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Drought Stress - Science topic

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I want to screen some tomato germplasm in the field for drought stress, with 50 % field capacity how can I measure FC?
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Dear @Saba Akram I do agree with the views expressed by Dr Anoop Kumar Srivastava. You can access answers to a similar question at the link given below:
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This month due to solar Flair from the Sun has been surged forth into the planet earth, resulted to adding heat to extremely heated up planet earth, the heatwave caused drought and forest fires. Led to further devastating suffering and leafing deprivation.
Couldn't this forthcoming Solar flairs be planned to be capture to turn into energy use?
Regards,
Fatema Miah.
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Dear Anamitra,
Thanks for your kind support of acknowledgement.
There was "Vastile day" in 2000, with such solar storm.
There has been neglegence on the climate topic by the earth politicians.
Climate threat has been made Into profit making business by some, and overall it is brought into such suffering condition.
Per to your point of if possible to make into positive use, yes, it has been neglected for the cost. Implementation of such innovative solution, it's not to politicians interest and other investors seek promising profit making returns. Greed and power seeking destroying planet earth.
Regards
Fatema Miah
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What is 'whole-plant productivity when we are talking about plant responses to heat and drought stress environments?
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When we are talking about plant responses to heat and drought stress, we consider biotic stress that prevent the plant from attaining/expressing its full genetic potential, and, hence, they adversely affects plant growth, development, and productivity.
There are two ways of using the term "whole-plant productivity":
1. As an investigation of a process in all tissues of the plant (ex. photosynthesis, respiration, biosynthetic pathways). https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-49184-z
2. As a concept in agricultural sciences that proposes a holistic approach to breeding and management where all possible products of the plant are considered. Thus, you don't consider only the yield of edible parts, but also the biomass that can be used for other purposes and, although rarely, ecological services (ex. prevent flooding, prevent desertification, carbon sequestration, oxygen production etc.). You can see it as an alternative to other indicators of plant performance such as mere biomass. Clearly, it is less standardised because the definition of product changes, but it shortens the knowledge and technology transfer.
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Sample Number Date Time O T100 K J I P S M T tFm Fo Fm Fv/Fm. Can anyone help me explain the J, Fo, and Fm parameters on the Chlorophyll Fluorescence measure and its significance to drought stress? I used a portable, pulse-modulated OS-30p+ chlorophyll fluorimeter (Opti Sciences). I am working on the effect of Alectra vogelii on Bambara groundnut.
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Thank you very much.
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My research investigated the impact of water stress on plant nutrition. Phosphorus content was stable regardless of increasing PEG concentration. Is there any valid explanation on why as i am trying to find the reason
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I have studied the effect of ANE (Ascophylum Nodosum extract) on okra under drought stress. First factor is drought (control, mild stress, severe stress) and second factor is foliar application of ANE (Ascophylum Nodosum extract) (control, 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3%), The experiment was conducted in pots using statistical design CRD (complete randomized design), same media was used. Drought stress, foliar application of ANE (Ascophylum Nodosum extract) and their interaction significantly effected physiological and biochemical parameters of okra. But the data recorded on control plants of drought, ANE (Ascophylum Nodosum extract) and their interaction is different from each other. Plants growing in control conditions are without any treatment.
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You must increase your replicant in each treatments for reducing errors.
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Water scarcity is the universal problem both in developing and developed countries. Numerous researchers have discussed different strategies to cope with this problem. I am looking for the recent research outputs in areas where rainfall is scare.
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Mahammed Faizan Wael Fathy Ali El Metwally , Leo Radores Aref Wazwaz ,Thank you for your valuable comments.
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We mostly associate drought with vegetative traits. I wonder if flower characteristics of dryland plants are shaped by drought. Is the presence or absence of the perianth and the type or structure of reproductive parts of a flower affected by this? I need sources on flower buds, flowers, fruit and seeds. Do you have any recommendation on this matter?
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For instance; revolute margin of a leaf is clearly xeromorphic (Hill 1998), but what for flower parts? They are actually metamorphosed pieces.
Hill R.S. (1998). Fossil evidence for the xeromorphy and scleromorphy in Australian Proteaceae. Australian Systematic Botany 11(4) DOI: 10.1071/SB97016
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Is it that chlorophyll content and protein level are significantly affected under drought?
Do drought-tolerant genotypes produce specific secondary metabolites? If yes what are the secondary metabolites?
What should one look for (in terms of biochemical parameters) when studying drought tolerance or sensitivity in legume or cereal genotypes.
Please see the link below:
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I am working on factors affecting shoot tips of rice under water deficit and I have some problems to arrange the treatments as moderate and hard drought.
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The following article is related to your question.
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I have a gene of interest (assume X) which plays role in many developmental events in plants. But I am trying to find its role in abiotic stress sepcifically drought stress. I have checked the expression of X in few different tissues where X express abundantly under drought stress (data available in database and reports) which is significant.
I was thinking to explore how X gene controls the photosystem when the plants are under stress. X gene is already reported to be involved in the regulation of photosynthetic genes using trangenics and other interaction assays.
Now, I am stucked in what way I can proceed. Could anyone provide me any suggestions?
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Please look at the following article.
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what should be the optimal protocol for applying drought stress on solanum lycopersicum?
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Dear @Maqsood Hajra
Please check the following link; hope, it will help you decide the stage for applying drought stress.
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I just want to know the proper use of these two words from the researchers who are working on drought stress
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Drought corresponds to a situation of sufficient water deficit to harm, to a greater or lesser degree, vegetation, animals or man. ... This is why water deficit should not be confused with drought. If there is no damage, there is no talk of drought, even if there is a water deficit.
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To study the effect of PEG in drought induction in perlite or soil, how and what concentration PEG 6000 can be used in citrus rootstocks of six month age?
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Growing citrus under protected system is the call of the day , these days. The menacing HLB has forced citrus go soilless and protected from ACPs , so that an ensured production system can be developed. Use of PEG 6000 could be effectively done , provided we have control on pH and water regulations compared to conventional soil . Need both to be standardized , depending upon rootstock-scion combination , pot dimension , growing conditions , ionic composition of irrigation water , method of irrigation , use of conventional fertilizers or water soluble etc...
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We want to study the role of the lignin metabolic pathway in drought stress tolerance. Can anyone share their experience about how to determine the role of the lignin metabolic pathway in crops under drought stress?
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Lignin is an important organic polymer which is abundant in cell walls of some specific cells. It has many biological functions such as water transport, mechanical support and resistance to various stresses. Most of the current researches on lignin in plants are focused on the regulation of lignin content through molecular biology and molecular genetics. Reducing the accumulation of lignin in energy plants can improve the production efficiency of biofuels. However, as shown above, the reduction of lignin biosynthesis can seriously affect plant growth and development, increase the risk of crop lodging, reduce plant resistance to external biotic and abiotic stresses and thus result in a serious threat to crop production. The general biosynthesis pathway of lignin in higher plants. PAL, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase; TAL, tyrosine ammonia-lyase; C4H, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase; 4CL, 4-coumarate: CoA ligase; CCR, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase; HCT, hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA shikimate/Quinatehydroxycinnamoyltransferase; C3H, p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase; CCoAOMT, caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase; F5H, ferulate 5-hydroxylase; CSE, caffeoyl shikimate esterase; COMT, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase; CAD, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase; LAC, laccase; POD, peroxidase.
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Hello everyone,
For my PhD research project, I would like to call for your help in deciding whether to withhold water or to use PEG6000 for a drought stress experiment in tomato.
In fact, I would like to perform three levels of drought stress: control (well-watering), moderate drought stress and severe drought stress in pot culture.
On one side, PEG6000 would be easier to use even if some criticism has been raised in previous papers. On the other side, withholding water would mean coming to terms with the soil water retention curve, which is not so simple to compute (to me from scratch).
What do you think about it?
Thank you in advance.
Niccolò
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It's Screening depend upon stage of plant on which you have to induce drought stress.
1. if its seed growth and quality investigation- go for PEG 6000 at different concentration.
2. If it is for Seedling growth or vegetative phase- go for Silica Gel or Hydrogel because practical application PEG-6000 costs you high.
3. if it is for Reproductive stage- go for water holding.
Methods for Water withholding (Traditional method)
1. Withholding of water irrigation at crop critical stage for 15 days for which you can monitored by Tensiometers
2. Maintaining Filed Capacity- different set of field capacity can be used to know its effect.
* by this all two methods can exhibit your experiment at different drought level in filed condition.
Hope for the best.
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Why there is larger interest in induction of drought in quinoa crop eventhough it's a drought tolerant crop?
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Researchers often induce stress upon the tolerant varieties to unravel the underlying mechanisms associated with their tolerability so that it can be helpful in further incorporating the mechanisms in the sensitive ones. Any plant that is tolerant to certain stress suggest some internal antioxidant defense mechanism or any kind of stress responsive pathways that works in accordance with certain genes, transcription factors or any kind of second messengers associated downstream of the signaling pathways. So, before proceeding towards any kind of abiotic stress related researches one should thoroughly know about the mechanisms that is actually helping the tolerant varieties withstand such adverse conditions.
Hope this was quite helpful.
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We are using Specim IQ hyperspectral camera for image-based phenotyping in soybean plants at the vegetative stage. On processing the image on ENVI software, we got negative values for ARI1 and ARI2 in both drought stress and control. When I checked some published articles for reference, I found that the range for ARI is 0-0.2.
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Dear @Pooja Tripathi
Hope, the below reference can throw some light towards solution to your question:
Gitelson, A., et al. "Assessing Carotenoid Content in Plant Leaves with Reflectance Spectroscopy." Photochemistry and Photobiology 75 (2002): 272-281.
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I want to find a drought stress in some plants. What are the other methods to find a drought stress other than polyethylene glycol-6000 method and irrigation method.
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Please have a look at enlosed PDFs...
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Organic sources
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Dear @Girija Prasad Patnaik
Calcium-fortified compost significantly enhances growth, physiology, grain quality, and NPK uptake of maize by restoring the negative impacts caused by salt stress.
Researchers have shown that Biochar (a stable C-rich byproduct obtained from biomass) addition alleviate the negative effects of drought and salinity stress on soybean productivity and water use efficiency.
Best wishes, AKC
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What are the chemicals that mitigate the drought stress in crop plants upon spraying? Also suggests suitable concentration for spraying.
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Please refer to one of my publication on this aspect:
Exogenous Application of Bio-regulators for Alleviation of Heat Stress in Seedlings of Maize. J Agri Res. 2(3): 000137
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Different approaches or methods that can be choose for inducing drought stress in Quinoa crop which is a hardy in nature?
Dear scientific fraternity !
Please suggest
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Dear @Girija Prasad Patnaik It is very difficult to create a "real" drought situation to perform selection for drought resistance in any plant species under actual field condition. In dry climate/season, controlling irrigation water has been one of the ways used extensively to perform screening for drought tolerance. However, under such a situation we have no control over relative humidity (RH). In a crop like rice, which is usually grown during rainy season when RH of air is very high, automated rain out shelters are used to create "drought-like" situation to perform screening. But rainy days, and other variables of rainy weather (clear vs cloudy days) imposes further ceiling on the applicability of results of field screening. You can go through a similar discussion at RG by accessing the link given below:
Best wishes, AKC
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Biochemical variation in seed of Chenopodium quinoa
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I am going to do a research how to response 3 cardamom varieties at the drought stress in Sri Lanka. In here, polyethylene glycol 6000 used for increase osmotic effect. Then do a assay of catalase. Varieties take as a blocks with 5 replicants, different concentrations of polyethylene glycol take as a treatment and results of catalase enzyme absorbance take as a response variable.
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Try out split plot design with varieties as main plot treatment and polyethylene glycol concentration as subsplot treatment .If third factor , I am not too sure , whether you want to incorporate, if it is true , the test these factors through randomised factorial design.....
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The shoot growth is diminished during water deficit while there is increase in root growth in search of moisture and nutrients. How is it possible for root ?
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Dear @Shovit Khanal
Growth maintenance of roots triggered by drought stress is an adaptive strategy for water uptake. In response to water deficiency, expansin genes that are associated with cell expansion and cell wall loosening were shown to alter their expression pattern (PDFs attached).
Besides, the below mentioned link is also useful:
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I have visualized the alteration of the cell wall during drought stress with the confocal microscope. Now, I want to measure the cell size at different time points. Is there anyone who knows how many cells I should measure?
I have studied Arabidopsis at 7 time points (days 0,1,2,4,7,15)
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Dear @Maryam Zekri The number and size of samples matter the most. Taking large size and more number of samples will greatly reduce "bias" from statistics applied. Moreover, I do agree with the suggestions given by @J.D. Franco-Navarro.
Best wishes, AKC
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We had indentified QTL regions associated with yield related traits under drought stress with the help of SNP markers.
Now i want to characterize this QTLs using flanking SNPs. So i want know what would be the suitable method used ?
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I don’t know which species you are working in? If rice please go to the MSU7 rice genome browser and download the gene models in your flanking region. If you have the whole genome sequence of the parents you can compare the gene models for the existence of synonymous and non-synonymous SNPs to narrow down the candidate genes. Also, Instead of just looking within the flanking markers, you can also identify the linkage disequilibrium block of the identified flanking SNPs and look for candidate gene models in the LD. Hope this information helps you.
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How to find the candidate genes to validate their role through functional genomics experiments such as cloning, transgenics, over-expression, localization, and its interaction with other proteins and DNA, etc.
1)Do we need to study a lot of literature and see which genes role is not deciphered in particular traits e.g. drought stress?
2.) Do we need to perform our own transcriptome or comparative genomic studies or analyze already published studies from literature?
3. ) Do we need to perform our own marker traits association(QTLs) study or already published studies?
4.) Some people functionally characterize already known genes(say arabidopsis) to plant of their interest (legumes). But is it a significant or novel research problem to work upon?
5. all of the above.
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Hey Shubham,
it depends on what questions you would like to answer with your experiments. I'm also not sure if i fully understand your question but maybe this helps:
1) -> it is always useful to read and know the important literature.
2) -> transcriptomic data and comparative genomic studies are useful to identify relevant genes for a certain issue. When it comes to transcriptomic data a useful approach is to expose your organism/cells to a certain stress to detect up-/downregulated genes compared to non exposed cells. Therefore it is important to design your own experiments to answer your individual questions.
Finding only homologous genes/proteins, you can use several bioinformatic databases (BLAST, UniProt...) in this case you should know your target genes.
4) -> characterizing already known genes of the same organism/cells is not useful. Why would you do that when it's already reported? But you can investigate homologous genes of another organism (not reported!) to check if comparable gene sets/proteins are involved in e.g. draught/starvation etc... Finding completely unknown genes and classify them to a cellular event is not that easy as you might think :)
good luck!
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I would like a more focus on urban areas and urban water use. I am interested to know experiences of drought management in different cities which are faced with drought for example.
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Krishnan Umachandran I agree with him. Very good answer.
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The response of the physiological and morphological characteristic of three types of grass (Agropyron desertorum, Poa pratensis, and Festuca arundinacea) under drought stress
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Biodiversity and Conservation
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I want to know whether can we use inhibitors for certain specific group of genes like HSPs, to study their role in abiotic factors apart from validating the gene on heterologous expression system. Although, in case of animal system these inhibitors are widely used, but can we use it in non-modal plant system.
I would really appreciate if any information is provided.
Thanks
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Hello Romit
The answer is yes. An example is given below. An antisense RNA to a photosynthetic enzyme reduced the enzyme activity very specifically and the effect on the rate of photosynthesis at different light fuxes could be observed. The full paper is available n Researchgate.
The Plant Journal (1995) 7(4), 535-542 Reduction in phosphoribulokinase activity by antisense RNA in transgenic tobacco: effect on CO2 assimilation and growth in low irradiance Matthew J. Paul 1o*, Jacqui S. Knight 2,t, Dimah Habash 1, Martin A.J. Parry 1, David W. Lawlor 1, Simon A. Barnes 2, Andy Loynes 2 and John C. Gray 2 1 Biochemistry and Physiology Department, IACRRothamsted, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ, UK, and 2 Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EA, UK control coefficient for COz assimilation of zero, and that even when amounts of PRK are reduced 20-fold relative to wild-type, altered amounts of metabolites compensate for much of the reduction in PRK protein; (ii} in plants where there is a 95% reduction in amounts of PRK, photosynthesis was reduced twofold without large changes in leaf protein content or leaf geometry. Summary To quantify the importance of the Calvin cycle enzyme phosphoribulokinase (PRK} in photosynthesis and to perturb photosynthesis without large direct reductions in leaf protein content, tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.) were transformed with an inverted cDNA encoding tobacco PRK. A population of plants expressing antisensa RNA and a range of PRK activities from wild-type to less than 5% of wild-type were obtained. CO2 assimilation under the growing conditions (330 Ilmol photons m -2 sec -1, 350 I~bar CO 2, 25°C) was not inhibited until more than 85% of PRK activity had been removed. With reduction in PRK activity of between 85 and 95%, assimilation rates and amounts of chlorophyll compared with wild-type were reduced by up to half. Decreased absorption of light by leaves with less chlorophyll accounted for only a small part of the reduction in assimilation rate. When PRK activity was below 15% of wild-type, amounts of ribulose5-phosphate, ribosa-5-phosphate, ATP and fructose-6- phosphate were 1.5- to fivefold higher and levels of ribuIose-l,5-bisphosphate, 3-phosphoglyceric acid and ADP 1.5- to fourfold lower than in wild-type. It is estimated that these changes maintained flux through PRK to realise the assimilation rates observed. A possible shift of control within the Calvin cycle towards fructose-l,6-bisphosphatase in plants with low PRK is discussed. Amounts of hexoses and starch in particular were reduced in plants expressing the lowest PRK activities; amounts of sucrose were little affected. Lower CO 2 assimilation in plants with low PRK activity correlated with reduced relative growth rate of shoots and delayed flowering, but there was no effect on specific leaf area. It is concluded that (i) in wildtype plants grown in constant low light, PRK has a fluxR
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I need to establish an experiment with sweet potato plants in relation to the effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza in the drought stress. Which kind of parameters are important to measure the drought stress in the treated plants ? stress
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That's an interesting question. AMs are known to impart drought tolerance to AM- dependent plants. At first level , you have see the root colonization percentage under optimum soil moisture vis- a- vis moisture deficit conditions. In plants see the oxidative stress related enzymes , betaine concentration , proline etc as indicators of moisture stress tolerance. You can browse on any search engine , you will find plenty of well researched manuscripts. Ok i will send to you some of mine ...
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Crop seeds are sometimes exposed to drought stress
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Zero tillage/Conservation agriculture
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Hello! Actually I want study soybean physiology under stress in the field condition. Can you please suggest the probable techniques to create and maintain drought stress for plants.
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Stress can be caused by several factors; however, whatever the stressing factor (e.g. temperature, water...), it is usually necessary to have control on the level of the stress applied, although partial control of the stressing factor may also be useful as long as we monitor the levels of such factor. We can then use statistical tools to determine the relationship between the levels of the stressing factor with the plant responses.
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I have to start drought stress experiment on Arabidopsis thaliana using 15% PEG.
The plants are growing in soil in the trays. How should I give 15% PEG to the plants?
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I am currently working on antioxidant activity of drought stress plants specifically Catalase and Ascorbate peroxidase and most of the papers that I've read they quantify unit of enzyme activity in "mg of protein". Could you suggest other formula in determining antioxidant activity without determining the protein content?
thank you
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Dear Kat
The units of the enzyme activity are μmoles (of the converted substrate or of the product) per minute under the specified conditions of the particular enzyme assay.
You can measure the enzyme units either with a standard curve or with an appropriate extinction coefficient.
You must also measure the exact Fresh Weight of the homogenized plant tissue in order to calculate U/gr FW.
According to the above, there is no demand for measuring the total protein content in order to quantify U/mgr protein
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It is known that some stresses cause changes in hormonal, genetic and cellular levels in the plant. In order to determine the physiological response of the plant in case of stress, it has been discussed by many researchers whether determining the proline content is stress-related. What do you think about this subject? Thanks for the comments
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Hi M. Çağrı Oğuz,
The analysis of proline under a stressed environment is considered as one of the important indices to determine the physiological responses of plants. Proline acts as a compatible solute and plays roles in cellular homeostasis.
For detail go through this review article: 10.1093/jxb/erj073
Regards,
Arpna Kumari
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Hello dear everyone's
Can combination GA and PEG be used simultaneously to study drought stress in the seeds with physiological dormancy?
Thank you in advance for your attention
Hamidreza
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Both of you are right, of course, in your field of expertise
Thanks for your comments
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I am doing drought stress experiment and i want to know about the grams of yoshida powder i need to make the nutrient solution for the plant.
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Carole C Tranchant thank you very much for the answer. i really appreciate
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The duration and intensity of drought is increasing worldwide largely due to climate change.
Development and genetic improvement of drought tolerance crop become very important for the future due the effect of climate change.
What the best method for screening and evaluation drought stress on crop plants especially "rice"?
Thank you for the answer
Best Regards.
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There are so many ways to go on this direction of rice improvement you can consider early stress or later stage stresses considering Physiological, morphological as well as biochemical Indicators for Stress Tolerance, most importantly you can consider G X E as a special way of evaluation.
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Hello everyone, I'm working in Brassica napus under drought stress and oil contents in germination stage and I want to find relation between both of them so can any one tell me some genes related to this relation or how I can explain this relation.
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I have a hard time envisioning a plant under the anthropomorphic concept of stress'.
If you mean plants that germinate and develop normally under conditions of reduced water availability than demanded by the ambient radiation, temperature, wind and humidity conditions? We would need to find a new mechanism for photosynthesis because the one available to all plants, sets the limits we have.
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I have Sorghum expression data related to drought stress that I obtained from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, I need to select the expression pattern of one gene family from this RNA-seq data, I have no idea how to do it, it would be helpful if someone suggested me how to do so. Thank you.
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Michail Yekelchyk Thank you for the valuable suggestions, I'll try.
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Hi
I am working on determining the starch, glucose, fructose and sucrose level in drought stress leaves of a forage grass for that I need the Papers in which the easy methods or assays are described about the above mentioned parameters. Thanks
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Dear Inam,
Take a look at this thesis:
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The Dayaknese tribe, A tribe in Kalimantan island, was cultivated upland rice in high elevation of Meratus mountains.
Some cultivar was cultivated and not identify by researcher. Due their ability to growth with low water in the soil, these rice genotypes was expected have an ability to drought condition.
Interestingly, the rice grain was storage by the local people for a long time (up to 7 years) after harvesting time.
This information leaving a few question for me:
Is the upland rice genotypes important for drought tolerance?
Is the rice seed still viable after long time storage?
Thank you for the answer.
Best Regards.
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Ya definitely...If those are growing nicely in such low water content of soil, they may necessarily have some drought resistant mechanism. They may have some adaptive features to tolerate the drought condition.
Regarding viability of seeds, that information also can be collected from those people, whether they grow those seeds after 6-7 years or not.
Whatever the assumption is done, it is to be confirmed experimentally, to make some appropriate conclusion. However if some novel gene can be identified for drought tolernce, it will be a very good report.
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I am trying to assess how water resources evolved after increasing drought due to climate change.
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In my opinion, the key issue is equipping the research laboratory with precise devices for measuring rainfall, air humidity and soil moisture at specific measurement depths. In addition, an important issue is the appropriately long period of measurements to make the results of research independent from seasonal changes of the seasons, cyclically changing periods of drought and rainy season, etc. Increasing drought has a direct impact on the reduction of surface, subcutaneous and groundwater resources. However, the impact of drought on deep water resources depends on the passage of time, depth and type of deep water resources and the type of rocks between which these water resources are located. Deeper deep water resources, such as the Oligocene ones, can be fully independent of changes in weather and climate on the Earth's surface. Therefore, another issue is to determine what kind of water the local community uses, and therefore it is important to determine to what depth the water resources will be tested.
Best wishes
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It is difficult to work on crops and chances of successful experiments are very less, that is why we prefer these model organisms to study the mechanism and then apply the same knowledge on other crops. So, according to you, for different traits and developmental studies which is better?
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I have worked with Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis thaliana. As for me tobacco is more easy culture to grow and work with. But for arabidopsis there is full genome and special resourse about genes and etc https://www.arabidopsis.org/
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looking for method to induce drought stress with different intensity in pot with soil? Any suggestion are welcomed.
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1) Determine the exact water holding capacity (WHC) for the select soil per pot.
2) after sowing keep the soil filed capacity in a range of 90-95% WHC.
3) let's suppose that we want to have 6 water levels in your experiment.
4) Start immediately to create the different levels in the next time when you irrigate the plants to see a strong effect at the end of the experiment.
8) Weight the control pots to estimate the evaporated water.
- For instance, when the evaporated water was 200 ml, the irrigation would be 200, 170, 140, 110, 80, 50 ml to the treatments 100, 85, 70, 55, 40, 25 % WHC, respectively.
- Two or three weeks later (it depends on the studied species and its growth rate), the plants will need an additional amount of water to compensate for transpiration
- To keep the difference fixed between the treatments, calculate the different levels according to the evaporated water. then sum to it the amount of water that you would expect to compensate transpiration
E.g., when the pots needs to be irrigated with 75 ml for evaporation + 50 ml for transpiration, it represented 125 ml for 100% WHC. Then, the water add for the different levels will be as the following:
100 % WHC = 125
85% WHC = 96
70% WHC = 79
55% WHC =62
40% WHC = 45
25% WHC = 28
please see the attached excel file that includes a simple example of the calculations for one-day irrigation.
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I am doing experiment to check increase in mycorrhiza colonosation with roots during water stress in maize. I am inducing water stress at 14 days after sowing, so when i should add mycorrhiza to maize pots
i am planning to add 7 days before inducing water stress? is it gives precise effect of drought on mycorrhizal colonisation?
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Best course would be to mix pot soil ( especially upper few cms) with AMspores before sowing of corn seeds to give sufficent time for AM to colonize the roots and display the tolerance against water stress or drought stress, whatever you define......
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I cannot seem to get direct pathways that shows how free radicals are produced in plants under drought stress? Any advice on articles that clearly explain the production of free radicals in plants under stress?
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I have an article to recommend to answer directly to your question. Professor Barry Halliwell is a well-accepted researcher with high expertise in the free radicals field. I suggest you check his paper "Reactive species and antioxidants. Redox biology is a fundamental theme of aerobic life" . I believe this paper should answer most of your doubts.
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Are there environmental treatments to avoid drought stress?
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Well, it is not very easy to manipulate environment.However we can modify, micro climate in the crop environment by several interventions.
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Hi everyone,
I will be study the gene expression related to drought stress in woody plants, and I'm confused for the method to apply the stress. It Can anybody tell me what is the best way to applicate water stress on the woody seedling.
Knowing that woody seedlings are planted in soil pots.
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First, you have to determine the retention capacity of your substrate at 100%. Then, you have to calculate your drought degree ( for example 80, 60, 40% of the retention capacity). When you will start Drought application, you have to maintain the levels of irrigation in each pot 'constant' til the end of the experiment. So, every time you will irrigate, you have to weigh every pot and add the difference according to your drought level. An other thing, cover your substrate with a dark plastic to avoid algae, fungi and foam development. Regards
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Hi colleagues,
Did anyone use PEG in an aeroponic system? I wanna do an experiment to analyze some drought stress tolerance related genes in aeroponic condition, but based on our calculation we need a lot of PEG if we want to use it similar to hydroponic culture?
Is there different methods to induce drought stress?
Thank you in advance
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The basis for ABA as an important signal is that both salt stress and water deficit can induce a rapid and massive accumulation of ABA in plant tissues. This process itself is a cellular signaling cascade, in which the perception of salt- or water deficit signal or the initial triggering for ABA accumulation is the most important step.
It is well known that the second messengers and protein kinases or phosphatases are pivotal signal components mediating various responses of plants to biotic and abiotic stimuli. It was suggested that Ca2+ might also play vital roles in water or salt stress-induced
ABA accumulation. However some studies reported that ROS were involved in stress-induced ABA accumulation.
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Dear Ali, I hope that these articles will help you.
Best Regards
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Production of oilseed crops are decreased with the fast rate of drought stress. So how to reduce the drought stress in pulsed.
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Thiourea spray @ 500 ppm at pre-flowering and pod development stages are known to reduces moisture stress in oilseed crops and enhances oil content. Moreover, spray of anti-transpirants and use of recommended K fertilizer doses also helps to minimize the drought effects.
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Hello,
I am investigating the response of single trees and whole stands to droughts by calculating resistance and resilience indices using the Basal Area Increment of the trees. I want to figure out how the response is influenced by the species composition of the stand. The data I have is single tree data from around 1930 to 2017 with the dbh, the species and also the altitude (which could also be investigated - the importance of altitude/latitude). I am not quite sure which method is the best here to calculate the diversity and I am very grateful for any suggestion/answer.
Thank you
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The purpose of a diversity index is to summarize two main aspects: the number of different information (e.g., number of species) and the proportion of each information in your system (e.g., relative abundance of species). The choice of a diversity index depends on the relative weight you want to attribute for each of these aspects. For example, if the number of species is more important than the relative abundance of species in your study system, I would recommend species richness as a diversity index. That may be the case of poorly saturated communities or communities with weak species interactions. On the other hand, if changes in relative abundance of species capture the most important diversity aspect of your system (this may be the case of communities strongly structured by interspecies interactions), I would recommend Simpsons diversity as a diversity index.
Of course, species richness and Simpson diversity are only two examples you can use to maximize the number of species or the relative abundance of species, respectively. There are innumerous indexes that can be used depending on the proportional contribution you want to attribute to each of these aspects. This may be confusing because you may not know which the proportional contribution for each diversity index. However, your life can be easier thanks to the physicists working with information theory. There is a unifying framework that allows you to obtain many different diversity indexes by only varying a single parameter – the q. For example, if you want species richness, you should set q tending to 0; if you want Shannon, you should set q to 1; and if you want Simpson, you should set q to 2. You can find more information in the original paper (Tsallis and 1988), or in a plenty of other papers that expanded this concept to Ecological contexts (Hill 1973; Jost 2006; Chao et al. 2014).
I hope that helps.
Chao, A., Chiu, C.H., Hsieh, T.C., Davis, T., Nipperess, D.A. and Faith, D.P., 2015. Rarefaction and extrapolation of phylogenetic diversity. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 6(4), 380-388.
Hill, M.O. (1973). Diversity and evenness: a unifying notation and its consequences. Ecology 54, 427–473.
Jost, L. (2006). Entropy and diversity. Oikos, 113, 363–375.
Tsallis, C. (1988) Possible generalization of Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics. J. Stat. Phis. 52, 479–487
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I'm looking for latest research articles on transcriptomics and proteomics study on transgenic sugarcane under drought stress
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effect of drought stress on water use efficiency
effect of salinity stress on water use efficiency
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Ecophysiology of Plants is the study of plant processes under the influence of different and particular ecological factors: aridity, salinity, arctic, desertic etc.. However, in many situations, there is no clear delineation between these factors: salinity and aridity are connected in many situations, and - sometimes - flooding conditions may be added.
It is about functional adaptations in plants under different conditions of living.
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Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) & Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) are two remote sensing indices used to interpret the vegetation. What different interpretation do they offer about the vegetation? Where are they used in practice? What are the cases when NDVI and NDWI are not correlated?
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Dear Nikhil Joshi,
01. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI):
Quantifies vegetation by measuring the difference between near-infrared (which vegetation strongly reflects) and red light (which vegetation absorbs).
NDVI always ranges from -1 to +1. But there isn’t a distinct boundary for each type of land cover.
For example, when you have negative values, it’s highly likely that it’s water. On the other hand, if you have a NDVI value close to +1, there’s a high possibility that it’s dense green leaves.
But when NDVI is close to zero, there isn’t green leaves and it could even be an urbanized area.
Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) uses the NIR and red channels in its formula.
NDVI = (NIR-Red)/(NIR+Red)
Healthy vegetation (chlorophyll) reflects more near-infrared (NIR) and green light compared to other wavelengths. But it absorbs more red and blue light.
This is why our eyes see vegetation as the color green. If you could see near-infrared, then it would be strong for vegetation too.
02. Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI):
Vegetation cover on the Earth's surface undergoes severe stress during a drought. If affected areas are not identified in time, entire crops may be damaged. The early detection of water stress can prevent many of the negative impacts on crops. Remote sensing of land and the NDWI index can control irrigation in real time, significantly improving agriculture, especially in areas where meeting the need for water is difficult.
Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), introduced for the first time in 1996 in Gao (Gao), reflects moisture content in plants and soil and is determined by analogy with NDVI as:
NDWI= NIR-SWIR/NIR+SWIR
NIR - near infrared range with wavelengths in the range of 0.841 - 0.876 nm SWIR - a part of the range with wavelengths in the range of 1.628-1.652 nm
The functionality of the formula is explained by the following considerations: instead of using the red range, the reflection intensity in which is determined by the presence of chlorophyll, a short-wave near-infrared (SWIR) is used in which high absorption of light by water occurs. A wider range of 1500-1750 nm is possible. The use of the same near infrared (NIR) as in the case of NDVI is due to the fact that water does not absorb this part of the electromagnetic spectrum, thus the index is resistant to atmospheric effects, distinguishing it from NDVI.
Note that when observing forests, the NDWI index is characterized by a more stable decrease in values ​​upon reaching critical anthropogenic load, which can serve as an indicator of the ecological state of forests more sensitive than NDVI.
The results of NDWI can be presented in the form of maps and graphs, providing information on both the spatial distribution of water stress on vegetation and its temporal evolution over longer periods of time.
The NDWI product is dimensionless and varies from -1 to +1, depending on the hardwood content, as well as the type of vegetation and cover. The high NDWI values (in blue) correspond to high plant water content and coating of high plant fraction. Low NDWI values ​​(in red) correspond to low vegetation content and cover with low vegetation. During periods of water stress the NDWI rate will decrease.
The NDWI index for assessing risk of fire is used to determine the presence of moisture in vegetation cover. Higher NDWI values ​​indicate sufficient moisture, while a low value indicates water stress.
I hope I have answered your question.
With Best Wishes,
Samir G. Pandya
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hi everyone !
I'm trying to evaluate growth of a fungal isolate under drought stresses in vitro. For making that happen, i need to dissolve PEG 6000 in culture medium under axenic conditions but PEG 6000 polymers are Affected by temperature; Because of that i can not add PEG 6000 before autocalving. If you want to add it into a broth media it's easy because you can add it after cooling down then use 0.22 μm filtrates but if you do the same when you are dealing with a media that contains agar that is not going to happen.
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Attached article may be helpful in this regard
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Hi everybody,
does anyone have experiences with drought experminents in canola and knows how much the soil pF-Values need to drop to put modern hybrid winter varieties of canola into drought stress?
Kind regards,
Robert
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it depends on soil texture and genotype of canola
@
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I have developed transgenic potato lines expressing a drought stress related gene. How can I confirm gene integration and expression of these lines?
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Agree with Lakkakula Satish . That is how I confirmed over expressed lines in Arabidopsis through PCR on gDNA with control. .
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i am working on drought stress but i have some problem that how to measure the 40 to 50 % moisture content in pots.
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If you want to have only soil for your experiment with no adddition of any external soil moisture facilitator follow this You could harvest 2-3 plants to determine the plant biomass and correct for it the amount of water you would need to add to end up with the desired soil water content Weigh each pot once a week to measure evaporation and add evaporated water.Use a relation between plant height and plant weight to calculate the extra amount of water to add. Nowadays certain modelling softwares are available as well. otherwise there are certain materials which when added to soil prolong their Water holding capacity
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As Jasmonic acid is volatile, so what would be the best way to keep its stable form during treatment in 1/2 MS plates?
And I also want to apply Jasmonic acid during seedling stage. So what would be the best way to apply them along with drought stress?
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Drought management through Hormonal spray appears to be the most fraud research from Asian continents as result a number of fraud papers with good number of citation have been published without any scientific explanations. It is to further say that hormone have never shown any repetitive result. As it is very easy and does not require many costly equipments most of the research scholar fall prey of these in the begining of their carrier. It is now high time to give fullstop to this matter.
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We are going to select more drought tolerant genotype among a population, which method is more reliable for impose drought stress for selection?
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You need to have first hand information on stagewise water requirement or alternatively having some baseline information on daily evaporation rate , you can schedule two three option to test with .Please remember , testing these genotypes against terminal drought is most important .
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I am to use three chemicals (Glycine Betaine or Thio urea or salicyclic acid ) as foliar application in American cotton.
The application is aimed to minimize the high temperature or drought stress under North Indian conditions where currently temperature is 46 degree +.
Can these chemicals be directly mixed with water as tank mix spray or
Do I need to dissolve these chemicals with some other substance/chemicals so that they may be well mixed with common tap water.
Kindly update if you know about this.
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Glycine betaine:
- Slightly soluble in chloroform
Lide, D.R. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 86TH Edition 2005-2006. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL 2005, p. 3-44
- Solubility (g/100 g solvent): methanol, 55; ethanol, 8.7. Sparingly soluble in ether.
O'Neil, M.J. (ed.). The Merck Index - An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. 13th Edition, Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck and Co., Inc., 2001., p. 200
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I am looking to identify meetings and sessions in the field of xylem/plant water transport. If you have ever organized or attended a conference session or meeting dedicated to any aspect of this area of research please share the name of the conference. Any information is greatly appreciated.
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The next Xylem International meeting will most likely be organized by the University of Padova in Italy i September/October 2019. We are finalizing the organisation right now and I will let you know when I know more.
And yes, Cavitation will be "la part du lion" in this meeting!
Hervé
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Why Epigenetic Mechanisms are the key players in installing plant memory, while the genetic mechanisms comes second?
Thanks in advance.
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Dear Dr. Alfalahi
Hope to answer your question by reading the following article.
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The plant in the attached image is a wild type! It have been grown in pots and all growth conditions were in educate levels. Why does the plant still show symptoms of stress!
What is the role of these small white crystals?
Note: The plant with significantly salty taste.
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Thanks for all these valuable statements.
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When I conduct experiments for the evaluation of microbial inoculation effect on crops under drought stress, I get just agronomic evidences, but it would increase the quality of observations to know the amount of proline in plants.
Notice that accumulation of osmotic constituents like proline, and sugars during stress enable plants to maintain the osmoregulation and recover from the oxidative stress. Thank you.
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In some cases the co-inoculation at the same moment gives great outcomes, but it seems that separate inoculation in different times is better when the experiment is conducted under stress environment, such drought.
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Please have a look at enclosed PDF..
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As i came to know with different views regarding the range of flower drop in Mungbean genotypes.
What should be a general range for normal and stressed conditions both?
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Flower drop due to heat stress is very common in mungbean and the extent of flower shedding has been reported up to 79% although it varied from genotype to genotype. It has been reported by different authors that no or less resistance to flower shedding under heat stress.
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Calculation of EDI index
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Hi
Thanks Raoof
If you have any question or problem with using MDM you can contact with us at http://www.agrimetsoft.com/contact.aspx
or
Cheers
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Is the artificial drought stress creating process same for pot experiment and field experiment?
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Dear Ms
you can find your answer on this article
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Hello,
I am working with maize drought tolerance. I am analyzing data under drought stress and normal condition. While doing data analyses I have found that traits like Anthesis silking interval, thousand kernel weight has a heritability of zero under drought stress condition. But when I combine data of both drought stress and normal condition heritability of those two traits is not zero. Is there any problem with my data? or is it explainable in other ways?
Looking forward to answers.. 
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I can add one more thought. If you have a negative genetic correlation between performance in two environments (as might occur with droght versus non-drought) one could well get effectively a zero heritability for average performance over the pair of environments. Note that between two environments the true genetic correlation has bounds of +1 and -1, whereas the genetic correlation across multiple environments has bounds of +1 and zero
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Dear Colleagues,
I would like to know what is the best duration (days) to applicate salinity stress on tree seedlings aged of 60 days? i am confuse, some works said one week, 2 weeks, one month....
Thank you
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Thank you all of you
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Any former experiences please.
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I recommend you to explore the use of PEG as osmoticum and potting the plants in dialysis membranes. in this way, by choosing the adequate concentration and molecular weigh of PEG you can induce the osmotic potential of the subtratum. Everytime you apply water to your potted plants, osmoticum will substract the amount of water need to reach the equilibrium in the substratum.
Many other people (including us) have used another methods, more simple than this but not as accurate. For instance, by keeping constant the weigh of the potted plant once recahed the desire RWC or water potential.
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I need publication on the impact of climate change on drought using SPI and RDI, any help?
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Hi
Please read this. This article has a software for calculating 8 drought Indices. SPI CZI, MCZI, ZSI, RAI, PN,DI, EDI