Science topic

Differential Psychology - Science topic

Differential psychology studies the ways in which individuals differ in their behavior. This is distinguished from other aspects of psychology in that although psychology is ostensibly a study of individuals, modern psychologists often study groups or biological underpinnings of cognition.
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Publications related to Differential Psychology (383)
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Introduction To better understand the relationships between neurophysiology, cognitive function and psychopathology risk in adolescence there is value in identifying data-driven subgroups based on measurements of brain activity and function, and then comparing cognition and mental health between such subgroups. Methods We developed a flexible and...
Article
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Growing evidence suggests that natural environments – whether in outdoor or indoor settings – foster psychological health and physiological relaxation, indicated by increased wellbeing, reduced stress levels, and increased parasympathetic activity. Greater insight into differential psychological aspects modulating psychophysiological responses to n...
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The experience of passage of time is assumed to be a constitutive component of our subjective phenomenal experience and our everyday life that is detached from the estimation of time durations. However, our understanding of the factors contributing to passage of time experience has been mostly restricted to associated emotional and cognitive experi...
Article
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Behavioral decision theory argues that humans can adjust their third-party responses (e.g., punishment and compensation) to injustice by integrating unfair experiences. Typically, the mood plays an important role in such a decision-making process. However, the underlying neurocognitive bases remain largely unclear. We first employ a modified third-...
Preprint
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The experience of passage of time is assumed to be a constitutive component of our subjec-tive phenomenal experience and our everyday life that is detached from the estimation of time durations. However, our understanding of the factors contributing to passage of time experience has been mostly restricted to associated emotional and cognitive exper...
Article
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Through a comparative analysis of the novel of the Austrian playwright and prose writer Rudolf Hawel, and the major work on differential psychology of Otto Weininger. This article explores the ideas of both sexes and genders. Identify similarities and differences.
Preprint
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Eugen Bleuler coined the term 'autism' in 1908 for severely withdrawn schizophrenic patients and Leo Kanner identified autism as a disorder in 1943-the basis of how we diagnose ASD today. Nevertheless, both discovered pathological features that most probably have a much longer history. According to genetics, autism has closely to do with 16p11.2, a...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic is an inherently stressful situation, which may lead to adverse psychosocial outcomes in various populations. Yet, individuals may not be affected equally by stressors posed by the pandemic and those with pre-existing mental disorders could be particularly vulnerable. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the psychological resp...
Article
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We aim to differentiate psychological customer engagement from behavioral customer engagement formally. Thus, we examine the impact of psychological customer engagement on behavioral customer engagement (i.e., customer purchases, customer referrals, customer influence, and customer knowledge). To enhance the model’s explanatory power, we also explo...
Article
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This is the first review in chronopsychology, a relatively new interdisciplinary area of research which has developed rapidly at the junction of chronobiology, somnology, and psychology. Chronopsychology studies the mechanisms of rhythmicity in behavior and the mind based on methods of chronobiology, somnology, and psychometry. In particular, chron...
Preprint
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Introduction To better understand the relationships between brain activity, cognitive function and mental health risk in adolescence there is value in identifying data-driven subgroups based on measurements of brain activity and function, and then comparing cognition and mental health symptoms between such subgroups. Methods Here we implement a mu...
Article
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Recent research outcomes suggest that social and economic conservatism show divergent associations with external criteria. In this article we present a quantitative study with 534 Colombian participants. We found that, although positively correlated, these two dimensions of conservative ideology also exhibit suppression effects and differentiated p...
Article
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Question: Comorbidity, i.e., additional psychological distress in patients already suffering from chronic somatic diseases (e.g., orthopedic conditions) is of growing importance. The quality of analyzing and interpreting the often used Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) used with orthopedic patients should improve by employing a new “case definition” of...
Article
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Rouder and Haaf (2021, this issue) propose a focus shift toward qualitative individual differences in cognition and present a research toolkit for doing so. In this invited commentary, I will argue that the observation of qualitative individual differences may be no more than an indicator that more theoretical and empirical work needs to be done to...
Article
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In the eleventh International Classification of Diseases (ICD‐11) of the World Health Organization, gambling disorder and gaming disorder are included in the category ‘disorders due to addictive behaviours’, which can be specified further as occurring either predominantly offline or predominantly online. Other specific problematic behaviours may be...
Conference Paper
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Widely recognized in differential psychology, but less so in cognitive science, the positive manifold is the phenomena of all cognitive tests inter-correlating positively. Frequently demonstrated in people, it can also be observed in non-human species. With 217 Ecuadorian adult participants, who performed 11 cognitive tests, we show that all 55 pai...
Article
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Abstract This study aimed to explore psychological distress as a risk of mental health problems among legal entity state university's educational staff. A total of 178 educational staff from Legal Entity State University 'X' (Male=41.6%) were involved in this research. Psychological distress was measured using the General Health Questionnaire-12 (C...
Article
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The educational sector has particular sensitivities and there is a huge concern that technological innovations may interfere with the real role of education in social development. With particular reference to higher education, this educational level is the foundation for changes in society. Higher education institutions (HEIs) should shape the prer...
Presentation
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In a recently-featured commentary, Winston [1] defined scientific racism as “the use of scientific concepts and data to create and justify ideas of an enduring, biologically based hierarchy” [1, p. 425]. Winston further argued that scientific racism persists because of the “social genealogy and history” of the research program, rather than becaus...
Book
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Personality textbooks come in two forms, each with their own style of organizing content. They will either be organized in terms of historical affiliation (e.g., Freud and those theories that are historically affiliated with Freud, etc.) or they will offer a series of disparate research foci. Both approaches make it difficult for students to attain...
Article
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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is challenging the dental community to an unprecedented degree. Knowledge of the increased risk of infection in dental settings has been disseminated to the public and guidelines have been formulated to assist dental attendance decision-making...
Book
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Par le passé les conduites humaines ont été étudiées selon une approche générale ou une approche différentielle donnant lieu à des courants séparés de la psychologie, les modèles comportementaux laissent, aujourd’hui, une place de plus en plus importante aux variations inter et intra-individuelles. La psychologie différentielle longtemps restreinte...
Article
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“Cognitive creationism” is a term for ideologically based rejection of concepts from differential psychology or behavioral genetics. Various authors have compared this practice to young-Earth creationism, but the parallels between the two have not previously been subjected to an in-depth comparison, which is conducted for the first time in this pap...
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Numerous technical—scientific reports have demonstrated that student performance variability is linked to several factors, especially socioeconomic factors. For a century, differential psychology has shown that students’ socioeconomic level has little or no relevance in the explanation of student performance variation when the intellectual factor i...
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Drawing upon the broaden-and-build model and self-determination theory, the present study examined whether and how the fulfillment of basic psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, competence, & relatedness) might mediate the relationship between positive affectivity and distinctive positive outcomes (i.e., life satisfaction, self-esteem, & academic pe...
Article
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The article draws attention to the sphere of historical and pedagogical knowledge. Being a product of the development of human society, it lies at the core of contemporary and future pedagogical culture. The mature conventional wisdom helps people to forge their own path in the modern world, to determine their self-identification and the prospects...
Article
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The article describes Tatiana G. Stefanenko’s cooperation with teachers and students of the Social and Differential Psychology Department of the Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), the most international university in Russia. The authors focus on contribution of T.G. Stefanenko’s contribution to the development of ethnopsych...
Article
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Background Intensive care unit (ICU) healthcare workers (HCWs) are at the forefront of the COVID-19 pandemic. To overcome the lack of human resources during this crisis, some ICUs had to mobilize staff from a reinforcement pool, with no or outdated ICU experience. This study aimed to investigate and to compare the psychological impact of the pandem...
Article
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THIS ARTICLE IS PART OF THE RESEARCH TOPIC: Creative Performance in Extreme Human Environments: Astronauts and Space Abstract Safety in high-risk and time-pressured situations relies on people’s ability to generate new and appropriate solutions to solve unforeseen problems for which no procedures or rules are available. This type of ability is regu...
Preprint
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The COVID-19 pandemic has led to changes in people’s private and public lives that are unprecedented in modern history. However, little is known about the differential psychological consequences of restrictions that have been imposed to fight the pandemic. In a large and diverse German sample (N = 1,320), we examined how individual differences in p...
Article
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The debate about the relative importance of the personality traits of presidents has a long history. Until the mid-1970s, scholars of the presidency extensively focused on the uniqueness of the individuals that held office. However, the difficulty in capturing presidential personalities and measuring their impact on executive politics led to a sign...
Book
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Psychological and cognitive studies of personality Summary Human personality is one of the most complex subjects of the scientific research. The personality can be briefly defined as the enduring pattern of relatively stable and distinctive mental, behavioral and physical characteristics of human beings. The research of personality has a wide scope...
Article
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The article analyzes the differential and integral approach to the study of human individuality. It discusses the paradox of individuality as the subject of study of differential psychology. It is concluded that differentiation and integration are necessary mechanisms for transition from the holistic «indivisibility» of the individual to the «indiv...
Article
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Background: Mothers' reports about pregnancy, maternity and their experiences during the perinatal period have been associated with infants' later quality of attachment and development. Yet, there has been little research with mothers of very preterm newborns. This study aimed to explore mothers' experiences related to pregnancy, premature birth,...
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The aim of this study was to determine the strength of optimism and altruism in predicting psychological resilience. The sample consists of 389 (Female: 198, Male: 191) adult participants living in Central Anatolia. In this study, Optimism Scale, Altruism Scale, Psychological Resilience Scale and personal information form developed by the researche...
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An individual-like intelligent artifact is a special kind of humanoid which resembles a human being in assimilating aspects of its real human counterpart’s cognition and neurological functions. Such an individual-like intelligent artifact could have a number of far-reaching applications, such as in creating a digital clone of an individual and brin...
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The article is dedicated to the 80th anniversary of the birth of Dr. habil. in Psychology, Professor A.I. Krupnov. It analyzes the continuity and achievements of scientific research on differential psychology in Russian science. Advantages of A.I. Krupnov’s psychological researches and the employees of Psychological Institute of Russian Academy of Ed...
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The article reveals and summarizes various approaches to the study of the influence of modern information technologies on the worldview. The importance of addressing the study of a holistic worldview as an integral and dynamic psychological phenomenon is justified. Particular attention is paid to the concepts of computer metaphor, sociocultural pat...
Article
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To increase knowledge of international students' psychological well-being at U.S. universities, we examined the degree to which demographic factors, perceived language competence, and domestic student social support were associated with Ryff's (1989a, 1989b) six aspects of psychological well-being. Participants (n = 216) were undergraduate and grad...
Article
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The problem of students’ social adaptation to modern pace and style of life, norms and rules that are imposed by the society, as well as the increased relevance of victim behavior prevention in young people on the Internet determine the crucial necessity to study psychological characteristics, factors and mechanisms of victim behavior manifestation...
Article
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RESUMO: A Psicologia Diferencial é um ramo da Psicologia que pode ser definido como o estudo empírico das diferenças psicológicas sejam elas intraindividuais, interindividuais e intergrupais, ou seja, dirige-se ao estudo da variabilidade psicológica (Portela, 2007). Logo, a Psicologia Diferencial distancia-se da Psicologia Geral uma vez que a Psico...
Preprint
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Aim: The primary aim of the study was to determine whether patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) have different personality profiles compared to patients with epileptic seizures (ES). The secondary aim was to determine whether any such personality differences could be used to efficiently screen for PNES in clinical settings. Backg...
Article
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The article describes some characteristics of the internal image of pregnancy in women with a possible miscarriage during a complicated pregnancy. The study involved 230 women from three groups: those with an extragenital pathology, those with an HIV infection, and those with an IVF pregnancy. The experiment employed the following psychological met...
Article
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If we trace the origins of psychology back to nineteenth century positivism, we can see that concern about measurement was a defining characteristic that was used to differentiate psychology from other social/human sciences. The dominant voices in psychology defined it as a natural science that could measure all those psychological entities that ex...
Article
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In the everyday world, the ability to solve practical problems is generally regarded as an expression of intelligence. The cognitive aspects of problem solving have long been considered as essential to any well-conceived notion of intelligence (Resnick & Glaser,1976; Sternberg, 1982). Although problem solving is an essential expression of intellige...
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Cognitive control refers to the ability of human beings to adapt flexibly and quickly to continuously changing environments. Several decades of research have identified a diverse range of mental processes that are associated with cognitive control but the extent to which shared systems underlie cognitive control in social and non-social contexts, a...
Article
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Childhood maltreatment dysregulates an individual’s physiological response to stress, increasing reactivity to stressors across the lifespan. Given the prevalence and impact of bereavement, we examined whether the association between childhood maltreatment and depression was exacerbated by spousal bereavement. We identified an interaction between c...
Article
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Purpose: Knowledge sharing contributes to the success of an organization in various ways. This paper aims to summarize the findings from past research on knowledge-sharing outcomes in organizations and to suggest promising directions for future research. Design/methodology/approach: Design/methodology/approach: We conducted a systematic literature...
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Most people have a desire to live in a just world, a place where good things happen to good people and bad things happen to bad people. And yet, injustices do occur: good things happen to bad people and bad things happen to good people. Across four experiments, we show that people respond quite differently to correct these two types of injustices....
Article
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Background: The number of children who have received severe spinal cord injury (SCI) is steadily increasing during the recent years. The clinical picture of the post-injury condition is characterized by psychological and psychiatric disorders of varying severity. The literature publications concern emotions experienced after SCI by the adult patie...
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The article presents a review of studies on the problem of professional self-determination in adolescence in the aspect of the development of future professionalism, based on the specifics of the laws of age development, which expands the traditional sociological, sociopsychological and differential psychological representations accepted in the lit...
Preprint
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Psychometrics and neuroscience should collaborate with respect to their theoretical models and to their methods. Here we show how we think this can be done based on the consideration of evidence accumulated within the neuropsychological study of the executive function concept and the intelligence concept analyzed in differential psychology. We sugg...
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There is currently an unprecedented number of forcibly displaced people worldwide. Understanding psychological mechanisms that contribute to the mental health of refugees and asylum-seekers is important for informing the development of effective interventions for these populations. Moral injury appraisals represent an important potential cognitive...
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The OpenPsych journals were set up in 2014 by Emil Kirkegaard and Davide Piffer due to dissatisfaction with existing journals in differential psychology and behavioural genetics. To date, 51 papers have been published in total, encompassing a range of topics from differential psychology and behavioural genetics to socio-political science. However,...
Preprint
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Age-related alterations in serotonin (5-HT) function have been hypothesized to underlie a range of physiological, emotional, and cognitive changes in older age. Here, we conducted a quantitative synthesis and comparison of the effects of age on 5-HT receptors and transporters from cross-sectional PET and SPECT imaging studies. Random-effects meta-...
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p>The aims of this study were: to describe the anxiety levels of competitive judokas who participated in the 41st Inter-army Military Championship of Judo, year 2017; to detect differences in anxiety levels depending on sex and weight categories; to explore if there was a relation between the anxiety levels and the judokas’ final results at the tou...
Article
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Procrastination is a form of self-regulation failure characterized by the irrational delay of tasks despite potentially negative consequences. Previous research on procrastination was mainly conducted in academic settings, oftentimes combined with a focus on individual differences. As a consequence, scholarly knowledge about how situational factors...
Article
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In the sixties, two lines of research on intelligence coexisted, ignorant of each other. On the one hand, a factorialist approach, relying on the differences between individuals; on the other hand, a structuralist approach, adopted by Piaget, based instead on the between-subjects commonalities in the process of cognitive development. The thesis adv...
Article
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Reuchlin thought about psychological methodology by discussing the epistemological foundations of this methodology. We try to clear the most characteristic aspects of the rich teachings which arose from this interaction between methodological options and epistemological reflections. The progress of thought in the methodological work of Reuchlin is...
Article
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In the 1960s, two lines of research on intelligence coexisted which were entirely unconnected. On one hand there was a factorial approach based on an analysis of the differences between individuals; on the other there was the structuralist approach adopted by Piaget, based instead on an analysis of what is common to all individuals in the process o...
Book
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This book is about the human mind. It presents research about the organization and development processes involved in the human mind and about the reasons that make some individuals better than others in using them. The book is organized in three parts. In the first part we summarize and evaluate research conducted on the human mind by three traditi...
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July 13, 2018, the head and professor of chair of Differential Psychology and Psychophysiology of the department of Clinical and Special Psychology, deputy chief editor of the Clinical Psychology and Special Education Journal Tatyana Alexandrovna Meshkova celebrated her anniversary. We wish Tatiana Alexandrovna further creative success, rich profes...
Research
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Ich erkläre hiermit, dass ich die vorliegende Arbeit selbstständig und ohne Benutzung anderer als der angegebenen Quellen und Hilfsmittel angefertigt habe. Alle Stellen, die wörtlich oder sinngemäß übernommen wurden, habe ich als solche kenntlich gemacht. Die Arbeit wurde in gleicher oder ähnlicher Form noch keiner anderen Prüfungsbehörde vorgelegt...
Thesis
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The first Chapter uses differential psychology and psychometrics to correlate tax evasion behaviour observed in the lab to individual personality traits, measured thanks to standardized psychometric questionnaires. These personality questionnaires are related to moral emotions, moral judgments and norm submission. The results are twofold. First, mo...
Article
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The assessment of risky linguistic variables has significant applications in multiattribute group decision problems. This paper focuses on risky multicriteria group decision making using linguistic variable assessment and proposes a new model which considers various and differential psychological behavior and the ambiguity of linguistic variable as...
Article
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Developmental theories of the biological basis of sexual orientation suggest that sexually differentiated psychological and behavioural traits should be linked with sexual orientation. Subgroups of gay men delineated by anal sex roles differ according to at least one such trait: gender expression. The present study assessed the hypothesis that hand...
Article
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The psychophysical research (N=106) on loudness distinction of tonal signals (method 2AFC) has been carried out. Applying the principle of subject`s activity and qualitative analysis to traditional psychophysical research was accomplished in the frameworks of differential psychological approach in psychophysics. The influence of self-regulation (qu...
Article
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This article explores the formative beginnings, influences and the broad academic path of the polymath Sir Francis Galton. His extensive research route gave him the recognition as the father of psychometrics and/or Differential Psychology. Francis Galton developed quantitative methods and applied them in his heredity studies published in his book H...
Article
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That the ability to visualise, to see with ‘the mind’s eye’, varies between individuals has been known since Francis Galton reported on the results of his ‘Breakfast Table’ questionnaire in 1880. Research in the ensuing years has supported what Galton’s surveys suggested: that the vividness of the population’s mental imagery lies across a spectrum,...
Article
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Objective: The study aimed to explore latent profiles of coping in Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer and examine the differences of psychological distress, demographic, and medical characteristics across profiles. Methods: Latent profile analysis was used to identify 3 classes of copers based on data from 618 Chinese women newly d...
Article
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Psychological literacy, a construct developed to reflect the types of skills graduates of a psychology degree should possess and be capable of demonstrating, has recently been scrutinized in terms of its measurement adequacy. The recent development of a multi-item measure encompassing the facets of psychological literacy has provided the potential...
Chapter
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Research to date has indicated that the psychological effects of childhood sexual abuse are multiple, extensive, and characterized by a boundless amount of variability. Various factors such as frequency and duration of abuse, type of sexual contact, the degree of relationship between the perpetrator and victim will result in differential psychologi...
Article
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Our research work has fixed as objective, to apprehend the report of mental preparation for athletic performance from a study of a population of Algerian athletes. Sports performance defined by Platonov, V.N (1984.) as being “the maximum possibilities of an individual in a discipline at a given moment in its development" involves several other dete...