Science topic

Ear - Science topic

The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.
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What explanation or thoughts do you have regarding any change? Brain or ear?
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No change is sound, but the releasing suction causes a brief dizzy sensation. The sound is actually nerve damage, not a real auditory sound. Dizziness, pressure related on the balance functions of the middle ear. I have lived with tinnitus for 30 years due to a fistula in the cochlea.
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Regarding cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP), two studies found no difference in latencies or amplitudes between MD and VM patients. However, Taylor et al showed that cVEMP asymmetry ratios for 500 Hz tone bursts were significantly higher for MD than VM. Also they show that the ratio of cVEMP amplitude generated by tone bursts at a frequency of 500 Hz to that generated by 1 kHz was significantly lower for MD affected ears than for VM or controls ears. In concordance, Murofushi et al showed significantly smaller cVEMP amplitudes to 500 Hz tone busts on the affected side of MD.
So what are the standards?
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Thank you very much for your help! Robert Disogra
I am gonna contact him.
And I think that a combination is needed for a complete assessment of inner ear function for correct diagnosis between MD and VM.
Based on the previous reference, we have found that audiometry is indispensable as a diagnostic criterion of MD because low-frequency hearing loss can be a sign of MD. Moreover, a test battery - VEMP, Caloric tests and vHIT combined, can all be used together to differentiate between diagnosing MD and VM.
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I have ran and reran this PCR so many times and am at a loss for what to do at this point. I started by cutting off a small piece of ear (about the size of rice) using a razor blade and tweezers. I used 70% ethanol spray to sterilize by tools between ears.
I then performed an extraction using chelex beads. 5g of beads in 50mL of nuclease free H2O. I used 100 uL of beads per sample. I used a shaking heater block set at 95C and heated the samples for 40 minutes vortexing every 10 minutes. I then centrifuged the samples for 2 min at 20G. I pipetted off the supernatant leaving the beads and the remaining ear behind.
I then ran a PCR. I used 1x PCR buffer, 1.5mM MgCl2, 0.3 mM DNTP, 0.25 primers, 1U taq, and 1 uL of DNA.
That extraction method didn't seem to be working so I used Platinum Direct PCR Master Mix to extract DNA from the ears. I cut a small 1cm piece of ear and added 20uL of lysis buffer and 0.6uL of Protinease K to each ear. As per the instructions I heated the samples at 98C for 1 min then centrifuged them at 20G for one minute. I pulled off the supernatant and used 2 uL to run a PCR. That seemed to work but I saw lots of high MW products so I centrifuged again at 20G for 20 minutes and ran the PCR again. My bands dissapeared.
So I decided maybe I needed to lyse them for longer. So I repeated the extraction but heated for 30 minutes and centrifuged for 10 minutes. This didn't work and it looked like the DNA was trapped in the wells of the gel. The guide for the kit suggested adding 1uL of Protinease K post PCR. So I used the same DNA and ran another PCR but added protinease K following PCR. This didn't work either.
I am not sure what to do at this point. I have attached the PPT that has all the gels I've run and the conditions.
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I don't have an answer to your question, but I am having a similar experience. I work with grass (Miscanthus) in a plant breeding lab. I also use the Direct PCR kit. I have been working with a new vector and when I run PCR on my samples (bacterial plasmids and grass lysates), the results are inconsistent. Bands will appear on the first run and then they disappear/show up randomly in subsequent reactions and gels. Maybe it is a problem with the kit..... I don't know.
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A 16 year-old male semi-professional swimmer has now presented twice with a left antero-superior tympanic membrane (TM) perforation following a URTI. The perforation is in the same location each time and is slightly larger than a pin hole. This causes him left aural pressure when underwater and a disconcerting squeaking sound in the ear when doing underwater tumble rolls. No otorrhea, tinnitus, hearing loss, vertigo. TM otherwise normal. The right TM is normal. Post-nasal space normal. Non-smoker. No ongoing history suggestive of chronic Eustachian tube (ET) dysfunction.
In the first occurrence, I advised water precautions (ear plug) and observation and it fully healed after 6 weeks. In this occurrence (6 months later) I have advised the same thing and will see him again in about 6 weeks to hopefully confirm healing.
This may be a case of bad luck and will never happen again. However, there is more likely an element of left-sided URTI-related ET dysfunction. Presuming this second perforation heals and perforation recurrence is likely in future, how best to prevent it in this swimmer within whom an intact TM is desirable? Balloon Eustachian tuboplasty? No imaging to date. I'm considering a CT temporal bones.
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an interesting and useful information here. thanks to all of you.
Probably ETF is not a factor here, as all facts given by Dr Aaron suggests.
Still, it may be prudent to do ETF testing before diving as suggested by Miriam.
'2) Tympanogram: do a sequence of 3 tympanograms and make notes of the MEP 1) at baseline, 2) after a gentle Valsalva and 3) after a swallow. Type of changes in MEP is useful to assess dynamic ET function."
though practical considerations are important here. We did regularly carried out ETF testing for aspirants of diving in sea. But they were holiday visitors and hence easy to monitor during the short stay.....
Hope the young man do well after cartilage tympanoplasty.
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Hello!
I will set up the DNFB contact hypersensitivity ear swelling model soon, to study the effects of anti-inflammatory agents. As a positive control for reducing the ear swelling reaction, I would like to include dexamethasone in my experiment, for validation of the model.
What is the best way to solve dexamethasone for topical application in mouse contact hypersensitivity? (acetone/olive oil?) Could I use clobetasole as an alternative?
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Excellent. Thanks!
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Emergence
Branching
Ear formation
Flowering
Grain filling stage
Dear connection
Kindly let me know when the above stages will start in days
Variety duration- 90 days
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Vertigo is a condition that can make it feel like you or your surroundings are spinning, sometimes leading to a loss of balance, according to the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
Coronavirus 2019 or COVID-19 is a novel entity which had led to many challenges among physicians due to its rapidly evolving nature. Vertigo or dizziness has recently been described as a clinical manifestation of COVID-19.
So, Are dizziness and vertigo COVID-19 Symptoms? and why?
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Kia ora, I am designing a SELEX protocol to purify a oligonucleotide sequences towards a protein conjugated to magnetic protein G beads. I want to know whether heat elution of specific sequences from the target or chemical elution i.e. using an elution buffer or NaOH, EDTA etc. would be better. I have seen both used in the literature but wonder if anyone would be able to provide any recommendations as well as any papers they found informative.
Thanks for your help,
Rebecca
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But if heat does not work? Not give any band of eluted Aptamers on Pilyacrylamide gel. Then what would be the other better plan to elute the bound aptamets with imbolilized protein targets??
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4 years old boy with unilateral Rt ear microtia and preserved bone conduction ABR waves down to 30 dBHL
The other ear in anatomically and radiologically normal BUT with absent ABR waves for both click and 500 Hz tone burst stimuli.
What is the best line of treatment for this younger kid?
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BC aid on the microtic ear, possible BC implant in the future (I prefer Bonebridge types rather than BAHA).
Further immediate evaluation of the left, because if the loss is profound he is running out of time for a CI to benefit the left optimally
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Do you know any technology or a company that provides safe / tight drilling through drinking water aquifers in order to install GHE for shallow geothermal?
Only proven technologies are of our interest!
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Hi
I measured brain responses from 20 subjects to 5 different sound stimuli. Stimuli were presented at 3 different intensity levels in one ear at a time. One of the stimuli is like a "standard" and four other stimuli have different characteristics. What I am interested in is to find out which stimuli (of other four) produce a larger response compared to the "standard" stimulus at each intensity level.
I tried to fit mixed model to my data like this:
lme <- lmer(Amp ~ Level*StimType +(1|Subject) +(1|Ear), data = D);
and now I would like to make a multiple comparison and I do it in this way
lsmeans( object=lme, pairwise ~ Level * StimType, adjust= "tukey")
but I just want to compare these four stimuli with the "standard" stimulus at each intensity level, I do not need the comparison between these four stimuli. I can of course ignore them, but is there a more beautiful way to make a comparison I want?
And another question is about the Bonferroni correction. I tried to find information about the necessity of Bonferroni (or Holm, etc.) in mixed models, but I could not find something. Should it be applied? If yes, is it built into the model or should I apply it manually?
Thanks in advance
Best regards
Anna
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I tried this. It gave absolutely the same results for all types of Level:Stim combination. Example is showed below
Level = 30dBSL, Stim = Type1_PT:
contrast estimate SE df t.ratio p.value
CL - IL -0.302 0.149 448 -2.022 0.0437
And this was for all results :-(
If you have any other suggestions, I will appreciate that.
Best regards
Anna
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internode length above the uppermost ear or leaf of the ear or below the ear and if yes, then between which numbers of leaves. Thanks in advance.
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Though I did not have any experimental data support, yet I assume that the internode just below and just above the uppermost ear node should be consider for determining diversity. Both internodes probably give better reflection on internodal diversity among the various genotypes.
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Hello friends,
I am currently doing research about the determinants of financial self-sufficiency for moroccan MFIs, I have a data set of 6 individuals and 15 years. I learned that I have to run a Heterogeneity test first. so I am using STATA to do so, But I don't get any results?? I reshaped my data to long format, and declared it as panel data!! I don't know what am I doing wrong, any suggestions?
here's the command :
set more off
local SCR1=0
scalar N=6
scalar T=15
scalar K=7
forvalues i=1/6 {
qui reg OSS OPEX CPB DER EAR PAR30DAYS NAB ALS if i==`i'
local SCR1=`SCR1'+e(rss)
}
di `SCR1'
* Calcul de SCR1C contraint: Estimation sur le modèle empilé
qui reg OSS OPEX CPB DER EAR PAR30DAYS NAB ALS
local SCR1C=e(rss)
di `SCR1C'
*Calcul de la statistique de Fisher F1 N=6 T=15 K=7
local F1=((`SCR1C'-`SCR1')*(N*T-N*(K+1)))/(`SCR1'*(N-1)*(K+1))
*La P_value de F1
di "dof1 = " (N-1)*(K+1) " dof2 = " (N*T-N*(K+1))
local PVF1=Ftail((K+1)*(N-1),(N*T-N*(K+1)),`F1')
* Calcul de SCR1CP: estimation du modèle à effets individuels
xtreg OSS OPEX CPB DER EAR PAR30DAYS NAB ALS ,fe
local SCR1CP=e(rss)
di `SCR1CP'
*Calcul de la statistique de Fisher F2
local F2=((`SCR1CP'-`SCR1')*(N*T-N*(K+1)))/(`SCR1'*(N-1)*K)
*La P_value de F2
di "dof1 = " K*(N-1) " dof2 = " (N*T-N*(K+1))
local PVF2=Ftail(K*(N-1),(N*T-N*(K+1)),`F2')
*Calcul de la statistique de Fisher F3
local F3=(`SCR1C'-`SCR1CP')*(N*(T-1)-K)/(`SCR1CP'*(N-1))
*La P_value de F3
di "dof1 = " (N-1) " dof2 = " (N*(T-1)-K)
local PVF3=Ftail((N-1),(N*(T-1)-K),`F3')
*Affichage des résultats
di in y " SCR1 = " in gr `SCR1'
di in y " SCR1C = " in gr `SCR1C'
di in y " SCR1CP = " in gr `SCR1CP'
di in y "F1 = " in gr `F1'
di in y "F2 = " in gr `F2'
di in y "F3 = " in gr `F3'
di in y "PvalF1 = " in gr `PVF1'
di in y "PvalF2 = " in gr `PVF2'
di in y "PvalF3 = " in gr `PVF3'
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Not too sure
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Hello,
I'm working on Transport measurement of some material on Si/SiO2 substrate.
I used the photolithography for making align marker and photopad.
To avoid Batman wing(doggy ears), i used LOR 2a and GXR 601 for negative profile and mr-REM 700 remover for lift off
After using LOR2a, i found the weird residue.
So, I cleaned our substrate (already made substrate) again.
but it still remain...
what's wrong ? and how can i remove the residue ?
and if you know how to use the LOR, please tell me.
Thank you
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Hi Sungjin,
Can you share the image after coating the substrate with LOR?
O2 plasma should definitely help you but I doubt if it would solve the issue from repeating?
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Hello,
I wonder if sound intensity can be more relevant than sound pressure to characterize the acceleration of the tympanic membrane in the ear. Hence, I would like to know if there are some existing work comparing
1. tympanic membrane acceleration,
2. sound pressure at the entrance (or better at different depth) of ear canal,
3. sound intensity at the entrance (or better at different depth) of ear canal.
Some very basic simulations I made with a thin silicone diaphragm seems to indicate that sound intensity is more similar to the diaphragm acceleration as a function of the frequency than the sound pressure, which furthermore suffers from higher variations with insertion depth in the ear canal. However I have a very basic knowledge in acoustic simulation hence my results are not reliable at all and the model is very very far from a realistic ear model. I know there exist a lot of work related to the evaluation of the tympanic membrane acoustic impedance, so maybe a paper where all the parameters needed to make a more realistic simulation would be of great help for me.
Thank you by advance,
Jean
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Errata for my last answer: its not the sound intensity that would be estimated by taking the maximal value of each frequency component at different insertion depths in the ear canal but the total energy density, which is (may be) the relevant physical quantity to be reproduced ?
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Hello everyone,
I have been told in an informal discussion that some headphones can "have a strong Impact on the HRTF (directional sound incidence on the ear) even though they (averaged over all directions) only marginally influence the sound incidence (which is typically named acoustic transparent)."
I would like to know if there exists some evaluation about the influences that such "acoustic transparant" headphones may have, when weared but not used for sound reproduction, on the localization accuracy of a sound emitted by an external source.
Surely, I am also interested in all contents that may be closely related to this case.
Best regards,
Jean.
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Dear Jean, Florian Denk has published some nice results on this topic. Just check out his research gate profile. Best regards, Jan
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How can we implement the 3D Face recognition and 3D Ear Recognition IN MATLAB using .obj image file ?
i am also sending the .obj image file with this question so see the attached file.
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Hello !
i need to extract windows of buildings from 3D .obj file , How can i do it? kind suggestions...
Thanks in advance
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I want to measure photosynthesis rate of a wheat ear by IRGA. Which is the most suitable chamber for it? Since its 3 dimensional, how will the area of ear be taken care of
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Some more alternatives below. I have used a custom-made solution for measuring gas exchange in shoot apex in cucumber and tomato plants. Maybe relevant! Good luck!
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I would like some recommendations on good mice ear puncher. I've been using a scisor model from Braintree, but it never cuts the ear hole off, the tissue always keeps hanging attached to the ear and i have trouble cutting it off to genotype. I contacted someone who sharpens our surgical tools but the guy said they can't properly sharpen those punchers. I need one that properly takes the tissue off the mice's ear so I can use it to genotype. Thanks.
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I had the same problem when I was maintaining a large colony. Luckily, we also had the same scissor style ear punch but one size larger that is designed for rats. This one worked great for me for mice. The hole is a bit bigger but the skin never grows back or incompletely punches. I never went back to the mouse version. If you can borrow one, try it. I think you will be happy with the result!
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Please help me to identify the disease and its causes, mode of infection and precautions. please look at the attached pictures , skin has corky hard scab type lesions,  if remove corky hard layer there is blood under that hard layer. still symptoms are on ears and testis
The male goat of the age about 10 months. weight 43 kg.
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Dear Jamil Shafi
Very interesting, thank you for sharing your solution. Local veterinarians prescribed tetracyclines to treat dermatophilosis, but there was usually a relapse after a few weeks, with a very rapid decline in body condition. We were able to control a outbreak in a sheep herd by eradicating Amblyomma variegatum ticks, which were the main triggering agent, and culling affected animals (nearly half of the flock).
If you have the opportunity, I suggest you to check up on this animal to make sure it is well healed permanently, and that there will be no relapse in the coming months.
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Anyone can you hepl me to explian more detail the formulafor wet ear yield estimation.
My formula is grian yield = Grain yield/%SHW*100*0.8,
my question, what is 0.8 and how to come this?
Thanks inadvance,
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Maher H.S. Al-Mohammad Hi Maher, Thank you so much for your info to me.
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Some traits like ear leaf area, plant height, grain yield, karnel weight, grain n2 content, nitrate content, chlorophyll content... Any more traits i can take into study???
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It depends upon the hypothesis and objective you have. How did you hypothesized that Maize can fix atmospheric nitrogen? It must have some special features to fix nitrogen. Like leguminous plants have symbiotic property with Rhizobium which assists in Nitrogen fixation. So if your plants are growing in nitrogen free medium, second thing you need to do is, to search for the special features in the plants which assist nitrogen fixation.
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Technology and the increasing fast trends in globalization have turned the society upside down. The youths are the fast hit in these changing trends. Students in the secondary schools join cult groups, and they perform all initiations attached to the different cult groups. Even when it is their turn to perform the rituals and sacrifices, they donate whoever they want, be it their parents or siblings. Before their people could realize these, things must have been spoilt. There is tremendous moral decay in the society. This is due to lack of censorship in the films, videos and music that the children watch and listen to. Parents and guardians feel less concerned to what pertains to their children and ward's welfare.
One would say that they are doing all these out of youthful exuberance. But any youth that grew up with the fear of God will exhibit limitations in what the person does. How many principals, teachers, or instructors these days try to correct their students who dress improperly and come to school? Take a morning look at students who go to school - The girls in very tight and mini uniforms, the boys in their ass - level trousers pulling below their boxers...This is technology and the changing trends in education.
We have to note that students who come to school naked will end up tomorrow as miscreants in the society. They will dress up as naked people tomorrow either taking drugs or becoming alcoholics, committing one crime or the other . The English adage says, " That a stitch in time saves nine," and "prevention is better than cure."
Youths should be taught the right path to positive living. The boys who wear torn trousers and fry their hair and wear an ear - ring in one ear does not make them either good musicians, international footballers, or even star actors. These looks and attachments make the one look irresponsible and mean.
Women and girls who wear mini - skirts and dresses to seduce and lure men into their debasable trap debase their womanhood and make them worthless before their men.
Indecent dressing is a criminal act, because it can make the seducer and seducee to be in an uncontrollable state to commit crime. The society should correct this trend, because if it is left unchecked, then the next word to be coined after society is "DOOM."
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Dear Dave,
The Scripture says that, "there is a way that seemeth right unto a man, but the end there of is destruction." Every positive thinker is automatically a teacher. Some of the youths who exhibit these negative attitudes were/are being influenced by their peers through negative teaching.
Truth and freedom are the basic metaphysical laws that human beings ought to live with. Truth is logico - ontological knowledge that opens the domain of objectivity according to Immanuel Kant, while freedom is not pre - supposed to mean our acting out of exuberance or the like. It means the freedom to act within the confines of Divine, positive intuition and the ability to choose to do the right thing. It means the freedom to be who we are, and to live by personal precepts, that are worthy of emulation.
Yes, I agree with you that we live and practice the virtues that we teach. We should not be the teachers who teach our students to do what we teach, but not what we do. That is hypocrisy that will not be condoned.
I want the Nigerian government to come in practically into the Education system and monitor every facet of the system and right the wrongs that are going on there. We have a brilliant citizenry that are wasting away due to ignorance and carelessness. We can make Nigeria great again. I have more, but let me stop here.
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Many studies reported an association between nutrition and human hearing loss. These studies showed the incidence of hearing loss was increased with the lack of micro-nutrients such as vitamins A, B, C, E, zinc, magnesium, selenium and iron.Moreover, high carbohydrate, fat, and cholesterol intake, or lower protein intake, are responsible for poor hearing status.
Dear colleagues, Any more studies or experience about the relation between nutrition and hearing loss?
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I think the following article will be useful
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Hi guys! I want to extract RNA and use it for q_PCR. As it is convenient to collect ear tissue or blood samples from animal so which method will be more efficient to collect RNA from these tissues.
Thanking you in advance.
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I have a repeated measures design, looking at how sex hormones effect number of responses on a dichotic listening task, three times over the course of the menstrual cycle.
Where it simply the number of correct responses given by the left ear (LE) or right ear (RE) I wouldn't be stuck, however I'm also looking at voice-onset-time (VOT).
Each question is two dichotically presented consonant-vowel syllables (one LE, the other RE), and each pair is made of a combination of long VOT syllable (delayed onset of the vocal chord vibrations after an unvoiced consonant such as p/ t/ k) and a short VOT (immediate voicing: b/ d/ g) (also short-short and long-long, for a total of 30 combinations - after excluding b+b/d+d etc combinations).
So, the answers I receive are separated out into a wealth of data such as number of correct responses in the left ear from a short-long combination (LE-SL, meaning the short VOT syllable was presented to the left ear, and long to the right) and likewise the number of correct RE responses to the same VOT combination. Or, number of correct responses in the right ear from a short-short combination (RE-SS) etc. (As an aside, I will also have the number a VOT combinations with an incorrect response where neither syllable was correct).
I can then total these aspects to give total number of short VOT-left ear responses etc. So I could now compare means for left-ear-short and left-ear-long, or left-ear-short with right-ear-short.
However, I then have to introduce time into these analyses and I get a bit muddled. Will I have to compare each totalled-response variable separately over the three phases (IV with 3 levels) and so use a repeated measures ANOVA, or is there a way to compare the differences between say short-VOT and long-VOT over three time periods? (attempting to see if a previously demonstrated long-VOT advantage is stable over the course of the menstrual cycle).
This is in SPSS by the way.
Please help, I have bamboozled myself!
Many thanks to any who may offer assistance. (attached is what the collation of responses will look like)
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I should admit I am quite confused about what you would like to do. As I understand, you would like to find out whether sex hormones affect consonant-vowel syllable accuracy. To measure this accuracy, you would simultaneously present pairs of monosyllables to your subjects, one in the Left and the other in the Right ear. Each pair is a combination of Short or Long VOT (voice-onset-time), with 4 possible combinations: SS, SL, LS, and LL. Your dependent variable is the number (or proportion) of Left Ear (LE) correct answers, e.g. presented in the left ear from a short-long combination (LE-SL, meaning the short VOT syllable was presented to the left ear, and long to the right). In this example the subject correctly identified the monosyllable with a Short VOT. Am I wright? In this example, you particularly want to compare these number of correct responses to a short VOT monosyllable, when it is presented in the Right Ear (RE-LS combination). You are interested in this instance in the Left – Right Ear distinction. This corresponds to the first repeated measures factor: Ear, with 2 levels.
Secondly, you are also interested in the VOT combinations: SS, SL, LS, and LL. In my opinion this corresponds to the second repeated measures factor: VOT combination, with (indeed) 4 levels.
Thirdly, you also are interested in the menstrual cycle, which 3 Sessions (repeated measures).
I understand that you are interested in differences in accuracy between Left and Right Ear, but I would not calculate difference scores. You can assess these differences with testing the effect of Ear.
So, the 3-way repeated measures ANOVA on the %% correct responses – in my opinion – still holds.
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ear colleagues
Laughing style of an individual expresses his/her nation's laughing style, is it right? In other words, laughing style is helpful to describe an individual's ethnicity.
regards
ijaz
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Also the conditions or situations in which one laughs or smiles varies in relation to culture to some extent. For example, in some cultures it is common to laugh or smile when embarrassed while in others it is not usual.
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peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC)
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Yes, you can dilate up to 4 FR in NZW adult rabbits. We do this commonly for flourscopy procedures.
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Wheat crop experts help me for identification abnormalties.
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Abdel Rahman Mohammad Al Tawaha, Iam highly thankful for your appreciation.
Regards
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I would like to measure STI (speech transmission index) in a 3D environment. I have been thinking about use Unity and reproduce the sound from a speaker and record the sound from the character ears but I would like to find something more profesional. All has to be in 3D because the building is not real any more.
Thank you for your time.
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I completely agree with the answers from Tim Ziemer and Xenia Kontogianni . We did a similar investigation on the STI in a virtual room. Check out the poster and let me know if you have any questions.
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I am currently working on a project based on SSVEP. During the data acquisition I am experiencing a consistent peak at 13Hz. And my desired peaks are not very significant in comparison in fft spectrum. I am using electrode positions O1, O2, P3, P4 and FP2. And two reference electrodes on ear lobe. Kindly suggest anything to improve my results. And what should be SNR?
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13Hz sounds like a physiological eeg signal, alpha wave or something? I remember from long latency auditory evoked potentials it was important to keep the subjects alert to minimise alpha rhythms...
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I need to perform a western blot from mice samples, to select positive animals for my experiments. I was thinking of doing western blot from ear tissue, finger or tail. Which one is better?
Thanks
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Thanks a lot!
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Bacterium does not has nervous system,eyes ,ears and nose still efficiently
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Dear Sir..one of virulent factors is escape mechanisms to avoid phagocytosis process, these mechanisms include spreading enzymes, toxins, capsules, protein A and so on, I believe; chemotactic receptors can play a major role in that.
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As Medical practitioners, we all deal with several patients/people every day.
How many of us are good listeners? And how many us are pushers, pigeon-holing patients swiftly and sometimes erroneously?
Whys are we given two ears but only one mouth?
What are the warning signs and caveats for a superlative physician / doctor?
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Rafael,
Thank you for participating, and, for putting forth some very pertinent points.
I think you will find the following useful.
I am now in my seventh decade, having worked as a physician for almost 45 years, and, have dealt with around 30 patients per day, say a total of approximately 300,000 patients, very likely more. On some days for 18 years, I would see over 100 patients per day.
I have made some rules of thumb, that you will find very useful.
At the beginning of any session, after introductory formalities are over and the vital statistics are flicked over, I turn to my patients, and ask them how may I help them.
1) I NEVER INTERRUPT THE FIRST 3-5 SENTENCES FROM THE PATIENT< SIMPLY NODDING IN ENCOURAGEMENT for the PATIENT TO CONTINUE or an INAUDIBLE MURMUR or a noncommital Hmm>. IT NEVER TAKES MORE THAN 2 MINUTES. AT THIS TIME I AM HYPER-ATTENTIVE, DESPITE THE NOISES OF THE OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENT.
2) In these 2 minutes, I make out a SINGLE MAJOR PRIMARY COMPLAINT.
3) I NEVER INTERRUPT THE PATIENT FOR THE FIRST 2 MINUTES.
4) IF THE PATIENT SPEAKS LESS <1 minute, I go over whatever she/he has said, and, the vitals, once more, as well as over the general demeanour, attire, content and nature of disclosure> and I step in to cover up for the next 2-3 minutes.
5) IF THE PATIENT IS VOLUBLE BEYOND 5 minutes, I GENTLY ESCORT THEM OVER TO THE COUCH TO EXAMINE.
6) IN FOUR DECADES OF MANAGING PATIENTS, I HAVE NEVER FAILED TO DO JUSTICE TO ANT PATIENT.
7) Once on the couch, patients rarely speak further.
8) BEYOND 5 minutes is my time--what I chose to spend with a patient.
9) At 5 minutes per patient, you can see 12-15 patients in 1 hour, and, keep the Insurance company also happy.
10) Do not prescribe more than 2-3 medicines on first visit. If you prescribe more, you do not know what you are treating in the outpatients.
Take it from an old physician: 2 minutes/3 sentences/primary complaint/couch-10 RULES - and you are done.
With in-patients, we all necessarily take longer.
After 5 minutes or so, consultation changes to conversation, and, is generally non-contributory, except in really tough cases. You should approach the inpatient bed with a 10-15 minutes frame of mind (no more), and, go back to your writing desk/office/workstation. If you spend more than 10 minutes, you have not been listening well. The physical examination of a comatose patient/GBS/complex multi-valve cardiac disorder can be completed in 10 minutes, if your mind knows what is to be sought.
With intensivists/lab/ECG/X-ray/cannula/ infusion order/specialist's referral -- write in 5 minutes and move on. Come back again to the patient later.
Try it. It really works.
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Can you please show me what feature you think its important and you select it or you just select the standard?
What are the standard?
Thank you in advance.
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What causes the abnormal leafy ears in corn?
We have seen this abnormal ears at the end of the season in corn. Usually, at the edges of the field. Not sure about the center of the field (we have not checked).
I have attached pictures for the case.
Thank you in advance for your contribution.
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I do not think that it is an abnormality. These are called husk leaves and the character is under genetic control. The expression of this character would depend on the fertility of the soil and nutrition. In highly fertile soil and good growing conditions the expression would be more. This character is heritable.
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My lab has some mice that we cannot afford to euthanize. We would like to use ear punch biopsies and tail clips for fibroblasts, but I am not sure if there will be enough cells in each to set up a culture. If anyone has had success using ear biopsies and 2-3 mm tail clips for primary cells, could you please share your experience and/or protocols? Thank you!
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Hi Swetha,
I agree with Philip. In my experience, I've obtained primary cultures from marsupials and monotremes using similar methods, but I didn't even need to use collagenase as the cells just grew out. I'd follow Philip's protocol, adding that we found Amniomax to be an excellent medium for generating explant cultures.
Antibiotics is a must. Once you have enough cells, split off a small well and culture without antibiotics and see when you are infection-free.
Kind regards,
Jason
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How can do the 3D Face recognition and 3D Ear Recognition using Deep learning?
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Use 3D face images data sets where images are captured from every angle like for expressions in yale faces dataset.
thank you
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Hello,
I'm studying in field condition the F1 vigor of some hybrids of Maize everta in water shortage conditions.
After anthesis I noticed that some plant (without a correlation with the genotype or the treatment) and started to produce ears with masculine trait; some stamen (attached photo).
Since I used to know that usually the flower are imperfect, with ears producing only feminine trait which could be the exogenous cause of this abnormality?
Dears regards,
Ludovico Caracciolo
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This hermaphrodism, or production of female flowers in the tassel, is probably a hormonal upset caused by drought. Ethylene production is triggered by a number of stresses, including drought, and etheylene is known to promote female sex expression in a number of species including corn and cucumber. I can send you some references over email if you'll send me your email address. Mine is gregg@wvwc.edu.
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I have 3D (.obj) image file and i want to do the 3D face and 3D Ear Recognition using python
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Thanks Reuben Reyes sir for your reply
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Does it have any role or not ?
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You might find the Springer Handbook of Auditory Research, Volume 46 (2013) "The Middle Ear: Science, Otosurgery, and Technology", edited by S.Puria, R.R. Fay and A.N. Popper useful. For example in the chapter by J. Rosowski, it says:
"Unlike other vertebrates the mammalian TM has two components, the central pars tensa and the more posterior-dorsal pars flaccida (Shrapnell 1832; Funnell and Laszlo 1982; Kohllo¨ffel 1984). As the names imply, the pars tensa is generally stiffer and less deformable than the pars flaccida, whose shape is easily altered by small static pressure differences on either side of the membrane (Decraemer and Dirckx 1998; Dirckx et al. 1998). Indeed the pars flaccida is often assumed to play a role in maintaining equal static pressures on either side of the TM: It is thought to buffer small changes in middle ear volume produced by the absorption or generation
of middle ear gas by and from the blood (Hellstrom and Stenfors 1983; Sade´ et al. 1996; Decraemer and Dirckx 1998). Further, although only the pars tensa is directly coupled to the ossicular chain, it has been suggested that the pars flaccida, whose motions appear independent of the pars tensa, plays a role in equalizing lowfrequency sound pressures across the pars tensa, thereby indirectly reducing the motion of the pars tensa in response to low-frequency sounds (Kohllo¨ ffel 1984; Teoh et al. 1997).
The book contains many comments and data on Pars flaccida.
Geoff Manley
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I am attempting to develop a differential convolution matrix for biometric detection and identification.
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Thanks
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which Tool or support package in matlab is good for 3D Face and 3D Ear recognition?
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Deatr Tariq M Khan sir
Thanks for reply and your valuable time
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Or just ossicles are the only part that affect amplification?
I think the factors that determine the amplification ratio are the area ratio of tympanic membrane and stapes foot plate, and length ratio of malleus and incus.
Does and surface area of oval window affect amplification ratio?
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I`m not sure, but, It seems that the surface ration between the round and oval windows can play a little role in stimulating the inner ear through the pressure deference, However this effect can be very small in the intact middle ear and get importance in cases of ossicular interruption or near-total tympanic membrane perforations..
"... Sound conducted down the ear canal sets the tympanicmembrane into motion, which condenses and rarifies the air within the closed middle ear airspace, creating a sound pressure, PME . This middle ear sound pressure stimulates the oval andround windows. Since for much of the frequency range of interest, the dimensions of the middleear spaces are much smaller than the wavelength of sound, the middle ear sound pressures justoutside the oval and round windows will be very similar to the pressure within the middle ear: PME=Pow=PRW' However, because of small non-uniformities in the cavity shape, Pow and PRW are not exactly equal and the difference, 6P = Pow - PRW' is non-zero but small. Bekesy (1947, 1960) and Voss et ai. (2007, see Fig. 3.10) measured the acoustically coupled Pow and PRW produced by an ear canal sound pressure and found the window-pressure difference (6P) to be 30-50 dB smaller in magnitude than the ear canal sound pressure. The small size of the acoustically coupled window-pressure difference relative to the ear canal stimulus points out that acoustic coupling is not an efficient method of stimulating the inner ear, although in cases of ossicular interruption or near-total tympanic membrane perforations the acoustically coupled 6P can act as the primary stimulus to the inner ear (Peake et aI., 1992; Merchant et ai., 1997; Voss et ai., 2007). "
(2010-01-14). Fuchs, P. (Ed.), Oxford Handbook of Auditory Science: The Ear. : Oxford University Press,. Retrieved 3 Aug. 2018, from http://www.oxfordhandbooks.com/view/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199233397.001.0001/oxfordhb-9780199233397.
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Do you prefer to use cartilage for reconstruction or bony plate ?
Any available literature regarding this?
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Thank you.
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thank you I have not read everything yet but that said This is what I am looking for Memory loss , low grade headaches , ringing in ears , thyroid issue suddenly sleeplessness after 2 exposures of Lband 1310 after 9 mins . ( radar )I had a neurologist tell me it was not possible for RF to cause headaches what ever research you can provide would be greatly appreciated . I will try to go threw all references and see if I can find something
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Hi,
Do you still have the problem, can we help?
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i have extracted the DNA from mice ear by NaOH method. some times it works but sometimes doesnt wokr. i used 50um NaOH 100ul . heated at 98 temp for 30 mins. then added 10ul Tris Hcl pH 8. then used 1ul,2,ul,4.4ul in 10ul pcr reaction. first time i got the good results on 4.4ul. but later i did not get result on 4.4 but got the results on 2 ul . i meant to say every time i need to change the volume of the DNA solution for pcr. how can i optimize it.
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Hi Khawar,
I have tried and tested following two methods. You can give them a try. SDS method yields less DNA with greater purity than Proteinase K method and vice versa.
All the best.
  • SDS Method: Resuspend 20-30mg cell pellet in 500ul SDS buffer (1%SDS, 3% NaCl) and vortex for 20 sec. Centrifuge at max speed for 1 min. Collect supernatant and add 500ml isopropanol, mix by inversion. Centrifuge at max speed for 1 min, remove supernatant. Add 500ul 70% ethanol (do not resuspend) and centrifuge again at max speed for 1 min. Remove ethanol and air dry the tube. Dissolve DNA in 50ul water. Use 2-5ul in 50ul PCR reaction
  • Proteinase K Method: Resuspend 20-30 mg of cell pellet is in 100μl proteinase K "squishing buffer" (10 mM Tris-HCl, pH8; 1 mM EDTA; 25 mM NaCl; 200 μg/ml fresh Proteinase K) and incubate for 30 min at 37°C. Inactivate Proteinase K at 95°C for 5 minutes. Centrifuge at max speed for 1 min and use supernatant for PCR.
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I work in a primary school and I am struggling with my dissertation as my school are too busy to help. We have a family support worker on site, I want to know what do parents want ? a compassionate listening ear to sound off at, or practical help? What makes a good family support worker?
Thanks
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It depends on the cultural environment of the families.
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as we know the specific frequency of sound stimulate the specific part of cochlea of ear that was named cilia(hair cells). subsequently ,the cilia convert the amplitude of the sound to corresponding frequency. nevertheless, is the brain sense the rhythm of the sound?
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May not be relevant but there have been many studies of 'sonic driving' during trance experience and other situations. Personally, I was trained in facilitating shamanic trance postures using rattle by Felicitas Goodman, Spirits Ride the Wind, etc. In my search at least in English Neher 1961 was a pioneer on this topic. Goodman also mentions in her books EEG studies of practitioners of shamanic trance. Somewhere I read a study recently that sonic driving is an independent variable for trance; not necessary.
Best regards,
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I read a lot of essays saying "research says" with the above figures. I can't find any original research to back this up. It sounds like another misrepresentation of Mehrabian to me, but since I can't find the original source, I'm stuck. Anyone have an idea?
Edit: It started off in a student essay which was properly cited (I clearly taught them well! :) ). However, when I see things like this I always see my old professor shouting *ad fontes* at me. I tried to check up on it in the source cited by my student, but that's where I hit the 'research says' wall. This is in a reputable teaching text book. The search on here and the first twelve pages of Google have yielded only 'research says' and no citations.
I'm really scratching my head over this.
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The numbers 7% verbal feeling, 38% vocal feeling, 55% facial feeling appear in Mehrabian's 1971 book entitled Silent Messages, but, as you say, Mehrabian's ideas have been consitently misrepresented ever since. If all these essays that you are reading that state "research says", but not not provide a reputable source, are student essays, then there are things that could be done to encourage students to be more critical about claims and sources.
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There is scare info on this issue.
Thanks in advance,
Erez
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Hi, thanks so much. I did not know this report.
That was very kind of you :-)
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Are there any preferred protocols?
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If you still need an answer to this question, the protocol we use uses tail. I believe tail is the preferred source because there are so many more cells that can be acquired. Also, when pulling the skin from the tail, you should pull in the direction of the hairs.
I'm including a link to a paper with a protocol that can help with ideas for this.
Hope this helps.
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I had Witnessed once ie., my mother poured herbal liguid extract into the ear that cured migraine. What happens there? Extract goes stomach or react with any nerve. what is the exact pathway of poured liquid in ear?
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Dear Sikkandar, dear Stephany and everybody else!
You asked how the substances go from the ear to the gut? Of corse all oral medication goes to the gut and from there to the blood and with the blood everywhere else in the body including the brain. If a herbal solution is poured into the ear tube and has en effect on migraine it is absorbed transcutaneously and transmucously, the effective components of the herbs go into the blood and are also transported to the brain. Important is not the physical quantity but the (basically homeopathic) information or the frequency of the herbal solution. This is the modern scientific explanation of the phenomenon why anything poured into the ear tube will also have an effect in the brain.
Best regards
Andreas
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Hi. I am currently working with new materials that should be tested on a scarified skin.
I am employing the widely-accepted wound model using the ventral surface of a rabbit ear, which was originally suggested by professor Mustoe. In brief, this model involves full thickness excision of rabbit ear skin and perichondrium, leaving the bare cartilage to heal itself and form a scar wound.
However, i am having some drawbacks. From some samples, the hypertrophy of the rabbit ear cartilage, rather than the dermal portion, is too prominent. This makes the analysis of the dermal portion very difficult.
My guess is that there had been some random microdamage to the cartilage portion during the removal of the perichondrium, but that leaves me no choice but to leave the perichondrium, which will accelerate the healing and make the wound UN-hypertrophic.
Is there a way to maximally prevent cartilage hypertrophy, but only achieve dermal hypertrophy using this model? Thank You.
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kindly apply keloid (scar) preventing medicament. It is my guess only. Thanks
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Hearing scientists have worked ever so hard in search of physical correlate of pitch in the mechanics or acoustics of sound sources. However, a pitch meter does it so effortlessly. Consider the odds.
Figure 1 presents two waveforms that generate the same musical pitch A3. The two signals were produced by different configurations of a string. The FFT analysis of the two signals are presented in figure 2. The two signals have the same prime component (166 and 165 Hz). The signal (top) has no fundamental but only odd partials, the resonant component is the first in the spectrum. The signal (bottom) is harmonic, but the fundamental (55 Hz) is not present in the signal, and the prime component (165 Hz) is the third partial. Despite these acoustic discrepancies, the ear perceives the same A3 and the pitch meter agrees with it. What does the pitch meter measure to arrive at the pitch A3?
If we could know, the data could offer insights on the principle of the auditory mechanism, and help in preparing hearing aids for sufferers of hearing loss.
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@Christoph
Many thanks for your request. Unfortunately, the project does not encourage interested persons to work on the data of others. Rather, the individuals are encouraged to produce the stimuli themselves, analyse them, and be convinced by their own experiments that the concept is right. The primary reason for this position is that the analysis produce several different results depending on the software in use and the configurations of the software. For example, I used  four different software to analyse the same signal and obtained four  completely different results,  Besides, different configurations of the same software produced totally different results for the same signal. And there arose the question: How does the pitch meter do it?
This problem arose some 19 years ago in my PhD years. We came to the conclusion to set out the methodology and allow others to replicate the experiment and convince themselves by means of their own data.
Now, I presented a paper at the 22nd International Congress on Acoustics last year (Buenos Aires). I was rather surprised that major international publishers and journals on acoustics and music invited me to submit the paper to their journal for republication. I didn't bother. However, the pressure continued. Finally I agreed to give the full paper to a journal and it was accepted without a question. The  journal offers me the privilege to set up a group of researchers on this matter. Therefore, the aim is to get participants to replicate the experiment using different musical pitches to test the mechanical model in order to arrive at a large pool of data on this subject. It is therefore not encouraged that one participant analyses the stimuli of another. Otherwise, rather than make scientific progress on the subject, it would turn into a forum for controversies considering the technological limitations mentioned above. At request I can send you the copy of the original paper and you can see the methodology and better appreciate the significance of the project. Basically, just for some insight on the matter, this is the methodology:
(1) Take a string (on a guitar, for example).
(2) Produce any given musical tone (Say C4)
(3) Reduce the string to the shortest sub length  possible.
(4) Tune the string using the tension head to produce the same tone C4
(5) Analyse the two signals and observe their  spectral structures.
(6) Ask yourself how the ear or the pitch meter arrives at the pitch using the acoustic data obtained.
A global pool of data on this experiment would help scientists provide help for sufferers of hearing loss
Akpan
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It would be a small-scale pilot study using myself as the provider and volunteers as clients.  I'm fascinated by reflexology and it's charted indications of active health conditions in clients upon subjective palpation review.  I believe the mechanisms of reflexology are similar to that of acupuncture.  I'd like to research even elementary connections between the two disciplines.  Any constructive advice appreciated.
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The "Gold Standard" is fMRI imaging.  Eg, if you stimulate a point near the 5th toe, areas in the occipital lobe "light up",  or stimulate a point on the ventral wrist between flexor carpi radialis and palmaris longus, near where your wrist watch might sit, and multiple centres in the cerebellum "light up". You need large sums of money, even in a small pilot study. Costs range from a low of AUD$360 per 1/2 hour at University of Melbourne, Australia through USD$621 per hour at University of Michigan to up to USD$800 per 1/2 hour at Indiana University.
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I am looking for some research on whether it is necessary to pack the ear canal after ear surgery
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After tympanoplasty, definitely. This stabilises both the drum repair and the EAC skin flaps, the latter to prevent cicatrising stenosis of loos tissues.
The packs should be soft, non-soluble and non-adherent to raw surfaces. Antibacterial and anti fungal agents are preferable.
Options include gel foam (liquefies), cotton ribbon/balls (excite vascular ingrowth), Merocel wicks (likewise).
I personally use 3x20mm thin strips of Allevyn (Smith and Nephew). This has a pink non-adherent side which avoids vascular ingrowth when laid on raw tissue. The Allevyn is soft, slightly spongy and hydrophilic. .1% betamthasone with .3% ciprofloxacin ointment and some clotrimazole cream avoids infection. The strips are left in situ 3/52 and are easily removed, even in children.
Avoid BIPP - it is not very effective, irritates tissues, is tedious to remove and causes iodine allergy. 
Bruce Black
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Please send me any link or references that could be helpful.
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Whilst hearing ability is present, and can be tested, in the gestational stage, it has not reached what may be regarded as normal. During the first 4 days following birth,  the hearing ability, as indicated by the otoacoustic emission, almost triples in activity.  So much for the cochlea. Brainstem measures indicate a much loh=nger development of the auditory system.
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I have three gene segments (A,A,B)- note that two of the fragments are identical in sequence. I would like to prepare the following three constructs
AAB, ABA, BAA in pcdna3.0. 
I would like to stick with a seamless cloning approach so Gibson came to mind. For those of you that use Gibson, do you see a potential problem by the repeat sequences? If there is a better alternative I am open ears. 
Best,
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Have you tried PIPE and did it work for you.
I advised somebody to achieve plasmid with AA (A-s where with length 2500) and for her PIPE eventually worked.
Hannes
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What are the options to reconstruct the outer ear if both superficial temporal arteries are compromised due to the fact that patient has gone through a major craniofacial reconstruction using bi-coronal approach? Patient has the Treacher-Collins syndrome and moderate hypoplasia of zygoma-maxillar complexes. A doppler was made during which has been found a rich posterior occipital vascularisation. 
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I am not sure where the superficial temporal artery was compromised in your patient - if it was distal to the takeoff of the middle temporal artery, that vessel may be used.  The middle temporal artery flap is sometimes used in mastoid obliteration and otologic surgery to surround grafts.  
Also, could vascularized tissue be brought up from the neck (i.e. posterior belly of the digastric or part of the SCM)?  That would obviously be at the expense of a longer incision with increased potential morbidity however.  Just a thought.  Best of luck.
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Is it due to changes in the anterior and posterior malleolar ligaments? . Foreshortened handle of malleus is seen in intact drum as well as perforated ear drum.
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Wouldnt that affect our hearing  results ? 
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Earwax composition among Caucasians, among Ethnic Indians of Canada and South America, among Asians and among Indigenous Africans.
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Hello Bamgboye, I am expert in this field but have read sometimes about this; sharing this with you
An international team of researchers studied the genes of people from 33 populations across the world and found ethnicity effects. Yoshiura et al (2006) indicates that human earwax consists of wet and dry types. Dry earwax is frequent in East Asians, whereas wet earwax is common in other populations.In their research they identified the specific genes that are responsible for earwax and investigated why there were different types.  Yoshiura and colleagues are very specific as to which genes and variations are responsible, they suggest that a specific gene alters the shape of a channel that controls the flow of molecules directly affecting earwax type.
They also found in East Asians, a mutation of the gene that prevents the molecule that makes earwax wet, from entering the mix.   Yoshiura et al (2006) study suggesting that dry earwax is seen in up to 95% of East Asians, but in no more than 3% of people of European and African origin.   Populations in Southern Asia, the Pacific Islands, Central Asia, Asia Minor, and Native North Americans and those of Asian ancestry, fall in the middle with dry wax incidence ranging from 30 to 50 percent.
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Patient has pure tone audiogram showING bilateral hearing within normal limits. Her HRCT Temporal bone shows intact ossicular chain with minimal soft tissue in epitympanum.
She currently has dry ear and no complaints per se..
This is her otoendoscopic picture. 
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Sir the patient had intermittent unilateral discharge over a number of years,it wasn't profuse. She did not have earache or any symptoms which were relieved on discharge. Also she had no idea what could have set it off. 
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I would like to know if exists a specific methodology to analyse the CoM using 16 markers in the body. In this case, I used four cameras (CODA system) to measure the 3D position, with two markers located on the ear, and the others located on the left and right acromion, anterior superior iliac spine, knee, ankle, fifth metatarsal, elbow, and wrist joints (= 16 markers). What method of analysis I would can use in my research? What method is most indicate with 16 markers?  
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Sorry i sent that one by mistake. I tried the Kinematic method. Check the attached paper.
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I'm trying to make contact dermatitis model with FITC/aDBP.
General protocol of model use 20ul 0.5% FITC in vehicle (acetone : DBP = 1:1) per one ear. 
The amount FITC in 0.5% of 20ul vehicle is 0.1mg. It's too small amount to measure. 
So, I was wondering it is possible to make FITC stock (for example mix with acetone first and store, and before apply to ear mix with DBP) 
If anyone who made this FITC/aDBP model, could you give me some advice for me? 
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I have not worked with FITC model. But generally for each mice you require 40 ul (20ul to each ear) and 40*6=240 ul for each group. Considering you have 3 groups you need 240*3=720 ul. If you consider dead volume and wastage, at least 1 ml you need to prepare per study. So you can easily weigh 5 mg and dissolve in 1 ml of vehicle.
Hope it is useful
Nagaraj
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I have read many papers and consult several books but one piece of information cannot be found. Imagine normal human ear is exposed to 1 kHz sine sound that causes normal audible loudness of say 40 db. What kind of electrical signals does cochlear send to the brain? If these are electric pulses all of the same shape, height and width, does their shape, height or width relate to the intensity of sound waves and how? If not, what does?
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Mario,
In the firing for shorter time periods, the rate varies stochastically, even if an auditory fibre is phase locked to a high degree (perfect phase locking is not observed, but vector strengths can be very high, meaning that the vast majority of intervals are locked to the phase of the stimulus). So it really is a question of what you mean by constant. The most exact spacing in time is only achieved during phase locking to high-level sounds at low frequencies – that is frequencies below the maximum firing rate of the fibre. Above that frequency, some of the cycles of the stimulus will be “missed”, i.e. the fibre will not be able to fire again that quickly. However, the spacing of the next firing will still be closely related to the phase (one, two, three cycles, etc). There is no minimum firing rate of auditory neurons in the cochlea – all of them have spontaneous activity that can be from below 1 spike/s up to about 100/s. During phase locking, such spontaneous firings become “locked” to the sound stimulus. The maximum firing rate of primary auditory neurons is somewhat higher than 300/second, pretty much irrespective of the best-response sound frequency. This maximum rate is not restricted to the auditory system but is true for all neurons of endothermic vertebrates. The longer the sound pulse, the more the rate will fall over time, often reaching a lower plateau rate after about 50 -100 ms (this is called adaptation). As I wrote before, it is likely that at low frequencies, the brain uses the spacing of the firings to derive the frequency of the sound (originally called the “volley theory”). Above frequencies where the spacing between firings no longer contains this information, i.e., above perhaps 1-2 kHz in humans (this is a guess), the information concerning the frequency of the sound is only conveyed by the place of origin of the fibres in the cochlea (tonotopic organization). What a firing neuron sounds like (the one in this video has a very variable rate and is not, I think, an auditory neuron) can be heard at:
I am not aware of a web site that offers a real sound recording of cochlear neurons firing, but some firing patterns are shown, for example in:
Geoff Manley
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I am looking for detailed anatomical and physiological information about the ear canal. Which kind of receptors are present and how they are distributed along the ear canal? The goal is to find out what one is sensing when a foreign object is placed in the ear canal.
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Tactile stapedial reflex is elicited by touch going towards the EAM, but what is taking place inside the EAM? So what is the tactile neural sensing mechanism for touch-pain-inchiness inside the EAM
The strongest stimulus for clinical testing of the stapedial reflex is a strong puff of air from a Politzer bag into the opposite EAM.  This combines a loud acoustic stimulus (like white noise) with a tactile stimulus.  Even if there is no hearing left in this ear, there will still be a large contralateral stapedial reflex from the touch receptors inside the EAM.   Again, I don't think any contribution from pain or itch will be detected in the stapedial reflex.
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At this time it seems to be so difficult to distinguish the tinnitus causes from a patient to another. While, it is easy to measure accuratly its frequency. The actual instruments can't determine its location along the ear. Is there new technological solutions able to distinguish organic Tinnitus causes? 
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First of all tinnitus is not a disease. It is a symptom stemming from one or several causes with a physical origin as well as an imbalance due to stress and mental dysfunction. To be able to help the patients we need to realize that tinnitus is a symptom. 
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Despite vascular reasons are well recognized  possible causes of sudden hearing loss, I didn' found any report about treatment with low-dose aspiriin in this clinical scenario.
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How do you know that the hearing loss is of vacualar origin?
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What are the consequences on the speech development? What is the connection with autistic development?
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Thank You Vladimir. But the Morbilli are in over 90 % very light illnes by little children! The complications are most frequently by adults. Why is then necessery the immunisation?? THe immune rection after infection and or immunistion can delay 6 and more months.
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What does the term "contralateral reflex" with respect to the right ear in the case of acoustic stapedial measurements in routine clinical situations mean?
Since there are two different views regarding which ear is to be the stimulus ear and probe ear, please specify.
And while testing reflex decay in the right ear, which contralateral reflex threshold is to be taken?
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There two schools on measuring Acoustic Reflex in Contra-lateral ear.  One is contra with reference to Probe ear (Right Contra : Probe in Left ear and Stimulus in Right Ear). Some Other consider contra with reference to stimulus ear (i.e Right Contra: Stimulus Presented in Left ear). Usually what specified in books is contra with reference to Probe Ear. 
Vijay
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Is it possible to detect Malassezia bio-film directly in the ear channel? Just to demonstrate that Malassezia is really able to form bio-films in vivo, during infection. 
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In vivo? but how can you be sure that it is a biofilm and not only a  contamination due to infection? have this yeast antifungal resistance? (biofilm formation is associated with antifungal resistance).. 
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Is there any objective scientific advance or basis?
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Of my daily experience, i met some patients coming in my clinic for their tinnitus. I do my best to rule out any risky underneath cause like tumoral cause particularly if tinnitus is unilateral. I found that most of these patients seen before by private ENT doctor who put them on ginkgo for 2 -3 months & all of them experienced no improvement of their tinnitus.    
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Is there any condition where the B type tympanogram is present , with the normal ear canal volume (0.48) and thye acoustic relexes are present across the frequencies at 95- 100 dB? ( while the other ear yielded a B type tympanogram -ear canal volume 0.42 with reflexes absent due to middle ear fluid.)
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I have never seen such nor can I find it at Pubmed under "gestational tympanic membrane perforation" nor "tympanic membrane perforation pregnancy." All I have done now for 35 years is ears and I have done over 8000 ear surgeries, about 40% of that for chronic ear diisease. If you are seeing such, I encourage you to photo-document it and publish it with the audiologic findings. 
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Same size ear ossicles in an adult and a newborn does it maintain the frequency of sound that is perceived?
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