Science topic

Disinfectants - Science topic

Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
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Ethanol prices have tripled since 2020 making the use of 70% ethanol non viable. I am looking to buy bulk quantity of disinfectant for our new laminar flowhood.
I am wondering which type of disinfectant are you using in your laminar flowhood and why?
Based on current research I am convinced that quaternary ammonium disinfectants are the most effective and economical and I am leaning towards them but I would like the opinion of other fellow microbiologists.
Thank you
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Jorge Morales Pedraza Hello and thank you for you answer. I cant find a paper with the title "The Process of Cleaning a Laminar Airflow Hood"... Would you happen to have a doi number or the name of the author and journal or date published? thank you!
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I'm looking for papers and articles regarding the post-evaporation residue of healthcare disinfectants (based on CDC guideline: link below) like H2O2 or sodium hypochlorite. I'm also looking for the association of supposed residue to biofouling and biofilm formation.
I've read that H2O2 doesn't leave residue but they are mostly anecdotal.
Thanks!
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Maybe off your target - chlorhexidine oral use can discolor teeth -
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Chlorhexidine (Chlorhexidine gluconate, digluconate or chlorhexidine acetate) is an antiseptic that is used in medicine for last 70 years. Is there any experience of Chlorhexidine application to control greenhouse, water, soil contamination by plant pathogens?
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You can check my article in which I had used microdilution method to check antimicrobial activity Eldho Jijy Varghese, Dhanasekaran Sihivahanan, Kondas Vijay Venkatesh, "Development of Novel Antimicrobial Dental Composite Resin with Nano Cerium Oxide Fillers", International Journal of Biomaterials, vol. 2022, Article ID 3912290, 7 pages, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/3912290
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In fear of corona disease, the whole World has been used many disinfectants and chemicals. Thus it needs to think about their bioaccumulation effect and suitable remedy measure simultaneously to save the Earth from any type of environmental problem in the near future.
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I am trying to perform statistical analysis of my data, which is OD of bacterial cells in serial dilutions of three different disinfectants. I am facing a problem where my stats don't match the bar charts on the graph, e.g. visually there is significant difference between the treatments, however my p value is way above the 0.05 threshold. I performed multiple unpaired t tests to compare the treatments with each other, as well as two-way ANOVA for the overall comparison. Could anyone please explain if I am missing something in my analysis or perhaps doing it wrong?
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Hi
A method for analysis of real world data, called the Persian curve, devised. It is a generic method which is suitable for analysis of natural phenomena, including your data. A file containing an overview of the Persian curve attached. It will answer your question. I am ready to answer any question arise.
best regards
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Hi,
I've conducted crystal violet biofilm assay, testing iodine and chlorhexidine based disinfectants against E. coli (NCTC 11560) and S. aureus (ATCC 29213). With the iodine disinfectants, I got an expected pattern, where less biofilm is formed at the highest concentration of disinfectant and more is formed at the lowest concentration. However, in the case of chlorhexidine containing disinfectants, the pattern appears to be in reverse, with relatively strong biofilm formation at the highest concentration of the disinfectant, and the lowest growth at the lowest concentration.
The picture attached shows a two-fold dilutions of two iodine disinfectants (columns labelled GG and LD) and two chlorhexidine disinfectants (columns CD and SC) tested against E. coli biofilm. Has anyone witnessed similar patterns before or can suggest any literature explaining it?
Kind regards,
Kamilla
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I agree with Miriam's views.. These papers will certainly help in your experiment results and observations can be explained accordingly.
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I am planning an experiment to check the combination effect of 10 different chemicals for cytotoxicity. I know their individual effects and I would like to check their interaction effect or combination effect on cytotoxicity levels. Some compounds are pure biocides and some have low to moderate cytotoxicity. I came across fractional factorial design of experiments. I am not experienced with statistics so it is quite overwhelming to go through all the basics and calculations. What would be the most convenient way to carry out such an experiment? An expert's advice and help would be much appreciated.
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Hi Siddharth;
for the factor 0.05, this means that you have an assurance that your model therm is significantly different from zero to 95%. I think it's good to keep 0.05, to stay within the usual norm. And for the fact that I = ABC can be mixed with its alias, you have to check the resolution of your model, to detect with which therm your aliases are mixed.
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In all labs I saw, I found that ethanol is used for sterilization of hands etc. in experiments with microorganisms. Why is isopropyl alcohol not used while it is relatively cheaper? Is it harmful for skin upon frequent use?
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The World Health Organisation recommends the use of disinfectants on hard surfaces and hand sanitizers. The formulations that offer the best results are alcohol-based disinfectants. We use Ethanol and Isopropanol (IPA) in our hand sanitizer formulations. These two alcohols are equally effective when it comes to killing bacteria, but to understand the differences between them kindly check:
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Databases of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes have been well established, but I wonder is there any similar database of disinfectant resistance genes. Does anybody have any idea about this?
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Thanks Rawaa Aswad and Ana M Gonzalez-Villoria for your suggestions. These are what I am looking for.
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Our lab is hoping to (safely) start human subjects research again. Would anyone happen to know the best procedures to disinfect velcro skin conductance electrodes? We are concerned as to the impact of either water or chemical disinfectants on the equipment.
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Hi Joseph,
First, scoop as much of the gel away from the electrodes using a cotton swab.
Second, dip another cotton swab in 70% isopropyl alcohol, and cleanse the electrode sensors.
It's extremely important to thoroughly dry the sensors since the sensors are very corrosive. Reusable sensors typically last for only one or two years if you use them every day. If you have some budget, I recommend using pre-gelled disposable electrodes that are free from this hassle.
Good luck with your experiment!
Best,
Hanjoo
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Phenol toxicity is reported in cats, especially related to disinfectants and essential oils but a toxic dose is not usually indicated. Can its use be toxic to feline patients that need repeated administrations of a medication containing phenol as a preservative?
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Thank you very much Kohei Torikai for the informations provided. As you say, chronic exposure may be a possible cause of toxicity which in the case of allergen-specific immunotherapy is important considering the potentially lifelong need for this kind of treatment. And in particular in cases where the animal has already chronic kidney disease for example.
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Are chlorin compound and quaternary ammonium compound as a disinfectants kill the COVID-19 coronavirus?
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Thank you for your useful contribution Frank T. Edelmann
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The disinfectant chemicals can get into sewage systems and pollute drinking water resources. Chlorine disinfectants threaten aquatic plants and wildlife by destroying their cell walls or damaging their proteins by oxidation. The disinfectant chemicals can bond with other materials to form harmful compounds. In addition, disinfectants could combine with nitrogen, forming chloramine or N nitrosodimethylamine, which have been identified as carcinogens.
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Please see the following attached article.
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Does the alcohol-based disinfectant spray suppress the effectivity of N95 mask from preventing transmission of COVID19?
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i read that the filteration capacity fell from 96 to 56 %
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I will be using the lowered pH broth for MIC test of some disinfectants, and I do not want the acid to have any interfernece with MIC results.
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Assume you'll perform with appropriate controls. Why the low pH ?
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I am working on an experimental SWRO plant with Ultrafiltration module. The Chemical Enhanced Backwash cycle for the UF membrane constitutes a biocidal flushing (NaOCl) followed by low pH HCl (2-3) and finally high pH NaOH (11-12)wash. The backwash solution is generated by injecting the said chemicals directly into UF permeate line from UF permeate storage tank. It is observed that that the NaOCl and NaOH dosing ports are getting frequently clogged due to precipitation of calcium carbonate (confirmed by chemical analysis of the precipitated scale).
Any suggestions on how to prevent this without reducing the pH (since the high pH is required for efficient cleaning)?
Can some alternate dosing arrangement be made to prevent this? Or using RO permeate instead of UF permeate solve this issue? Any other suggestions based on experience are also welcome.
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Thank you for the suggestions..The problem was solved by changing the order of chemical backwash (High pH followed by low pH instead of vice versa)
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Hey everyone,
we'd like to clean and decontaminate our liquid nitrogen tank before stroreing new cells inside.
The tank seems to be made of aluminum. Any recommendations on what disinfectant to use and for how long it should incubate?
Stay healthy and safe!
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The ammonia tank rinse with D.M.water. then rinse with diluted bleach. And hold for 2 hrs then again rinse with D.M water then purge out by dry gas Nitrogen, now the tank is ready for taking liquid Nitrogen.
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Don't you think we ought to add this to our preventive measures awareness:
Reusable Face Masks Should be washed with disinfectant or good quality detergent and well dried to keep it in safe conditions for reuse. We should remember this.
The disposable Face masks are used and safely discarded.
Our Health singles on media should educate people, especially those who may not know.
It's a tough battle against Covid-19.
We are all in this together.
Stay safe, play safe..
Plse, your views and contributions on this
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Depending on the frequency of use, reusable masks undoubtedly need to be washed and dried properly. Keeping the physical distancing is also key.
Style/Fashion should go hand in hand with safety.
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I need to do it only in microplates and read the OD value for the results. I cannot use any other assays except microplate. Please help me with this
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This paper may help as well:
O'Toole GA. Microtiter dish biofilm formation assay. J Vis Exp. 2011;(47):2437. Published 2011 Jan 30. doi:10.3791/2437
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Antibiotic resistance and the emergence of many new viral strains due to climate change, animal farming and deforestation are increasing the usefulness of pharmaceutical agents, incl. antibiotics. We are currently dealing with yet another viral pandemic. Are there any natural plant extracts that are being studied that are effective disinfectants for the whole suite of fungal, viral and bacterial infections that act as pathogens to humans ? Particularly interested in those effective against coronaviridae ?
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follow
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70% ethanol or Isopropanol is commonly used disinfectant in cell culture lab. Apart from that what is the best fungal disinfectant for mammalian cell culture. is H2O2 effective against fungus??
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Fungus and mold spores are ubiquitous in the environment and generally infect cultures via an airborne route. Heating and air-conditioning systems are notorious for having high concentrations of spores. Therefore, the seasonal changes of fall and spring usually result in an increase in this type of contamination in cultures as heating or A/C systems are switched on or off. Also, particularly in the spring, the higher bioburden in the air from pollen particles can carry fungal spores into air handling systems and into labs on the clothes of lab personnel.The two most common antimycotic agents used in cell culture that are effective against fungi or molds are Amphotericin B (Fungizone) and mycostatin (Nystatin). Important note: routinely used antibiotics such as penicillin/streptomycin (pen/strep), gentamicin, and kanamycin are NOT effective against fungi or molds. Fungizone can be used in media at final working concentrations between 0.25ug/ml and 2.5ug/ml. Fungizone is typically very toxic in cell culture systems and should be used conservatively. Nystatin can be used at final working concentrations between 100U/ml and 250U/ml. Nystatin is a colloidal suspension rather than a solution and should be mixed thoroughly before it is added to cell culture media. When nystatin is in medium and viewed under a microscope, it will appear as small crystal-like particles. A very useful list of antibiotics, the organisms they are effective against, and recommended working concentrations compiled by the Sigma-Aldrich Company can be found as a pdf document by clicking on the following link.
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I understand that the toxicological effects of the two are different.
Sodium Hypochlorite seems to be far more caustic, toxic, and irritating in general than Hypochlorous Acid; there is much toxicological information and evidence that suggests how the hypochlorite is much more irritating than hypochlorous acid.
However, at the chemical level, Hypochlorous Acid is a strong oxidizer and can penetrate through cell walls of pathogens much more effectively than Sodium Hypochlorite because of its electric neutrality. Since that is the case, wouldn't it be more dangerous to mammal or human cells as well?
Vitamin C seems to be the only avenue for protection against the oxidating power of the Hypochlorous Acid that seems to denature proteins and engage premature cell apoptosis.
I continue to find the concern that chlorine gas is released from sodium hypochlorite; however, that only happens when the hypochlorite anion is acidified to Hypochlorous acid, and only then does it dissociate into Chlorine Gas.
If Hypochlorite were to be the direct source of chlorine gas, what would be the specific mechanism from the Sodium Hypochlorite to the formation of chlorine gas?
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The article you have asked is now available. Make a new request and I will send it to you.
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Dear fellow researchers
Is it possible to use SDS as a disinfectant for when you want to put equipment into the laminar flow cabinet ( for when you want to do cell culture work)?
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I only knew SDS as surfactant till now. I never knew if it could be used as disinfectant.
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I already know solvents like NMP, HMPA, DMF. They are highly toxic to work with and not suitable in Food, drug, pesticide or biocidal applications.
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PVDF has a very limited solubility in common solvents. It is dissolved in polar solvents such as dimethyl sulfoxide or dimethylacetamide.
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Hi everybody: i am looking for recent datas about the amount of registered biocides containing silver nanoparticles. The most recent data i found is in this paper from Nowack et al. (2011) which explains that about the 53% of biocides registered at EPA contains nanoAg and the 7% of it contains AgNPs. I looked for more recent datas/numbers about biocides cointaining nanoAg/AgNPs, but from main sites like EPA's, REACH's and ECHA's or from the huge amount of papers i read nothing came out. I was wondering if someone has something (papers, reviews, sites etc..) to share with me to help my research. Everything is accepted but it must be referred to biocides containing nanoAg/AgNPs.
Thanks a lot to everyone who will share his/her time with me
Mattia
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Silver nano-particles are toxic to varieties of organisms. Silver-based biocidal material is used for commercial & healthcare textiles.They have exhibited 99% efficacy against the spread of bacteria. They also showed a broad spectrum.fungicidal activity. As far as the mechanism of action is considered Silver nano-particles release silver ions, which act as the biocidal species .
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Microbiomes are affected by disinfectants and sanitizers. Excessive use can reduce the density of 'friendly microbes' in biotic and abiotic ecosystems. The dilemma is: in fighting against one, we might be losing several that defend! Because of the complexity of the situation, do our tools allow us to conduct studies on these aspects in order to forecast or predict about the newer threats?
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Killing off potentially beneficial bacteria, hand sanitizers could also contribute to antibiotic resistance. Even though they generally do not contain standard antibiotics, when microbes become resistant to some of the sanitizers this can make it easier for them to be resistant to more important antibiotics.
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Disinfectant chambers do not get rid if viruses inside your body. But it can do a lot of harm. They serve no purpose but are harmful ?
With the COVID-19 virus situation, many individuals and organizations are developing various protective equipment to control the spread of COVID-19 as a every nations. The sterilization chamber is one of the most popular defenses.
The main issue in this sterilization chamber is whether sterilization is effective ? . It has not been scientifically proven that efficiently disinfecting the body of the virus by spraying an antiseptic in a closed chamber ?
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They are not advisable, because people once got through it might for grant the effective ways of preventing SARS-CoV-2!!
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Although surfactant disinfectants are generally considered to have virucidal activity against all lipid enveloped viruses, some authors claim their inefficiency against SARS-CoV-2 (as it happens for non-enveloped viruses). Despite its importance, this question remains unanswered over time. I would like to exchange scientific opinions and evidence on this important topic.
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Matteo Nioi Azeez Abdullah Barzinjy Abdelkader BOUAZIZ Mary C R Wilson Thanks for your contribution. Please note that incongruous data concern quaternary ammonium salt derivates (e.g., BAK). In fact, although the latter are generally considered to have virucidal activity against all lipid enveloped viruses [https://www.epa.gov/pesticide-registration/list-n-disinfectants-use-against-sars-cov-2], some authors claim their inefficiency against SARS-CoV-2 [e.g., PMID: 32412231 - 2737256 - 32035997 ]. In this sense, a question that remains unanswered is as to whether intact RNA alone is an infectious agent, in particular after the COVID-19 virus has lost its envelope due to surfactant-mediated destruction (similarly to non-enveloped viruses) [PMID: 32412231 - 2737256 ].
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All products on this list meet EPA’s criteria for use against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.
List N: Products with Emerging Viral Pathogens AND Human Coronavirus claims for use against SARS-CoV-2
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following
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I am inviting researchers for collaboration on a research project, which includes the testing of some nanotechnology based disinfectants (surface disinfectants) efficacy testing for different microbes and viruses. I will try to provide concerned developed product samples for different experimental procedures.
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It's a good idea. I'm interested in working with you
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Should the tanks be configured in series or in parallel?
Good operation of a water supply network requires two or dual water storage tanks. This allows the utility to take one tank offline for maintenance and still being able to maintain supply to customers.
On the other hand increased hydraulic or retention time will lead to loss of disinfectant residual and production of disinfection by-products.
At the same time the utility needs to maintain complete mixed conditions in the tanks.
Which configuration will have the lessor retention time?
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Well,
In the area where water enters the reservoir, flow is usually of laminar type at low speed and maybe in the form of turbulent flow at high speed, creating water currents in the form of swirls due to the movement of rapid water currents within a calm water mass, this rapid current captures additional water and displaces calm water on its path length creates a moving waterway separated from the original stream in the form of water swirls. These pathways are called the preferred pathways for the movement of the water mass and this phenomenon is created by the nature and properties of water molecules and their interconnectedness due to the polarizing property of water molecules and their ability to form and take the shape of the space that enters or leaves it (the water molecule in the form of a Mickey Mouse head - hydrogen bonding to oxygen).
This condition is similar to the mechanical movement of the Gulf Stream in the Atlantic Ocean - see attached figure.
Regards
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How do you weigh the application of biocides and detergents for environmental and hand hygiene amid corona against soil and water pollution?
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The provision of safe water, sanitation and hygienic conditions is essential to protecting human health during all infectious disease outbreaks, including the COVID-19 outbreak. Ensuring good and consistently applied WASH and waste management practices in communities, homes, schools, marketplaces, prisons and health care facilities will further help to prevent human-to-human transmission of the COVID-19 virus. (WHO)
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Infection is a huge problem in hospitals, especially as they get larger and infections become resistant to antibiotics and disinfectants. 
Does anyone know of new IC models or IC risks? 
One of the methods we use for IC is disposable gowns and gloves - but when does the disposal of these become a risks in themselves? When does swabbing floors and surfaces spread infection, rather than prevent it? 
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About the 'ROW' (Rest of the World) I big concern with PPE is that it is 'informally' recycled. It goes off to be burned or dumped and suddenly street-dwellers are wearing it. It was possibly a huge cause of spread of Ebola a few years ago, and I daresay it's not a great look for COVID either.
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Our team is looking for viral RNA in the environment. We took swabs off of doorknobs using cotton dipped in water and then submerging that swab in viral transport media. We also wiped 1 surface with disinfectant spray thoroughly as a negative control and took a swab of that. We did RNA extraction of 6 environmental samples (including negative control), and 5 samples of our model virus (Eliat) in our transport media, as well as in water, with and without our cotton swab.
Every single sample showed a decent curve on the nanodrop at 260 after the RNA extraction.
Every sample showed a concentration of around 80 nanograms/microliter.
Every sample showed a 260/280 of around 3.40
Every sample showed a 260/230 of 0.17 - 1.02
It seems so strange to me to see these results be so perfect.
My questions:
Could this be contamination in all my samples?
Could the kit I used be saturated in RNA which is why I found the same concentration?
I'll double check the disinfectant I used but is it possible that it didn't destroy RNA on the surface I applied it to?
What I'm going to proceed doing:
I have primers for Covid (what we were testing the environment for) as well as our model virus however the model virus has no control for PCR. I plan on running an RT-PCR tomorrow but I highly doubt I'll find covid. My model virus primers have yet to be used so I'm curious if they even work. If they don't work I have no way to verify if my RNA extraction was successful or not.
Any suggestions?
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your od260/280 looks high. 1.8 would be very good but 3.4 is probably reagent contamination due to incomplete washing of the column. Is it possible that your positive pcr values come from post pcr dna contamination re amplifying? Are you running a no template control sample (water) in your pcr which has not been through the purification process and is this sample showing negative after pcr?
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What disinfectants are recommended to be used to clean the environment in health care facilities or homes where patients are suspected of being infected with the emerging coronavirus?
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Alcohol 70%
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In Table 1 of an article, Persistence of coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces and their inactivation with biocidal agents, by G. Kampf, D. Todt, S. Pfaender, E. Steinmann that appeared online February 6, 2020 on the website for Journal of Hospital Infection are set out persistence of coronaviruses on different types of surfaces.
Does the concept of half-life apply to an aggregation of corona viruses? Are there any such studies?
It would seem unlikely that all the virus particles become inactive at the same time. Do they?
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Hi
Please check the following link. I believe it will help you.
Regards
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Hello everyone.
I've been asked to formulate a disinfecting solution that can be used in walk through booths for people entering our facility. I've searched the internet but sources are pretty vague:
1. In China they refer to it as a hospital grade disinfectant
2. In Jakarta they refer to it as similar to hand sanitizers
3. In Vietnam they say its an anolyte solution using sodium chloride.
4. Others suggest it is chlorine based.
Any insight to this would be greatly appreciated!
Thank you.
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I agree with WHO in stating that spraying disinfectants on clothes or body does not kill the virus already inside the body. However, I believe that walk-in booths are contributing to eliminating the transmission of the virus from one person to the other, the same way as putting a mask is avoiding transmission from the person already infected to others.
Think of it, if the virus is already on your body or clothes, you are likely to pass it on to other people who might touch you accidentally. So, any form of eliminating such kind of transfers should be welcomed.
Unfortunately different people will have different allergies to different chemicals, but as long as "Warnings" are displayed on these walk-in booths, it is acceptable. In this instance, I suggest that full "Formulation Assessment" should be done on any formulation that is going to be used for this purposes. This is to ensure that experts evaluate the toxicity of such mixtures against what is scientifically acceptable/tolerated.
The formulation assessment will also determine the compatibility of such mixtures with other chemicals or materials. For example, the mixture might react with some components of the walk-in-booth, or some incompatibles on people walking through the booth.
My suggestion is the following:
1. Develop your formulation (use literature to check what has already proven to work);
2. Have your formulation tested for:
(a) bactericidal efficacy
(b) chemical testing, e.g. corrosivity; chemical damage to cotton
(c) formulation assessment for toxicity
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As mask are used frequently by common people,so it would be better to use cloth mask and can be washed with detergent ,so that it would be disinfectant and reused also. So that problem of disposal remains minimum.Also medical staff used ppe should be disinfectant properly.Also where patient has put, waste of them PPE,water used etc should be disinfectant properly to avoid any chances of spreading.
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Dear Dr. Veerender Sharma,
Technological process of PPE decontamination by UV Germicidal Irradiation exposure can be used for safely decontamination of cloth masks, that can be reused. This technology has been efficacious in sterilizing masks for reuse H5N1 infection. I propose the decontamination of cloth masks as well as all infected areas at risk of COVID-19 by UV Germicidal Irradiation technology.
Best regards,
Igor Novák
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Looking for a material that is active against bacteria and viruses i.e. it is anti-bacterial and anti-viral. Also when applied to a plastic film stable with anti-bacterial and anti-viral for 2-3 months. Thus it is self dis-infecting and when coated on plastic film it will help prevent infection and transmission of infecting agent.
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Dear Dr. Kruti Shah,
I suggest you to have a look at the following, interesting product:
- Self-disinfecting coating that lasts for 3 months applied to all HDB lift buttons in Singapore
For more details, please see at the source:
and
Best regards, Pierluigi Traverso
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Is Dettol disinfectant is effective against covid-19 virus??
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Till date there is no scientific evidence to prove that Dettol can kill the COVID-19 virus.
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What are the best guidelines to use bleach (sodium hypochlorite) as a disinfectant at home?
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@ Ravindra Pal Singh
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For effective antiseptics to eliminate the virus, tests conducted on different disinfection solutions have shown that antiseptics contain compounds “ethanol” (a concentration of 6-71%) or “hydrogen peroxide” (a concentration of 0.5%) or “sodium hypochlorite” (concentration 0.1%) effective against corona viruses.
According to various studies, if infected contaminated surfaces and areas are cleared with appropriate concentrations of these disinfectants, they reduce the number of infectious coronaviruses from one million pathogen particles to only 100 within one minute.
On the other hand, tests showed that there are other disinfecting solutions that have been shown to be less effective in controlling Corona infection, namely benzalkonium chloride (0.05-0.2% concentration) and chlorhexidine de gluconate (0.02% concentration).
Corona is a novelty in the family of viruses that have an oily membrane and is strongly affected by disinfectants, so it is very easy to eliminate them with disinfectants, such as water, soap, alcohol, ethanol, oxygen water and other disinfectants, as disinfectants of any type affect this virus and reduce its focus on surfaces, but It is preferable to be in suitable concentrations, in order to completely eliminate the virus
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Fulath Abdul-Redah Muhsin yes, that is right manner.
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Is there any formula to convert bacterial log reduction to percentage in order to express the efficiency of a disinfectant? e.g. if count reduced from 10^8 cfu/ml to 10^3 cfu/ml i.e. 5-log reduction, what would be the percentage reduction?
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How to express that one mL of disinfectant reduces 5 log reduction...is it correct like my disinfectant reduces bacterial population 3 log when i apply 2.4 mL disinfectant on a surface??
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I've been using 1:10 to 1:100 bleach solution, but my PI has concerns of the corrosive nature/safety of bleach. I've been trying to find an SOP for cleaning lab floors; does anyone have suggestions for disinfectants and SOP for cleaning lab floors?
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Masaru Kunimoto We have a good protocol for keeping our bench clean already, with UV and 70% ethanol. My question is related to the lab floor.
Javier Garcia Palomo I'm currently alternating mopping between using Quats and diluted bleach. Do you think this would be okay?
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Dear all,
We are evaluating the effectiveness of disinfectant and we need this document (link below).
ASTM-E1054 › Standard Test Methods for Evaluation of Inactivators of Antimicrobial Agents
Could you please show me how to download this document?
Thanks and Best regards.
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Standard Test Methods for
Evaluation of Inactivators of Antimicrobial Agents
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What products (if any) are formed from reaction between humin and chlorine, chloroamine or ozone?
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Hi Hery,
Thanks for your response and very useful links.
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Does anyone have any information about tribromamine such as Henrys law constants/air measurements? In ECHAs Guidance on the Biocidal Products Regulation (https://echa.europa.eu/documents/10162/23036412/bpr_guidance_vol_v_dbp_new_en.pdf/c7d11d09-8ae5-317f-0eeb-ec8b2aa938b3), it says that no data are available for tribromamine but by extension this DBP may also be considered relevant for air. I wonder if this component can be assumed equally volatile as trichloramine?
What are the main componens/microorganisms causing skin irritations in swimming pool waters?
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We have made several studies about the exposure of swimming pools guards. Concerning especially bromamine, we have taken air samples in the atmosphere of a swimming pool filled with sea water and have not found any trace of bromamines. This result has surprised us because it was likely that the stirring of water would release droplets containing bromamine (even if the bromamines were not as volatile as chloramines). But it was a reeducation center and there was no stirring of water (the patients moved very little in the water). Some of our studies about that topic:
We also have texts in French and equivalent work in the food industry with the use of chlorine or chlorine derivatives.
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I want to insert a metal probe into the body. This probe is a metal enclosure that contain of an optical fiber. The light comes out of the fiber end and through the hole in the end of the tube. I want to paste the optical fiber to the metal enclosure with a transparent biocompatible adhesive. What is the best adhesive for this work? This adhesive should to be resistant to disinfectants agents.
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Gordon Yiu
Thanks a lot
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I'm doing a research about tissue culture and I think I don't have enough knowledge about it. What are the problems that I will face on my research and what are the solutions? What part of the plant will I use? Will I use MS medium or other mediums? What disinfectant will I use? I hope you can help me and thank you in advance.
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Dear Gerrard
You can use the micropropagation protocol of other species like Tectona grandis.
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When the drinking water is treated in a water treatment plant, it is dosed with chlorine in order to kill bacteria and keep the water safe in the distribution network. This water is then supplied to our households in two ways: one is directly through the pipelines and the other is that it is sent to a distribution station/booster station or reservoirs, where it is dosed again with chlorine or another disinfecting agent and then pumped to our household through pipelines. The second method is known as post-treatment chlorination. I would like to know what are the various disinfectants used for the re-dosing at the distribution station, in what state, quantity and at what point are the dosed in the distribution network. All inputs are welcomed and thank you for your time.
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chlorine in different form ( Liquid , Gaze or Tablets ) will used as disinfection chemicals, and in general the Residual chlorine should not be more than 0.5 mg/l after 30 min from adding to the water , for rural areas where people did not used proper way for storing water or transportation it will be critical if the residual chlorine become zero after 30 min and that is indicator for low safety of water and you have to chick the bacteria and add additional chlorine
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I am not sure as to what chemicals I need to add to increase the viscosity and still get the same disinfection results or better.
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You can try thickening agents passive ingredients universally available from local industrial market near pharmaceutical factory
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We have previously used Aquaguard-2 (Biological Industries Model: 01-916-1E), but this product has been discontinued. Therefore, I am wondering if anybody knows of a similar product to be used to disinfect water baths.
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H2O2, DECON 90
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Many disinfectants and other methods when used in the field, (such as UV), rather than in a lab environment, have been shown to not be highly effective at addressing the presence of dry surface biofilms.
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Dear Graeme, after biofilm formation on a surface, bacteria can survive a certain time. They also need nutrients to survive. The escaped bacteria from biofilm layer can also form another biofilm layer. In my opinion, if nutrients is not present and disinfectants, antimicrobials or UV treatment are applied, dry biofilm layer can not survive too much. The effectiveness of these antimicrobial treatments is also important. Especially in food contact surfaces. Some bacteria can survive in the presence of disinfectants e.g. Staphylococci and Listeria.
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For example, do isopropanol/1-propanol/ethanol alcohol based hand rubs all use the same mechanisms to kill bacteria?
Do they all just disorganize lipid membranes, denature proteins, and coagulate proteins?
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I wonder how important the presence of acetaldehyde, from oxidation of ethanol, is in killing bacteria?
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Since i am working with the disinfectants to check its antimicrobial activity , my standard says different types of neutralizer agents , but the common percentage of neutralizer or the quenching agent to stop the antimicrobial activity of disinfectants , cant able to determine .
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Each bacterial isolate depend on contact time. Depend on sporadically estimating the disinfectants regularly as antimicrobial agents from point view of fineness and potency in the laboratory to make ensure appropriate control of infections through employing proper disinfectant , concentration and their exposure time.
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I understand that disinfection is to eliminate most harmful microorganisms from objects; while sterilization is to to kill ALL microbes - whether harmful or not.
I wonder how can a certain disinfectant (for example chlorine ) be selective and distinguish between pathogenic and non pathogenic microorganisms?
In other words, what is the mechanism that exclude non harmful microbes in disinfection process?
thanks in advance
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Following
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Please give me details about efflux roles in resistance against biocides. How efflux could perform their functions against biocides?
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There is increasing evidence that the role of efflux pumps in antibiotic resistance in bacteria is significant......Selection of efflux mutants by biocides encountered in the environment is a potential concern; more work is needed to quantify the risk, if any, from such a process. For details consult https://academic.cup.com --jac
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We all know that bacteria became resistant to antibiotic with frequent use of antibiotics, my question, Why bacteria can not become resistant to disinfectants in the same mechanism of antibiotics resistances?
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Shaban A. A. Abdel-Raheem
welcome
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what is the difference between Trihalomethane Formation Potential and Simulated Distribution System Trihalomethanes to study the removal efficiency of disinfection by products precursors in artificial water samples
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This would depend on your purpose. If you are interested in the potential production of DBPs in the primary or secondary disinfection at the water works you should use the the standard assay and if you are targeting the problem of post disinfection formation of DBPs in the pipes use "Simulated Distribution System Trihalomethanes". I think in most cases the former is most relevant for treatment investigations.
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Interesting article, but I was surprised that the authors did not compare toxicological profiles as summarized in each active substance's Safety Data Sheet. Biocide SDS typically have substantially more toxicological data summarized than to non-biocidal products. It would have made for a better comparison to list ULSD, B-5 (or B-10) and active substance data for different animal and ecotoxicity, and environmental persistence tests.
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Indeed it is, Brian. We teach a module on SDS and GHS as prat of an STLE 2.5 day metalworking fluid management course. Given that many participants work for global companies, their faces start to turn pale and their brows furrow as they try to get their minds wrapped around the differences and the absence of any logical rationale for the U.S. to agree to GHS in principle, but do our own thing in reality.
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We were using Hydrogen peroxide as disinfectant. But it was nor effective all the time. How can we improve the fungicidal activity of hydrogen peroxide and what are the other product which can be use as fungicide in water system.
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@ Tarafdar Sir, for water system we want nontoxic compound. All those compounds are very toxic and can not work for drinking water purification system.
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EPA CT was developed to assess the performance of disinfection systems mostly related to drinking water biological quality. EPA CT Tables provide CT values for the major drinking water disinfectants such as: chlorine (free chlorine), chloramines, ozone, and chlorine dioxide. The CT for chloramines was developed based on disinfection data collected from preformed chloramine (which means chloramine solution was prepared and the chloramines were already formed in the solution before being used for the disinfection). However, in the field, current chloramine application uses the sequential method where free chlorine is applied first for certain period and then ammonia is introduced in the system to produce the chloramines. This method of chloramine production is different from the method that EPA used (preformed method of chloramine production) to prepare the CT tables. MIOX (a mixed oxidant system) operates a mixed oxidant solution including free chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, and others that are simultaneously produced in the disinfection solution. MIOX uses EPA CT tables to assess its disinfection performance, although the disinfectants are simultaneously produced in their systems. Here multiple disinfectants are systematically formed in the process, while EPA CT tables are based on single disinfectant systems. From the above two cases, it can be observed that the method of disinfectant production seems to be irrelevant to the use of EPA CT tables.
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Thank you for your response. The question is about the practicality of disinfection effectiveness assessment. No matter how complex the system can be, there is always a need to know that the swimming pool or the drinking water is disinfected and the best way to measure the performance (during the process) of whatever disinfectant used (beside taking some samples for biological testing). This leads us to the CT concept. As I indicated, we all know that the CT concept can be applied to different methods of disinfection. By “universal” I am looking at the generalization of the concept. I guess the question is to know if the CT concept can be generalized to address the performance of any disinfection system.
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Hello everybody,
I am performing growth curves analysis using a Bioscreen C Analyzer and honeycomb microtitre plates. I am exposing 2 species of enterobacteria to two-fold serial dilutions of a particular disinfectant. In my blank wells I have everything but the bacteria. The machine reads the OD600nm every 4min during 24 hours, with continuous shaking between the measurements (incubation in the dark at 37 oC). The machine can accomodate 2 plates, and on each plate I have one column (10 wells) dedicated to the blanks, each well of this column contining a different concentration of my disinfectant.
So far I was calculating the average between my 2 blanks for each time point and each concentration, and then removing it from my sample value. I then take the ln of this value to plot it against time and calculate the slope during exponential phase to obain the growth rate. However, it almost always ended up with my blank OD being higher than my sample OD (containing disinfectant and bacteria), and it is not possible to calculate ln of negative values. I miss the exponential phase and can't properly calculate my growth rate on my curves as I miss too many data to properly evaluate it. I tried to blank with the minimum value of my 2 blanks but still observe the same result. Moreover, I observed a huge variability of my blank OD for each well over time (due to the temperature?), between my 2 blanks in the same experiment, and between my blanks from different experiments. I understand that I can't ignore my blanks and just use my sample OD as then variation in my sample OD would be partially explained by variation in my blank OD (directly linked to my compound I guess).
Does anybody have an explanation for this and, maybe, a solution to my problem? Do you have encountered the same kind of issue before?
Thank you for your help,
Helene.
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Hi Madieh,
Thank you for your answer. I considered the possibility of using my time point = 0 as a blank, but because the OD of my compound changes over time, the resulting OD is due to both the microorganisms growing and my compound's OD decreasing... This would add a bias, although I can't find any other way to blank my values (apart from not blanking at all!).
I am following the growth of my microorganisms over 24 hours with a read every 4 min for many bacteria (I am working with 50 different isolates) under various conditions, that's why I needed an automated method. Colony count would be too fastidious for this analysis.
Thank you again for your intervention!
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Biofilm formation on medical devices is one of the important problems now due to difficulty of its removal and the complicated microbial infections as well as the decreasing of the effective of antibiotics and disinfectants.
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The most effective way is to find materials that inhibit the adherance of bacterial on medical device surfaces and prevent biofilm formation .
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Alternate disinfectant -chlorine?
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Good question. Chlorine has traditionally been used in India. Other alternate disinfectants are many- ozonation, ultra violet radiation, Bromine and Iodine, silver and copper and Chlorine Dioxide.
we can use Chlorine dioxide ClO2 under following circumstances:
1. When algal presence is felt in water
2. When musty odours are felt
3. when chloro phenolic taste is seen in water
Note that chlorine dioxide does not react with ammonia
4. Chlorine dioxide does not react with nitrogenous compounds and can therefore be competitive in comparison with systems where a free chlorine residual is necessary.
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Hello, I am struggling with a question on how to come up with the most suitable disinfectant, soap, or detergent for cleaning my plastic 30 L tanks, used to collect tap drinking water samples.
Currently I am using Chlorine containing tablets that turned out to be not very efficient because the solvent cannot be removed completely even after several washings, killing afterwards all bacteria in the sample, giving a poor DNA concentration results.
The is one option that same to our mind: it is hydrogen peroxide, but it would be nice to have some more options.
Could you please suggest some easily removable but efficient soaps, disinfectants or detergents with short contact time.
To have an overview, I am doing the following:
1) Colecting Demi water to the tank, adding the tablet
2) Waiting for about 10 minutes until it is completely dissolved
3) Mixing and shaking the canisters
4) Pouring water with the detergent
5) Washing the canisters for about 3-4 times with fresh demi water until the chlorine odour is gone
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I suggest that you remove the residual chlorine after disinfection by adding a reducing agent such as sulfite or thiosulfate. This should ensure that you have both a good and fast disinfection and eliminate the effect of residual chlorine.
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Dear colleagues,
Does anybody know something about spores of Enterocytozoon Hepatopenaei especially with regards to its stability against chemical disinfectants and UV light?
I would be appreciate for any information/links/articles or thoughts about this issue.
I have already found that it is quite new organism and there is not much researches dedicated to this problem.
Thanks!
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I will recommend to read the latest article detailed below:
doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2018.02.039
Bioassay for spore polar tube extrusion of shrimp Enterocytozoon
hepatopenaei (EHP)
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I need a agent effective against parasites such as Blastocytis and Dientomeba on surfaces. 10% bleach is effective but is also corrosive.
Thank you
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The disinfectants TriGene, bleach, ethanol and liquid hand soap, and water and temperature were tested for their ability to kill parasites.
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Present water supply treatment uses chlorine as primary disinfectant followed by the addition of ammonia to form chloramine as a secondary disinfection. When water temperature is above 23 -24 degrees centigrade nitrification is severe in downstream storage tanks. Decay of 1 -1.5 mg/L total chlorine is also observed in the bulk water mains before reaching the storage tanks. Treated water leaves the water treatment plant at pH 7.5 -7.8. Although not widely reported some water authorities had demonstrated that chloramine is much more stable at pH 8.5 - 9.0.
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If your chloramine turns into nitrate it indicates you have a lot of biofilm in the storage tanks. They should be be drained and cleaned regularly.
If you have biofilm in pipes and other places that cannot be cleaned you can periodically dose chlorine dioxide which penetrated biofilm better than chlorine and chloramine.
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Heat generations and Radiation related issues are the loopholes of solar based technologies.
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The potential environmental impacts associated with solar power — land use and habitat loss, water use, and the use of hazardous materials in manufacturing — can vary greatly depending on the technology, which includes two broad categories: photovoltaic (PV) solar cells or concentrating solar thermal plants (CSP).
The scale of the system — ranging from small, distributed rooftop PV arrays to large utility-scale PV and CSP projects — also plays a significant role in the level of environmental impact.
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How we can overcome to internal bacterial infection in blueberry for in Vitro healthy plant establishment? We used different antibiotics and disinfectant agents like NaOCl and Hgcl2, but don't achieved interested results.
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Have you tried using PPM and timentin? I have used them to remove bacterial contaminations from in vitro soybean plants.
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hi all. currently i have problem regarding harvesting high titre of BVDV. normally i just manage to get logTCID50/mL 5.5 which is very low as i have to get at least 8.0 for disinfectant virucidal efficacy. i try to infect with low MOI, but also not achieved. does anyone here used to work with this virus and how to optimize the infection so that i can get high titre? help.. its urgent. thanks
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Iagree with M. A. Efimova ,very good informations to slove your problem
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Hi everyone
I'm currently working with a small flow-trough UV-LED reactor and I'm testing it to find how well it disinfects water. Right now I'm just preparing a "contaminated" solution, passing trough the reactor y measuring the disinfection rate. 
I would like to improve my calculations with knowing the exact dose that the reactor is giving to the contaminated solution. I know I could use a photometer to measure the intensity of the light and calculate dose, but due to the reactor design, use the photometer would be very complicated.
I would like to find any solution/material with a very well known reaction to UV light in order to correlate that reactor with a dose.
I hope I explain myself well.
Thanks for your help and ideas
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Thank you so much for your answer.
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Dear all,
I have recently tested the antimicrobial effect of disinfectant on E. coli. Paper disk assays were soaked in disinfectant and transferred on E. coli agar plates. Clearly, inhibition of bacterial growth has occurred but there seems to be a blurry halo around every disinfectant disk (20 to be exact). I'd appreciate your input! 
I am attaching a photo
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Thank you!
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5% hydrogen peroxide solution with the addition of 0.2% silver nitrate as a stabiliser is a commonly used fogging disinfectant. However under new regulations, silver nitrate is banned for fogging on account of its toxicity. Some manufactureres of these solutions have now altered their MSDS to show metallic silver rather than silver nitrate as the second component. I have a suspicion that this is misleading, as metallic silver, particularly in a finely divided state, should break down the H2O2 in to water and oxygen.Can anyone confirm or refute this theory?
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it is so easy to determine silver nitrate in solution of h2o2
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To avoid contamination in my bacterial and viral isolations.
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In our laboratory, we use a combination of 3 reagents 
1) 10% bleach
2)70% alcohol 
3) distilled water. 
You do them one at a time, and wait each one to dry out. 
This practice should work for all lab counters and biosafety cabinet. 
But keep in mind this is just a partial part during disinfection. For a complete disinfection, also it will matter where you put the contaminant materials and how you will dispose it from the lab. In our place, we have a commercial company that comes to pick all waste. 
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disinfectents used that  kill the  pathogen in the farm
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Abstract
This study aimed to perform an in vitro testing of the efficacy of various kinds of disinfectant on infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Four kinds of disinfectants including Virusnip, Omnicide, CID2000 and Virkon S were used for the virus inactivation test. After challenge with each strain of IBV for each contact time (30 seconds, 1, 5 and 30 minutes), we recorded number of dead embryo/6 inoculated eggs after incubation. Results showed that there was no significant difference among the contact times except 1:800 Virusnip tested for Tha07 (p < 0.05). For Tha03, there was a significant difference among the disinfectants at 30 seconds and 1 minute of contact times (p < 0.05). For Tha08, there was a significant difference among the disinfectants at 1 minute of contact time (p < 0.05). For Tha09, there was a significant difference among the disinfectants at 5 and 30 minutes of contact times (p < 0.05). For Tha10, there was a significant difference among the disinfectants at 5 minutes of contact time (p < 0.05). Virusnip revealed the ability to inactivate the activity of 9 IBV strains in all exposure times, especially at dilutions of 1 : 100 and 1 : 200.
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My institute uses Steritech CAS for everything. Besides quats, it also contains a tin compound which to my understanding is really bad for aquatic organisms. We use lots and lots of it because we are a TB research institute. Does anybody else know if other high level disinfectants e.g. Virkon may kill TB and are less damaging to the environment?
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