Earthquake Forecasting and Geocataclysm

Earthquake Forecasting and Geocataclysm

  • Yorgos J. Stephanedes added an answer:
    What is the relationship between earthquakes and climatic changes?

    What are the effects of climatic changes on the recent earthquake i.e. Hindu Kush earthquake (7.5 magnitude) that struck South Asia on 26 October 2015. What are the other possible causes of this earthquake?

    What are the possible reasons for the increased frequency of the earthquakes? Can anyone suggest the research articles which describe the relationship of climatic changes and earthquakes?

    Yorgos J. Stephanedes

    Further to the excellent discussion above, i would add a civil engineer's point of view: It would be interesting to consider the interaction effects of climate change and earthquakes on the resilience of our built environment. For instance, is there a change in resilience of infrastructure to severe flooding if it has been weakened by seismic activity.

  • Anne Deschamps added an answer:
    How can we use smart phone accelerometer for the early warning of earthquake, for a few seconds if possible?

    Can mobile phone can be life saving in case of disasters by using the existing technology in it?

    Anne Deschamps

    There are also attempts in differents others countries. There is no doubts that MEMS have now the sensitivity to record earthqukes. The question is really to make the difference between phone motion under earthquake motion or on the pocket of the owner.

    In France :

    but in french

    in Japan a group is also working on the suject

    Development and Testing of a Mobile Application for Recording
    and Analyzing Seismic Data
    Shohei Naito∗, Hiroki Azuma∗, Shigeki Senna∗, Mutsuhiro Yoshizawa∗∗,
    Hiromitsu Nakamura∗, Ken Xiansheng Hao∗, Hiroyuki Fujiwara∗,
    Yoshiharu Hirayama∗∗∗, Noboru Yuki∗∗∗, and Minoru Yoshida∗∗∗

    I have the pdf of the paper

    But I suppose that there are quite a lot of works on the subjet every where.

  • Edgars Alksnis added an answer:
    How can earthquakes be predicted? Which statistical models work best?

    I would like to forecast the and predict the earth quake in Nepal. A devastating (7.9 ritcher scale) earthquake hit Nepal in the area near Barpak, a mountain village between capital Kathmandu and tourist town Pokhara. Around 10000 deaths reported. Historic buildings, temples and houses collapsed. The earthquake was followed by many powerful aftershocks and a new earthquake (7.4) hit Nepal on Tuesday May 12.

    Edgars Alksnis

    If You understand, that so-called electromagnetic earthquake precursors are not really  electromagnetic, it might be half of victory. Should be best method, when elaborated. Good luck!

  • Rajesh Prakash added an answer:
    Does anyone have papers about public use of earthquake early warning systems?

    I need some info about which recommendations are given to people to do if and when and earthquake early warnig signal is issued by syrene or pager or mobile phone ? 

    Rajesh Prakash

    Seismological science has not advance to a state to give earthquake forecast/warning like in case of weather. It is still in research/test mode. However, till now, earthquake warning is only possible after occurrence of an earthquake estimating  s-wave arrival time in a given place and use this time in stopping critical operations such as lift/elevator, trains, chemical/atomic installations etc and if possible for general man to come out from building to save life.

  • Chandrashekhar Dharankar added an answer:
    How can I find post-earthquake frequency of a structure in Abaqus?

    Thanks in advance for your replies.

    Chandrashekhar Dharankar

    Post-earthquake frequency means the frequency of free transient vibration. Generally it will be a mixed mode vibration with the contribution of some or all natural frequencies (eigen values).


  • Shawn Charles added an answer:
    Where can I find the ATC 20 or other reference material for post earthquake damage assessment?

    Need the Post Earthquake Rapid Damage Assessment Documents. Any thought, where I would find the ATC 20 or other reference materials?

    Shawn Charles


    Please see the link below for your desired docunments.



  • Askold. S. Belyakov added an answer:
    Earthquake forecasting and observational research?
    Earthquake forecasting is an elusive goal many seismologist including me think could be made possible in the near future.A difficult approach earthquake forecasting will become simple if shearing strain of the environment and the bearing stress of the rock locally is known in advance. however the laboratory and real time seismic environments shows a different environment to the entire earthquake exogenetic and endogentic mechanisms.I have established that various quasi-static nucleation mechanisms exist which shows that earthquake short term forecasting is always in contrary to the elastic rebound hypothesis.There is always a triggering mechanism which works for earthquake nucleation process which is again occurs in a matter of few days. Please read my opinions and please suggest how I should proceed with further research work.
    It would be helpful if you can suggest where I may be able to apply for further research including phd and postdoc. Please read my study carefully and also suggest what other points could be included...
    Askold. S. Belyakov

    Please read my idea:

    I, the developer of a new measuring tools - magneto elastic power meter based on which developed original geophones to measure and record the wave fields in solids. Development carried out in order to study and forecast of earthquakes: 

    However, during the research it became apparent that the unique characteristics of the geophones allow them to be used not only in seismic exploration seismology, but also for many other solutions and scientific applications.

    Firstly, they are perfectly suited to the frequency and dynamic range, reliability and long eternity to the role of acoustic detectors detect neutrinos (especially in the "ice" antennas).

    Second, they can be an alternative when underwater hydrophones trials, having unlimited depth of immersion.

    Currently, I am constantly live in San Francisco, California. I have tested samples of geophones (one and three-component) and digital recording system - visualization for their presentation.

  • Max Wyss added an answer:
    What are everyone's thoughts after the verdict for the L'Aquila trial?
    Given the verdict and subsequent discussions on the topic, I'd be interested in thoughts on probabilities in risk mitigation and hazards assessment
    Max Wyss

    Justice has finally been served in this case. The only person who committed errors has been convicted. However, the general problem of inadequate and misleading information of the world population on seismic risk remains.

    Wyss, M. (2012). The Earthquake Closet: Rendering Early-Warning Useful. Natural Hazards, 62(3), 927-935. doi: 10.1007/s11069-012-0177-6.

    Wyss, M., & Rosset, P. (2012). Mapping seismic risk: The current crisis. Natural Hazards. doi: 10.1007/s11069-012-0256-8.

    Wyss, M. (2015). Do probabilistic seismic hazard maps address the need of the population? In M. Wyss & S. Peppoloni (Eds.), Geoethics: Ethical Challenges and Case Studies in Earth Sciences (pp. 239-249). Waltham, Massachusetts: Elsevier. (published 25 Nov. 2014)

  • Gabriele Bernardini added an answer:
    What is the popular software to model evacuation in the aftermath of an earthquake?
    Gabriele Bernardini

    Dear Umma,

    both geosimulation and @RISK seems to be very interesting tools. However, I think that the actual evacuation models denote many problems in simulation, expecially for their poor bases about human behaviors. The definition of model should be founded on experimental analysis of real cases. At the same time, the agent-based techniques (ABM) are able to effectively define the theoretical and operative simulation models for their rules-based aspects. This is very important especially in complex evacuation simulations, where people desires are not only connected to motion phenomena. Our research group was recently involved in a similar problem, and we provided a tool for simulating an earthquake evacuation in urban scenarios: EPES. This is based on the analysis of real world evacuations. EPES offers a combination between ABM for describing people desires and the Social Force model for describing people motion. EPES was validated through a cross-comparison with real evacuation data, and now we are trying to improve it from an operational point of view! I hope my answer will be useful for your question!

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Earthquake risk assessment at urban scale does not actually consider human behaviours during both the event and the first evacuation phases. Nevertheless, understanding and simulating these aspects become essential in determining how human behaviours influence inhabitants׳ safety levels, defining combined “risk maps” and evaluating community resilience features. This work proposes an innovative approach by offering a simulator for pedestrians׳ earthquake evacuation in urban scenarios. Firstly, our previous behavioural investigations of real earthquake evacuation from all over the World allow organizing rules in pedestrians׳ evacuation and man–environment interactions in the post-event scenario: an agent-based (ABM) approach is provided for their representation by using the i⁎ language. Secondly, operative criteria for pedestrian motion are provided: in particular, motion law for pedestrians is defined by modifying the Social Force model approach with the behavioural results of our case study. Rules for environmental modifications due to the earthquake are proposed. Finally, the software EPES (Earthquake Pedestrians׳ Evacuation Simulator) is implemented on these bases and validated using a case study (an Italian historical centre). Results firstly summarize the behavioural analysis discussion and the ABM definition. First validations about ruins formations, behavioural aspects, motion speed in evacuations and path choice are offered. EPES is proposed as a tool for evaluating probable pedestrians׳ choices in different scenarios, and checking solutions for reducing interferences between the human evacuation process and the built environment. Operative strategies for interferences reduction could be founded on model previsions, such as interventions on particular buildings, evacuation strategies definition and urban planning.
      Full-text · Article · Aug 2014
  • Fatih Bulut added an answer:
    Can we trust the density of earthquake events as an indicator for future events?
    We can plot the density of earthquake events, see attached file.
    The plots have been done with R packages 'sp' and 'spstat'.
    Can we export reliable results from such a plot?
    Fatih Bulut

    sometimes high density of earthquakes might even mean that there is an aseismic creep/slow earthquake lasting for hours/days. So you might interpret such an earthquake density to represent an upcoming earthquake while it might have already occurred during your precursory pattern. Please keep in mind that we are looking at a composite of very complex processes/interaction of structures that cannot be simply generalised. Please look at: Lohman, R. B., and J. J. McGuire (2007). Earthquake swarms driven by aseismic creep in the Salton Trough, California, J. Geophys. Res. 112, B04405, doi 10.1029/2006JB004596.

  • Julian Andres Lopez Isaza added an answer:
    Can pseudotachylites be related to mineralization trigger events?

    It's understood that earthquakes can be triggers of mineralizing events, but there is no evidence of a direct relationship between these events and the generation of pseudotachylites

    Julian Andres Lopez Isaza

    Hi Ioannis

    Thank you very much for your answer. Now is more clear.

    Best wishes


  • Shahid Ullah added an answer:
    Could someone please guide me on the process of generating synthetic seismic catalog?

     A link to some study materials with example/ publication /or software would be great.  

    Thanks a lot.

    Shahid Ullah

    Thanks Gabriele..Its very helpful..

  • S. Mohsen Haeri added an answer:
    Is there a laboratory in one of the Gulf countries performing cyclic direct simple shear & resonant column test?

    For research into geotechnical earthquake engineering analysis

    S. Mohsen Haeri

    Yes we do cyclic simple shear test and instead of resonant column we do bender element test that is a better substitution for resonant column test

  • Álvaro González added an answer:
    Can someone supply data on effective dates of operation for seismic stations used in the centennial database?
    Can someone please help me obtain the effective dates of operation, location and sensitivities for seismic stations used to create the centennial catalog? I am analyzing ~90 regions of the world for completeness of the series (including potential clumping or trends) for events >= M6.5? I have requested this from the USGS, but the request appears to be lost with no answer.
    Álvaro González
    You are welcome!
    Best regards,
  • Hardev Singh Virk added an answer:
    Why EQ prediction has not become possible even after 50 years when Radon precursory signals were recorded for Tashkent earthquake in 1966?
    Multi-parametric approach is better than a single precursor.
    Hardev Singh Virk
    Mounir: I am sending U my Papers also using Radon as a Precursor.
  • Hirday Nath Dutta added an answer:
    Can dogs predict earthquakes ?
    Some articles tell us about animals can predict earthquakes, but I don't know how they can and what are the methods of measuring this.
    Hirday Nath Dutta
    Kindly be clear in mind about the two words-prediction and precursor. Prediction is based on data and knowledge gathered in the past and certainly, animals do not have such a stock to have any kind of inference. They are concerned with precursor or precursors, which refer to the changes in physical, chemical, EM waves, infrasonic waves etc. These changes give us a feeling or a measurable signal so as to infer that there is going to be an earthquake within a reasonable time.

    We do not predict a thunderstorm but many times, when we come out of our office in the afternoon, the sky condition gives us a feeling that there is going to be rain or thunderstorm. This is what is called precursor. Each and every geophysical phenomenon has a precursor and we are mostly correct in our apprehensions.

    Thus, animals like elephant and dogs have better sensitivity to detect infrasonic waves and based on such precursory signals, we feel that they are able to sense an impending earthquake before we do. Thus, it is wrong to assume that dogs or for that matter any other animal, insect etc. can predict an earthquake. Yes, they are better equipped by nature to sense precursory signals much before the humans can sense. But, humans are developing sensors and systems and I am sure, the days are not far off when we will have a proven technology. If you are keen to have more on this subject, kindly write to me on my email
  • Dian Kusumawati added an answer:
    Can we use the vertical and horizontal components of earthquake records for relocating by HypoDD program?
    Dian Kusumawati

    you need to analyze the horizontal and vertical components to pick the arrival time. or using cross corelation data 

  • Amin Esmail Khalil added an answer:
    How do we discriminate between deep and shallow small earthquakes?
    In a convergent margin, besides a good location (which is difficult), is there another analysis (spectral?) to perform to answer about the true location (interface contact or upper plate events)?
    Amin Esmail Khalil
    Qualitatively observe the surface wave amplitude. Shallow earthquakes usually have higher surface wave energy than deeper one
  • Michael Clark added an answer:
    How can astrometric observations be used to predict earthquakes, and how reliable are they?
    I'm preparing a presentation on earthquake prediction and trying to find new and improved methods. Any suggestions?
    Michael Clark
    Earthquakes frequency, especially the bigger ones have a tendency to be
    cyclical when the applied forces from the Sun and the Moon act in concert to
    apply larger gravitational forces than usual to the Earth, as when the
    Sun and Moon are both closer than usual, and there is a Full Moon.

    Certain peak forces occur in both 9 year, and 51 year cycles. These
    cycles and the associated larger earthquakes, and larger tides are
    explored extensively in the articles available from New Concepts In
    Global Tectonics in the issues in the last few years.

    The access to back issues is currently free on the Web.
    Use a Google Search for NCGT.
  • Pushan Dutta added an answer:
    Can anyone help with a wireless sensor for earthquake monitoring?
    I am highly interested in designing and developing a wireless sensor routing protocol for seismic analysis whereby data is acquired using sensor networks and is sent for analysis, there are two things which are to be kept in mind, location and data sensitivity. Is there anyone working on this theme who can share ideas as how to proceed in a efficient way.
    Pushan Dutta
    Can anybody share some data sets I am an electronics engineer
  • Hermann M. Fritz added an answer:
    Relation of earthquakes to sea floor ground motion and submarine slides?
    We are working on a manuscript on submarine strike-slip earthquakes, and whether they trigger turbidites that are seen in cores. The fault (North branch North Anatolian fault) cuts along the edges of 1200 m-deep bathymetric basins, in deep water...except through the center of one of the basins. The question is whether M7+ quakes 50 or 100 km away at the closest can trigger turbidites by seismic waves, including strong ground motion on the sea the near the shelf break a km shallower than the fault. One or more of the co-authors think that it would be tilting and sea floor deformation related to the quake, and I say no way except for local slumps.

    I brought up Los Angeles and the fact that engineers have presented and published that the ground motion from distant San Andreas quakes can be so strong and so long that it will bring down tall buildings. That is because of the post-Miocene sedimentary basin 5 km-deep beneath Los Angeles. The co-author said that this is related to free-surface effects between rock and air, while for the sea floor, it is often young sediment with velocity almost the same as velocity in water (P waves).

    Does anyone know of submarine slides triggered by quakes whose closest rupture is >50 km? Comments on the theory of how submarine slides are triggered?

    Hermann M. Fritz
    The 12 January 2010 Haiti strike-slip earthquakes triggered two tsunamis, an obvious one near the source with a coastal landslide and an obscure one originating off the south coast of the southern peninsula - the latter source would be some 40 to 50 km south of the epicenter but remains to be identified on the seafloor. The below can be downloaded from my profile
    Fritz, H.M., J.V. Hillaire, E. Molière, Y. Wei, and F. Mohammed (2013). Twin tsunamis triggered by the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake. Pure Appl. Geophys., 170(9-10):1463-1474, doi:10.1007/s00024-012-0479-3.
  • Brandon Rapson added an answer:
    Can anyone point me in the right direction for an EWS specifically related to Bucharest/Varenca?
    I am working on a report looking at current Early Warning Systems in place in Romania relating to earthquakes.
    Brandon Rapson
    That's very interesting Alexander, I've been working on a small report for my degree in Disaster Management and Emergency Planning based on the Early Warning System in Bucharest. I will contact J.R. Ritter as you have suggested! Thank you very much for the help!
  • Andreas Tzanis added an answer:
    Can P-wave velocity variation in shallow subsurface be related to electrical resistivity variation?
    For micro seismic zonation, lateral variation in the P-wave velocity is an important parameter because the unconsolidated zones having lower velocities are supposed to have higher amplitude response during the earthquakes. Sometimes, for shallow subsurface investigations, procuring equipments for seismic surveys prove to be cost prohibitive. However, electrical resistivity is a much cheaper means to investigate shallow subsurface stratigraphy. The problem is can we compare the velocity information with resistivity?
    Andreas Tzanis
    Your question was: "The problem is can we compare the velocity information with resistivity? " To this problem, both Joerg and I gave proper answers. What you are asking above is an altogether different thing, which could not have been understood from the original question. So, if you need good answers, ask the right questins and give your correspondent sufficient information to understand your problem... Now, I say this because the calculation of the resistivity of your LVL layer may NOT be straightforward, depending on the thickness of the "thinner" interlacing layers. If these are many and very thin with respect to the applied field (e.g. of centimetric order and less), you could be facing a fat fractal structure for which I do not know if there is an analytical solution and if there is, it is going to be a distribution, not a scalar! If they are of decimetric or higher order, you are dealing with a vertically anisotropic structure (see Telford et al, Applied Geophysics, for some additional introductory info). In this case you need detailed well logs to calculate the effective resistivity from the component resistivities using the series resistivity rule. In both cases, you might constrain the thickness of the LVL on the basis of your seismic data and try to obtain an effective resistivity for the LVL on the basis of in situ electrical measurements. Mind you, however, that because the electrical properties of fat fractal or anisotropic structures are in reality distributions, your estimated effective resistivity may NOT reflect the true properties of the LVL and may be misleading... Well logs are your best bet, I think...
  • Prasanna Waichal added an answer:
    Is it right to record Strong Motion Accelerograph near huge dam site either in continuous mode or trigger mode if so throw some light - Willy. Y.A.
    Is it right to record Strong Motion Accelerograph near huge dam site either in continuous mode or trigger mode if so throw some light - Willy. Y.A.
    Prasanna Waichal
    Dear Mr. Yesurathenam A.W.

    * It is very interesting to know that you are carrying out some experimentation related to earthquake studies in the vicinity of a dam site.

    This is really important to understand whether the dam causes earthquake (due to build-up of the water pressure) or there is some other cause for this.

    The Koyna Dam in western Maharashtra is a famous site in India where earthquakes are experienced. Some local residents say that they did not experience tremors prior to the construction of this project.

    Therefore, I believe that your work will be able to shed some light on this topic.

    Coming back to your question -

    The Triggered Mode is one which waits for a strong earthquake event and the data recording starts there after.

    In continuous mode the data is always recorded. This may be then limited only by the data recording mechanism or storage.

    I would suggest for a continuous mode with several of your sensors connected to a network (internet if possible) and the data recording takes place at a remote site (in your laboratory).

    I hope my views would help you in your project.

  • Prasanna Waichal added an answer:
    How to forecast earthquake
    Brief explaination about fore casting earthquakes with related videos
    Prasanna Waichal
    Many researchers are trying the same - Can we really predict earthquake/s?

    Studies in different fields are carried out all over the world but as of today there is no mechanism in place to accurately predict an earthquake event. If you search for literature, there was a news that some Italian researchers were put-to-task about (false/correct) prediction of an event.
  • Prasanna Waichal added an answer:
    Is there any connection between earthquake and Electromagnetic waves?
    will the waves effect the Ionosphere?and how does it works??
    Prasanna Waichal
    Hello Hengsheng Chang,
    Yes, there are indeed some observed phenomenon related to earth-quake, ionosphere and electromagnetic wave propagation.

    M. Parrot of France is working with the Dmeter (sorry if name in incorrectly spelled) satellite.
    Prof. Hayakawa of Japan and some group from Russia, India have detected early pre-cursors on VLF reception. Many papers are available in this regard.

    But these are really precursors and whether such data can be used as a Early Earth-quake Warning is still in doubts.
  • Wajahat Ali added an answer:
    Can any one give some idea about earthquake modelling or simulation ?
    Please kindly provide a tutorial or book name which deals with earthquake modelling or simulation........................... Thnk u in advance
    Wajahat Ali
    What type of modeling you are looking for ? Please see IRIS web for all information. If you would like to prepare a seismic model then you will need seismic events recorded by stations more then 1000Km from epicenter. Once you will get time series next step is to use SAC (Seismic analysis code) in this way you will get velocity for different depths (Focal depths) and can construct a velocity model. Other type of modeling includes response spectra which will give you PGA, PGV and PGD . This will involve some FMS and simple processing. Cheers
  • Zhigang Li added an answer:
    3D fault view
    I am looking for a script or free domain software to display and save 3D fault views. The input data: strike,dip, rake from EQ focal mechanisms or outcrops. Can anyone suggest a kind of rotating block diagram (and NOT a beach ball), which shows the apparent displacement?
    Zhigang Li

    3-D Modeling Using Gocad, please check the link:

  • Ozgur Kozaci added an answer:
    Anyone working on earthquake prediction by simulating the shifting of rivers, guided by the movement of tectonic plates?
    If a huge area of land is covered by rivers spreading through the area as a net, then the shifting of river paths are similar to each other. As the tectonic plates move, there is a possibility of giving an effect of those releasing energy to the ground surface. By monitoring the river shifting direction and speed, we can predict the future earthquake possibility by developing an empirical formula. What are your ideas?
    Ozgur Kozaci
    The affects of tectonic deformation on fluvial systems have been studied for quite some time. These studies, however, inform us about the past earthquake movements' style, size, and potentially recurrence interval which in turn enables us to make mid to long-term predictions. Monitoring ongoing deformation of certain geomorphic patterns are done by using space-based geodesy (GPS) and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR). These methods can cover vast amounts of landscape and can yield accuracy at millimeter-centimeter level. Any deformation you might capture looking at changes in river patterns can already be captured at a much greater accuracy using these long-established methods. Please also note that fluvial drainage systems will have annual/seasonal fluctuations, which can be on the order of meters based on regional climatic dynamics. The observed signal solely monitoring drainage patterns at any time would likely be much greater than any tectonic deformation signal.
  • Issam Sinjab added an answer:
    A 5.8m earthquake occurred in Mineral, Virginia on 8/23/11- any knowledge as to if this was a planned and controlled experiment or natural?
    As early as January 2010, I predicted that on August 23, 2011 the entire East Coast of the USA would shake from an earthquake from the Carolinas all the way to Canada. I am attaching a random screenshot from my Facebook offering warnings.
    Issam Sinjab
    When you say "planned and controlled experiment" do you mean an underground controlled nuclear explosion?

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