Science topic

Disease Control - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Disease Control, and find Disease Control experts.
Questions related to Disease Control
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
3 answers
Under National Animal Disease Control Program , India we are vaccinating only 4-8 months old female calves. My question is why this narrow range ?
Relevant answer
Answer
Please have a look at this (old) paper:
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
6 answers
Peracetic acid (also known as peroxyacetic acid, or PAA) is registered antimicrobial in USA (1985) and European Union (2013). It was used for post-harvest plant treatment (Abd-Alla MA, Abd-El-Kader MM, Abd-El-Kareem F, El-Mohamedy RS. Evaluation of lemongrass, thyme and peracetic acid against gray mold of strawberry fruits. Journal of Agricultural Technology. 2011;7(6):1775-87.)
It is recommended for plant treatment (0.15% solution) against a wide range of pathogens. But, is there any confirmed trials of antiviral, antibacterial or fungicidal properties in field or greenhouse application of PAA?
Relevant answer
Answer
Yuan-Yeu Yau Residues of PAA - only acetic acid and H2O2 that turns finally to water and O2. The only problem - PAA smells like acetic acid.
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
6 answers
Disclaimer: I am not a microbiologist by profession or training and this is a curious/knowledge question
I have read some old articles that suggest the inoculum concentration to be 10^5 according to EUCAST.
I have also read some review articles suggesting 10^8 (0.5McFarland standard)- citing CLSI.
I am not able to download CLSI guidelines, can anyone help me get a copy to read about broth dilution and initial cell density actually prescribed?
Please let me know if these standards have changed? What cell concentration do researchers commonly use to read MIC (in North America or elsewhere)
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
22 answers
A researchable topics and research ideas in Epidemiology suitable for Doctorate degree Thesis
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Sunday,
I do not what facilities you have in your department to conduct research on molecular epidemiology of some emerging zoonotic diseases. If your laboratory is well equipped and your Adviser agrees, you may plan your research on some emerging pathogen , such as Nipah virus, Cryptosporidium parvum, Rift Valley fever virus, Burkholderia pseudomallei etc.
If you have some interest in mycotic infections, please upload my over 110 papers related to mycoses.
Stay safe and healthy.
With best wishes,
Prof.Dr.Mahendra Pal
Founder Director of Narayan Consultancy on Veterinary Public Health and Microbiology
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
5 answers
Spray-induced gene silencing, SIGS, is tested for plant diseases control. Is there any results on dsRNA formulation trials that showed long life for dsRNA in a product and an efficient transport into plants/pathogens/pests?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Alex
I think this paper is useful for you about the exogenous application of double-stranded RNA
"RNA Interference Strategies for Future Management of Plant Pathogenic Fungi: Prospects and Challenges"
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
5 answers
Could effective animal, human and plant microbiome management mitigate pathogens survival and disease control?
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
21 answers
As yet, no one has found the animal that gave people Covid-19. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) points out that at this time, there is no evidence that animals play a significant role in spreading SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, to people.
SARS-CoV-2 is unprecedented in its combined characteristics: its long period of asymptomatic infection, high transmissibility, significant lethality in high-risk populations, being well-adapted to human cells since its emergence, and having the ability to hijack human innate immunity and bind with high affinity to the human ACE2 receptor.
The reason why we should try hard to figure out the origin of Covid-19 is to inform our efforts to prevent another pandemic like this from happening again. This one was an unfortunate and terrible accident. We should badly want to avoid a second occurrence. We can be blamed for allowing a second one like it if we do not work together soon to find the origin. Right now it appears likely it came directly or indirectly from bats. But specifics would better help us to avoid a second pandemic disaster. Furthermore time is not our friend in finding the origin and sooner is better before information is lost. We need all countries to support a real epidemiological investigation by an unbiased team of scientists given access and authority to take the investigation where ever it leads – possibly to patient zero or to the CoV-2 animal source.
Relevant answer
Answer
Also, have a look at this useful link.
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
7 answers
In my recent study I found that all program codes, models and estimates of deposition of “air pollution” in the lungs used by WHO (the World Health Organization) and all national centers for health protection and disease control have a critical error in their calculations and estimations - the risk is underestimated dozens of times, for winter/cold and humid weather conditions.
For instance:
3% - THIS is the risk of deposition of smoke particles (300nm) in the airways - according to standard classical estimates//
90-96% - THIS is the risk, which can actually be if a person is in cold or wet environments.
Ishmatov A. Influence of weather and seasonal variations in temperature and humidity on supersaturation and enhanced deposition of submicron aerosols in the human respiratory tract, Atmospheric Environment, V. 223, 2020, 117226, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2019.117226.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you, dear Alex N.
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
24 answers
The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta has issued a warning saying that not just obese but a few extra kilos up the risk of severe Covid. In other words those with moderately excess weight may be at higher risk of severe Covid -19.However the physical activity is seen as a better intervention to reduce the risk of infection.
Inviting participation and discussions to enlighten our knowledge.
Relevant answer
Answer
yes
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
4 answers
How organic method of disease control can be adopted in case of cereal crops ,This disease is seen in wide range in all farmers field they are using several insecticides unnecessarily which may effect their health and cause environmental hazard too.
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
6 answers
Centers for Disease control and prevention (CDC) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have announced food safety alert regarding the outbreak of Salmonella Newport infections linked to onions in various states in America.
Relevant answer
Answer
The recent outbreak if Salmonella Newport was first reported on Jul 10, with just a handful of cases in three states. The 212 cases include 31 hospitalizations, but no deaths have been reported. The newly affected states include Arizona, Florida, Idaho, Maine, North Dakota, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Virginia.
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
5 answers
Can anyone suggest the best micro-nutrient to be supplemented for a patient with Ebola?
Relevant answer
Answer
Micro-nutrients, which include many vitamins, and minerals are imperative to maintain good health. I am of the opinion that micro-nutrients that boost the immunity should be included in our diet. The person with strong immune system can hardly get infection.
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
16 answers
I've read one article about the Corona Virus Disease, that you can find in this link below
They've used DL method to " to extract COVID-19's graphical features and provide a clinical diagnosis ahead of the pathogenic test, thus saving critical time for disease control ".
Therefore, I found that it's interesting to get involved in such a study and try to get a solution for this disease.
Now, I'm looking forward to working with a group of researchers to discover this topic.
IF anyone is interested, please let me know so we can start right away!
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
5 answers
i have 5 treatments to evaluate on a coffee farm. i cannot set up the same experiment on a different location and the treatments cannot be applied on the same plots. (Cover crop, bio char,shade tree,zero pest and disease and control). For each treatment i will set up a rcbd. how do i go about the data analysis since each block will have a different treatment. my blocking factor shall be wind intensity for each treatment. I will have 3 replicates/blocks in each rcbd.
Relevant answer
Answer
The type of experimental design to use depends on the following factors; known source of variation, number of replications, number of treatments, etc. RCBD can be used if there is only one known source of variation (wind intensity) but blocking should be perpendicular to the direction of the wind. The data can be subjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) in randomized complete block design.
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
4 answers
Hello everyone. I have some questions about the variant calling procedure in a whole genome sequencing (WGS) and whole exome sequencing (WES) study, hope anyone in this field can answer my questions.
In a case-control study of certain disease, the genome/exome of a number of individuals with the disease (cases) and a number of individuals without the disease (controls) were sequenced. Then, the sequences were aligned in order to identify the SNV or INDEL from the genome/exome, and this is the process of "variant calling" and a variant calling file (.vcf) will be generated.
My questions are:
i) is there any odd ratio or confidence interval required during variant calling?
ii) is all the variants called in the variant calling are from cases but not control individuals?
iii) if the variants can be from either cases or controls, is there any info in the .vcf file to indicate whether the variant is from case or control individual?
I have my second and third question is because I want to study the patient sequencing data for certain disease. If the variant is from the cases sequences, then I can further analyze the potential biological effects of the variant to the disease onset. In another way, if the variant is from controls sequences, then I cannot infer whether the variant affects disease risk (since the controls are healthy individuals). I tried to get the answers from study design paper and other related papers, but nothing much info I can get from there.
Hope I have made the questions clear. Wait for anyone to answer me. Thanks in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
The variant calling process (however sophisticated) is a method of assessing gene mutation.
In a case referent study , both cases and non cases (referents) can be "exposed"
The odds ratio depends on the relative proportions of exposed cases and exposed referents. Provided referents are sampled independently of exposure the odds ratio approximates relative risk.
See many other responses to this question on RG
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
2 answers
The Peritrophic membranes plays role in several functions, including improvement of digestion, protection against mechanical and chemical damage and serving as a barrier to infection by pathogens.
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes , you can .... see this article
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
1 answer
Can you help me to understand the economics of National Animal Disease (FMD, PPR, Brucellosis) Control Programs of India which failed to control diseases even in premiere veterinary science and animal science institutions? http://azad-azadindia.blogspot.com/2018/02/blog-post.html & https://www.slideshare.net/singh_br1762/ongoing-disease-control-programmes-in-india
What is the motive behind such programs?
To benefit the corporate houses producing the substandard or useless vaccine?
To maintain the diseases forever in India?
Or--------
भारत में ऐसे पशु रोग (FMD, PPR, Brucellosis) नियंत्रण कार्यक्रम चलाने का क्या उद्देश्य हो सकता है जिनसे पशु चिकित्सा और पशु पालन के महान संस्थानों में ही रोग अनियंत्रित हो जा रहे हों?
क्या घटिया वैक्सीन बनाने वालों के लिए?
क्या भारत को बीमारू बनाये रखने के लिए?
क्या पशुपालकों में ये आस्था बनाये रखने के लिए कि बिमारी तो प्रभु की इच्छा है?
या कुछ और----
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Singh,
It may be worthwhile reading this article: Rev Sci Tech. 1999 Aug;18(2):343-56.
The economic implications of animal diseases and disease control at the national level.
Ramsay GC1, Philip P, Riethmuller P
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
7 answers
Hi,
We are planning for a age and gender matched case (heart disease)-control study. I would like to know what all the parameters needs to be considered for sample size calculation. If there are any online tutorials and calculators available kindly provide me the links
thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes Please see this link
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
3 answers
I need for automated pattern discovery and data mining in communicative diseases control . Code run it in matlab.
Relevant answer
Answer
I recommend "nprtool" , too.
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
6 answers
Many species have tested positive for the Ebola virus, including orangutan, lowland gorillas, bats, etc. However no species seems to harbor it continuously, making primary prevention with public health initiatives less effective.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hmmmmm. Here are some thoughts. First of all, there is almost certainly no VECTOR involved. Vectors are transitory hosts that only communicate the virus between host and human and are usually arthropods... nothing of this sort has been suggested for filoviruses in a long time. OK, now on to the question of the reservoir...
If you make some assumptions about the sort of host-virus relationship is likely (e.g., a mammal, not a human commensal, etc.), you can get to a pretty narrow list. See the three papers from my research group that are attached. There are certainly others, but these should give you some idea. 
Now, the interesting point is to compare Marburg virus and Ebola virus (the two are closely related genera within the family. Marburg is pretty clearly hosted by Rousettus aegyptiacus, with a possible secondary role of other bat species. And every Marburg occurrence for which information exists is tied to a cave or a mine. For Ebola, there is no cave-mine tie for any of the outbreaks, although there are detections of bits of Ebola genetic material in some bats. Clearly, regardless, the evidence for a bat tie for Ebola is much less clear than for Marburg, although it is pretty well assumed.
That is a nutshell description of where things stand ... hope this helps. ATP
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
9 answers
I know several diseases have one and only one vector.
Other diseases include several vectors in a series (...maybe mice<-->cats-->humans). And I know a single organism (flea) can carry several diseases (although..I am not completely sure if it is a specific genus or not).
But I do not know if ...let's say a virus X can be transmitted by flies and cockroaches (not in a series but in parallel) to a human. (my guess is that it should be harder for a micro-organism to infect two or more hosts ...rather than just one...right? Although there's the advantage of having more chances of survival just by including more hosts.)
Relevant answer
Answer
Izunna ! the example of mosquitoes given by you, I am afraid is not fully correct. There are 3540 species of mosquitoes recorded wordwide under 112 genera. Malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes belonging to genus Anopheles and not all species of genus Anopheles are malaria vectors.
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
58 answers
The most of the horticultural crops are being raised on the raised beds due to many advantages like soil moisture movement, drainage, micro-irrigation and fertigation schedules, weed control, disease control etc. What should be the desigh parameters of the raise beds/bedding systems, does it vary with soil types and their properties ? What is the effect of climate features on raised bed plantation method ? 
Relevant answer
Answer
The raised bed technology should be avoided in high hills cold desert zone where cold waves may cause damage to crops. Under such situation sunken beds are recommended so that cold waves pass above the bed without having direct contact with it. In temperate zone suncken beds of full moon, half moon shape are recommended.   Another region is hot arid region where the soils are light (sandy soils). Again here raised beds are not recommended to safe guard the plants from hot waves
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
5 answers
I'm just totally amazed. I mean, I have found information about this parasite from reading research papers. But the CDC just doesn't have any internet accessible content about it ... just blows my mind! 
Is it because there are not a lot of cases of human infection with this parasite to make it onto the books? Or perhaps most of these parasites are not zoonotic to humans? (I'm not sure at this point.) 
Also if you know anything about this genus then please tell me anything interesting. Of the nematode parasites belonging to this genus it appears that the most common one is Pterygodermatites peromysci. It appears to be host specific, infects the intestine primarily. Field tests indicated that the adult worms are approximately 18 - 38mm long, and they lay a lot of eggs (~ 237,000 eggs)! which is pretty large considering that the body average body lengths of the mice (Peromyscus leucopus) they tested were ~ 90 mm.
So if the CDC doesn't have any information about this parasite, then does any health organization? 
Relevant answer
Answer
  • Maybe it's because nowdays there's not many researches about its zoonotic potencial. Besides, CDC is an American Company and its focus is on health of USA's people. In North America there's not the culture of eating insects (intermediate host). So,  Pterygodermatites can't be an helmint of medical or epidemiological importance to the CDC currently.
  • I never have seen papers with these sizes for Pterygodermatites. I work with this genus of bats in Brazil. My specimens and all papers that I have found about this genus describes about 12 mm or less.
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
13 answers
Dear Friends, try to understand?
Data of FMD outbreaks in India Processed by National Institute Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics in attached photo is self-explanatory to reveal the efficacy of FMD CP, either increase or no change in the status of disease in FMD CP areas are the characteristics. After every year of increased occurrence of a disease, next year outbreaks are low due to immunity offered by the disease that is why outbreaks were less in 2015 and in 2016, you can witness the FMD outbreak rampant in all parts of Northern India.
Relevant answer
Answer
 may the efficacy of the vaccines not enough or may presence of a new serotypes not included in the available vaccines 
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
28 answers
I read from the website of "Centers for disease control and prevention" (CDC - http://www.cdc.gov/zika/disease-qa.html) : “The arrival of Zika in the Americas demonstrates the risks posed by this and other exotic viruses. CDC’s health security plans are designed to effectively monitor for disease, equip diagnostic laboratories, and support mosquito control programs both in the United States and around the world.” 
Do you think that “exotic viruses” is a scientific terminology and is “exotic viruses” a scientific reflection for an important cause of human diseases?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Lewis,
Thanks for the information and the notice but I think I was clear. The definition/use of “exotic virus” term or “exotic viral diseases” – I do not agree, and I explained why.
 As we cannot say that we have an exotic cancer similarly we cannot say that we have an exotic virus.  
If, 1% of our genome is of viral origin then which % is exotic and which not exotic? Could be possible for the well-known CDC to let us know?  What is the scientific approach/method that establishes borders in time and space to a virus? 
I have said that Today’s globalization cannot support the cause of an “exotic” type of disease.  The diseases and their treatment concern the human and the human is human no matter the origin.
About officials in USA or Belgium or elsewhere, I have the right to do not agree if, I find reasons that permit to say so.  This is the basis of social and scientific evolution.
When we talk for diseases we make reference to the humans.  I hope that CDC officials could make that correction in their web site and I hope that this will be done in other sites. 
Best wishes,
Vassilis
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
1 answer
The documentation made it sound like they pre-selected the sample via "raking" so we won't have to do this, but I wanted to make sure.
Relevant answer
Answer
You do need to use the weight variable to weight your data if you want to make generalizations to the population.  You do not have to create your own weighting.  They have used raking to create the weight variable.
If you do not weight your data by using the weighting variable, you need to make very clear that your findings only apply to the sample and not to the general population.
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
3 answers
Legal and ethical considerations in implementing infectious diseases control/elimination programs in low literacy populations in weak health systems?
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
10 answers
what to do to avoid getting in trouble with people's privacy,liberty and freedom.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks Akram for the precision
Then can we have more flexible  jurisdiction or legislation, and do we manage abuses?
Have a nice working day
Best
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
5 answers
Regional and International Approaches
on Prevention and Control of Animal
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Relevant answer
Answer
Also, you can use:
"GUIDANCE MANUAL FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF COUNCIL DECISION C(2001)107/FINAL, AS AMENDED, ON THE CONTROL OF TRANSBOUNDARY MOVEMENTS OF WASTES DESTINED FOR RECOVERY OPERATIONS" (http://www.oecd.org/env/waste/42262259.pdf).
"The Global Framework for the Progressive Control of Transboundary Animal Diseases" ( http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/About_us/docs/pdf/GF-TADs_approved_version24May2004.pdf )  
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
3 answers
I am looking for people who are in, or have recently returned from, the areas of West Africa affected by the current Ebola outbreak, as I would like to interview them regarding their health information requirements and the communications they received/looked for during the experience. If you'd be willing to be interviewed, please let me know.
Relevant answer
Answer
I was in the 3 affected countries Feb-April 2015 working in community engagement.
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
6 answers
Inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is needed for using as a reference material/controls for RNA extraction and real-time RT-PCR.  Does anyone happen to know if inactivated NDV commercially available?  Thank you!
Relevant answer
Answer
Dr. Yang, as others have suggested you can buy commercially available inactivated NDV vaccine.  Commercial vaccines are usually made using lentogenic NDV strains.  If you require a mesogenic or velogenic strain for your work, you will probably need to obtain live virus and and inactivate it.  As you know, in the US the USDA regulates the transfer, possession, and use of NDV.  You will need to obtain a permit from the USDA and satisfy certain security requirements if you're going to use a velogenic strain. However, at the CDC you should have no trouble meeting those requirements.
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
1 answer
House hold contacts exposed to TB index cases in high TB endemic regions are at high risk for development of TB infection.  TNF is a key cytokine, concentration which around the granuloma determines latency and reactivation. Is TNF a marker of disease progression. Can TNF therapy be used to sustain latency? 
Relevant answer
Answer
NOt easy to use anti TNF a particularly some products because not only think about TBC in the lungs but the most serius cases that I have experiences that was TBC menginitis-encephalitis with further consequences hydrocephalus. And keep in mind eventually drug resistenst and and using injections temporary streptomycine injection beside other tuberculostatica
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
7 answers
I'm currently working on a project examining the interactions between badgers and cattle and how this might impact on transmission of tuberculosis. In light of the controversy surrounding the culling programme in the UK (and the less publicised version in Ireland), what do people think about the efficacy or ethics of such 'wildlife management' initiatives (on this species or others). The debate is quite polarised, with politicians/farmers on one side and conservationists on the other. I am interested in seeking the viewpoints of scientists from diverse but relevant fields.
Relevant answer
Answer
En la Argentina hay una tesis de doctorado del Dr. Abdala (INTA), que capturaba comadrejas (animales silvestres) y  aislo en algumos casos el mismo patron genómico que el Mbovis del ganado de la misma region. Sin embargo en vista que en la Argentina la tuberculosis es enzootica en varias regiones, no se ha tomado ningún tipo de accion con los silvestres. En breve saldra en la revista Argentina de Microbiología un paper del Dr. Abdala con los resultados de su tesis
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
7 answers
I wish to know if anyone has experience with the use of FTA cards for the collection, safe transport, and preservation of rabies samples.
Relevant answer
Answer
FTA cards can be used for preservation of RNA viruses.  Numerous recent publications out of Australia demonstrate their utility in the detection of arboviruses (West Nile, Ross River, etc.)  See as an example:
Exploiting mosquito sugar feeding to detect mosquito-borne pathogens by Hall-Mendelin et al. PNAS vol. 107 no. 25
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
5 answers
 Malaria is a difficult disease to control largely due to the highly adaptable nature of the vector and parasites involved. While effective tools have been and will continue to be developed to combat malaria,I want know how can  genetic engineering help to reduce the incidence of malaria in Africa .
Relevant answer
Answer
Genetic engineering will help a lot in producing control methods that are very successful in the laboratory and in semi-filed settings not so with large scale natural areas. Insect vectors have an adaptive radiation that enables them to change and adjust in new environments thus, invasive species (especially genetically modified) may develop features that were not predictable (silent genes may be activated) even with the help of genomics hence starting a new cycle, more dangerous than the current trend in Malaria. The Ebola migration from RD Congo to Uganda first then recently to Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Mali etc... should inform any vector control practitioner that vector dispersal is evident and maybe more deadly depending on the new environmental conditions.
The successful exotic control methods generated from genetic engineering will be brought to communities that are abandoned to abject poverty, neglect and lost hope, people who live in despicable huts, place basins in their bed rooms to retain rain water for domestic use. While the huge budget for such control strategies will again enrich the "scientific and administrative elites" that have access to funds, exorbitant meetings at 5-star Hotels will be held, convincing reports will be written and submitted to justify erroneous expenses, envelopes will change hands when auditors arrive and no sustainable measures will be implemented at the end of the 5 year exercise. 
My noble opinion is that the malaria transmission cycle be disrupted, it is a better and more sustainable solution. If the host/ vector/ parasite interactions is reduced through attitudinal changes like good environmental management during urbanization programs, good housing systems for every community member, good sanitation & Hygiene, conscious efforts through dressing by everyone to prevent bites especially for those who have to be exposed like it is done with cold weather in winters, good diet (diversified, regular,...etc) and continuous monitoring of the vectorial fauna & disease incidence, evaluation of therapeutic schemes implemented, Management of all breeding sites (natural & Man-made), continuous surveillance of both vectors and parasite everywhere where the disease is endemic.
I am convinced that this approach will be more practical and acceptable by everyone at every ecological or cultural level.
Let malaria control become a lifestyle rather than set rules and regulations to be observed.
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
3 answers
Rodents are reservoirs of many zoonotic diseases to human and their infested fleas,mites,ticks and lice act as vehicles transmitters of infections to man.What is best apply ant-ratting or insecticide first?
Relevant answer
Answer
Rodents indeed serve as reservoirs for many zoonotic diseases.  Many of these diseases are transmitted via parasitic arthropods, but others are transmitted simply by contamination of the environment by rodent feces or urine.  Also, many arthropod parasites of rodents do not survive long away from the host, and many do not prefer humans as hosts.  Thus, rodent-associated zoonotic diseases that involve synanthropic arthropod transmission actually circulate most effectively in the presence of healthy rodent populations close to human habitation or activity.  Thus, I would start with control of the rodents, then move to comprehensive sanitation of human activity areas that would eliminate both arthropods and other infectious contaminants.
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
3 answers
I need to understand the roles they play during schistosomiasis.
Relevant answer
Answer
IL-4 and IL-13 are hallmarks for a Th2-type immune response, which is induced during schistosomiasis.
Check out these publications:
"Cellular and chemokine-mediated regulation in schistosome-induced hepatic pathology"
"Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 Suppress Excessive Neutrophil Infiltration and Hepatocyte Damage during Acute Murine Schistosomiasis Japonica"
"Schistosomiasis Reveals the Role of IL-13 in Chronic Inflammatory Disease"
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
6 answers
I found a few examples of bacterial plant disease forecasting including fire blight of fruit trees, bean bacterial diseases, onion xanthomonas. Is there any other bacterial disease control programs based on prediction of pathogen development?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Alex
You can find the information of 10 forecasting models for Fire Blight of Pear and Apple in the website of The University of California Statewide IPM Program (UC IPM) :
Good luck
  • asked a question related to Disease Control
Question
2 answers
Prediction of dengue outbreak on the basis of health insurance data.
Relevant answer
Answer
It is a very interesting question you have put forth here- I am currently involved in one such venture for Dengue in my State- and hopefully my data sets should be out by the end of this week.
I think one can reasonably identify the areas at high risk and draw logical conclusions as to why the incidence is high in certain areas.
A methodical approach should begin with a layout of your goals- 1) What do you want to study. 2) Will you have field team support?. 3) What all parameters will you include? 4) What is the number of subjects you are looking to include? 5) Any chance of follow up studies on a year-by-year basis?
Start by keeping things simple. Prepare you basic format for questionnaire and excel sheets for data input.
Identify parameters you want to include.
Always have the addresses of the subjects included in your analysis
Have a detailed map of the area of study- blow it up to 2x or 3x scale for easy marking.
Go through other studies conducted on your area.
Think out of the box- think of ALL possible causation for outbreaks in an area- be familiar with the disease
talk to people in the area- ask what THEY think could be contributory.
As and when data is available- build up your database.
Be patient- it takes a lot of effort.
Keep in regular touch with your peers - ask ask and always ask about their experiences and kind of patients they are encountering.