Science topic

Discourse Analysis - Science topic

Discourse analysis (DA), or discourse studies, is a general term for a number of approaches to analyzing written, spoken, signed language use or any significant semiotic event. Research concerning the role of language in constructing institutionalised power and ideology.
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I am also looking for guidebooks, or any reference articles as a starting point in doing the discourse analysis.
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A quantitative research will be relevant ( *but not exclusive* ) to highlight the many points of details making a difference in some linguistic aspect.
A guidebook:
Deborah Schiffrin, _Approaches to Discourse_ (1994).
Deborah Schiffrin et al.,
_The handbook of Discourse Analysis_ (2005).
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Can I use for example poststructuralist discourse theory in the theoretical framework but then use an other methodology for the analysis (I don't know lets say framing or literature review). Or do I have to use discourse analysis as method as well? Is coding necessary for all discourse analysis? Thank you
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you can do so by adopting an eclectic model of analysis.
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I am analysing a textual corpus with 34 obituaries of a recently deceased writer from the point of view of Discourse Analysis. I think that a quantitative analysis of the lexicon used would be interesting. Specifically, I am looking for a way of detecting the specific lexis of these texts (verbs, nouns, adjectives, collocations...). In some articles I have seen that they study the specific lexicon of a politician by comparing it with that of another politician. Here the comparison would be with a general language corpus such as CREA (Corpus de Referencia del Español Actual). I would be grateful for ideas about methods (formulas, programmes...) to measure lexical specificity.
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Nb.
The main key word will be the *content* word (not grammatical one) displaying the highest lexicometric frequency of use.
Its score will be generated automatically on the Lexico3 data chart/sheet right after text treatment and analysis.
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hi everyone I'm currently taking some readings and I need help, can you all give me the easiest explanation and application of the following for dummies
Discourse Analysis
Positioning theory and
Social Representations Theory
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Positioning theory is more applicable in interactional studies or narrative-based data as it explores representations of the selves in narrative and how power, duties and rights are negotiated, claimed and challenged. From interactional perspective positioning is assumed to manifest at different levels: at the narrative level (how participnats in a story are positioned), at the discourse interactional level (how participants position each other), at the person level (how a person position him/herself relative to others). Positioning can also taget events, objects, as well as people. Embedded in positioning theory is the notion of agency. How has power anmoral claims to positions, etc.
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In text and linguistics, how coherence can be utilised fully? What are the advantages of coherence?
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I would suggest that the main benefit of coherence in discourse, whether written or spoken, is that it allows an interlocutor to fulfill Grace's Maxims and to ensure that all parties understand. On the other hand, exactly how coherence is expressed is language-specific. You might consider looking into discourse particles, though they have gone by a variety of different names during the last few decades.
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In discourse structure, how graph structure is better than tree. In what way we can create them to use in sentiment analysis. What are the advantages/disavntages of graph and tree. Any suggestions
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I wouldn't say that one is better than the other. It all depends on the way you conduct your analysis and discussions in your work. This choice is part of your methodological cut, so it must be integrated to the other parts of your work. I would say that the interpretation provided to the data are even more important than the representation itself, be it a graph, be it a tree. We can continue our conversation, but I hope my main point here be clear.
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Hello,
We are currently evaluating software for the analysis of transcribed video recordings of dialogues. Coding units are episodes, and we want to quantify codings as duration of time. In previous studies, we successfully used Transana for similar analysis.
We are now evaluating to use MAXQDA instead, which does not assist reports of time duration of codings on transcripts, but only number of characters. For the export of duration data, coding has to be on the video, which does not meet standards for linguistic discourse analysis.
Does anybody know studies and/or have experiences with number of characters instead of duration as value for the quantification of transcript-based coding of dialogues?
Thank you for sharing your knowledge and experience!
Kind regards, Annelies Kreis
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I wrote the CLASS program to accomplish your goal. See http://class.wceruw.org/index.html & http://class.wceruw.org/class.html.
Good luck.
Martin Nystrand
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Can anyone help with some points of confusion around the fine line that is post-structuralism and social constructionism? I am trying to settle on a theoretical position relating to constructionist epistemological perspectives of voice hearer experiences without going off on a subjectivist ontological tangent. According to MIcheal Crotty subjectivism and constructionism are distinct in thier ontological explanations of reality but does this neccessarily have to lead to distinct methodological approaches? I am interest in exploring the social discourses surrounding lived experiences of mental illness so it seems logical to settle on discursive psychology or critical discourse as it considers the social context of such experiences. According to the mentioned author however, I could be confusing my ontologies ? Am I overthinking this?
Thoughts greatly appreciated!
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The borderline between both approaches is the role and range of human agency,
with respect to the interplay of physical reality and human psychology (perception is everything, reality is nothing refers more to the constructionist explanation model, while psychological perception is limited by physical reality refers more to structuralist view, post or not). In terms of ontology, constructionism focuses more on communication, structuralism is more centered around consequences of human inter-action. A cybernetic approach is able to integrate both positions or viewpoints, e.g. in the tradition of Hv Foerster (Understanding Understanding).
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I wanted to do a discourse analysis of the text on Twitter, but the data was too large and I had to determine a small range, so I did a random sampling. But the data is still too big. Can I do a word frequency count on the sampled data to find the most frequent words and then randomly select the samples for analysis in details?
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In order to construct a coherent framework, it is crucial to be aware of the philosophical, theoretical and methodological differences and similarities among the approaches. Obviously, this requires an overview of the field.
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Case study in applied linguistics/ Language teaching
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I am having the same problem with my research design at the moment. I don't have enough participants for an experiment design and my data will be mainly qualitative, so I am looking into doing a case study. But I also have an intervention whose effectiveness I want to test and varify. So I guess it would be a case study with intervention then.
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I'm learning the anti-feminist motives in the MP's for the 1-year time span. In this regard, I will analyze all the transcripts (for the sake of the validity of the data) of the speeches and will focus on the anti-feminist discourses. Still, I have suspicions in terms of the validity and reliability issues.
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I think it is reliable. To what extent the results of a discourse analysis then really meet the criteria of reliability and validity is difficult. From my point of view, they do not have to meet these criteria, because a discourse analysis wants something else. It shows power structures, repetitions, legitimations in processes.
There are no standardised quality criteria for qualitative research. However, three quality criteria seem to make sense: transparency, intersubjectivity and range.
Your discourse analysis should be transparent, which means that you document the work steps and present them in a comprehensible way. In a further step, you could reflect on and discuss the subjectively obtained data, thus fulfilling the criterion of intersubjectivity. The presentation of the limitations and scope of your discourse analysis would also be important.
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I have to know what is discourse analysis in culture and how they are related?
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I agree with both Zouheir and Pierre-Carl Link. Discourse analysis is primarily intertwined with language and culture. Michel Foucault's viewpoints about discourse are prominent and numerous scholars within sociolinguistics, sociology, and cultural studies and in the broader field of social sciences have contributed to conceptualizing discourse analysis (e.g., Norman Fairclough, Anthony Giddens, among others).
With respect to the relationship between discourse and culture, it is depending on the field and context, but one of the crucial points of discourse analysis is to increase an in-depth understanding of public dialogues, debates, arguments, and communications, or popular inferences and assumptions about a specific topic or event function. Thus, scholars consider various types of methods such as historical narratives, media representations, and oral testimonies as empirical evidence to communicate with audiences. Overall, discourse analysis entails written and textual data and at times demands hermeneutics to interpret specific themes as discourse.
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As per my limited understanding, there are few techniques of analyzing the qualitative data that include
a) thematic analysis
b) content analysis
c) discourse analysis
d) narrative analysis
I am confused about the appropriate use of these techniques in different kind of studies. For example, if we have conducted interviews then we can simply deploy framework or thematic analysis but if we have selected different studies to reach out a new conclusion, what technique should be used?
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1. It is not clear what do you mean by different studies.
2. What do you want to achieve/ what are you looking at? What kind of data are you examining? You need to clarify your objectives- the research questions, aims, and methodology.
3. I suggest that after you are clear about the 2 steps above, then do read and understand all the kind of analysis that you have stated. Choose the most appropriate kind of analysis accordingly. Best wishes.
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How is Post-Truth Discourse Related to Environmentalism?
In what ways does Post-Truth affect environmentalism and environmental conservation?
I'm looking for specific answers / cases.
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Post-truth means that anybody can make any kind of claim and the original claim goes farther and faster than the rebuttal or fact check does.
Therefore, conspiracy theories and false claims are often seen by more people than the truth. This can greatly affect what people believe about environmental issues, such as climate change.
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By analyzing discourse, we consider both texts and contexts but we also take reality into consideration. Reality functions as a reference point and a product at the same time, interesting. In this sense, is discourse analysis 2 or 3 dimensional or more? If it has dimensions, what are they? Text, Context, (& Reality)?
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The question really would be “how to define reality”. Dimensions would have to be quantifiable and measurable otherwise it is hard to back up any kind of argument.
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Dear all,
Can you point me in the direction of CDA analysis that you like, which are published in very good journals?
I am mostly interested in organisational and management journals - secondly, accounting journals.
Much appreciated.
Kind regards, Mai
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You may refer to references about critical pragmatics and critical discourse analysis to help you answer the question.
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A good researcher can diagnose the practical aspects of data through statistical applications, but the problem is that some researchers are weak in statistical skills.
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Up on your understanding of dicsourse structure, I would like to share your ideas about the minimal structure of a discourse. Discourse analyists suggest and recommend that for discourse analysis the structure of discourse should not be less than two sentences. However, in the discourse of everyday communication sometimes we encounter the use of sign language or facial expressions and body movements. More particularly, in some places and institutions such as post offices or airports we usually find posters and wall signs telling us not to smoke or lead us to mens' and womens' toilets. The question here is that can we consider these signs and posters to be discourse or not. Thanking you for exhanging your views and comments.
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I agree with your argument that a text of (a sign) is not enough to be considered as a discourse in terms of its textual structure. However, coherence in discourse is much more essential for the texturness of a text to be a discourse. Therefore, any sign has a kind of mutual comperhension (contextual interaction) between the reader and the writer (the one who has a message behind making such sign).
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Interestingly, I've found much fewer employing nexus analysis (or mediated discourse analysis) compared with Fairclough's and van Dijk's.
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Thanks, interesting question
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I'm doing a study that needs to compare changes in cyber nationalism.
Can I use the contents posted by people on Twitter for A nationalist incident and the contents posted by people on Facebook for the B nationalist incident to do discourse analysis and compare the changes in nationalist expression?
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Yes, you can use this data but this data much be authentic and you need to give citation of that specific data in your research as well. That data need to be selected via certain sampling technique and much be sufficient to fulfill your objectives and answer your research questions.
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I read some discourse analysis studies on political science.
Some discourse analysis studies analyze only one example without coding, while others analyze a large number of examples and with coding.
What is the correct amount of data to do a discourse analysis?
For example , if I only have three samples, can I do discourse analysis?
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The amount of data needed for any research depends primarily on the nature of the question being asked. The role of data is to support a logical and reasonable answer to a question asked. The role of theory is to inform question development and formulation, and to make sense of data, since data does not explain itself, nor is self-evident.
In discourse analysis a corpus or corpora should similarly be chosen based on the research question. If you can devise a research that seems worthwhile and can contribute to knowledge (standard academic criteria for research publications) then your next question is how much data is needed to provided a reasonable answer to that question. This could be a single political speech dissected systematically and thematically manually, or thousands of media articles assessed using software (for example Nvivo) and coding techiques, or somewhere in between.
Hence there is no definable correct amount of data, absent the context of the research question. In the context of a specific question the criteria is: "does this data allow me to answer my question to an appropriate degree".
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I want to interbreed two models for analyzing data in discourse analysis.
i highly appreciate your help
My regards .
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that sounds great, I bet it is better for you to have an eclectic model. Will discuss it for sure.
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Please I need suggestion of research works done that can be used as best model and/or helpful software programs.
I thank you in advance for you time & kindness!
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Hi Urgessa,
I recomendo Reading the attached articule.
Good luck!
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using NVivo for discourse analysis
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Last time we used it with two politicians debating. We had some interesting charts and statistics which helped us a lot in analysis. May be, these will consolidate your analysis as well.
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I wonder if there are studies of how an individual can shape collective behaviour and to what extent. What I mean is the opposite of social influence where a group member obeys collective behaviour, but vice versa how an individual (a politician, a journalist etc.) shapes group behaviour according to his preferences. For example, the capitol riot on 6.01.2021 in Washington and Trump's behaviour -- how Trump manipulated the crowd?
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Individuals change society for good and bad. Individuals get angry at the system and begin movements to change it. Revolutions start with a single person. Sometimes we know their names - Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King Jr, Gandhi, Hitler, Trump* - but mostly we don't.
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While applying the qualitative content method, discourse analysis was used in an article. To quote the exact phrase, "the researchers have applied qualitative content, a manual technique that allows having a discourse analysis and scientific understanding of the content of the messages analyzed."
Can someone elaborate on how to employ discourse analysis in qualitative content analysis? If possible, please also share some guiding literature on it.
Regards.
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Yes. Provided that your corpora are available. It could be in a form of written text.
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I have collected survey from the fandom, and done a interview with an idol celebrity, to show their perspectives on femininity and queerbaiting, implying and reflection in performance. They are all from one certain girls idol group’s popular music singing dancing concerts. At the next stage, I want to analysis the Dance, makeup and lyric. It can help to promote every point they mentioned. So what method is suitable to do that? Multimodal discourse analysis or content analysis? Could you please give me some relevant researches for me to learn from their studies?
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Multimodal analysis and feminist analysis would be much more helpful for you. See Kress's Multimodal Discourse Analysis.
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In positioning theory, "speech act" is a central concept. Speech acts are something that is performed by interlocutors in an interaction. But what then is "speech" itself, i.e. without the addition of "act"? What is speech when it is not an action/a performance? And how would one analyze "speech" if not by analyzing acts/actions/performances?
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It depends on the theory you use to define "speech". Commonly, speech is the process while discourse is the result, and a speech act, verbal or no verbal is the obtention on an effect
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Hello everyone.
I'm trying to select the optimal approach to my research study and I'm having some doubts about solely using semiotics. My plan is to carry out a semiotic analysis on a small selection of visual texts (video ads), however I intend to not only analyse the mise-en-scène, sound, and camerawork, but also examine the text that appears on screen and what the voiceover says throughout the length of the commercials.
Thus, my question would be if I look at let's call them verbal aspects, would that mean I will also have to adopt discourse analysis or rhetorical analysis as a research method along semiotics? I'm asking this because I feel like a semiotic analysis would only help me to uncover the visual meaning and if I look at 'written text' I should employ a different approach. But on the other hand, I'm not trying to go in depth with the analysis. I would say that much of what I would do would involve an interpretation, similar to analysing a metaphor.
Thank you in advance for your answers. Any help is appreciated.
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Hello Adelina, I suggest social semiotics first, and if you are looking for ideologies, you can add a critical discourse analysis approach. And lexicometric approches like Quantitative Discourse Analysis should be a plus to highlight representations, stereotypes and ideologies.
Good luck
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For a few years now, I have dedicated a part of my research and publications to the problem of hate speech on social networks. I am currently outlining a new article on that. There is something that makes me worried. It seems obvious that there are easily labelable and traceable hate speeches (especially in cyberspace with the help of automatic word processing software). Many published works provide today relevant data that allows detecting hate speech and identifying potentially criminal users masked under pseudo anonymity.
My concern is whether there would be another way to better approach hate speech without departing from purely scientific objectives, without contributing to the materialization of a kind of Linguistic Court willing to rule on the acceptability of expressions, perhaps in order to cleaning, fixing and giving “splendour” to digital language, improving, incidentally, the public image of social platforms and regulating the coexistence in cyberspace in such a way that only “good people” could participate ?
The truth is that, in addition to those speeches that explicitly express hatred, there is an untraceable, ungrammaticalizable hatred that resists both Logic and Empiricism. The question I ask you is if there is someone else who, like me, fears the risks of such practices of identifying "bad speeches" that could be used to purify the language, limiting freedom of expression? (sorry for my English, which is a language I use very rarely)
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Hello everyone,
I need to find a journal that applies discourse analysis, but I am having trouble finding one.
Does anyone have a suggestion on how to look for such journals or maybe even have a specific one in mind?
Thank you very much.
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Michal Bron Jr - Thank you so much! This is very helpful!
Best,
Seong
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In fact, I need to know the analytical tools related to discourse analysis that might be used to tackle a literary discourse (precisely poems). I also need the names of the prominent linguists who pioneered the concepts in discourse analysis that are suitable to analyze a literary discourse.
Thank you in advance.
Rafik
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PROJECT
A NEW BOOK ON CONCEPTUAL METAPHOR THEORY BY ZOLTÁN KÖVECSES
Here is a brief description of the book:
The phenomenon known as metaphor is an extremely complex mental event - we cannot capture its complexity if we tie ourselves to existing standard views on metaphor. This book offers fresh insight into metaphor, updating an established theory, conceptual metaphor theory (CMT), in the context of current cognitive linguistic theory, and clarifying many of the issues that researchers in the study of metaphor have raised against conceptual metaphor theory. Starting with an introduction to CMT, the subsequent chapters set out propositions for Extended Conceptual Metaphor Theory, including a discussion on whether literal language exists at all, whether conceptual metaphors are both conceptual and contextual, and whether they are both offline and online. Providing a fresh take on a constantly developing field, this study will enrich the work of researchers in areas ranging from metaphorical cognition to literary studies.
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I am preparing a Post-Doc project about the identity of Islamist Extremists. In this regard, is there any book (s) from Islamist extremists that can be analyzed by the methodology of discourse analysis and/or content analysis?
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Regarding identity construction through discourse, Bamberg, Bamberg etl. and Defina, etl. are more that great books to revise in this matter.
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I want to analyze the characters of the Hindi language feature film, No One Killed Jessica, and by characters I mean all the characters in the film, irrespective of gender. So, I want to know if there is any sort of criteria or any rules to follow while analyzing a character? How to go about it? Like, what should be the first step for analyzing? Do I have to measure the character against something?
Please help.
Thank you
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As other colleagues suggested, everything depends on what you want to know. But from my sociology perspective, I would consider two paths:
- The characters as a content you want to analize. Thus, it is applying regular content analysis techniques which will give you a general and global view of the characters".
- Secondly, I would rather think to analyze the characters itselves as a creation coming from the director/productor/etc...From this perspective, the characters are viewed as discourse positions designed from other actors (you could also consider to open the analysis to these other actors to establish their role and interests on the creation of characters). I hope that is helpful and the best of luck with your research.
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Crismore et al. (1993) define metadiscourse as: "linguistic material in texts, written or spoken, which does not add anything to the propositional content but that is intended to help the listener or reader organize, interpret and evaluate the information."
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The spoken text expresses discourse and usage more than the written text, which can describe the discourse, not its pragmatic analysis, while all the discursive formats are clear from the written because it represents a continuous documented system
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Dear fellows,
I am working on my bachelor thesis right now. My vision was to extract some sort of information flow between platforms. Concretely, I wanted to analyse 4chan /pol/ posts from 2016 and US-Presidential Candidate Tweets from the same time period in order to determine in which direction information goes, which side of the analysis "creates" the information. Does the political entity lead the conversation or follow it?
In my research I already pinned down that I need to compare topics and their emergence time. I also read a lot about discourse analysis. But lacking a gotcha-moment, I am starting to doubt how feasable this is. Especially because I can't find any similar works in the research field.
So my question is, is something like this doable? If not, is there an similar alternative research question where I can keep the data and methods?
Even if you think the question might not deserve an answer because of any reason, I would be very thankful if you could at least share some keywords that come to your mind when reading the question.
Thank you and have a nice day!
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In most examples of discourse analysis, the focus has been on big knowledge structures (discourses) and not on smaller discursive elements (memes). Yet, it seems that you need to analyze the evolution of discursive elements and memes to see, how discourses evolve over time and how discourses inherit ideas from each other.
Do you have any examples of such methodological combination of discourse analysis and memetics? Such methodological tools would be very useful in my analysis of the different discourses that lead some Finnish organizations to prohibit face mask usage from their employees (see attached diagram).
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Discourse and text: linguistic and intertextual analysis within discourse analysis .
Dear Read it would be helpful.
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Hi there,
I am working with a CAQDAS and my project entails critically analyzing the power discourses in both public and privately sourced documents. I haven't got much experience doing CDA though and many texts I have come across hardly explain how to do CDA with qualitative software.
My real question is: is preliminary coding (of doc segments) necessary for doing CDA?
I am thinking of two options:
1. do coding of segments of the different docs, thereafter continue critical analyzing the discourse in relatedly coded segments. OR
2. start the critical analyses right away from each document and somehow develop (or not) codes from the critical discussions generated from the findings.
Suggested texts are welcome. Thank you.
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Oluwole Badmus I would agree that an iterative approach is helpful. Each document in a corpus should be initially read on its own terms for the discourses within. But it is also the case that no text is an island unto itself, but is dialectically related to its broader discursive environment (see Norman Fairclough's work on this relationship) and indeed to ongoing empirical events, given that the times in which we read a text impacts and transforms our interpretation.
You will also have a wider selected corpus within which a single text is hypothesized as having some relationship. That relationship will only emerge iteratively over time, as you read more texts within the corpus, note emergent thematics, and then begin the process of coding. It really is a fascinating and rewarding process, but takes a lot of reading, thematizing, re-reading, coding in a stepwise process to get there.
Hope that helps.
Naoise.
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Research in "Discourse Analysis of Identity Reflection in Mass Media" will be quite beneficial for me. Any Identity of Any Nation/Nationality.
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There are many publications in this field. A simple literature search should provide you with many publications relating to your research area. Other than what has been mentioned, you can also check, among others, Richardson, J. (2006), Analysing Newspapers: An Approach from Critical Discourse Analysis; Talbot, M. (2007), Media Discourse: Representation and Interaction: Kalyango, Y. & Kopytowska, M.W. (2014), Why Discourse Matters: Negotiating Identity in the Mediatized World.
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I am currently planning a research project/Masters dissertation about women perpetrators of the Holocaust, and I am intrested in doing some primary research. I would like to access photographs of SS women and nurses in particular. I would like to explore these frontline perpetrators' dual role as 'ordinary' German women and merciless killers.
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There are nowadays digital sources in most of the European archives, including for the II World War. For Germany consult https://www.bundesarchiv.de/EN/ Navigation/ Use/Using-specific-types/Military-Records/military-records-en.html
For The Netherlands, you can access The Netherlands Institute for War Documentation at http://www.niod.nl/
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Dear All,
I am currently writing my thesis, and I feel like I am stuck in the design.
My research goal is to gain a better insight on the policy discourse of the World Bank in the case of the Land Administration Program in Ghana.
A little background info: Implementation of customary land tenure is quite often included within donor projects to establish land security. However, it often leads to negative consequences for poor farmers and female farmers, despite some efforts by developmental organizations in avoiding these consequences (think of local elites who abuse their power or sexism).
The aim of this thesis is to contribute to an understanding on why the World Bank follows a discourse of implementing customary tenure, and how the organization tries to harmonize the struggle of both women’s rights and the implementation of customary tenure.
So, in short, I would like to better understand the 'ideological' grounds of the World Bank in the case of the LAP, in order to better understand their support of customary tenure despite its possible negative consequences. What drives them towards this decision, despite the scientific critics on customary tenure?
In order to do so, I want to conduct a discourse analysis by analyzing policy documents of the World Bank considering this program. However, at this point I feel a bit stuck on how to proceed. Am I in the right direction? What kind of discourse analysis would be appropriate?
I am looking forward to some help!
Thanks in advance
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Dear Yanda Daggers,
Your research design is good. Your research goal is good, but it seems quite wide. If you brain storm a little, and check what is it that you want to focus about land administration, then write down five to six mini goals about then. In the next step collect all your material/ primary data, and highlight different discourses with different colours. Are there any "global discourses", "modernisation discourses", "climate discourses", "Eurocentric discourses" etc? Depending on the scope of your thesis, choose which discourses you want to focus on, and start your analysis.
I work with discourse analysis of policy discourses as well. You can check my MA thesis called "Chronicles of the English language in Pakistan" where I focus on colonial discourses. You should also check Jan Blommaert & Normam Fairclough's work for theoretical frameworks. do let me know if you have any further questions.
Best wishes,
Alia
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I'm doing a project on emergency team communication (in simulation). The data is videotapes, and I will do a turn-by-turn analysis of the talk.
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Thats really kind of you - thanks a lot
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Is there such thing as false interpretation in Literature?
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An interpretation is considered admissible if it's not in contradiction with the text, but since the text is open and polysemous, the return to the text is often insufficient to determine the validity of the interpretations, which are diverses and can be contradictory. Literary interpretation is both subjective and in part conditioned by interpretative communities (Fish). We cannot use a criterion of truth (true / false) but an intersubjective validation process (admissible / contestable), in other words to be admissible an interpretation must be recognized as such by other readers. We must then turn to the explanation by the readers of the sources of their interpretations. In my educational research, I have shown that teachers refer more to literary culture and students to the values ​​shared in their communities as well as to their personal experiences of the world. Thank you for the rich discussion!
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Hi I am doing my undergrad thesis and I am not quite sure what coding method I should use
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Hola Luis,
Puedes estudiar el discurso de tu ámbito a partir de categorías comunicativas, discursivas y lingüísticas. Puedes apoyarte en varios autores, tales cómo van Dijk, Patrick Chaeaudeau, entre otros. Hay distintas corrientes (francesa, holandesa, inglesa, americana, latinoamericana por mencionar algunas).
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I am having trouble in how I can utilize DA in my thesis about relational partners and their communication
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All the previous respondents have made excellent points. The only addition I would make is to consider the context of the communication. Norman Fairclough might be worth reading, particularly for examining power dynamics.
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Hello to all,
I am doing research on the representation of dreams in the works of Muslim Mystics in the middle ages. I am interested to know what "dreams" meant to them and how they used it. I have collected about 250 dream accounts from Persian and Arabic texts. I am not concerned with the explicit contents of these dreams. I would like to take a critical look at the authors' underlying ideas and goals. Specifically, for each dream account, I would like to consider four related questions:
1- What this dream account is telling us?
2- What does the author want to say by reporting this dream?
3- dreaming is considered as...
4- What are the latent or unwritten messages or implications of this dream report?
In short, I know what kind of analysis I would like to do, but I am looking for a named approach. Would you recommend that I use discourse analysis (if so, which type of DA?) or critical thematic analysis to answer these research questions? Or would you know a more suitable method(ology) for my research?
Thank you very much for your attention.
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Hello everybody!! I think that Appraisal Theory would be a fine and accurate method, considering the nature of your research.
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Some researchers argue that discourse analysis still lacks a clear methodology. It is considered impressionistic interpretations, depends on subjective matters such as: the strength of argument, truthfulness, and purity of purpose. This means if we lose one of these conditions, the results cannot be trusted.
The question to our colleagues: how to solve these methodological problems.
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Is there anyone here
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I'm doing a comparative study on social media language used by native and non-native speakers with special reference to Instagram. I am planning on using Discourse analysis. What is your take on this? Could anyone please suggest me what else can be used?
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I wonder why you are carrying out this study?
What questions are you trying to answer, through examining social media language from different speakers in this way?
Why are these questions interesting?
If you are clear about your own answers to questions like these, you will be better placed to judge which analytical methods are likely to be appropriate.
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I am working on Writer Identity and have selected these three Macro features to analyse students' writing. The micro features as I have read in different studies may be used are grammar and vocabulary for textual analysis. Since this is my first experience with qualitative study and discourse analysis and I am a novice researcher I dont know how to go about it? I have read a lot but even then not able to decide whether what I am doing is correct or not. Your expert opinions may help me with my confusion,
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Shilong put you on the right track. If I need to add something, it has to do with the way your students bring about coherence in their writing by analyzing the theme-rheme organization (Halliday's textual metafunction) into the various types such as constant theme, simple linear progression, derived theme, split theme, and thematic lapse. Since you want to investigate Writer Identity, an analysis along these lines may be fruitful in reinforcing your decisions as to what counts as different writer identities. As you may know, these types are variously complex, which would enable you to stream students into different personalities through their writings. An author that you might ant to consult on the ideational metafunction, though he is a social psychologist, is Pennebaker who has written extensively on the importance of lexical choices. A final word about the interpersonal metafunction: Depending on what topic students have been given to develop, this function may be slightly difficult to investigate. I take it that you start with hypotheses about what to expect to find in your students' writing, in which you might suggest which metafunction might be more represented.
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I am going to carry out research and my primary sources are the discourses of top level political leaders. I am going to use qualitative discourse analysis.
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Well, I am going to give a few recommendations which I wish, might help you in your research as :
You have to define your corpus / data that is oral or written discourse
Your analysis / study will be focused :
- the substantives /nouns - the pragmatics
- the verbs i-e tenses - the structure
- the semantic aspects - tne enunciation
- the speaker / writer should involve the receiver
If it is an oral discourse, you add :
- the supra segmental features / prosody,
- speed of the speech,
- the intonation (psychological aspect),
- the accentuation
Good Luck
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And also, can anyone point me to a researcher who specializes in Rhetorical Discourse Analysis?
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التحليل البلاغي قد يكون لخطاب او نص او اي قطعة ادبية معينة يراد تفكيك مكوناتها لإعادة تشكيلها وفق المعاني الجديدة المستخلصة من عملية التحليل.
أما تحليل الخطاب البلاغي فهومحدد بخطاب بلاغي يراد تحليله
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Discourse analysis can enhance the ESP course materials as well as ESP teachers' language knowledge ... how?
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Maria Grazia Sindoni hi.I really want your feedback,so what do you think ? what I mean is that how discourse analysis can help ESP teachers to enhance or let's say to develop his/her language knowledge ( related to the specialism).Because in the case I'm working in most ESP teachers are general English teachers ,and they find themselves in an ESP class ,so they are not prepared or trained.Thus they have to design their ESP courses .So my research is about how to apply discourse analysis on what've said(i.e., ESP teacher language knowledge and course materials)
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I need such a model to carry out a research.
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There is a very good model which I used in one of my papers. It was proposed by Prof. Reem Bassiouney (2012). It uses a number of discoursal and structural tools to analyze the identity of the speaker or how the speaker is trying to establish the identity of another party.
Bassiouney, R. (2012). Politicizing identity: Code choice and stance-taking during the Egyptian revolution. Discourse & Society, 23 (2), 107-126. Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0957926511431514
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I am conducting research on Multimodal Discourse Analysis (MMDA) field. Which are the seminal works (books, papers, ...) in Multimodal Discourse Analysis (MMDA)?
I really appreciate knowing other researchers' point of view.
Thank you.
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Hi Ilaria. I'm sorry to disagree with the two previous answers by Sergio and Weimin, but I assure that the suggested readings have nothing to do with your specific question and are not relevant at all with MDA.
To start off, my suggestion is that you read
Multimodal Discourse Analysis: Systemic Functional Perspectives (2004) edited by Kay O'Halloran. It's old, but it is foundational and basically sets out to introduce the field of multimodal discourse studies within SFL. Some people wrongly refer to another foundational book, that is the celebrated Reading Images (2006, second edition), bu Gunther Kress and Theo van Leeuwen. Impossible to udnerstand what multimodal studies are and where they come from without this reading, but please be informed that this is NOT about multimodal discourse analysis - that is a strand iniatiated more systematically by Kay O'Halloran in the early 2000s. Much stuff has been circulating from O'Halloran's edited collection, but I always suggest novice readers in multimodality to start from it all began.
You may also wish to selectively read chapters from The Routledge Handbook of Multimodal Analysis edited by Carey Jewitt (2nd edition, 2013, the first edition, 2009, includes less chapters) and/or as the best introduction with clear and concise explanations of the different strands within multimodal approaches to semiosis of communication (including MDA) I recomment the excellent Introducing Multimodality (2016), written by Carey Jewitt, Jeff Bezemer and Kay O'Halloran.
These are basic and most useful readings to my knowledge.
hope this helps!
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Hello,
I am planning on doing a Discourse Analysis of French newspapers. One of the things I wish to do is to analyse frames. However, I have problems deducting or defining appropriate frames. I wish to ask the community how should I proceed? Do you have any relevant literature that might be helpful?
Thank you very much!
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I agree with prof Nicola that the works of Entman May give you appropriate frames for deducing or structuring your frames for your discourse study. Once you arrive at selecting those frames for analysis then you can plan your discourse ideology and theory accordingly.
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For a social constructivist approach focusing on individuals' perceptions of risk, is there a specific discourse analysis tool that may be more suitable?
I have been reading about it, and found that perhaps the Big D may be suitable but still not sure.
Are there essential readings I should be focusing on that I am missing out?
Thank you all
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I recommend two publications from Paul Gee that can be very detailed in terms of a more systematic DA. One is How to do discourse analysis and the second is An introduction to Discourse Analysis. Try that as an introduction. Good luck.
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I have filmed 20/30 participants each for my two studies about migratory decisions and creative resilience actions. The first one I have used Q methodology and aiming to use factor analysis. The second one, I am using autovideographical techniques and aiming to use discourse analysis.
However, I am confused among these three: factor analysis, descriptive discourse analysis, critical discourse analysis, and video interpretive analysis. Any comments, links etc. distinguishing each from the others will be useful. Many Thanks. Rabbani
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Actually, you have listed four items instead of three. For what I know, factor analysis is a statistical method. Descriptive and critical discourse analysis are analyses of texts with different foci. Not sure about the last one.
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Since, the discourse analysis naturally occurring in language of any social context ; can the meaning of architectural language fall into these categories?
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Who are the key people in persuasive language?
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Dear Colleague @Sue Hamzah,
I agree with @Cameen Kettanun. You shd consider the purpose of your use of a style of analysis.
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I have been tasked to write a media report about a conflict (in my case the annexation of Crimea) for an assignment due soon.
I have decided to compare The following documentaries:
Crimea for Dummies by Russia Today: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xURFKxliGh8
Select a suitable method, or productive combination of methods, to analyse this (whether, for example, content analysis, semiotics or another form of visual analysis, critical linguistics or discourse analysis).
What method would you recommend to analyse and compare the two? I’ve looked at a content analysis, but the methodologies and their results (formulas, symbols and numbers etc.) have completely discombobulated me.
I also have also not got a clue on how to create a code book, since i’ve struggled to find a single study which compares two visual documentaries like above.
I have been been told to explain why these broadcasters. I have done already done this. but I’ve also been told that I could “Maybe - differing accounts of the rationale for war? different thematic focus’ and what this may mean/suggest? Different voices in play, and what this may mean etc/“
I am stressed out and am feeling extremely stupid at this present time.
Any help would be appreciated.
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This question is very tricky. There is a generic body of activity, which will probably give more depth of answers than the confrontation of two very contrasted although professionally published views. You know Wikipedia. The generic term of such activity as Wikipedia is Commons Based Peer Production. An interesting EU project names P2P value has worked on it. Look it up. I have heard some years ago at a conference, a presentation on the study of the edition of a controversial Wikipedia article, with two very polarised groups with different opinions rewriting what the others had drafted. A trace of how people opposed each other through the sentences was very visible and analysable.
Analysing the language to understand history, even history happening now, is not new.
You probably want to establish:
-facts
-opinions
-intents
-bias.
You may also trace methods and influence of methods.
To do this, you need to start from a model of:
-players on the ground
-confrontations
-"big brothers" behind the players on the ground, clearly foreign influence included.
-propaganda (bias in speech and claims).
Wars are sometimes fought by proxy.
You may be inspired by previous work on other conflicts, and the methodology used. Why not do a search on the language used in conflict times?
Just from the top of my mind, I remember a book by German linguist Viktor Klemperer with title "LTI" (referring to Latin Lingua Tertii Imperii, the language of the Third Reich). In this book, starting from a glossary of key words, the author analyses myths and propaganda which were instrumental in "controlling by the language" during this dark era of Germany.
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Could you help me distinguish between topicalization and a preposed focal constituent? I am working with a Sub-Bantu language that is typically SVO.
According to Levinsohn, topicalization is "takes place when a CONSTITUENT is moved to the font of a sentence, so that it functions as a point of departure."
Also according to Levinsohn: "The option exists in many languages for focal constituents to be placed either late in the sentence or preposed (following the point of departure if any)."
I have two examples in one text. In the first, a man discovers a dead animal in a clearing. He asks a parrot who had killed it. In (1), the parrot responds that it was HE who killed it. This phrase contains what I am currently calling a FOCUS marker, and I believe that it is a preposed focal constituent.
(1) Kosu naa <jɛ si mez jol bupa yɔɔ>. parrot COMP 3SG FOC P1 kill animal DEM ‘The parrot (said) that (it was) he who killed that animal.’
Then, the parrot pointed out that he was there standing on one leg. In Sentence (2) below he preposes the object 'my other leg' before the subject, but without the focus marker.
(2) <<Kɔl waambɔ fɔku j=a bo toklɛ>>. leg 1SG.POSS other 3PL=P1 PRF take ‘“… my other leg, they took.”’
In another text, I have several sisters going fishing. The smarter sisters conspire to trick the foolish sister. In (3) they tell the foolish one that they are not going to catch fish, but worms instead. Here the object is also preposed and the focus marker is present.
(3) Sɛ m=è nɛmbu kɛɛ iya ŋkaŋ si sɛ kɛ nɛ 1PL PRS=NEG catch fish since worms FOC 1PL go with ‘“We are not going to catch fish since we are only going to bring worms.”’
It seems to me that (1) and (3) would be considered preposed focal constituents and that (2) would be topicalization. However, (2) and (3) seem very similar to me other than the fact that there is no focus marker in (2). What do you think?
*UPDATE* the interlinears did not show up well, please see the attached screen capture.
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According to Lambrecht (1994) a topic must satisfy the following conditions:
1. The topic constituent must be referential.
2. It must be focus of attention. That is, it must be currently under discussion.
3. The predicate must be about the topic and more importantly, provide relevant information.
4. The referent of the topic must be part of the discourse register. To put it differently, the topic referent must be among the referents common between the speaker and the listener at the time of the utterance.
Two examples with minimal context:
1a. What did the children do next?
b. The children went to school.
(stress on school)
2a. Who went to school?
b. The children went to school.
(stress on children)
In 1b, the children as the subject possesses all the prerequisites; therefore, it is the topic, and the sentence has a topic_comment reading.
In 2b, the subject (children) satisfies non of the above_mentioned conditions, hence serving as focus, the non_ recoverable information at the time of utterance. The sentence is an identificational one. It identifies the children as focus, as an element equalling X in the presupposition " X went to school".
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There is some critique that I'm trying to find answers to and need your input in it.
Mostly, in order to develop a theory I have seen the usage of Grounded Theory Approach of Strauss, Corbin & Charmaz. Likewise, earlier there were others such as Eisenhardt, Cresswel who talk about developing theories from Case Studies. I have also read a coding manual developed by Saldana. I have noticed something similar in all three types of analysis' methods. "The construction is done through categorizing the data by using one order i.e. a three tier method of coding" for instance Raw Data, Preliminary Codes, Final Code, compare that with Identifying Themes, Reviewing Themes, Naming Themes similarly in GT Initial Coding, Axial Coding, Theoretical Coding. (Whether done using CAQDAS, Atlasti or QSR Invivo)
The criticism is even worst* when we combine one or more multiple methods of analysis within cases e.g. using FGDs & Interviews as data collection for a case and grounded theory approach, thematic analysis, discourse analysis etc. as data analysis techniques?
*[Where it is OK for them to use descriptive and inferential or non parametric techniques all together in one study not to mention data normalization & transformation tests that are used first to re-fine [ or re-define] the data] :)
How to counter such types of arguments by post-positivists and quantitative researchers? Is there a way out? I am stuck. I know there are philosophical differences but I need your opinions as well.
Thanks a lot!
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First of all, appreciations to you for having reached this level of depth in qualitative enquiry as a whole. I believe one of the viable entry to this debate will be to acknowledge the fact that epistemological differences always runs us into the trouble of comparison as regards to which is better and which is not. But, the fact of the matter is the relationship between the researcher and how he finds the truth varies depending upon the factors and objectives. One who is interested to see the pattern and overall truth will look at the quantitative enquiry and one who is much interested in the outliers will go for qualitative enquiry. Theories can be built in many ways as rightly pointed by you, but at the end we seek to justify how our way is better or improved than others (depending on the context). The premise being there is nothing like absolute truth and hence it is the way how the researcher builds the theory that matters more, rather than the theory itself.
I consider myself a beginner in qualitative enquiry and hence, excuse me if the response is found unsuitable.
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  • Based on the model presented by Goh and Burns in "Teaching Speaking: A Holistic Approach" (Page 53), it seems that we have two sides of a bridge in terms of second language speaking competence. One of them is knowledge, and the other one is the skill. The "knowledge" phase puts the emphasis on teaching the components related to the knowledge of a language such as grammatical points, vocabulary, idioms, etc. Based on my interpretations of the first four chapters of the book, it seems that teaching the "knowledge" of a language is not going to result in competent second language learners in terms of their speaking competence. In fact, it seems that beginning the process of language teaching from the "knowledge" side is not going to reach to the other side of the bridge that is the skill.
  • If we investigate the other side of the bridge, the skill has some key features. A skill is unconscious, automatic, etc. Based on the mentioned model, moving from the bottom of the triangle to the top (from the skill to knowledge) might have better results in the sense of speaking competence. In fact, adding the needed knowledge to the already-gained skill might let the learners have access to the knowledge in a blink of an eye for negotiation of meaning while the needed knowledge without the presence of the needed skill might not be accessible for the negotiation of meaning. Metaphorically speaking, having a glass prior to pouring water in, is more logical than having water with no glass.
  • Having the mentioned points in mind, some language teachers limit the teaching a language to its knowledge. Now there are several questions to be asked:
  • 1. How can teachers move from skill to knowledge in practice?
  • 2. Do material designers consider such theoretical issues in designing coursebooks?
  • 3. Is there any relationship between the Interface hypothesis and the mentioned issues?
Reference
  1. Goh, C. C., & Burns, A. (2012). Teaching speaking: A holistic approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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Sabri Thabit Saleh Ahmed Thanks for your participation in my discussion and your nice answer. In my opinion, the authors of the mentioned book intended to mention that teaching the knowledge of a language with the aim of reaching to the skill in the second step is not a successful path. Therefore, it seems that it might be better to change the initiation point to the skill side.
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I am looking into how the British portray the Nigerians in two newspapers and was wondering how best to go about discourse analysis as I haven't conducted one before.
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what do you want to emphasise in the dissertation? could you please clarify it?
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Although I already finished one research project which includes visual data analysis I'm still looking for tips and tricks on visual data analysis.
How do You collect data?
How do You analyse visual data?
How do You interpret visual data?
What are your topics of visual data analysis?
And here you are piece of work which I am co-author:
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and Saras's Pink Visual Ethnography. Best intro. We have been using visual ethnography working with refugees. Unfortunately did not publish it in visual form. You can check in my works: Generation 1.5...
Best
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Can anyone suggest me tools or a model to apply in doing a linguistic critical discourse analysis of newspapers?
Thank you very much indeed.
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Dear Jamal,
You have to have a good command of Systemic Functional Grammar by M. Halliday. The common denominator of Fairclough, van Dijk , Hodge and Kress and van Leeuwen is their employment of Systemic Functional Grammar. If you would like to focus on "who did what to whom, what is not said rather than what is said" concerning social power abuse, dominance and inequality, read Halliday.
Best,
N. Kansu-Yetkiner
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It strikes me as if discourse analysis is concerned with all that is taking place or is implicated in discourse; that is, all that ‘lies hidden’, as Michel Foucault would say, in the depths and in fact all levels of discourse, to enable it ‘to emerge and become clearly visible’. In this case, discourse analysis is to proceed in two stages: exploration, for example by means of philology, and secondly by description. But quite other tools and procedures than these are probably called for in approaches to discourse where the guiding principle is to point out the item of communication, whether intended or not, which is received consciously or subliminally, showing how the transmission and reception are achieved. Which of these two approaches describes adequately the task of discourse analysis; or should we rather be searching for a practice that combines the explanation of all that is going on in discourse with focus on information content that is passed across or garnered?
=
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A very insightful question. You have astutely observed the functional role of discourse analysis in demystifying the byzantine complexities underlying the argumentation models dominating acts of communication.
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Hi,
I am currently producing a research question where I used thematic analysis. in order to justify my choice i need to be able to compare thematic analysis with interactive phenomenological analysis. discourse analysis and discursive psychology. what are the main difference between them?
They all seem fairly similar so i'm struggling to find a difference which could benefit my choice in using thematic analysis and how it would not suite my data and research question.
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Hi Rumana,
Selecting an analysis method is an important task which has long-standing effect on the quality of your research. First and foremost, the analysis method needs to be compatible with your data and the research question(s) which can be addressed to your data. Since you do not share any information of these in your question, my answer is given on an overall level.
Thematic analysis (TA) can be seen as a foundational method in qualitative research since some kind of thematizing, i.e. identifying and reporting of patterns in the data, needs to be done to be able to organize and make sense of the data. TA can be conducted in a rigorous manner and it can be a sufficient method in itself, but it may also be used as an initial phase of the analysis and thus be combined with other analysis approaches. The advantages of TA are that it is easily accessible and theoretically flexible. However, if you aim to use only TA, it is important to conduct it in a rigorous manner. You may find the following article useful: Virginia Braun & Victoria Clarke (2006) Using thematic analysis in psychology, Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3:2, 77-101.
Discourse analysis (DA) is a research approach focusing on written or spoken language, the preference being in "naturally occurring" talk. In DA studies, an usual research question is what speakers do in conversation, i.e. how something is being done through discursive interactions. Thus, if your data consists of text and/or talk, DA could be applicable. Topics of interest in DA may vary from various levels of discursive interaction (sounds, gestures, lexicon, meaning-making, speech acts etc.) to genres of discourse, as well as relations between discourse and interaction or discourse and power. Like most qualitative methods, DA can be seen as rather broad analytic approach, within which various methodological choices (from micro-analysis of episodes of social interaction to approaches to identify macro-level discourses) are available. Therefore, if you select DA for your method, you need to be specific in defining what kind of DA you apply with your study.
Discursive psychology (DP) is a form of DA focusing on psychological themes, such as attitudes or memory, in texts, talk, and other ways of human social interaction. DP is interested in both naturally occurring and experimentally induced interactions, and it treats talk as social action rather than a manifestation of the mental contents of the speaker. DP is interested in how people involved in a situated interaction locally organize their interactions to construct world (meanings etc.) to serve relevant actions in this particular setting. In DP studies, analytical concepts and tools from the conversational analysis (CA) are often utilized. So, if your main interest is on psychological themes, and you are interested in how these psychological phenomena are constructed and managed in the social interaction, and if your data consists of (video-taped) talk, DP could be suitable for your research.
I hope you will find this information useful. Good luck with your research,
Virpi-Liisa
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Hello Everyone What is the overlapping or difference of discourse analysis with phenomenological methods and content analysis?
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Phenomenology > What appears to be there OR How that which is there appears
Content > What is there
Discourse > What that which is there does
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What are the key elements that differentiate these research strategies, particularly, archival research strategy and narrative inquiry?
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My aim is to morph two sounds (e.g., light-right) so that they become an ambiguous sound (i.e., sometimes you'll hear it as 'right', sometimes 'light').
I have been practicing with a MATLAB based software called STRAIGHT-legacy and have had some success with the coding (non-GUI) side of it. However, there is very limited guidance available online, and I would like some more guidance:
Q1. Preferably, some UG students can use the GUI version of the software. From reading Hideki Kawahara's (2009) manual, this can be done by typing “TandemSTRAIGHThandler” in the Matlab command window (after setting path to src). However, this does not work. Since the manual was written some time ago, I'm wondering if the GUI for morphing is still operational, or has it been phased out? If anyone is still using it successfully, I'd appreciate if you can let me know how you activate it (i.e., which version of STRAIGHT did you download, and what version of MATLAB do you use?)
Q2. There are still some minor aspects of the coding interface I have trouble with, too. If anyone has experience of using STRAIGHT for morphing, please get in touch.
Many thanks,
Ryan
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ربما
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Is there a social justice problem behind the dominance of English in scientific writing? ... (and I'm writing this in English! how is that for irony?) I'm curious to get your input/experiences and also some references.
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We are creating the discussions and use English so it is a resource in a positive sense. Why English? Of course it is the matter of power but it's been historical process and no sense in condemning it now - we have to deal with it, and leave space for other languages including minor languages and in science too. There is an author writing on linguistic imperialism - Robert Philipson - he published a lot on that.
I personally think major languages representing major economies will be used in all processes during our way to Industry 4.0 and I assume within the Industry 4.0 era minor languages will be in the most vulnerable position and might not survive that era. However if they do survive and reach the next stage - Society 5.0 - they will have a chance as the technology will be supposed to serve human needs first, not businesses and languages as well as age and gender will stop being a tool for personal social and professional development - but that is the distant perspective and more of a hypothetical view
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I am in the early stages of scoping out a project which seeks to understand innovation as a practice in corporate organizations around the world. My approach is to use discourse analysis to study how leaders and senior managers construct themselves and their organizations as innovative. Innovation is an enormous field and literature. Can anyone advise on who are the most influential contributors to the field?
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Hi,
I'm working on a data that each sentence is in separate rows in dataframe. I want to determine word frequency in each row with a word list that I have created. Then I would like to add these values to my dataframe as a new variable in R.
For example:
Let's say, I have a list of words that contains apple and banana. And I have three independent sentences in rows:
1. X x x apple x x banana x apple.
2. X apple x x x x.
3. X x babana x apple x.
Now I want to calculate how many times the words in my list have been repeated. As a result, the new column I want to create is:
1. = 3
2. = 1
3. = 2
Thanks in advance.
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l <- list(a = c('X x x apple x x banana x apple'),
b = c('X apple x x x x.'),
c = c('X x babana x apple x.')
)
library(tokenizers)
sapply(l, function(x) sum(unlist(tokenize_words(x)) %in% c('apple', 'banana')))
> a b c > 3 1 1
c is 1 because you wrote babana
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Good point
best regards
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Thank you so much Hom Nath Chalise sir. Actually I have read this article and it does not help much. I want some articles where scholars have used genealogy as research method so that I can also develop one for my research.
Once again thank you for showing interest.