wealthy patrons for example. The Irish were also colonized, as mentioned in the previous posting, and there are engravings and other images of this, though of course Punch and the Pears ad are much later than the Early Modern period. I would look at colonial depictions in the 17th and early 18th century. 
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Dear colleagues! Do you happen to know books or articles (in English, French, German) on how empires (especially European colonial powers in Asia and Africa) used their minting of coins not only according to its intended purpose (pertaining to economy), but also to the purpose of propagandizing the ideas of their invincibility, beneficial character etc. with the help of certain images on coins (like the portraits of kings etc.)? I mean the symbolic role of coins to make imperial rule more acceptable for colonial subjects. So far I know just one such book: Abramzon M.G. Coins as the Means of Propaganda of the Official Policy of the Roman Empire (Moscow, 1995, in Russian). 
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You're welcome. Just mention that you book that you think is written in the Greek language is actually written in Greek and in English. Two language is. The book I had in my hands. I used it for one of my research.
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Are there any resources focusing exclusively or primarily on this topic? Doing a research that (among other things) concerns the inculcation of Confucian values by non-elite social strata in Joseon Korea, as well as the various responses to these processes by the so-called commoner and lowborn people; so far found a few interesting texts but I am wondering what others can recommend me. Could be on Ming/Qing society as well (since I am considering to add comparative elements to my research); detailed elite (ie. by scholars, aristocracy, etc) opinions on lifestyles/beliefs of lower social strata are fine as well.
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Does anyone have information regarding the establishment of a French Naval Base on Martinique in 1784?
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Do a search for Martinique at archive.org. Select "Texts" for type. Several documents from or pertaining to the1600s and 1700s, including
Louis XVI roi de France.- Ordonnance pour l'incorporation des différens corps employés au Département des colonies dans les régimens de la Martinique et de la Guadeloupe, pour y former un troisième bataillon. Acte royal, Versailles, 26 février 1784, Imprimerie royale, Paris, 1784.
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Full title: Historiesch verhaal: van het begin, voortgang en teegenwoordigen staat der koophandel, van de Generaale Nederlandsche geoctroyeerde Oost-Indische Compagnie.
Digital version is available on the Internet.
The book has two volumes, was published in Arnhem, by Wouter Troost (1768 and 1772), and is related with the Dutch East India Company - VOC
I especially would be interested what sources did the author use for compiling this book. As I am not familiar with such 18th century compilations and have not found any references so far, any article/book/part of book/chapter is highly welcome.
Thank you
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Dear Gabor,
As far as I can see at first glance it is a history of the Dutch East India Company. The book was printed in Arnhem (where I live!), near Nijmegen. The Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies (KITLV) (http://www.kitlv.nl/) studies all kinds of these sources and can be very helpful to find related texts or sources. Since I work with seventeenth and eighteenth century Dutch Creole texts from the Caribbean, I am somewhat familiear with Atlantic ship logs and the variety of Dutch used in these texts. Other related texts were published by the Linschoten Vereeniging (http://www.linschoten-vereeniging.nl/). If  I can be of  any help, please mail! c.vanrossem@let.ru.nl.
Cefas van Rossem
Languages in Contact
Linguistics, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands
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Regarding identity construction in the European expansion.
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Dear Dr. Luengo
Your problem is related to the old concept of "ethnogenesis," the way a group of people acquire an ethnic identity. See the wikipedia article for an introduction to this literature.  For the formation of local identies is Latin America in the wake of the Iberian conquest, see George Foster's classic book.He argued that Iberia was rife with petty local religious heresies reflecting local identities. The Catholic Church went to some trouble to select settlers that we orthodox in their beliefs so as to keep the Americas free of such heresies. But the Indian and Mestizo communities in the Americas preserved pre-Hispanic beliefs or reinvented new ones reflecting local identities. Foster's work more generally will provide you an introduction to the large anthropological literature on Latin America. Cultural evolutionists like myself have paid some attention to making a formal evolutionary theory of these processes. Social psychologists have a useful literature called social identity theory.
Best, Pete
Foster, G. M. (1960). Culture and conquest: America's Spanish heritage. New York: Werner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, Inc.
McElreath, R., Boyd, R., & Richerson, P. (2003). Shared norms can lead to the evolution of ethnic markers. Current Anthropology, 44(1), 123-129.
Haslam, S. A. (2001). Psychology in Organizations: The Social Identity Approach. London: Sage Publications.
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I am interested in any book or paper about the Lombards, especially about their art. 
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Dear Josef,
there was an exhebition "Die Langobarden. Das Ende der Völkerwanderung" at Landesmuseum Bonn in 2008, with a catalogue of 416 pages:
Landschaftsverband Rheinland; Rheinisches LandesMuseum Bonn (eds.), Die Langobarden. Das Ende der Völkerwanderung. Katalog zur Ausstellung im Rheinischen LandesMuseum Bonn 22. 8. 2008 – 11. 1. 2009. Darmstadt: Primus Verlag 2008. ISBN: 978-3-89678-385-1
The table of contents of this catalogue is online at Deutsche Nationalbibliothek:
A review of this volume is here:
There was also a conference volume of 691 pages:
Jan Bemmann / Michael Schmauder (eds.), Kulturwandel in Mitteleuropa.
Langobarden – Awaren – Slawen. Akten der Internationalen Tagung in Bonn vom 25. bis 28. Februar 2008. Kolloquien zur Vor- und Frühgeschichte 11 (Bonn 2008).
Best regards,
Stefan
PS: Some articles which are online:
Kurt W. Alt / Corina Knipper / Daniel Peters / Wolfgang Müller / Anne-France Maurer / Isabelle Kollig / Nicole Nicklisch / Christiane Müller / Sarah Karimnia / Guido Brand / Christina Roth / Martin Rosner / Balász Mende / Bernd R. Schöne / Tivadar Vida / Uta von Freeden, Lombards on the Move – An Integrative Study of the Migration Period Cemetery at Szólád, Hungary. PLoS ONE 9(11): e110793. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0110793
Peter Stadler / Herwig Friesinger / Walter Kutschera / Alfred Priller / Peter Steier / Eva Maria Wild, Ein Beitrag zur absoluten Chronologie der Langobarden auf Grund von 14C-Datierungen und ein Versuch zur Datierung der Beraubung langobardischer Gräber. Archaeologia Austriaca 87, 2003 (2005), 265-278.
Jaroslav Tejral, Abriss der Entwicklung in Mähren während der Völkerwanderungszeit. Alt Thüringen 14, 1977, 244-256.
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I think it is possible that military ranks as officer were given to persons as a sign of honor...
However, I found that in a fictional narrative and I would like to know, if there is historical evidence for that or not...
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How would you translate the German term Verbürgerlichung? I am interested in a comparative study of European thinking of /about townspeople or city-dwellers, from the perspective of the history of political thought. I am familiar with the research around Jürgen Kocka, but I wonder if there are updates to it, and whether there are English language researches in the topic.
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Dear Feri,
embourgeoisement is the (forced?) translation of  the German Verbürgerlichung butthat you of course know,  and the English word does contain bourgeoise -- you are right; the problem only repeats itself.
I am groping in the dark and I try to recall something from my Shakespeare-studies. What now comes to my mind is that the word borough  does not only mean 'town' or 'city' but also 'district', 'region' and, indeed, the biggest city in England (perhaps in Europe) in Shakespeare's time, i.e. London consisted of loose regions: city of Westminster, the city of London (itself) around St Paul's Cathedral, etc. So even if there was a wall or there was not, they thought of what we today call a town or city in terms of regions (districts), thus a town was an 'aggregate of districts' not a separate unit consisting of districts. In other words, a 'city-dweller' identified herself not as somebody living in a town but in a region: she lived in Westminster, and only "secondarily" in London. The further complication was that  Queen (Elizabeth) and her administration was in 'London', too but she lived in the Whitehall and not, strictly speaking, in 'London'. And boroughs were very much like villages, often with separate churches and markets, and the reflection and consciousness of living in a "town", or "city" came much later, when the French term was "borrowed". For some reason, they looked at organisational units, from the everyday perspective, differently: not in terms of a "unit consisting of...." but "some regions slowly built together creating a unit" (as in Hungary Balatonboglár and Balatonlelle 'reached' each other and for a while they were Boglár-Lelle, or Moson+Magyaróvár became Mosonmagyaróvár etc., not to mention Buda+Pest (+Óbuda))    Maybe one should do some research concerning the history of city/borough administration (where did the taxes go? to the borough or to 'London'?) and the legal-system  (did every borough have a judge?) -- the clue must be in their "form of life" :).   If one thinks she lives in a village (region/district), the village is the unit of  self-identification and not the larger unit (the city/town) the village had joined.  In Germany, there had to be city/town privileges which made it worthwhile to think in terms of belonging to the city directly (there were -- secondarily -- 'districts', 'regions' in 'German' cities/towns, too, of course).
But I am not a historian and this might be pure and false speculation, then ignore it., please :)
Best regards,
Géza
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I'm working on the collection of mortality data in London during the mid-1550s, That effort was established (or perhaps confirmed as official) by two ordinances, one in 1553 and the other in 1555. I have found the first but no one seems to have seen the second since London was bombed in WWII.
James Christie and others quoted bits and pieces of both ordinances,  but I would love to see the whole of the second and what other specific measures the City took when which it was passed.. Any suggestions - including secondary literature - would be appreciated.
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I haven't published anything in a major journal, only two or three small pieces in rather obscure publications. My current research relates to a PhD I am doing at the University of Rennes2 regarding the Laki volcanic eruption in Iceland in 1783-1784.
Good luck with your Tudors an I hope the documents you find are written in legible handwriting.
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The context is a diplomatic visit. One (lay) Catholic was trying to get assistance from devout Protestants and attended their church services. His (Catholic) rival sent a delegation of clerics who chose not to attend those services. Canadian Jesuit historian Couillard-Desprès, in the early 20C claims that according to Catholic doctrine, Catholics who attended Protestant services, especially when they sort of had to, were not running the risk of being considered sinners, let alone apostates. Couillard-Desprès doesn't give any evidence supporting his claim. Would anyone have references to suggest supporting his claim? Many thanks.
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Dear Lauric,
If attending protestant services in the 17C means receiving communion, then I would suggest you to refer to The Magisterium of the Catholic Church for an official answer. Cannon Law No. 844 (second paragraph) excludes (as an exception) anything other Services apart from those valid in the Ortodox Churches.
On the same topic, and since Catholic doctrine has not changed with reference to Eucharistic Service then Pope John Paul II's encyclical"Ecclesia de Eucharistia" (30 and 46) would be another important document to read on this issue.
My five cents
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A small lutheran community coming from Germany exists in Lyon from the 16 century. This group owned a church, settled in Geneva from 1707.It was mostly composed of traders who went to Geneva four times a year for the holy communion. But, from 1770 onward, when the Calvinists from Lyons got their priest, the Lutherans went more and more to that church, letting down Geneva. For about 75 years, the Lutherans disappeared from Lyons. At the turn of the eighteen and nineteen centuries, the community spent her life in the shade of the Calvinist church. Between 1800 and 1850, the immigration movement of swiss, germans and Alsatians was quickening. In 1851, after multiples fruitless tries during the last fifty years, the Lutheran reverend Georges Mayer create an evangelic german church which is quickly linked with the Augsburg Confession. The german community managed the church for nearly 30 years until the arrival of the first French vicar in Lyons .For another 30 years, the relations were stormies between the two communities. The first world war marked the death of the german parish. The French church survived with difficulties during the twenties and thirties. The “renaissance” was due to two extraordinary personalities: André Desbaumes and Henry Bruston The Lutheran church became an inescapable part of the Lyons’s oecumenism and opened itself to the world.2007 marked the beginning of the merger between the Calvinist and Lutheran churches.
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Dear Stephen,
Thanks for your answer.
I wish you a happy new year 2015
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I'm interested in the early modern period (1500-1800)
Emotions in general and fear in particular can hardly be quantified, measured and visualized but I'm looking for symptoms of fear that could be quantified and tracked over time. One idea is religious processions.
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It strikes me that fear is a complex emotion and that you probably need to consider whether it is useful for your purposes. There is a difference between the emotion that arises from a sudden threat (seeing a bear or a tiger), the emotion that might arise in anticipating a danger (e.g. going to battle, giving birth) and a general state of apprehensiveness. There is no particular reason to regard religious observance as necessarily a sign of fear.
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Curiosities as well as commodities shaped the emerging strategies for the empirical study of Nature. But what is your opinion?
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I don't think you can draw a line between the two. For early modern naturalists, every curiosity was potentially a commodity and vice versa. Also, curiosities could appeal to a different group of collectors from commodities. Wealthy scholars and collectors of curiosities had different interests from the merchants who sought commodities, but it should also be pointed out that the in early modern period, the most sought after commodities were ones already familiar to Europeans. They sought first and foremost in the New World, after precious metals, valuable commodities already obtained from Asia. The big draw was tropical climate zones where they could expect to find or be able to cultivate commodities such as spices, aloes and, especially sugar. So for every new commodity they discovered, such as tobacco, "old" commodities that could be found (cod fish from the Grand Banks, lumber for European ships from Canada and New England, beaver pelts from the same regions) or produced (sugar), allowed Europeans to obtain more cheaply goods that were more expensive when obtained from Asia or, as in the case of beaver pelts, from Russia. Curiosities were of interest as well, but that interest was fairly superficial except amongst naturalists and wealthy amateur collectors unless the curiosity could become a commodity.
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I am familiar with Geoffrey Parker's work on Military History. I want to read the original military revolution essay by Michael Roberts. I am doing a battle study on a battle in early modern Japan. The concept of military revolution is driving a lot contemporary research. The introduction new firearms technology into 16th century Japan was a factor in the success of Japan's unifiers. I hope to have something useful to say and compare about events in both Europe and Japan? Thanks in advance.
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I agree with Mr. Dawson. The book of C.J. Rodgers is a compilation of works on the Military Revolution and includes the article of Michael Robert. It's generaly easy to find in libraries or to buy on the internet.
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Written and iconographic sources might be from Portugal, Brazil, Spain, Africa, or others.
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I don't know if it can be useful, but in original classical tradition mermaids were creatures half woman and half bird, only later associated with snakes and then fish, then in some way similar to the figure of Quetazlcoatl. In addition, although I do not know associations between the Virgin of Guadalupe and the mermaids, those relating the Virgin of Copacabana are well known (http://cdigital.uv.mx/bitstream/123456789/1877/1/199076P125.pdf).
Another element to consider is that already in Europe the figure of the Virgin condense a set of pre-existing elements of the female deities (Isis, but also others) and that coming to America it found new meanings not always associated with those that have evolved in Europe, where the mermaids, in the Middle Ages, had become a symbol of lust, but also, especially among northern seaside communities, has been used to illustrate the two natures of Christ.
Another interesting thing is that ancient Aztecs believed that water was the domain of a goddess called Chalchiuhtlicue. Today they represent her as a woman with long hair and a fish tail like a mermaid.
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I know the books and articles by J. Radkau, K. Appuhn, K. Matteson, P. Warde, H. Küster, C. Totman, S. Dursun, M. Agnoletti etc.
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Oh, thanks! The Social Lives of Forests book is strongest for the tropics. Greg Zaro, at the University of Maine (Dept. Anthropology) is now working on the historical ecology of Croatia, so it might be worth contacting him for some leads to the literature. Good luck with your project!
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Manufacture and consumption of candies in Europe of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
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Christian
Have you had a chance to read the book published by John Wiley & Sons in 2009: "Chocolate: history, culture, and heritage", whose editors are Louis Evan Grivetti and Howard-Yana Shapiro?
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I've a lengthy paper connecting the two countries with Shakespeare and the birds in his plays, but something's missing. It needs more depth. One area might be about the general function of birds in storytelling -- as prophets, omens, etc. Other ideas?
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Thank you so much!