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Distributed Generation - Science topic

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Its role and implication to the economy with particular interest in mini-grid,
The role Renewable energy can play
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Decentralized Distributed generation is in the long run sustainable source of energy for the economic development of a nation, provided after locally meeting the demand well established connectivity is there between systems along with storage to manage perfect balance of demand and supply of electricity.
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I do research in performance enhancement of Distribution using optimal placement and size of distributed generation (DG ) in 137 bus radial distribution system using particle swarm optimization algorithm. to do this ,how to identify or determine the Optimal Number of DG, Thermal limit and DG penetration ?
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hi,
The ratio of the amount of DG energy injected into the network to the feeder capacity . Distributed Energy Resources (DER) had changed many aspects of distribution system operation, design and implementation.
Distributed Generation (DG) offers the reliable and economic source of electricity to consumers. These are connected directly to the distribution system at consumer load points. Integration of DG units into an existing system has significantly high importance due to its innumerable advantages.
As per IE rules the permissible variation of voltage at the consumer end is upto ±6%. In case of low or medium voltage i.e. upto 33 kV , the permissible variation of voltage is ±6% to ±9%. In case of high voltage supply i.e. more than 33 kV, the permissible variation of voltage is more than ±9%.
For more information kindly refer this link:
Best wishes..
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On a global scale, the energy sector is acquiring great dynamism as a result of the notable technological changes that have been taking place in recent decades. This has been motivated by the significant reduction in the cost of renewable energies, such as solar photovoltaic and wind power, and the growing concern caused by climate change, caused by the increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide generated, mainly, by massive use of fossil fuels. In this context and considering aspects such as Distributed Generation, Transactive Energy: What would be possible applications of blockchain technology in the field of energy?
I appreciate your participation in this discussion.
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Block-chain technology facilitates energy sales transactions directly, within seconds, which in other cases requires a central intermediary. The energy industry has been consistently catalyzed by innovations including rooftop solar, electric vehicles, and smart metering . Besides this, by allowing consumers to make better use of their distributed energy resources, the model makes renewable energy more accessible. Block-chain can provide consumers greater efficiency and control over their energy sources. Additionally, an immutable ledger provides secure and real-time updates of energy usage data. Various types of energy data include market prices, marginal costs, energy law compliance, and fuel prices and the use of block-chain technology can, for example, be applied to electricity recharging terminals, to allow the recording of electricity transactions and their accounting follow-up in complete transparency and without possible error. Several initiatives are currently emerging.
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i am currently doing masters in Electrical engineering. as i am new in research so i dont know much about software and how to read and apply a base paper. i am currently studying BESS , their allocation and different approaches. i have read " Category-Based Multiobjective Approach for Optimal Integration of Distributed Generation and Energy Storage Systems in Distribution Networks" and i want to take this as my base paper for research. but i didn't got much from it as i am not clear about the algorithm and planning and programming used in it. can any one help me on this or help me getting its programming or contacting to its authors.?
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Hello Muhammad,
Based on the information in your question, I assume you are investigating BESS in general, or is there a specific application you are considering?
Certain battery technologies are preffered over others depending on the application. My suggestion would be to start with investigating the different types of battery technologies on the market, and if you are targeting a specific application, the battery technologies that are commonly used for that application. A good starting point for information is Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) websites and their application notes and technical literature. Thereafter, you can progress into the more targeted research papers/articles found in journals etc.
Best wishes with your research,
Sagadevan
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It is well known that hyperparameter tuning on a test set with an easy split can result in overfitting. However, if the test set is very hard (i.e. a partition split that requires out of distribution generalization on the test set), is it possible to hyperparameter tune on the same test set and result in a generalizable hyperparams for the classifier?
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I would like to give an answer if I understood correctly, you mean if you simply tune your hyperparameters on the test split they will not generalize properly?
There are two good ways to handle generalization:
1- First you can have 3 splits, training, validation for tuning, and testing for generalization checking.
2- Second You can use K-fold cross-validation, making for example 10 different splits of validation and tunning for their average results.
Please note that one of the main reasons for overfitting can be due to outliers and noise in the data, so if by partition split you mean K-fold cross-validation, then it is good. Although, it is preferable to tune one the validation and keep your testing data for the generalization test.
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What are the factors that most influence the decision to purchase a photovoltaic system?
What do consumers think about photovoltaic distributed generation?
Are consumers' thoughts about the distributed generation of photovoltaic energy consistent with reality?
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The cost of the system in the short term compared to the available conventional energy negatively affects the decision. I think to achieve the goal for green and clean energy, there should be government incentives or waivers for customers who develop an interest in procuring photovoltaic systems.
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Colleagues, good afternoon! I was wondering what problem is the most urgent at the moment in the operation, design of gas turbines and combined cycle plants. Influence of gas turbines on the steam circuit, power reduction during summer power limitations. maybe the quality of fuel and self-contained liquids?volume_upcontent_copysharestar_border
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How does actually the net metering with TUOs work. And how is it compensation with real time..?
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you can find answers in this article:
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I am searching for a review article or report on net metering policies....
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Today's power network has distributed generations i.e. wind, PV, etc. Will there be any effect on the power system state estimation process if one of the PQ buses has renewable sources?
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Dear Mohammad
If there is a PMU or a meter which can measure the outputs of the renewable resource, it can be easily imported to the formulation of SE problem like other real-time measurements. Otherwise, the outputs of renewable resources should be predicted based on the historical data with high level of uncertainty like 50%. In this situation, the outputs of these resources are determined using pseudo-measurement.
It should be noted that if you want to work on modeling the probability distribution function of renewable sources' output, you must use the real data to find the parameters related to the mixture normal distribution and then import it into the SE procedure.
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Hi everyone,
I want to do voltage regulation of distributed generation(DG) specifically virtual power plants (VPPs) using evolutionary algorithms (PSO/GA) Matlab coding. If anyone has an idea how can I proceed then kindly let me know, and I also need some help in coding. Need your suggestions, Thanks
Warms Regards,
Ayaz
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Thomas Wolgast thanks for your response. If we have different types of energy resources (eg PV wind plants) in a distributed generation system, then the voltage fluctuates due to their intermittent nature of PVs and winds plants, that is why we need proper voltage regulation or control technique to maintain the voltage at each node/bus of the network within standard limits. So, I want to implement some evolutionary technique (ie. PSO) for optimal power flow including the voltage constraints like you mentioned in your previous comment. thanks
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I am interested to simulate distribution networks with distributed generation utilizing custom controls. Simulink is quite versatile in control system design and is friendly for people preferring visual approach to programming. But I am not always satisfied with how it solves power flow for detailed network models.
Lets say that I am looking for more reliable power flow solvers, but with control system design versatility of Simulink (preferably with visual programming). Any suggestions?
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The advent of smart grid concept into the conventional grid calls for more introduction and integrations of Distributed Generations(DGs). Some of the benefits of Distributed Generations(DGs) include the reduction of transmission line losses, less cost for transmission lines, quality, and reliable power supply. Despite the numerous benefits that come with Distributed Generations, islanding condition is one of the major challenges or problems of Distributed Generations(DGs). I am looking for a more optimized way to design, model, and build a solution for controlling islanding in Distributed Generations(DGs).
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I think this is good researching topic, but is necessary to take into consideration about safety regulations in order to avoid any accident, because the islanding mode enter in operation when grid goes down, so the switching control system from grid to islanding mode needs to include an intelligent alert system.
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I am working on network/ switch reconfiguration for balanced/unbalanced distribution system. Please suggest best papers with proper results and understanding.
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Dear ;
please check the attached files :
Article Reconfiguration of power distribution systems using probabilistic reliability models Full-text available July 2011 B. Amanulla Saikat Chakrabarti S. N. Singh
Regards
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I'm trying to add the generated distribution graphs to my assay but I cannot find anywhere I can do so. I thought about using the command Line built in, however nothing on the internet nor their official website has anything on this.
Is it possible? if not could you suggest another way i can make a frequency distribution of a 2 class imbalanced dataset graph (if it could also add the p-value for statistical significance I'd be better). Either online or from a free-access source.
Thanks, it would greatly help my research :)
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There are 2 main ways from WEKA:
1- using the KnowledgeFlow interface via "AttributeSummarizer" and "ImageSaver".
2- Install the "RPlugin". Then from the RConsole in WEKA, type R code like: plot(rdata$yourclassname).
You could also explore other options like Excel and SPSS to generate such plots.
HTH.
Dr. Samer Sarsam
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I am looking for technical documentation, recommendations, and precisely the limitations and tolerance of total harmonic distortion that can be cause by integration of DG.
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Dear Kadem Mohammed you can seen the papers links as bellow:
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Working on virtual management of PV system networks, I came accross with "ramp-rate control" that seems pretty plausible-simple scenario. The question crossed my mind is what is the role of PV system performance forecast in a power grid where PV generation is just a suplimentary, i.e. PV generation is a small part of the total capacity. In this case you don't very much rely on PV generation and you can cut it off if it cause fluctuation, why forecast it?
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yes, it is very important
Mankind has used and still consumes a large proportion of the planet's non-renewable energy resources such as oil, natural gas and coal to meet its energy needs. In just the past two decades, other renewable energy sources such as solar photovoltaics and wind energy have become somewhat related to generating electricity in the world.
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1. best SCI journals
2. minimum period of acceptance
3. unpaid journal
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The acceptance time depends on review time by reviewers, revise time of authors.
The above link provides that users can search for all journal titles currently covered in Web of Science (SCI, SCIE and ESCI), updated on a monthly basis.
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I need Results of PQ (V) type modeling implementation in IEEE 33/69 & IEEE 13 & IEEE 37 balanced/unbalanced distribution system.
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Thank You Sir!
What are the parameters of PQ(V) Type of DG like Active power, Reactive power equations, Slip, Reactance value?
Also how to handle PQ(V) type of DG?
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Hello,
I need to verify results of IEEE 13 node with induction generator type of Distributed generation through steady state modeling PQ (V) type.
Thanks!
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Perhaps the following article will tell you the answer: Lipilin A.S. Sostoyanie i budushchee individual'noj energetiki // Mezhdunarodnyj nauchnyj zhurnal Al'ternativnaya energetika i ekologiya. Izdatel'stvo: Nauchno-tekhnicheskij centr "TATA" (Sarov). ISSN: 1608-8298. 2009. № 9(77). С. 139-152
Липилин А.С. Состояние и будущее индивидуальной энергетики // Международный научный журнал Альтернативная энергетика и экология. Издательство: Научно-технический центр "ТАТА" (Саров) ISSN: 1608-8298. 2009. № 9(77). С. 139-152
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Please Suggest valid paper/thesis of Steady state modeling of Distributed Generation impact on Unbalanced Distribution network (IEEE 13, 34 & 37) by PV, PQ(V) & PI type for exact result verification.
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Dear Sir,
Thank You for sharing information.
but As per the literature available DG can be modeled by PV , PQ, PQ(V) & PI type as per the DG resources like solar, wind, fuel cell etc.
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The increase in the trend of distributed generation has led to the formation of community microgrids. What is the best possible solution to connect single-phase loads to a microgrid with 2 level voltage source converter?
I feel one possible solution to connect single-phase loads is to use a 3-phase 4 -wire transformer.
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You can use the split DC link which includes two series capacitor in parallel with a large balancing resistor for each of them . This a simple way to provide a neutral point which its voltage clamped at half of the DC link voltage .
Special PWM generating schemes can be used for balancing of the capacitors voltages. But where the neutral current is large, it flows through the capacitors and, hence, bulky capacitors are needed to make the voltage ripple on the capacitors. Also the neutral point usually drifts and becomes unbalanced when it includes DC component. So different strategies for neutral point balancing are reported, usually using the Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation or MPC control.
A better way to provide a neutral line is to add an additional fourth leg, called a neutral leg, to the conventional three-leg converter. The neutral current can be controlled to flow through the inductor so that the neutral point is maintained at the mid-point of the DC link. This allows the phase legs and the neutral leg to be controlled independently, which means the three phases can be controlled independently as well.
Ref :
Control of Power Inverters in Renewable Energy and Smart Grid Integration https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/book/6381785
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I have been trying to simulate my system whose Simulink schematic is attached, and also I have attached my results.
The issue is, even though the wind is having sufficient generation, the power demand of the load is not absorbed from the wind, instead, the grid instantly delivers the power. My system comprises of PMSG based wind generator, Battery, Load Connected before the Isolation Transformer and Grid.
Can you please suggest where I am going wrong? I want the power of the load must be supplied by the wind generator. (my results are attached)
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I think the Grid power should be -10 kW. have you checked the 'three phase VI measurement block' direction to measure power from/to grid? Captial letter ABC of the 'three phase VI measurement blocks' should be at the grid side.
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While integrating Distributed Generation units in a power system with optimal location and optimal capacity, which we need to find first? Whether we have to find an optimal location first or we should find the optimal Capacity of Distributed generation first?
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Thank you Professor Soheil Sayyed Hosseini. I will go through your paper and if at all if I am having any doubts means I will contact you again.
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Assuming the DC generator is interfaced with a Voltage source converter (VSC), does the reactive power and phase angle come from a capacitor bank, virtual inductance of the line, or the VSC itself?
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Hi I'm Professor Soheil Sayyed Hosseini To solve the problem see my article on this issue of my control, which is vfc published by the University of Rochester. If it is acceptable, say I wish you well.
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When we want to integrate Distributed Generation units like PV and Wind in a radial distribution system, it is very important to find Optimal location and Optimal capacity of DGs in order to reduce the system total losses and improve the voltage profile. In this regard, I have two questions initially.
1. Which we have to find first? Whether we have to find the optimal location first? or we have to find the optimal capacity first?
2. How to find the optimal location? Whether the optimal location will find through the algorithm? or by using an index like the Voltage Stability Index, Loss factor Index, etc.
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To make more sense, in my view, you should simultaneously find optimal locations and capacities associated with DG resources. In fact, you can mathematically model your problem and implement it in a modeling environment like GAMS. Given the objective of your problem (i.e., total cost, total loss, and so on), you can easily find the location and capacity of DGs through adding capacity constraints and binary decision variables, respectively.
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Generally, the grid connected distributed generating systems have mandatory protection features like over voltage, over current. For operating this protection feature (over voltage), voltage sensors is required to monitor the voltage. Is the voltage sensor is mandatory to monitor the voltage?
or is it allowed to estimate the voltage instead of sensing, by using system parameters?
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Thank you for your prompt reply. All these is new to me. I will read these papers with keen interest.
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The question arises mainly because traditionally the rotor-angle stability is defined for power systems with large rotating machines. But in LV system with large distributed generation, what we have is inverter coupled PV units, storage (also say inverter coupled), EVs etc.
So I want to understand how rotor-angle stability (and transient stability which is also coming from rotor-angle stability) is defined in such a situation. Can someone shed some light on this topic?
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Rotor angle stability literally refers to the stability of conventional synchronous generators no matter it is large-disturbance/transient stability due to lack of synchronizing torque or small-disturbance stability due to lack of damping. If there is no SG in the system, technically there should not be any rotor angle stability problem or it should not be called rotor angle stability. But in this case, does the synchronism/damping problem still exist? The answer is Yes. You must have seen a lot of papers talking about PLL stability right? (if you would like to name it rotor angle stability, you can define youself!) The 'new' synchronism/damping problem for power electronic converter-interfaced equipment mostly manifest in the form of undamped oscillations due to poor tuning of controller parameters in the lower voltage systems. When a grid has both SG and new power electronic converter-connected generation, the dynamics might be much more complex considering their interactions across a range of frequency.
Recently, there is a paper entitled 'Microgrid Stability Defintions, Analysis and Examples' provided by IEEE PES Task Force on Microgrid Stability, which might help you understand this issue better.
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I am looking for modified IEEE distribution test systems with microgrids/DERs.
Can anyone help me with this?
Any distribution test systems with MGs /DERs will be appreciated.
Thanking you very much.
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in a distributed generation we find photovoltaic systems that in their topology have a dc DC link voltage of 400 to 500 V, what is the maximum variation that can have?
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I am curious if the current electricity pricing mechanisms are suitable for a grid with distributed renewable generation. I am interested in real-time pricing where changes in demand and renewable generation determines the price. Can we use a mechanism e.g. Price = m x Pi + Price_base where Pi is power injection on a bus i.e. difference in generation and load, Price_base is the base price settled in day-ahead market and m is the rate at which the price is increased to achieve demand response.
I am a newbie, have studied number papers but so far none I could find that deals with distributed generation.
Any helpful guidance would be great.
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What are you trying to achieve here? Let's be clear by what you mean by price. Is it the price on some network, or the price paid by the consumer? Surely not the latter as that is determined solely by how much profit the reseller wants to achieve and has nothing to do with spot pricing. Since the generation cost of the electricity doesn't change from moment to moment, you are surely trying to derive, in this 'price', and economic signal on which some further decisions are based. What sort of signal, what sort of decisions do you anticipate being made? Then you will be able to determine how to generate a suitable economic signal for them. But as you can see, I am VERY sceptical about all this sort of thing; I am disgusted at finding the consumer price of electricity is likely 8 or 10 times its generation cost and has nothing to do with any spot price however derived at some point in the transmission / distribution chain.
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As in microgrid frequency response changes with different distribution generators. To improve we use we use droop control but how does virtual inertia helps to attain frequency stability in grid.
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As previously mentioned by Shah Fahad and Samundra Gurung synchronous generators have in built inertia owing to its construction and operation. On the other hand, other DGs are connected through converter stages which isolates the DG unit from the grid or the loads. Hence, a virtual inertia can impart the necessary inertia to damp any oscillations in the system response that may be caused by load fluctuations, voltage and frequency instability.
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Dear Researchers,
To my knowledge, output voltage and reactive power in droop control dependent on each other. If I am using multiple grid connected Distributed Generators (DG's) and through any method I regulate Reactive power of the DG's then will the output voltage of all DG's be close to the voltage of the grid ? Or do I need to regulate voltage as well as reactive power ? I am confused about the deep scenario of this application. Proper deep thoughts are required.
Thank you.
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Yeah sure CPDs does that only
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I think the latest developments in optimal relay coordination are adaptive settings of relays in the presence of Distributed generation. what is the area in which i should do research in pursuing PhD?
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Hi there, my research area is mainly on using probabilistic methods for power system stability. Perhaps, you can use similar concept in your field. Please see the following links which may be useful for you:
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What are the recent area of research where I can focus in Distributed Generation and Smart Grid.
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Regarding the DGs, the affect of aggregated and distributed energy storage systems on the operation.
The economical operation under service restoration
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Hello,
Currently, I am working on voltage and frequency regulation in a microgrid consisting of two non-synchronized distributed generators. The regulation is based on the principle of primary (droop) and secondary voltage and frequency control. This microgrid can work in both standalone and interconnected mode. In this context, I am looking for simulations on SIMULINK MATLAB that can help me to simulate the primary and secondary control. If you can help me, please send me the simulation you have to this email address: samirmedamine@gmail.com
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Try with Matlab documentations and examples on official site. There are many types of generators in Matlab/Simulink library with various types of regulations. It will be challenging to find optimize setup for all parameters inside regulations parameters. Nevertheless, official Matlab documentations is sufficient, and you will be able to solve your model design, and accomplish you study work.
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How to optimally, Control selection of Distributed Generation(wind,solar,gas turbine) in a Micro grid(100KW)?
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You can find an example in this paper:
Urban Energy Hubs Economic Optimization and Environmental Comparison in Italy and Vietnam
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How to synchronise Distributed Generation(wind,solar,gas turbine) to a Micro grid(100KW)
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For my research work I need to have a tool for simulation on Distributed Generation. I have inquired Homer too and it is suitable also but cost matters.
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System stability conditions are affected by operating patterns and load patterns. Because interference can cause stability to become a major problem on the generator side, stability appears in accordance with mechanical and electrical rotor angle fluctuations so that the use of new technologies and controls is needed, to improve operation under oscillation conditions. The Extreme Learning (ELM) engines is used to detect early warnings during transient conditions.
Papers:
Yuli Asmi Rahman, A.S., and irwan Mahmudi, Stability Issues in Presence Variable Distributed Generation Into Radial Distribution Network International Conference on Industrial Electrical and Electronics (ICIEE) 2018.
Siswanto, A., et al., Stability improvement of wind turbine penetrated using power system stabilizer (PSS) on South Sulawesi transmission system. AIP Conference Proceedings, 2018. 1941 (1): p. 020036.
Gunadin, I.C., Z. Muslimin, and A. Siswanto. Transient stability improvement using allocation power generation methods based on moment inertia. in 2017 International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Informatics (ICELTICs). 2017.
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Obviously, smart grid technology is growing fast. Its contribution to energy efficiency and sustainability is undeniable. I would like to see deep in to it, what it is like, what advantages and disadvantages it might have. Dear RG members and researchers, you are welcome to to provide any reasonable comment on the topic under question.
Samuel Lakew
University of Nottingham
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Smart grids are designed to:
1) Reduce the electricity demand load on the utility grid during daily peak demand periods.
2) Support renewable energy generation via distributed energy systems (DES) wind turbine farms, solar PV, concentrated solar power (CSP), and fuel cells stations.
3) Create independence of the utility grids in remote areas.
Accordingly, I'd say that market penetration by large-scale renewable energy systems relies on the presence of smart grids as well as distributed energy storage (DES) to offset the incompetency of renewable sources such as wind turbines, solar PV, CSP, etc.
Please feel free to download my lecture notes from the "Green Energy Systems" course that I developed and taught at Yale University. You can find these lecture notes and publications under my profile in ResearchGate.net.
Hope this helps answer your question and good luck.
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I would like to develop an optimization problem to provide voltage control for LV distribution networks. The goal is to calculate the change in reactive power and active power curtailment to maximize the profit of the prosumers, and to maintain the voltage profiles within accepted limits. I am wondering how the DSO (or TSO) can remunerate the prosumers for providing such a service.
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I have a feeling that concentration on the development and fine-tuning of financial mechanisms in order to stabilise grid voltages is missing the point. The transfer functions between prices and voltage are too complex. As Dr Holmberg suggests, a more simple mechanism such as a feeder level dynamic price might be the answer. But there has to be a dominant time lag in the system otherwise it will become unconditionally unstable.
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I want to know how we can simulate more than two synchronous generators in matlab simulink in order to restore the power in case of main grid failure, This is the case of using synchronous generator as distributed generation for microgrid.
I am trying to simulate 2 synchronous generators but there is machine initialization issue and I am unable to initialize those generators. In my case there 2 generators and 1 source, 1 SG should be in Bus swing mode and 1 should be in PV or PQ mode according to my study but this is not working when I want to initialize the machine using power gui it's showing error regarding modes of generators.
I need some technical help tlo resolve this issue please!
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It will easier to use the latest version of the Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) for your target. Alternatively, you need to study the built-in case study of isolated operation of diesel generators. You will find some other case studies with the simpowersystems toolbox
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in a smart grid context, the distributed generators can work in two main modes stand alone and grid connected. This implies that the control of inverters just be different not only to inject or withdrawn power to/from the grid but also to control frequency and voltage in the grid.
also the technical rules for the participation of DGs to the provision to ancillary services are also different from country to another (e,g. in Italy the standards are CEI 0-16 and 0-21).
So I would like to have an update idea of the status of art of this topic.
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Hello Dr. Tina,
The following chapter is helpful in the simulink-based modeling of various modules.
S. Sumathi et al., Solar PV and Wind Energy Conversion Systems,
Green Energy and Technology, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-14941-7_2
Based on a previous meeting with Schneider electric, they constructed two separate inverters for each mode of operation. The one designed for on-grid applications synchronises its output with the grid, while the one designed for off-grid standalone solar-PV operation synchronises its output with a self-generated reference signal. Therefore, in your inverter the two capabilities should be available according to the mode of operation. I guess these options are neither available in the mathworks file exchange website, nor the above chapter.
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Good research field in power system protection
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Dear Muhammad
Please see the attachements subjects
Best regards
* Effect of distributed generation on protective device coordination in distribution system
* Reviewing the impacts of distributed generation on distribution system protection
* A novel neural network and backtracking based protection coordination scheme for distribution system with distributed generation
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I am aware of the droop control but i cannot figure out how to implement this in MATLAB. I find papers about the droop control in case of distributed generation units which are connected to the grid by means of an inverter. Here, you can decouple the active and reactive power, generate the reference voltage accordingly and control the power sharing according to the droop control principle. This is no possible in case of synchronous generators where you can change the input power (governor control) and field excitation (excitation control).
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You have to control the power angle of one of the machines; for that the frequency has to change temporarily, either increase or decrease for the power angle to change. Once reached the desired power the frequency goes back to its nominal value. So, the controlled variable is the power angle.
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Kindly help me with the parameter selection of the value of gains of the PR controller.
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Mathematically, the commonly used PR controller is not equivalent to PI controller. It can be deduced using the theory presented in the appendix of [1] that the controller in stationary frame shown in the attached figure is equivalent to a PI controller in synchronous frame.
[1] D. N. Zmood; D. G. Holmes. "Stationary frame current regulation of PWM inverters with zero steady-state error," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 2003, 18(3): 814 - 822.
You can find in the attached figure that there exist coupling terms between the alpha axis-controller and the beta-axis controller. The commonly used PR controller in stationary frame does't include such coupling terms. The coupling terms come from the controller itself, not from the plant. If completely decoupled controller is required, the coupling terms generated by the plant model (e.g. the typical R-L model) should also be included.
I have done some test in matlab/simulink some time ago that such a controller performs exactly the same with the PI controller in stationary frame, if the parameters Kp and Ki have the same values.
However, in practice, the performance difference between the commonly used PR controller and PI controller may not be so obvious.
In addition, I would like to recommend the an advanced resonant controller, i.e. the vector-proportional-integral (VPI) controller. Its expression is s(Kps+Ki)/(s^2+w^2). Its numerator could be used to cancel the pole of the R-L plant. VPI controller could eliminate undesired peaks in the bode plot. According to my experience, it performs really better than the common PR controller. More information about the VPI controller could be found in [2] and other literature.
[2] Alejandro G. Yepes; Francisco D. Freijedo; Jesús Doval-Gandoy; Óscar López; Jano Malvar; Pablo Fernandez-Comesaña. " Effects of Discretization Methods on the Performance of ResonantControllers," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 2010, 25(7): 1692 - 1712.
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Integration of distributed generation (DG) in distribution systems has increased to high penetration levels.Integrating DG units can have an impact on the practices used in distribution systems, such as the voltage profile, power-flow, power quality, stability, reliability, and protection. so the constrain or the limit of adding DG in the system is very important.
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I agree with the comment of Mr. Riccardo Lama; however, four critical problems are to be considered when integrating DGs to distribution systems: (1) Voltage profile/voltage rise problems; (2) Impacts on power flow directions, and protection coordination; (3) Thermal limits of cables/line; (4) Power quality disturbances causes by the presence of electronically coupled DGs such as solar-PV generators. Of course there are some additional issues to be considered such as islanding operation and stability, reliability level, and investment costs. Therefore, in the DGs integration problem,you need to set multi-objectives including those mentioned here and by Riccardo Lama, and Jagadeesh Gunda .
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Does the Rooftop solar consumer have to pay self.consumtion charges in any country?
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As I understand the situation in Germany, the tax is a surcharge on the bill for grid supplied electricity, so it is not a tax on self generation or consumption. To make sure you don't have to pay it, simply ensure your PV system supplies all the electricity you require so you don't draw anything from the grid. However, I just cannot see how this is going to work in Europe in the winter. You just don't get enough solar.
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Is FiT settled in monthly bill or paid separately?
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I think this depends on the grid management and local rules. In Switzerland the PV systems with FiT have a contract with the government, which buys the whole production (autoconsumkption is not possible in these systems) at the FiT.
Only large installations can however benefit from the FiT. Small systems (less than 30 kW peak) get a fixed subsidiary at the construction, and then self consume the production. The excess is sold (at low price) to the grid management, which also provides electric energy (at normal price) when the PV system does not cover the needs.
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what is the best method for optimal size and location of distributed generation? any useful publications will be helpful. Thanks
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Dear Umair,
When you talk about "optimal" there is no single best technique. It all depends on identification of associated parameters, how many parameters you are considering, which technique you are using, how you implement the algorithm, etc... Since, you've asked for a publication, i suggest that you should go through the following publications: (Please go through section 4 in this paper, which provides detailed survey on various DGs planning methodologies and their comparison.
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Am researching on how i can best represent the Smart electricity network in an object oriented way. In a way that each node in the network will be represented as a class or an object using either matlab or any other programming language say java or c++. The goal of the research is to come up with a model that will enable distributed generation of power across the entire grid and also enable plug and play of components within and out the electricity network. Am wondering if openDSS could be able to come up with such a representation.
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Instead of using UML diagrams directly to design the proposed problem, you might create a UML profile to adapt this oriented modelling language for smart electric networks and customise thus the Class diagram and/or composite, deployment diagrams to support the aforementioned situation. Interestingly, many examples of UML profiles designed for different domains and platforms are proposed in literature, for instance SysML, profile MARTE, aerospace profile, UML profile for radiology, etc. Please take a look at OMG web site: www.omg.org
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Hello fellow researchers, I have an enquiry. We know we can use gumble distribition, extreme value distribution, log normal distribution, Pearson distribution, log Pearson distribution, general extreme value distribution for annual maximum series. My question is, are these distributions appropriate for partial duration series too?
For your information, here, Partial durations series is the peak values above a threshold value, where the threshold value is the minimum of maximum annual series. Thank you.
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Thank you Jamal. I am going through this journal.
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Please, I would be glad if I could get matlab codes for simulating both hyperbolic distribution and generalized hyperbolic. I want to try and compare the results of these Levy Processes with that of Brownian.
I would be glad for quick response.
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I am very grateful Luca.
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I am looking for a standardized MV or LV microgrid test system, if it exists (something like IEEE test power systems), in order to make my research more relevant.
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The CERTS microgrid is a standard test system, which works at a nominal voltage of 480V (LV).
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I have Distributed Generation units. I want to schedule it to minimize the cost objective function. Does anyone has Gams AC optimal Power flow code?
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This book is available at the moment to purchase ???
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I am interested to know the latest trends adopted for distribution system protection. I would be very thankful to you for answering the following questions;
1) What are the modern trends used in various power distribution networks for protection?
2) How is protection coordination maintained in modern distribution systems in the presence of distributed generators?
3) Are the settings of relays kept fixed or changed as per prevailing power system conditions?
4) Does adaptive protection exist in the modern distribution systems?
Thank you so much for your contribution to this thread.
With best regards,
M. N. Alam
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SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) System . 
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I am investigating the effect and control of Large system disturbances on the reliability of power system supply. This is as a result of novel integration of distributed generation in the grid network
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Depends on the the type of distributed generation (DG) incorporated. For example, the scenarios are likely to be different for PV-based and different types of wind turbine based sources. If your question is specific, only then you should expect some specific answer. In general, small disturbance stability has been an active research area. The instability mitigation process is another research area. 
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Dear Collegues
Imworking on distributed generation dynamic behavior. Does anybody know about Gas and Disel Generator sets inertia? Im looking for DGs in range of 1 -5 MW.
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Dear All
Consideirng the probabilistic nature of wind and PV generation, how independent system operator (ISO) ensures the balance of generation and load in a microgrid including PV, wind, gas turbine, etc in economic dispatch?
Thank you
Ahmad
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Hi Ahmad,
quite an interesting and challenging question. We are dealing with microgrids at present and your question has actually many answers. My impression, based on some preliminary simplified simulation is that technologies with inverter interface may be controlled so fast that any unbalanced caused by wind/solar fluctuation can be compensated. This is for instance the case of Battery Storage, the wind itself to transfer part of blade inertia, and solar (in reduction mode only). However I can see constraints  since some aggressive operational mode can have an impact on lifetime, and economic impact since reducing RES production may require market compensation for balancing service.  
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In active distribution system planning problem in addition to the line and substation reinforcement, installation of DGs are allowed. I want to decompose a multi-year active distribution planning problem into a sequence of single-year problems. To this end, I used backward pull-out approach in which, firstly the planning problem is solved for the last year (year Y) considering the demand in the same year and the network configuration at the beginning of the planning period. Then, the elements determined in year Y are considered as expansion options in year Y-1 and the planning problem is solved for year Y-1. The procedure continues until the optimal plan is determined for the year 1. 
I employed the backward pull-out approach on a test distribution system and observed that this method works properly for the planning of the test system in which network reinforcement and DG installation are considered concurrently.
However, somebody said to me that "back-ward algorithm was suitable for passive distribution networks, i.e. networks without DGs, and not for active ones. The overall load in year Y seen by a supply substation, can be lower than the load in year Y-1 due to the installation of new DGs in the area of the considered substation. Hence, the network expansions in year Y may not be sufficient to serve the loads in year Y-1 in which the DGs are not yet built".
My argument is that in backward approach, the elements determined in year Y are as expansion "candidates" and elements determined in year Y should exist in the same year and it is not necessary to install them in year Y. in other words, the purpose of backward approach is to determine the installation year of required elements for the last year of planning horizon considering load growth in each year.
But, I am not quietly sure about my argument.
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I am using the log normal distribution to generate random values using the boost library 1.52 under Linux environment. But i have figured out that when increasing the ratio sigma/mu and it becomes > 0.45, I get negative values. Or the log normal distribution should give only prositive values.
Does anyone have got the same problem?
Thanks,
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don't use transformation. check our new paper
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I just have a basic doubt regarding how the limits of various PI controllers used for the design of current control technique of the grid connected VSI is being selected.
I feel that applying limits to the PI controllers is a critical aspect, but I am not sure how the values is to be kept for simulation (I have attached the paper titled "Single- and Two-Stage Inverter-Based Grid-Connected Photo voltaic Power Plants With Ride-Through Capability Under Grid Faults" kindly refer to Fig. 4 of the paper and the line highlighted in green.)
Also find attached the snapshot of the Simulink model made by me in the page-2 of the second attachment titled "pid_simulink_limit"
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Sanjoy Roy
What you propose is what is typically done nowadays, and for simple systems it works, skilled people do it even without simulation.
But if 5 parameters, P, I, D, low pass in D and saturation have to be chosen, there is a big chance that trial and error does not converge to the right solution. If there are resonances in filters or a DC-link with small film capacitors that add to the problem, the chances to find a solution by trial and error get very low. In practice also noise, disturbances and non-linearities can be present.
A typical non-linearity is the saturation of a controller (wind-up) but also that a control jumps from 95% duty to 100% duty ratio.
The Nyquist (or Bode) is an independent way to know if one is far away or not from what could be obtained.
My experience is that even a lot of systems get unstable at half of the switching frequency rather than the resonance frequencies.
A typical problem is that Matlab implements PWM without delay, which is true for a pure analog PWM. Most of people use that model for a digital system where there is definitely a delay between sampling and PWM compare levels.
In drives, the wind-up is eliminated by resetting the speed integrator when the torque is limiting during acceleration. If this is not done a lot of error is cumulated and will result in a big overshoot in speed.
Wind-up is one aspect, but there are many reasons why simulations do not correspond to the reality.
In theory the practice is equal to the theory, however, in practice it is not.
Alex
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What are the incentives of DSO for integrating decentralized generation in a liberalized energy market? And how does the regulatory framework affects the DSO business?
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@ Jeremy : Please check you email.
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the impact of distributed generation on the reliability and stability?
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Distributed Generation
Stability
Voltage Profile
Reliability
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hi
Nowadays, these renewable DG are required to equip with reactive power devices (such as static VAR compensators, capacitor banks, etc), to provide reactive power as well as to control the voltage at their terminal bus. So, the issues related to voltage control, voltage stability are no longer an issue
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Hello, I want to use dispatch event to increase the output of my generator in some point of the simulation.
I am on the RMS / EMT Simulation, so I thought it would be possible.
Is it possible? Can anyone help me on this?
Thank you
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maybe i can help you but need more explanation what you want exactly!
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I need a recommendation of which method to use in my FYP. Do suggest any literature readings.
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I suggest PLL (Phase Locked Loop) algorithm to synchronize with power grid. A good paper to read is: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/5414976
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I am installing a home UPS system of 1400 VA. The UPS is a 24 volt system and, based on the batteries available on the market for the UPS segment here, will need 2 x 12 volt batteries for it.
Based on what the UPS service engineer told me, and my own research on the internet, I had nearly settled on getting a 150 AH battery.
When I was talking with a battery dealer, I mentioned that my UPS was 'solar compatible', and I also planned to connect a 500 watt solar power system (PV panel + charge controller) to my home UPS. Then he said that I should purchase a C10 battery, as these batteries were recommended for solar power uses.
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To work with lower voltage is better than to work with higher voltage, for better control and operation. For same VA capacity, with lower voltage, charging time needed would , also be less.....
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What is the best method that can be adopted for finding DG PLACEMENT in radial network ?
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hi amir
any optimization algorithm can be used to solve it
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I want to measure impedance at PCC(point of common coupling) for islanding detection in PSCAD/EMTDC.But I just don't know the way to use this software to calculate the harmonic impedance at PCC.Does any can give me some references or simulation cases about this issues?I would be sincerely very appreciate about your kind hlep.
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Hi Miao,
Just go through the following steps:
  1. Select an AC voltage source (Sources Library) and set its frequency to the appropriate value according to the harmonic for which are about to do the measurement. Set the magnitude of the source not to a very high value, and record this accurately.
  2. Disconnect all other harmonic sources that you would normally connect to the network for your simulation (eg. static converters). At the time when you measure the harmonic impedance, only one harmonic source (that you have set in step #1) should be active.
  3. Connect the source to the PCC of interest through an Ammeter (Meters Library). At the instant when you do this, a bunch of current and voltage transients of different magnitudes may commence all across the network. Wait until all such transients die down.
  4. Apply an FFT on the current exactly at the point where you connected the source to the network. Get the magnitude and phase of the current at the desired harmonic. The waveform of the source voltage that you connected can be used as a reference signal for the FFT.
  5. From the reference voltage that you connected to the PCC (#3) and the current you measured (#4), compute the harmonic impedance at the PCC. If you had carefully disconnected all other sources in #2, this should give you the correct harmonic impedance at the PCC.
With best wishes.
-Sanjay
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which optimization or indices i should use for placement of DG optimally ..
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In DG placement, it is better to find the location of the DG so that its placement with the fixed injection will lead to the minimum loss than any other position. As long as, optimization techniques are concerted,  any non-linear optimization approach including heuristics can be used.  
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in simulation 2 DGs are same and another one is different in rating power and droop coefficients, but each 3 DGs share  same active power.
the controller of  DG inverters  are divided into 3 parts, power controller, current and voltage controller. my sys can control voltage and frequency(primary control) but load sharing isn't done correctly. where is my mistake?
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Dear Ashraf, yes i am using droop control. Thanks for answering
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I want to optimize centralized generation and distributed generation network using its:
Cost implications?
voltage control?
Downtime... How many years can it serve?
capacity?
Location of the distributed generation?
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Hi Ugochukwu,
Plenty such work has been reported in the IEEE Transactions.
I suggest you visit the IEEEXplore Digital Library online, and do some keyword searches on it !
Cheers !
-Sanjay
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while doing power flow analysis of a radial distribution systems using backward forward method,how to apply DG with bidirection
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Gadaram,
I have little confidence in doing bidirectional flow for a radial system. In a radial system, power will flow in only one direction. Well, the power will flow from the side of 'generator' to the side of the 'load'. If you have only load at the end of the radial system, you cannot get the opposite flow. 
Even if you have a generator (say DG) on the load side, but if the DG size is smaller than the load, the power will flow in the same (traditional) direction (from generator to load). But if your DG size is bigger than the load which is located at the same place, then, some power will be pushed back from that DG into the grid. So, it's either the regular traditional power flow or opposite.
But, if you have a meshed network for the distribution system, the power will flow based on where your DGs are located and where you loads are.
I hope this helps!!
Regards,
Jeremy
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I tried MATPOWER but I don't think it's helpful for this.
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The Anderson book on power system stability has all the generator parameters you need.
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As in many Techniques like ROCOF or Vector Shift (VS) are works on the principle that at the moment of islanding formation there will be an power imbalance, if there is no power imbalance how we can detect the islanding?
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You can also use dQ/dt> detection since the most DG work with power factor (cos phi=1) or close to 1 . If  the generator is opened disconnect from network with full balance between the production and consumption Pg=PL you will still have consumption of reactive power for plant own motors , trafo etc. Then power factor decrease to 0,95 or less and you have deviation of Q-reactive power which can be detected. Such practical solution we use and it works on one biomass power plant..
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Suppose the main power supply is down. The standby generator now supplies power to loads in its bus. Is it possible to make a standby generator supply power via the distribution feeder to another load points as well? If it is possible, what are the requirements (beside enough capacity)?
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Standby generator can supply power to the load, but operational constraints & equilibrium constraints should not be violated.