Science topic

Drive - Science topic

A state of internal activity of an organism that is a necessary condition before a given stimulus will elicit a class of responses; e.g., a certain level of hunger (drive) must be present before food will elicit an eating response.
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Every researcher has a Big Question in his/her mind. It is the most powerful drive in your heart, pushing you to study and explore.
What is yours?
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Since we are not with value in our university and didn't get a space to work on the idea, how can we apply our intelligence to the research area? unfortunately, my biggest challenge is to leave the research area and work anywhere or leave my country. I have lots of ideas with solutions I explored them but what are the benefits of that, if we do not have a place in the university or any place to apply our innovations
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If we run sequence on Xcalibur it will require data to be saved on local disk rather than saving on shared drive which other software allows. Is there any options which can help it.
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New Question : Xcalibur disapears drom Windows 10
I have been runing Xcalibur 2.07 in Windows 10 for several years. In june the software would not open.
I reinstalled it. And that worked for a few weeks.
Then last week again Xcalibur disapeared. I tried to reinstal from the "Xcalibur instal disk" copy on my computer and the installation said Ccalibur .exe mising
Does anybody know if there is a conflict with Windows update or any antivirus software?
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Dear Researchers,
Considering the adopted plan to end the production of cars on fossil fuels by 2035, which means a complete transition to electric vehicles, I am interested in your opinions on whether the year 2035 is an ambitious goal for the complete adoption of electric vehicles.
Do you believe that the construction of clean power plants is sufficiently promoted, given that this also entails an increase in electricity demand and the need to provide clean electricity, because otherwise, the transition to electric vehicles makes little sense if sources that emit a large amount of greenhouse gases are used to produce the necessary electricity?
I am also interested in your opinions about freight vehicles and the efficiency of using electricity to drive freight vehicles, primarily airplanes, ships, and trucks. Is it realistic to expect that technology will advance so much in the next ten years that a sufficiently efficient drive mechanism will be developed for such vehicles?
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Dear Matija Kovačić,
The transition from electric cars to combustion cars took place over 100 years ago. From a climatic and environmental point of view, it was one of the biggest dead ends in the development of civilisation. we are now trying to reverse this process. Most car companies already mass-produce some of their models in electric vehicle versions. Some car companies are also already mass-producing hydrogen-powered vehicles, i.e. fully emission-free (also in terms of energy source). New, increasingly stringent standards and environmental, pro-climate regulations in the European Union are motivating the auto-moto business to make this type of pro-climate and pro-environmental transformation. The aforementioned year 2035 is an ambitious date from a political and business perspective. However, given the accelerating process of global warming, the sooner this process of pro-climate and pro-environmental transformation of transport can be carried out, the better for the climate, the biosphere and the biodiversity of the planet, and of course the better for humanity. However, a climate-oriented and environmentally-friendly transformation of transport alone will not solve all the problems associated with CO2 emissions into the atmosphere, environmental pollution, global warming and the growing risk of a climate catastrophe in the relatively near future. Some countries lack a developed charging infrastructure for electric cars. There is a lack of modern, additional, zero-emission power stations to supply electricity to further electric vehicles, which are already available for sale from car brand dealers. There is a lack of a developed business to carry out environmentally neutral disposal of used batteries. There are many problems to be solved. But there is also a lot of eco-innovation and green technology, which, due to political and business constraints, the lobby of fossil fuel mines, oil refineries, large mining companies, energy companies generating electricity and/or heat based on the combustion of fossil fuels, unfortunately does not leave the research laboratories, are not being implemented on a large scale and, as a consequence, the overall process of carrying out the pro-environmental transformation of the classic growth, brown, linear economy of excess to a sustainable, green, zero-carbon zero-growth and closed loop economy is progressing much more slowly than it could. And we have very little time left. According to long-term climate change models, a global climate catastrophe could occur as early as this 21st century.
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Hi all.
I'm looking into buying the IKA Ultra-Turrax Tube Drive to be used as a sample grinder/homogenizer for subsequent DNA isolation. I have no previous experience using it, so I was wondering if anyone here could provide some feedback.
- Has anyone used it to lyse plant or fungal samples?
- Are the tubes autoclavable?
Thank you.
P
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Hi Pedro, mb you've been already using another homogenyzer suited for all your applications? May you recommend any?
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How to drive a 36v motor within Arduino hardware?
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This is my first introduction to statistical analysis. I am wanting to understand how to test the theory that influencer marketing will drive sales. Two yes/no questions were asked and answered including "Do you follow any influencers?" and "Have you ever purchased anything seen used by an influencer?" From the outset the data seems to show that those who do follow influencers are inspired to purchase. But it also appears to identify that those who do not follow are also influenced. I'm really trying to work out the best formulas for analysis. If anyone could help, it would be greatly appreciated.
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As practical advice, be sure you don't place too much importance on the p-value from a statistical analysis. A hypothesis test, like the chi-square tests of association mentioned in some other answers, essentially indicates if there is enough evidence of there being a "signal" in the data relative to the "noise" in the data. This is interesting, but doesn't tell the whole story.
As mentioned in another answer, you want to think about the size of the effect you are considering. Odds ratio is a measure that is relatively intuitive. For a 2 x 2 table of counts you can also use the phi statistic, which is analogous to the correlation between the two variables (on the axes of the table of counts).
It's often most meaningful to present the actual data in a plot or table. In this case, you might present the counts in a table, or these counts as proportions (perhaps by row or column, if that makes the most sense).
A bar plot of these counts or proportions can be meaningful ( ex. https://rcompanion.org/handbook/images/image319.png ).
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Hello everyone
I did a simulation of a BLDC Motor sensorless drive system but I did not get the final answer. I attached the simulation below. Please help me if you can and correct this simulation.
Note: Simulation has been done in MATLAB 2018b.
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Can you fix it?
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Our lab purchased the Spectramax ID3 and have encountered an error in the built in computer due to an issue connecting to the hard drive. Has anyone had experience with this and know of a resolution or the cost of repair?
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If we assume that Tesla's resources are dedicated to developing deep reinforcement learning-based autonomous driving cars, would they be able to achieve full self-driving?
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self-driving cars learn by translating the actions of surrounding vehicles into their own frames of reference—their deep learning algorithm–powered neural networks. These other cars may be human-driven vehicles without any sensors, or another company's auto-piloted vehicles.
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Can you suggest the best microcontroller to drive motors of an UAV? Now we are designing a control board and have to select the micom. Can you share your experience and considerations?
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Young-Kwan Kim Agree. The weight saving can be mainly considered only for tiny type of a drone.
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I need to design and simulate a power supply(generator) to drive 6 transducers. power of each transducer is 50 watts and they work at 40khz frequency.
can you please share a design of such generator with me?
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If you have never set up or repaired switching power supplies or converters, then I do not advise you to undertake the design and manufacture of a generator for an ultrasonic transducer. Try using ready-made DIY kits. Or, for the beginning, learn the schemotechnics of such ready-made kits.
Try to search "Ultrasonic DIY Generator"
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I find that PR controllers are often used in scenarios with high sampling frequency and high switching frequency (like several kilohertz) but rarely seen in electrical drive traction scenarios. What are the limitations of PR controllers at low switching frequencies?
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Your question refers to two different aspects:
1. For low sampling frequency in the grid frequency applications, you need to respect the practical sampling frequency which has to be set to more than a minimum of 10 times the grid frequency (for instance 10*50 Hz. If you go below this, you will have the problem of having folding effects, etc. Every controller will have an unsolved problem in this case.
2. To attain a high-performance closed-loop system with a wide enough bandwidth, you need to have a switching frequency as fast as possible. It is essential to have a faster internal control loop (current control) to have a better control performance. This is why you need a PR control set in a high-frequency as well as a high-speed actuator.
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I have an enhancer region that I'd like to test the expression of using a luciferase assay. However, the full region is roughly 9.6kb long and I'm worried that it might be too long to insert into the vector and reliably drive expression. I might be able to break the enhancer down into a ~3kb critical region, but even this is still the size of most luciferase reporter vectors on their own. Does anyone know if it is possible to drive expression with such large sequences? I plan to use the pGL4 reporter vector from Promega, if that is relevant.
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The problem with the long insert would be in the propagation of plasmid. Even with special competent cells for large plasmid (e.g. XL10 Gold) or using electroporation, you will still have a hard time to produce that plasmid DNA when it is much bigger than 10kb. A 3kb promoter/enhancer fragment is not a problem. I have made reporters with genomic DNA double of that size.
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Numerous alliances quickly help more fluid crossover working practices, smooth out business cycles and drive client experience advancement through new digital inferences. In any case, they've likewise extended the corporate assault surface against the background of an inexorably perplexing and thorough administrative climate in consideration of mitigating against cyber losses. An absence of IT-board arrangement on the essential business of network protection takes steps to subvert endeavours to deal with these mounting risks. Can ethically drive IT Board of Directors help in this way, and how best could the Board drive such innovation?
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A very interesting discussion has been initiated
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If a switch, say SiC or Si Mosfet is to be used in a converter where they are common to two independent operating modes of the converter, where it is once in a mode to carry higher current and at other times it will operate in lighter load in another operating mode.
Control in both modes is different.
So, here I need these common switches to be of the same voltage 600 V, higher current carrying mode current rating = 100 A and lower current carrying mode required current-carrying capacity= 15 A. So I have to use a switch of 600V, 100 A, but it will be underutilization in the low current-carrying mode. So, the Gate drive voltage would be the same, and on-state resistance will also not get affected, expecting the losses would not get differ from the case when a low rated switch of 15 A is used.
I want to know what are the compromisation that will be faced in the lighter load operation of the higher-rated switches used. Is there any effect of higher parasitic values? I want to collect some points to understand it better.
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The higher current is achieved by increasing the current carrying area of the transistor in addition to effective cooling of the transistor.
One penalty is the price of the transistor.
Other wise the operation of the transistor will at low current will be more comfortable to the transistor since its temperature will be lower.
So t he transistor will live longer.
As for the switching speed it may be smaller in the low current than if one uses smaller area transistor since the area increase will increase the parasitic capacitance. But you can yourself see the the effect of the temperature on the operation of the transistors since you have different transistor types that may have different behavior to the temperature rise.
In summary operating transistors at lower current will be favorable for them.
Best wishes.
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I want to know what is the current research is going on in the field of vector controlled induction motor drive....suggest some useful applications....
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Research on classical field-oriented control w.r.t. to linear feedback control is largely finished. Current research focus is on model predictive control (cf. https://www.wiley.com/en-gb/Model+Predictive+Control+of+High+Power+Converters+and+Industrial+Drives-p-9781119010906) and machine learning-based control (e.g., using reinforcement learning cf. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/9376968). Both can (but not must) be integrated within a field-oriented coordinate system.
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I have read papers on multilevel inverter feeding BLDC motor drives. My question is BLDC motor having trapezoidal back-emf, is it possible to drive the BLDC motor using an l inverter that gives a perfectly sinusoidal voltage output? Also, I would like to get clarified about the stability of such a drive and torque ripple. I will be grateful to you if you could kindly let me know the significance of such an inverter application to BLDC motor drives.
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Dear Madam
Yes, it is possible, but in that case You have to change control of Your motor.
You have to treat the BLDC as an synchronuous motor and apply frequency control, remebrering of U/f fomula on the output of Your MLI.
You start Your drive with a low frequency and voltage and then You control the speed by changing frequency of supply, adjusting the voltage accordingly.
With such drive You forget the electronic commutator and control the drive directly by the output ferquency of Your MLI.
Best wishes - Piotr Wach, Opole, Poland
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I need to transport leaf samples from an experimental site back to my lab, a four hour drive away. I'm aware that freezing with liquid nitrogen or dry ice isn't safe for driving, is there another option which would prevent degradation of the samples until I can get them in a freezer at the lab. I want to do pigment extractions and antioxidant capacity.
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Dear Dr. Anna Jones ,
I suggest you to have a look at the following, interesting references:
- Instructions for Taking Samples for Plant Analysis
My best regards, Amir Beketov.
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Sensorless Control of a Doubly Fed Induction Machine Based
on an Extended Kalman Filter
Improved Sensorless Control of Doubly Fed Induction Motor
Drive Based on Full Order Extended Kalman Filter Observer
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DLCP is an efficient tool for junction-type photoelectric devices to characterize gap states. Generally, it measures the junction capacitance as a function of frequency, temperature, ac voltage, and dc voltage. Unlike CV and admittance spectroscopy methods, in DLCP amplitude of the ac voltages is changed to get higher-order capacitance values to extract the charge density of (gap) states. To do so, the dc voltage (offset) changes along with the ac voltage to keep the ac peak wave aligned.
I find it a little complicated to understand the biasing part (bold). I have read a series of papers on this topic. I would appreciate it if anyone elucidates the experimental procedure.
Thank you!
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welcome!
If you have a nonlinear device such as a diode one can operate at certain DC operating point by applying a DC current through a coil of a large resistance.
At the same time one can apply in parallel to it on the diode an ac voltage source through a high pass filter in order to prevent the passage of the DC current in the AC signal generator. Normally one uses a large blocking capacitor.
The resistance in series with the DC source prevents the AC signal from flowing through the DC source. In this way, one can apply a dc and AC voltages in the diode simultaneously. Before the the availability of such set ups we built it in the laboratory and measures the impedance spectroscopy.
I would like that you follow the paper in the link:
Best wishes
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I am trying to use the advanced PID controller(auto-tuning) to control the speed of induction motor drive with FOC. I would like to ask how to get the transfer function for the induction motor and inverter by system identification method. anyone can give me useful information.
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1. Instead of calculating transfer function or transfer function matrix better is to go with the state-space model........
With this type of modeling, then you can use the Kalman filter for identification purposes....
2. If you want to stick with the transfer function model...... it is better to first add a decoupling block to decouple the d-axis and q-axis circuits.....
Then depending on the type of control i.e FOC in your case.....you can easily relate rotor speed with q-xis voltage......for simplification you can make TL=0.....Also, as FOC is implemented so id=constat, meaning d-axis dynamics (or d-axis circuit dynamics) are totally ignored.....meaning as if there is no d-axis circuit.......but mind, it is valid only while decoupling block is used.......
Thus, you will finally have a plant with q-axis voltage as input and q-axis current as output with a cascade block whose input is q-axis current and output is torque developed with cascade block whose input is torque developed and output is rotor speed.....Finally, you can easily close two loops q-axis current and speed loops with two PI controllers to tune......here identification can easily be done by a Neural Network block......
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I'm designing leader follower feedback controller for crawler robots .Here rear wheel is connected to front via a joint so that it can follow front when it turns ,for both the module(front &rear ) I have used differential drive robots .Now I'm facing problem in turning constraints because of the yaw joint angle measurements.
Here I'm attaching the paper following
Thank you
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GOR
(1) The magnitude of volume of gas required to move the oil through the reservoir formation to reach the well keeps increasing as the well becomes older. In such cases, if the production gets associated with a water drive, then, how exactly GOR will get influenced?
(2) If the hydrostatic pressure remains greater than the initial rock pressure, then, the GOR will remain as a ‘constant’ throughout the life of the well? Further, if there is no water pressure associated with the reservoir-formation, then, what will happen to GOR?
(3) The rate of decline of GOR with regard to oil production will depend
(a) on the degree to which the well has declined; and
(b) on the difference between rock-pressure and hydrostatic pressure.
Any other sensitive parameter that could possibly influence the rate of decline of GOR?
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I'm now working on the effect of climate change on regional agricultural hydrology processes by using hydrological model. I do know that the CMIP5 data (especailly air temperature, precipitation and et al.) should perform statistical downscaling before driving the model. The NCEP/NCAR and ECMWF (https://cds.climate.copernicus.eu/cdsapp#!/dataset/derived-near-surface-meteorological-variables?tab=overview) reanalysis data have different resolution. Does anyone know the differences, advantages and disadvantages in detail when using the reanalysis data to drive hydrological model ?
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What impact does carbon labelling have on people regarding their food choices? Can carbon footprint labelling drive customers choices towards more sustainable food? Can sustainable food choices be linked with a healthier diet?
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Hello,
I am working on a project and we need to use an DC to AC inverter for the battery power supply. I am searching for devices that conver the current and also are capable of controlling the motor. I know that this kind of inverters can regulate the speed. But what about the torque? Does it need to be regulated with a variable resistor? How does it normally work?
Thank you a lot
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I'm reaching out because I wanted to know what are some possible pitfalls if a user wants to create two separate strings to drive a grid-tie inverter as an alternative use of the solar water pumping system? Please note that the user wants this kind of mechanical switching to utilize the solar panels while the water pumping will not be necessary.
I'm working on my project for Solar Water Pumping System and my team and I are looking for whatever information you have.
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welcome,
I revised the connections in the top circuit diagram. You feed the inverter of the water pump by two strings in series. While you feed the two grid inverters by a separate string.
I see that the connections and switching arrangements are okay.
It remains the sizing of the different components and the their protection.
I have one advise that you in switching you have to adjust the switching to affect brake before make in order to grantee isolation of the two systems and consequently their interactions.
Wish you success.
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Hello,
I am looking for a battery for a 70 kW BLDC motor. I want to be able to change the torque and speed of it. I understand that it is possible to vary the speed with the current frequency and the torque with the current amount. Does that mean that if I operate this motor manipulating the voltage but not the frequency am I going to be able to change the torque but not the speed? I want to know it because we don't need the full nominal performance of the engine at 70kW. Its nominal magnitudes are 420Vdc, 240A, 850Nm torque and 786 rpm speed. What should I do if I want to drive it at 425 Nm and same speed?
Best regards,
Jorge
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Thank you very much for your responses. It is a big help for my projects. I am learning a lot and I think it is going well thanks to you too.
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Is anyone familiar with DIY repair of the Typhoon (Amersham/GE/molecular dynamics) lasers canners? Can't find any hints online. Our current issue with it is a faulty shutter cable.
BTW, in case anyone is stuck with a "firmware" error in the older machine (ours is 2007 and is beyond repair), one can open the PC box (in 2007, it was a Pentium III) and connect a VGA monitor and a keyboard to the PC board, and read the error code that comes up during start up. Ours shows a shutter cable problem, which is where I am stuck now.
In the past, I have replaced faulty fans, and the fast stage drive belt. All of these "problems" were quoted by GE to be fixed for between 5K and 15K, at which point the machine has been abandoned, and I've been fixing issues with it for the last few years on case by case basis.
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That's very generous of you Andrey, thanks! Unfortunately I'm in the US - Oregon, but we could pay for phone / web support. My email is iall@pdx.edu, thanks again.
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Dear coworkers,
I am trying to use 6 hourly NCEP-FNL 0.25*0.25 Resolution data to drive the High-Resolution Land Data Assimilation System (HRLDAS) to run Noah-MP offline.
I haven't tried 6 hourly data such as NCEP-FNL, so I have some difficulties running HRLDAS with NCEP-FNL. I have so far extracted NCEP-FNL forcing data using wgrib2, but I am running into problems when I try to create the forcing files.
I got the error message saying, "Unrecognized Data Representation Template Number: 3 " when I ran create_forcing.exe.
I wonder if anyone has been using NCEP-FNL Data to run HRLDAS. And I need your help.
Thanks for your time and for reading my question!
Arim
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NCL may help you!
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Hi, I was using the Malvern Zetasizer to measure the zeta potential of GNPs in simulated cement pore solution. when I measure the zeta potential of GNPs in simulate cement pore solution, the software shows the message "Problem with cell drive circuit". In the SOPs, the materials is "Polystyrene latex", the dispersant is added manually with a dielectric constant of 5.2 (I checked in the literature, the dielectric constant is around 5.2 of simulated pore solution). But the zeta potential cannot be measured with this SOPs, and shows the message "Problem with cell drive circuit". The GNPs is conductive and the concentration is 0.02 g/L. Do you know how to measure the zeta potential of GNPs in simulated cement pore solution?
The simulated cement pore solution is saturated Ca(OH)2 with 8g/L NaOH, 22.4g/L KOH and 27.6 g/L CaSO4. PH is around 13.3
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it sounds like this might be a challenging sample. You indicate a low dielectric constant and high salt and very high pH.
Can you check the log file and see which previous information may be mentioned in there, it might help to resolve. The log file is at This PC > Documents > Malvern Instruments > Zetasizer > Logs . Find the file from the date and open it (it is a text file, open with notepad) and scroll to the end to locate the event when it happened. Any relevant messages prior to the "Problem with cell drive circuit"?
Next I would check that the instrument performs OK with a normal sample, like polystyrene latex beads. I would then check if size measurements by DLS are possible. Does the sample look clear or opaque? What is the viscosity? Which cuvette type have you tried for this?
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In model reference adaptive control, how to minimize the error between the signals based on rotor flux to achieve the stability of a drive system?
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Would you please clarify your question more? Do you want to estimate the rotor speed or machine parameters using MRAS method?
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Hello everyone,
I want do co-simulation using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for evaluating the flow and ADAMS for evaluating the drive mechanism. Does ANSYS FLUENT couple with ADAMS for doing co-simulation ? i couldn't find any documentation or course online for this purpose. Does anyone know any documentation or free course ?
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Please give more details about your question. Is it 2D or 3D simulations?
Best regards
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hi
I am trying to extract data for a particular location from netcdf file.
I have used CDO, ArcMap and R.
However, all three give different outputs. Specially R.
I'll be highly obliged if someone can help me in this regard.
Plz review the following link containing the netcdf file along with the Codes/commands of above mentioned software and their obtained outputs.
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the issue is your dataset doesn't have data for specific location (74.9E 35.37N) given in the text file. Your file has data between -21.56S to 35.2N and -32.12E to 52.36E. Dataset needs to be correct from rotated projection. R doesn't automatically correct the projection of the dataset and ArcGIS corrected the projection. Use panoply tool to view data directly from NetCDF
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I'm working on an induction motor drive with a scalar controller. As inverter modulation, I utilized both SVM and SPWM. I discovered that if the frequency and output fundamental voltage from SVM and SPWM are the same, the THD is about the same. The result can be seen in the image attached herewith. Can anybody explain why the THD is the same? Is THD only determined by the amount of fundamental voltage generated? Any literary references would be much appreciated.
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Yes, I have already worked on improving the power quality of three-phase inverters by comparing 3 methods (SPWM, SVPWM and SHE PWM).
the best method was the SHE PWM which eliminates harmonics and gives a very low THD
Concerning your question, in another work, I made a comparative study between the vector and sinusoidal PWM, I found almost the same value of distortion (THD) for different switching frequency, but in the SVPWM, the switching losses decreases which increases the value of the fondalmental (I made a simulation under MATLAB and I validated the results experimentally by the FPGA tool (RT-Lab).
Kind regards
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I have one query about the magnetic moment obtained in the LaH3 system obtained after doping on the carbon atom in place of the H atom. The original system is nonmagnetic, after doping one C atom I suppose to get the magnetic moment of around 2.0 ub, but I am getting only 0.997ub.
I am attaching my input file here. I did the changes in the magnon card also but still no effect. If anyone is familiar with this type of problem, please suggest me. I'll be very thankful for any kind of suggestion.
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Dear Payal Wadhwa and Muhammad Mushtaq,
Thank you so much for your response.
Here are my input files.
About references, I did not get anything but some similar things I read in some papers then I concluded that I am giving two extra electrons in the system, and in this way, I should get the magnetic moment of 2.0ub.
I am observing the magnetic moment in the OSZ* for the complete system.
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Dear researchers,
while replacing fuzzy with speed PI control for PMSM drive, speed is tracking fine but whenever the load is applied speed is drastically reducing.
If torque limits have of output membership function chosen as >1500 or above and (placed a limiter at output (+-20 because rated torque 20N-m)found no decrement in speed but torque ripple is there. What could be the possible reason.
How to select the range, we must select the range of output membership function between +-20 right?
7*7 base rule base only considered for error and change in error that usually all the people mention in paper.
does speed settles back in fuzzy even under load or it maintains steady state error?
Please share your experience.
Thank you.
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Indeed you could benefit from this one:
"A Thorough Comparative Analysis of PI and Sliding Mode Controllers in Permanent
Magnet Synchronous Motor Drive Based on Optimization Algorithms"
By: F. Khorsand, R. Shahnazi, E. Fallah
ABSTRACT:
In this paper, the speed tracking for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) in field oriented control (FOC) method is investigated using linear proportional-integral (PI) controller,
sliding mode controller (SMC) and its advanced counterparts. The advanced SMCs considered in this paper are fuzzy SMC (FSMC) and sliding mode controller with time-varying switching gain (SMC+TG) which can effectively cope with chattering, an inherent harmful phenomenon in SMC. Regardless of all
the works done to replace PI controller with SMC and its advanced counterparts, a thorough comparison of the PMSM drive behavior under mentioned controllers is still missing. This paper attempts to fill in this gap, by providing a fair and in-depth comparison of the PMSM drive operation by using PI and sliding mode speed controllers. In this paper, in order to design and provide a fair framework for comparison the performance and robustness of these four controllers a suitable cost function is defined to manage the performance effectively. Thus, based on this cost function a nonlinear optimization problem is defined.
To solve the optimization problem and consequently derive the optimal values for the parameters of the controllers, particle swarm optimization (PSO) and grey wolf optimization (GWO) algorithms are
employed. The performance and robustness of the PMSM drive using four optimal controllers are studied in the presence of different conditions and uncertainties. Numerical results demonstrate that SMC and its advanced counterparts cannot offer the superior behavior for all conditions and their superiority is less than it is often stated in the literature.
I have attached the pdf file ....
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Assuming that no motion in the normal direction, how would you propose a system of hardware and interconnection as well as the control strategy that will drive the system?
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Sounds analogous to an inverted pendulum. Here is one way to construct something with closely similar dynamics. Take a knee (90° angle) connector for sewage pipe, cut it nicely and mount it on a toy car such that the knee is pointing straight upwards. Place a small ball (i.e. from a roll-on bottle) on top of the knee and try to keep it there stably by moving the toy car back, forth, and sideways (hard to do manually without automated feedback control loop). I guess many feedback control schemes would keep the ball at the top of this curve subject to micromotion.
Aside: If the knee was facing down, mounted on a motor, and the ball is placed inside the 90° curve while the motor is rotated at some angular frequency, the resulting dynamics would resemble Mathieu equations whose stability analysis could be checked from Floquet theory. Incidentally, these are the same dynamics exhibited by a single ion trapped in a linear Paul trap.
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Hi, everyone.
I am currently working with the earth engine, and want to export some data to the local drive.
The scale in Earth Engine is always in the unit of 'meter' https://developers.google.com/earth-engine/guides/scale
The data I want is ee.ImageCollection('ECMWF/ERA5/DAILY'). I checked the original spatial resolution of ECMWF/ERA5/DAILY which is around 27830. However, If I export the data with this scale: 27830, with EPSG: 4326, the data seems to have some deformation issue, see the attached file. (https://code.earthengine.google.com/46e01504503e7bbf44d28c4ae3799269)
How should I solve this problem?
Best, Lijie
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Are you sure that the distortions are from the raster file you get up from GEE?
Using this script (modified from that you provided):
var era5 = ee.ImageCollection('ECMWF/ERA5/DAILY')
.filterDate('2000-01-01', '2000-01-02')
.first()
.select('total_precipitation');
print('Projection, crs, and crs_transform:', era5.projection());
print('Scale in meters:', era5.projection()
.nominalScale());
Map.centerObject(era5);
Map.addLayer(era5, {min: 0, max: 0.075});
Export.image.toDrive({image: era5,
description: "ECMWF_ERA5_DAILY_01-01-2000",
folder: "Folder",
maxPixels: 1e10,
scale: 27830
});
I could export one raster to my drive and it seems fine. Remember that your vector, containing the continent boundaries, could have had been obtained from a different survey scale from that the raster one was surveyed.
I recommend you to check out if vector and raster have the same geocentric reference system.
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My questionnaire is build up with several videos which the respondents watched and answered how likely they are to watch the video on a 5 point likert scale.
Eventually I would like to know which way is the best to analyze my data in a good way.
I know mostly a linear regression is used but at the moment I don't know how to do this in a good way for my study.
I was wondering if someone could help me out, so I could go further with my research and finish my Master Marketing!
I attached my (draft) thesis and my spss data
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In addition to the comment Mohialdeen Alotumi, I think there is a need to determine the distribution of your dependent variable to pick appropriate tests.
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Hi everyone,
I have a conceptual question related to reinforcement learning that might be of interest to many people. Suppose we are dealing with the driving problem. There are several ways to define the actions: a) we can define the actions based on the accelerator, steering wheel, and brake, that is, where your body meets the machine? b) or where the rubber meets the road, considering your actions to be tire torques. c) where to drive?
As summarized above, there are many ways to define the actions or, in other words, draw the lines between the agent and the environment! How can we choose proper action lists for a given agent? In other words, how can we draw a boundary between the agent and the environment?
Thanks in advance for your insightful comments.
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Hi. See the link that might help you:
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There are many forces that drive the entrepreneurial trend in today’s economy. Some entrepreneurs have faced many challenges and setbacks that have prevented them from succeeding in their new ventures. Despite the major drawbacks, what’s still feeding the entrepreneurial fire.
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Dear researcher, following my research papers, may help you to get an overview.
(PDF) Do Risk-Taking, Innovativeness, and Proactivity Affect Business Performance of SMEs? A Case Study in Bangladesh (researchgate.net)
(PDF) Graduate Students' Behavioral Intention of toward Social Entrepreneurship: Role of Social Vision, Innovativeness, Social Proactiveness, and Risk-Taking (researchgate.net)
(PDF) Understanding the Entrepreneurial Intention in the Light of Contextual Factors: Gender Analysis (researchgate.net)
(PDF) The Effect of Entrepreneurial Orientation, Market Orientation, and Gender on Business Performance: An Empirical Study of SMEs in Bangladesh (researchgate.net)
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According to the article "Green methods for hydrogen production" by Ibrahim Dincer:
H2 can be produced thermocatalytically as follow:
Concentrated solar heat is used to drive a thermocatalytic process at high temperature to crack H2S extracted from seas or derived from other industrial processes.
What is the range of temperature used? (if possible mention the reference please)
Thank you in advance.
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Good luck!
The best wishes,
Saeed
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Generally, the HPPC test is used to calculate the battery peak charge/discharge power. However, I wanted to calculate the battery peak charge/discharge power under drive cycle test condition such as UDDS, US06 and FUDS.
Thanks in advance.
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You can have a look at our shared data.
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Have you observed a link between how the foot function and the development of scoliotic curves in children?
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The PreClinical Clubfoot Deformity is a congenital foot deformity present at birth (much like the more severe Clubfoot Deformity) (Rothbart, 2002)
This is my hypothesis on AIS:
  1. The PreClinical Clubfoot Deformity engages gravity drive (abnormal) pronation during stance phase of gait (Rothbart, 2010) There is a current relevant thread on the Podiatry forum - Abnormal Ontogenetic Development of the Calcaneus resulting in the PreClinical Clubfoot Deformity - you might find of interest (https://podiatryarena.com)
  2. Gravity drive pronation unlevels the pelvis, and more specifically, the sacral base (Rothbart and Esterbrook, 1988; Rothbart 2006)
  3. Unleveling the sacral base will increase the increase the frontal and sagittal plane curvatures of the spine (Rothbart, 2013).
I believe the PreClinical Clubfoot Deformity is a major biomechanical determinant in the development of AIS. I have seen this link both clinically and in my research over the past 50 years. I encourage you to investigate this foot to spine link and either confirm or refute it.
Rothbart BA, 2002. Medial Column Foot Systems: An Innovative Tool for Improving Posture. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies (6)1:37-46
Rothbart BA 2010. The Primus Metatarsus Supinatus (Rothbarts) Foot and the PreClinical Clubfoot Deformity.Podiatry Review, Vol. 67(1)
Rothbart BA, Esterbrook L, 1988. Excessive Pronation: A Major Biomechanical Determinant in the Development of Chondromalacia and Pelvic Lists. Journal Manipulative Physiologic Therapeutics 11(5): 373-379
Rothbart BA 2006. Relationship of Functional Leg-Length Discrepancy to Abnormal Pronation. Journal American Podiatric Medical Association;96(6):499-507
Rothbart BA 2013.  Preliminary Study: Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Linked to Abnormal Foot Pronation.  Podiatry Review  Vol 72, No 2:8-11.
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Please help me understand: I don’t understand why the drive voltage in this paper needs to be so high to allow light transmission:
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Dear Sam Lin , according to the paper by Liu et al. broadening and offsetting of the drive voltage are due to graphene defects and natural doping from the substrate respectively.
Hope it helps.
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Hello everybody
I'm working on prediction mechanical properties of polymer reinforced by fiber , and I simulate some microstructures with different fiber orientations, diameter , position inside RVE by using Digimat FE software , however the FE software is time consuming and it's not effective way to drive data sets for training of machine learning model. So my questions , is there any suggested approach to generate data set depending on the RVE that accomplished by simulation software? or is there any way to handle small data set and use it for training machine learning model?
Thanks in advance
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Dear Mr. Johan Chaniot
Thanks for you valued information , appreciate your help
Regards
Mortda
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I am a mechanical student with no background in BLDC motor modelling. Can anyone help me with this? I need it to find the heat generated in the inverter. I have created the vehicle model for the simulation which uses NEDC drive cycle. I got angular velocity and load torque from that. I don't know how to proceed further when it comes to BLDC motor.
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I've calculated the power losses of the MOSFET for each pulse. But i need it for the entire driving cycle. So need the motor model.
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Dear all,
How to run an executabele file from a cloud?
I have very technical question. I'd like to play a game wth my students, and I would like to give my students a link to a piece of software running in a cloud.(google drive,...), so I can collect their wfrom that cloud. But how can I do so?
Sincerely
Bob
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Several years I published the results of a research study that linked gravity drive pronation (hyperpronation) to changes in the frontal plane position of the cranial bones.
The past two years I have been investigating the possible link between gravity drive pronation and CNS function. I just completed a preliminary qEEG study and substantiates this link. Abnormal foot function changes brain wave activity.
Comments or questions?
Professor Rothbart
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In a single-phase uncontrolled rectifier fed VSI driven three-phase induction motor, the dc-link voltage reduces under loading condition of induction motor drive. How to select the optimum value of the dc-link capacitor to maintain the dc-link voltage constant over the entire range of the induction motor?
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For electric vehicle (EV) propulsion motor drive control, there are numerous PWM techniques of variable or fixed switching frequencies in use. What effects do variable or fixed switching frequencies have on the output performance of medium/high-powered EV propulsion motors? What should be the switching frequency limit for a stable EV drive operation? Any assistance with this matter will be greatly appreciated.
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The selection of switching frequency for the EVs mostly depends on the switches that are used in the inverter. In a Si IGBT-based inverter, the switching frequency is limited to a few tens of kHz (usually lower than 20 kHz) due to the high switching losses in IGBTs.
However, there is a trend towards using MOSFETs, especially wide-bandgap types in EV drive systems. This can be seen in Tesla Model 3 inverter which uses SiC discrete switches. By using these switches, the switching frequency can go even higher than 50 kHz since the switching losses are much lower compared to IGBTs. GaN technology can facilitate even higher frequencies.
Keep in mind that switching loss is not the only factor that changes with frequency. DC-link capacitor size, motor losses, and output filters are also affected by going to higher frequencies.
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Does climate drive (directly or not) inter/intraspecific competition in tetrapod species? And more specifically on islands, along a North-South cline? Many thanks for our help and/or references :-)
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Thanks for that, Benjamin! Yes, please do let me know should you be coming up with some specific data, case studies or the like! I am always interested in connecting climatic changes to evolution - especially if relating to island biogeographies :-) Thanks & best wishes, Julius
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Hey, I try to run my 4 pole IPMSM with PWSVM and use a typical controller with PI-controller with a current loop and speed loop. When I run my system with DC-supply 100 V with a steady-state speed of 700 rpm, I see that both Iq and Id go towards 0 A, since I don't have any load except some friction. The Vd and Vq computed out of the current controllers have constant value as well. But when I run my system with DC-supply 150 V with the same speed, the output of the current controllers is no longer stable. It seems like the position measurement is gradually getting out of phase. Until the point, I get an overcurrent fault in the inverter. Have anyone had a similar problem?. Is it possible for the system to get unstable with a higher DC-supply?
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the best action in this situation is that you rebuild all the control scheme as simple as possible, remove all secondary items, so you can focus on lower number of elements. Also visualize all signals and locate the one with wrong behavior, thus you can search around for any possible causes.
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The speed estimation of induction motor at low speed is not precise and this affects the sensor less control of induction motor . I like to know whether the above limitation affect performance of Electric Vehicle when the sensor less induction motor is used to drive vehicle
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As I know, even though there are a lot of works, where the sensorless control works nicely in no-load condition, the control often goes wrong when the load torque is applied. Also, the control accuracy at low speed remains an actual issue.
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Initially the motor coupled to load with flexible coupling drive shows oscillations in shaft speed at both sides of the coupling . The flywheel at the non driving end of the motor is installed and the vibrations at the motor shaft side are considerably reduced in magnitude. So we are observing what would be the behavior of vibrations at the load side under this condition
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The vibration might come from the load. As far as the load is not specified, I can't say for sure, what is the source of the vibration. In case of load-caused vibration, of course, an extra flywheel will dump the vibration, and the exact placement of the flywheel (drive-end, non-drive end, load shaft) is not so important from my point of view.
If we assume that the load is some simple and smooth-operating device then I would suggest that some mechanical resonance might occur. In that case, the flywheel can dump the oscillation physically, and also might change the natural frequency of the whole assembly and thus change the resonance frequency away from your operating frequency.
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Recently, i am working on one project for tractor. this tractor has a contineous variable transmission drive and four wheel drive. Now. my question is: can i get same power on axle input and transmission input?
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You meant gearbox output power is equal to both axes input power + losses.?
in this project, Transmisson is variable Transmission with 4WD.
now my question is: suppose, i have 40kW power loss as a heat loss in gearbox. so in that case can you please tell me that what shold be oil flow rate to cool it down and how shold be design of oil cooler.?
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High torque and Low RPM
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Hi!
Technically, PMSM and PMDD motors are the same. The main point of a direct drive motor is that already on the design stage you must know the load requirements and construct the motor with speed and torque matching these requirements. In large industrial applications, these requirements may affect the machine size, cooling scheme, or bearings type. But in general, there is no major difference. If you are a motor designer and your customer says you "I need a 500 rpm motor with 50 Nm torque", you may not even know, is it a direct drive motor or not? If the customer buys this motor and puts a simple fan to the shaft then this will be a direct drive motor. But if he takes the same motor and attaches some load to this via a gearbox then the motor simply turns to be a non-direct drive.
There is no "equation" to design a motor, but I would recommend you have a look at the book: Juha Pyrhonen, Tapani Jokinen, Valeria Hrabovcova - Design of Rotating Electrical Machines
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Hello,
Driving around, I have noticed a lot of office buildings where the glass panes have been infused with gold. The thin layer of gold reflects the sun and keeps the office at a comfortable, stable temperature. I have also seen where silver nanowires are sandwiched between the glass panes for the same purpose - but at a lower cost. Researching further, I found where some residential homes have have windows filled with argon to deflect the heat and the cold.
What other types of materials can be infused into windows? Copper? Aluminum? Any materials to drive down the cost of the electric bill?
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Very interesting question
want to know the valuable reply
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Can we use a PID controller in a differential drive path tracking problem? What are the limitations of the PID controller over SMC?
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Dear Rudra Prakash,
The problem posed for the PID controller is the best determination of its gains; we can help each other in this task by using evolutionary algorithms such as PSO or GA to optimally determine the gains of the PID controller or other techniques. It is precisely this advantage acquired in favor of the sliding mode controller over the PID controller in this application; besides that the SMC method has stability and robust performances than that of the PID controller.
For more information about this subject i suggest you to see links files on topic.
Best regards
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I am trying to derive torque equations which depends on angular acceleration, position and velocities of joint angels of 6-dof robotic manipulator?
The ultimate aim is to achieve model based Computed torque control of 6-dof robotic arm?
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Dear Rajul Kumar
Yes, It is possible to derive dynamic equations of a 6-DOFs robotic arm using Euler-Lagrangian mechanics. To start with, you can refer to Chapter 6 of the book titled "Introduction to Robotics" by J. J. Craig, where you can find the example problem for finding the dynamic equations of RP Manipular using Lagrangian formulation.
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Hard drive crashed on an old windows 2000 that was used to control a TA Instruments 2910 DSC. Installed new hard drive and I am trying to figure out where I can find the software/operating system for the TA 2910 DSC. Instructions say it is located in the DSC module. Also need universal analysis software. Any help would be greatly appreciated.
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Universal Analysis can be downloaded freely from TA website and installed on any computer. Probably, this should also work for TA Advantage that is currently used to control the instruments, but I never had this issue, so I cannot say that for sure.
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Hi all,
I'm running neural network simulations and using granger causality to compare the Granger drive from one population to another. Generally speaking I'm using a code to find the Akaike Info Criteria, and then using that as the lags (order) for GC. The issue is that I'm calculating GC on multiple "identical" simulations (as in, same input parameters, but different outputs), so the AIC is slightly different for each simulation. Specifically, AIC ranging from 30 - 50. The goal at the end is to average the GC curves into one final curve for "experimental" and "control" groups of simulations.
The question I have is whether it's appropriate to use the exact AIC for *each* simulation, or use the average AIC for all of the simulations I'd like to group together. So, for example, if I have 3 simulations with AIC = 30, 40, 50, should I be using 30, 40, and 50, or just use the avg (40) for all 3?
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جيد
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I have the battery and supercapacitor connected to an isolated Bidirectional DC DC converter i want to know how to simulate the converter system for an induction motor drive .I want to use the phase shift and duty cycle control ,I also want to show the starting acceleration ,coasting and braking models of EV using induction motor drive
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I want to tune pi controller for multiphase induction motor drive but the torque and speed oscillates around set point and that oscillations is irregular and output of PI controller is also oscillates.
how to tune it to remove oscillations?
I have also attached the pic of responses.
please help
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I think that adaptive control is suitable for this case.
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When I run my simulation in Lumerical DEVICE, it shows an error entitled `engine error` after reaching the simulation to 100 percent. When I right-click and choose 'job details`, it only shows the directory of a file named `device-engine-msmpi.exe` and the simulation file directory. I changed the simulation file directory to windows drive but it was not fixed. I also uninstalled Microsoft MPI and re-installed it but the problem still exists. The error message screenshot is attached.
Any suggestions would be appreciated.
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Dear Kianoosh Karimi , may be this thread in Lumerical Knowledge base could help you:
The user dealed with MPI by Windows, but finally the problem was related to MATLAB integration status . So may be you have Matlab installed and it could be causing the problem.
The person from Lumerical indicates that 3 MPI files must be installed (these from Lumerical, Microsoft and Intel). Another source of problems could be the lack of RAM resources.
I also thought about the idev. filesize... or the path size itself, sometimes I had problems with that (not with Lumerical but with other applications).
Hope it helps!
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We need to push a large load (2 tones) using two stepper motors, connected rigidly to the axis (two screws).
I'm worried the motors could micro-step out of sync. And cause malfunction.
I can see 3 ways to approach the problem - mechanical, signal sharing, parallel line connection.
Mechanically, I can sacrifice some rigidity, and allow lower stiffness connection to compensate for the micro-step error. This can be a lever allowing to distribute the loads equally too.
Signal sharing - two controllers sharing the dir and pull commands from one source. As I see it, this is vulnerable to signal noise. If one wire for some reason gets some induction current or connection gets loose / spark. Motors are powerful, large magnetic fields.
Power drive sharing - parallel connection of coils. One controller, driving two motors in parallel. There the motors could have slightly different torque. But voltage is high, so low noise. Should drive both motors at the same time - as long as the load is similar on both, and one doesn't suck power out of the other one.
Any thoughts, experiences? Especially regarding real life attempts, observed glitches - in parallel servo connection methods.
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Dear Tomas,
The first thing to achieve mechanical synchronization is to operate the two motors from the same electric source. It is required also that you make same wiring with tight tolerances for the two motors. Also you need to choose the two motors with very tight tolerances. In this way they will move as if they are one motor. This may be one of the best solutions.
Good luck
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I am currently trying to design a 2 finger robotic gripper with spur gear drive unit. Drive unit is drievn by a servo motor with max 24V. The maximum gripping force acting would be arounf 50N for a weight of 500 grams.
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Dynamic simulation using Matlab or MSC Adams comes in handy for this kind of problems.
Hope these will be useful.
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Hello everyone,
I'm designing a FLC for speed control of pmsm using simulink. I want to know how to set the ranges the input and output of FLC as my reference speed signal ranges from -1000:0:1000 and the load across the motor drive is 0--15Nm.
I have studied different paper related to FLC for speed control and tried to setup the membership functions and fuzzy rule but during test its shows wrong result and the actual speed of motor drive doesn't track the reference speed. The same simulation model with PI speed speed control is working effectively well but with employing FLC the response of the drive show wrong result.
So i need some guidance in this regards.
Thanks
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Abbas Miry thank you very much for the suggestion. Actually now i already decide FLC for speed control of ac machine and it is working effectively well as compared to PI control but it take lot of time is there any way to reduce iteration or any other designed that helps to execute fast.
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My goal is to drive a robotic arm in a straight line. While the robot is moving its end effector in a straight line, the robot experiences disturbances that will make it oscillate about the straight line. I would like a controller that can reject these disturbances so the robot can stay on a straight line.
I have the following:
1. I can model the vibrations of the robot for a given force as a mass-spring-damper.
2. I can control the robot arm's position as in input to my system.
I would like to use some type of control that uses my model. However, a mass-spring-damper model uses force as its input and position as its output, and my input to the robot arm is position.
Is it possible to use something like an LQR and I empirically scale my LQR gains by a value?
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To design a controller for a control system with small steady-state error, simultaneously with disturbance rejection, is technically termed two-degrees-of-freedom (2DOF) control strategy. These are discussed in Ogata control engineering book. Please notice the attachments.
Moreover, in your system, the force F, is the input to the plant and the out-put of the controller is an electronic signal which is fed to actuator to generate the control force F=u. However, position which is fed back to error location is the input to your controller. If the out-put of the plant is x, then the input to the controller is usually y=c(x-x_desired)=ce, where, e is the error.
You should review block diagram of a generic control system, again to know the signal-flow pattern.
Please also notice the attachments from Ogata control engineering book.