Distributed Systems

Distributed Systems

  • Roumen Nedev added an answer:
    Which one is best for multi objective function for optimal placement of capacitor, Weighting function or Pareto?

    Respected Sir

    I want to solve optimal placement of capacitor for distribution system. So I want a good multi objective function for it.

    Roumen Nedev

    Pareto gives the whole picture of the optimization, when the approximation is estimated after several intents, some of which give the optimal solution to one of the objective functions. 

  • Jesús Rodríguez-Molina asked a question:
    Does anybody know about Q1 journals regarding ICT, distributed systems and/or the Smart Grid with short timespan for reviewing and publishing?


    Does anybody know about Q1 journals regarding ICT, distributed systems and/or the Smart Grid with short timespan for reviewing and publishing? By "short" I basically mean with a reviewing period of around 30 days before receiving an answer. Has anyone had good experiences regarding some specific journal or editorial about this topic?

  • Aleksandar Sokolovski added an answer:
    What is the best framework to use when researching on the effects of Botnets in Distributed Systems?

    methodologies to use when researching about effects of botnets in distributed systems

    Aleksandar Sokolovski

    Yes I agree it depends on the end goal of the research, but for example the DARPA dataset 1999 or a.k.a KDDCUP dataset 99 (another version of the DARPA dataset) is also recognised in data mining as one of the more important datasets, hence used in the KDDCUP for data mining. I believe there are newer KDDCUP datasets 2010.

    I my experience with datasets as data scientist is good to use real world data, not only simulators because the simulators only simulate the real issue, they are not the real deal. I used OpNet for one research for my master thesis anomaly detection in computer networks, with the simulated data the alg. worked perfectly, but the real world data created few addition challenges, not preset in the simulated datasets.

    Regards, Aleksandar.

  • Sridhar Seshadri added an answer:
    Is SimGrid a good software for teaching distributed systems to computer science students?

    I'm wondering whether someone has any experience on teaching distributed systems using the simulator SimGrid (http://simgrid.gforge.inria.fr/)... Any help or comment will be welcomed!

    Sridhar Seshadri

    Yes you can use it as one of the good tools available....

  • Rabbi Al Mamun added an answer:
    How many ways of dynamic voltage restorer like "Series active filter"? and which one is highly efficient for distribution system?

    I want to know about power quality improvement systems and parameters to improve. Which methods are practically using and highly efficient worldwide? I am trying to simulate such a model in Simulink

    Rabbi Al Mamun

    Thank you so much :) @ Mohamed Mousa Bro

  • Hai N. Nguyen added an answer:
    Which simulation tool can simulate video streaming in P2P network?
    I'm trying to simulate p2p video streaming to evaluate the scalability of a network
    Hai N. Nguyen

    There are various open source projects for video streaming over P2P network. For example, qsopcast: http://sourceforge.net/projects/qsopcast/ or peerstreamer: http://peerstreamer.org/ 

  • Kamil Saib added an answer:
    How can I validate the architecture for internet of things (IoT)?

    I am exploring some research ideas about architecture for IoT. At present I am come up to a naive idea for IoT architecture, but I am not clear about how to validate the naive architecture for IoT.

    Can anyone guide me in this regards, how to validate the architecture for IoT? what tool to be use? or any other guide line?

    Thanks in advance

    Kamil Saib

    That largely depend on the protocol and communication infrastructure (m2m, m2c, m2edge).. Next that need to precise part of the question is.. What need to be validated.  It's perfectly possible to simulate the data and validate each component separately or build a 'slimmed' proof of concept to validate performance of your architecture, data loss, security, reliability, with scalability in mind.   You also need to validate robustness to temporary loss of connection,sensor failure.

  • Augusto Ciuffoletti added an answer:
    Can anyone give me a more insight on "Evaluation of distribution system reliability using probabilistic techniques"?


    I am currently starting my new research on Distribution system reliability assessment using probabilistic approaches. Can anyone suggest me good publications, books or any useful information regarding the same. 

    Thanks in advance..!

    Augusto Ciuffoletti

    I'm not sure, but I'd rephrase your topic into "Evaluation of *the reliability of distributed systems* using probabilistic techniques". Does this reflect your problem?

    Anyway, I agree with Peter that the topic is too broad. Do you want probabilistic estimates of failures, of the kind of "mean time between failures" (keyword MTBF)? Or how frequently the system will converge and stabilize after a certain time (keyword self-stabilization). These are completely different topics (with a huge bibliography behind) that fit into your question. An there are others...

  • Rajeev Dwivedi, Ph.D. added an answer:
    Customer perception on E-commerce industry and its distributions systems?

    customer perception on E-commerce industry and its distributions systems:      in the Indian context?

    Rajeev Dwivedi, Ph.D.

    You can classified the customer in this context. The old age customer who prefer to see and feel, a moderate customer who uses both mode of shopping and third IT generation customer who uses mobile to do any wonder. Since competition is intense in indian e-commerce industry, the distribution systems are streamlined at greater extent but still challenges for new players.

  • Jitendra Bhadoriya added an answer:
    Which pso method will be efficient for optimization of weak bus in distribution systems?

    evolutionary techniques

    Jitendra Bhadoriya

    Thanks for your valuable answers 

  • Vahid Maleki Raee added an answer:
    What are the effects of unbalanced loading in transformers on distribution systems ?

    three phase distribution systems

    Vahid Maleki Raee

    1- On a distributed system, once the load increases on a single link, for sure the processing time will increase. As a result, there will be some delay in communication, that means the other components must wait a bit longer for a particular node/component to process its job. So, the first effect would be the Delay.
    2- By the time that load increases on a link, that means the traffic increases, the traffic increases, more bandwidth being utilized on a particular link and there could be a link failure. There is always a threshold that a link can handle, if the threshold hit, the link goes down. And if the link goes down, the job won't be processed. Therefore. the whole system won't work as a result of a component affects the result of the other nodes in a distributed system.

    Hope that can answer your question if I've understood your question correctly. 

  • Samuel Tesema Lakew added an answer:
    How integration of PV system in a conventional distribution system is possible?

    PV system and distribution system are easily modeled in MATLAB simulation but how can we integrate them and what are the useful control strategies to make system balance and how it affects local distribution grid.

    Samuel Tesema Lakew

    Once you have the out put from PV, you may have an inverter for your AC loads that is tied to the AC bus and if you have any spare enrgy, the DC power from the DC bus will flow to the distribution grid through grid tied inverter (which synchronizes the PV power to the grid in magnitude and direction) and energy meter in case you need power from the grid in time of solar irradiation fluctuation. Concerning the effect on the grid distribution system, there is power quality problem the PV system causes due to its switching devices.

  • Witold Orlik added an answer:
    What is the metric to measure data consistency?

    Do you know any metric to measure data consistency in a distributed system?

    Witold Orlik


    You are most welcome, so glad I could help

    Best wishes

  • Qi Su asked a question:
    Can anyone suggest some recent papers regarding deployment of content servers for CDN?

    Can anyone suggest some recent papers regarding deployment of content servers for CDN?

  • Sunkara veerababu Viresh asked a question:
    What is right way of Node selection in Radial distribution system?

    What is right way of Node selection in Radial distribution system?

  • Mayank Maheshwari added an answer:
    Does anyone know about power loss calculation in distribution network?

    How come the real power loss for the radial distribution system can be calculated from this formula?


    Can anyone tell me the derivation?

    Mayank Maheshwari

    See the below paper it may help in your question.


  • Cong Liu added an answer:
    Are there any references regarding calculating concurrent transitions from an arbitrary Petri net?

    I mean an approach to find all concurrent transitions directly from a Petri net structure. 

    Cong Liu

    Thanks Djamel, I will read them later.

  • Mariusz Janiak added an answer:
    What are open-source frameworks implementing publish–subscribe approach over IP/UDP, dedicated for small embedded systems?
    There is a commercial available implementation of RTPS protocol, a RTI Connext Micro, which is well scalable for small embedded systems with microcontroler. There is also open-source project ORTE (http://orte.sourceforge.net) that implement a RTPS protocol, but I haven't found its port for microcontroler based systems.
    Mariusz Janiak

    We are basing on the standard Ethernet hardware that is available in PCs and microcontrollers. On the MAC  level, the RTnet implements software TDMA discipline -- Time Division Multiple Access so the arbitration problem has been already solved. What we looking for now is a midlleware protocol that implements the pub/sub paradigm, and is able to operate over the UDP/IP. Our PCs has 1GB NICs but microcontrollers has only 100MB.  Most of our system typically operate with 1ms period so latency should be no more then the tens of us.

  • Akhilesh Mathur added an answer:
    What will be the basic criterion for designing a "Fault current limiter" in distribution system?

    If I want to place a fault current limiter (FCL) in the distribution system, then how can I choose a size of FCL or design it and how can I found exact location where I can locate it in the system...

    Akhilesh Mathur

    Thank you Dear Nikolay Raychev for this useful link....

  • Dražen Tubić added an answer:
    How can I implement DG in matpower to calculate power flow, MATLAB?

    I need to implement randomly generated DG (size and location are random) into distribution system. For example, if i want to implement DG in bus 4 and with the size of 1 MW, what do i need to do to succefsully perform power flow after that? I tried to do that with matpower case14 system, in which generators are by default on buses 1,2,3,6 and 8. I created new row in generator information (mpc.gen) and provided all information needed (real power output, bus number, voltage magnitude) and when i do power flow i get all kinds of errors. I even tried to set bus 4 as PV, and that didn't help. What am i doing wrong and how can i do that? I am using matpower 4.1

    Dražen Tubić

    Thank you J.Vara, i decided to go with Muhammad's solution, subtracting the DG value from loads (their real power demand), which is very simple and gives the same results.

  • Naoufel Boulila added an answer:
    Is there any survey or literature review paper which describes the transformation of embedded systems to Cyber-Physical Systems?

    I am currently studying the relationship between the cyber-physical systems and its predecessor, embedded systems. I am look for survey papers, literature reviews and classical references.

    I am giving special concentration to the security aspects.

    Naoufel Boulila

    i think this book is the right one:

    Embedded System Design: Embedded Systems Foundations of Cyber-Physical

    there is a publication or slides about it here on Researchgate: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/234125635

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  • Hemakumar Reddy Galiveeti added an answer:
    Can someone provide me with the technical data sheet of the RBTS bus system?

    Can someone furnish me with the technical data sheet of the RBTS bus 1, bus 2, bus 3, bus 4, bus 5 and bus 6 transformers i.e Transformers; impedance, ratio etc. I need the data to estimate distribution system technical losses.

    Hemakumar Reddy Galiveeti

    You can get transformer impedance values from manufactures name plate details.

    Ratio depends on the primary and secondary voltage and transformer tap changing ratio depends on the system operation.

  • M. Hamiz added an answer:
    Which DBMS support distributed databases more as compared to competitors?
    Distributed Databases are one of the major requirement of the industry now a days. So would you share your knowledge about those DBMS which support the maximum functionality and requirement of Distributed Database.
    M. Hamiz

    True. Put the fragmentation or replication to the highest demand site

  • Sureshkumar Sudabattula added an answer:
    How the DG penetration plays an important role in distribution system?

    i am searching so many papers in this area some the researchers simply taken an assumption of 100% penetration and adding an distributed generation sources and minimizes the power losses to a very small value but how it influences the existing  distribution network they didn't considering. finally my doubt is what is the maximum percentage of DGs should be connected to already existing distribution network?

    Sureshkumar Sudabattula

    i am expecting that maximum of 50% is taken from distributed energy sources that is only capable for already existing distribution network and also consider the cost these sources taken into account.

  • Holm Xie added an answer:
    Any tool suggestion for visualizing a geographical data distribution of distributed system?

    I would like to visualize the geographical data distribution of a distributed storage system. Can someone suggest me a tool which does this?  

    Holm Xie

    You can try R or Python. They both have plenty package to interworking with map.

    Please check the textbook: Data Driven Security, Analysis, Visualization and Dashboards, Wiley 2014, Jay Jacobs and Bob Rudis

  • Morteza Seddighighachkanloo added an answer:
    How can I performance a load scaling in PSSe?

    How can I performance a load scaling in PSSe?

    Morteza Seddighighachkanloo




  • Closed account added an answer:
    Any advice on the number of data for big data?

    hi guys,  i am working on dataset with 1M user and 943,347 item , but i want to consider less than, for example 10,000. my platform is weka.  my reason is that ram of laptop can not process on 1M. i need a strong reason that why i consider less of data?

    My work is not on big data. i want to know this number (1M) is big data, or need parallel systems or distributed systems? thanks


    Big Data not necessarily mean huge volume of data, if you have varied data <variety> , and rate at which you get those data is also a criteria<Velocity>.

    Well if you want to process 1 million data, you can still do that using virtual cluster offered by Hadoop for which your notebook would be suffice.

  • John Frederick Chionglo added an answer:
    How can I create a Petri net simulator?

    Hello everyone,

    I would like to make a simulation of a particular Petri net.

    Is there someone that can help me with some ideas or principles on this?

    Thank you in advance!

    John Frederick Chionglo

    Some Principles and Ideas

    Consider “making a simulation of a petri net” to be the same as “writing a computer program using petri nets”. To use petri nets for writing a computer program is to organize a computer program using Petri Net elements and annotations. To create this organization, first establish the relations of computations in terms of places, transitions, inputs and outputs. Second create annotations of places, transitions, inputs and outputs for the computations.

    An Example

    Consider making a simulation of a countdown timer. The countdown timer begins from a specified value (say, 10). Using some interval, the timer value decreases by one. When the timer value reaches zero, the countdown ends.

    This computation may be modeled in terms of a place, an input and a transition. The place has a mark annotation, a value that represents the timer value – the place is the timer. The input has a “fire” annotation, a computation that deducts one from the input place mark annotation. The input also has a status annotation, a ‘true’ value means the computation may proceed and a ‘false’ value means that the computation should not proceed. The input has an “is enabled” annotation, a computation that determines the value of the status annotation – in this case, if the mark annotation of the input place is greater than zero, the status annotation of the input is ‘true’ and ‘false’ otherwise. The transition has “fire” annotation, a computation that delegates the “fire” computation by “firing” its input. The transition has an annotation status, a true value means that the value of its input status annotation is ‘true’ and ‘false’ otherwise. Consider too visual annotations of the net elements: a circle for the place, a square for the transition and an arrow from the circle to the square for the transition, and dots for the mark annotations of places – empty for 0 mark, one black dot for 1 mark, two black dots for 2 marks, etc. [The types of annotations considered so far are those found on Place/Transition nets, a kind of Petri Net.]

    To make the “simulation” interactive, consider an event annotation for the transition, a computation that delegates a user event (such as a mouse up event) to “fire” the transition. Furthermore, consider a visual annotation for the status of the transition – green if the status annotation is true and empty otherwise.

    Based on this example, I created an interactive “simulation” of this system in PDF. Graphics were created using PowerPoint and exported as PDF. Computation logic was implemented as JavaScript programs. And interactions were integrated with the computation logic using the Acrobat/JavaScript API. [See link attached to this reply].

    A Reference

    For petri nets with many net elements and annotations, several other issues (such as naming conventions, high-level graphics conventions, and software engineering workflow processes) must be addressed. Here is a research paper related to this topic – Net Elements and Annotations: Computations and Interactions in PDF. [See link attached to this reply].

    + 1 more attachment

  • Arundhati Sahoo added an answer:
    How can we decide the rating of DVR placed in a distribution system for voltage sag mitigation?

     What may be approximate cost of DVR?

    Arundhati Sahoo

    the simulation of a DVR is done using MATLAB/SIMULINK software. Thus it became
    easier to construct the large distribution network and analyse the various result for two different types of faults.
    The controlling of DVR is done with the help of PI controller. The simulation results clearly showed the
    performance of the DVR in mitigating the voltage sag due to different fault conditions in distribution systems.
    DVR is one of the fast and effective custom power devices. DVR has shown the efficiency and effectiveness on
    voltage sag compensation hence it makes DVR to be an interesting power quality improvement Device. This has
    been proved through simulation and hardware implementation. From the analysis it is found that in case of a
    three phase fault almost 91% of compensation is done and in line to line fault voltage compensation took place
    for almost 44%.

  • Eduard Babulak added an answer:
    Are there Petri Net diagrams worth adding "new lives"?

    I would like to add “new lives” to Petri Net diagrams that were published between 1962 – 2014. The Petri Nets with “new lives” would combine the published Petri Net diagrams from the past with JavaScript codes and supporting graphics to create interactive and dynamic Petri Nets in PDF. In other words, the revival creates token game versions of the Petri Net diagrams in PDF.

    I am limiting the number of Petri Nets to a maximum of two per year.

    Question 1: Which Petri Net diagrams should I include? Why should I include them?

    Once I have finalized the list of Petri Net diagrams to revive, I am hoping to finish the work as soon as possible. So before I begin, I will be looking for volunteers who are interested in adding “new lives” to the Petri Net diagrams. I will  create at least two token game versions. Thus I will be looking for a maximum of 102 volunteers – one person per token game version. If there are less than 102, I will create the difference.

    Question 2: Would you be interested in helping out? If so, please give me a shout.

    - john

    Eduard Babulak

    Hi John,

    Subject to your case scenario and system dynamics the embedded Petri Net System may  be relevant.

    Best regards 

About Distributed Systems

Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems. A distributed system consists of multiple autonomous computers that communicate through a computer network. The computers interact with each other in order to achieve a common goal. A computer program that runs in a distributed system is called a distributed program, and distributed programming is the process of writing such programs.

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