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Developmental Biology - Science topic

Initial steps of life.
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Publications related to Developmental Biology (10,000)
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DNA methylation is one of the most important epigenetic mechanisms to regulate gene expression, which is highly dynamic during development and specifically maintained in somatic cells. Aberrant DNA methylation patterns are strongly associated with human diseases including cancer. How are the cell-specific DNA methylation patterns established or dis...
Article
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Objective Portal mesenchymal cells induce the epithelial differentiation of the bile ducts in the developing liver via one of the Delta-Notch signaling components, JAGGED1. Although this differential induction is crucial for normal liver physiology as its genetic disorder (Alagille syndrome) causes jaundice, the molecular mechanism behind JAGGED1 e...
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The synthesis of single-stranded riboprobes or double-stranded RNAs for in situ hybridization and gene knockdowns often use vectors that require time-consuming plasmid restriction digests and inefficient gel purifications. Here, we present a faster protocol for the simultaneous plasmid restriction digestion and Gibson assembly of vectors for the sy...
Article
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Heterocyst differentiation that occurs in some filamentous cyanobacteria, such as Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, provides a unique model for prokaryotic developmental biology. Heterocyst cells are formed in response to combined-nitrogen deprivation and possess a microoxic environment suitable for nitrogen fixation following extensive morphological and phys...
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This protocol describes how to characterize α-Smooth muscle actin (αSMA) spatiotemporal expression during mouse small intestinal development. Specific tissue fixation preserves αSMA arrangement in low αSMA expressing cells that are conventionally undetectable under αSMA immunofluorescent stain due to inappropriate fixative-caused artificial actin d...
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Male germ-cell development comprises primordial germ-cell (PGC) development, spermatogonium differentiation, and ensuing spermatogenesis. We present a step-by-step protocol for differentiation of mouse pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) into germline stem-cell-like cells (GSCLCs) via PGC-like cell and spermatogonium-like cell intermediates. The differen...
Article
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Germline development is challenging to study due to the diversity of cell types in mammalian testis. Here, we present an optimized protocol, namely centrifugal elutriation, that allows the simultaneous isolation of mouse germ cells at different stages with high purity within ∼2 h. This approach exploits the JE-5.0 centrifugal elutriation system tha...
Article
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The Xenopus embryo provides an advantageous model system where genes can be readily transplanted as DNA or mRNA or depleted with antisense techniques. Here, we present a protocol to culture and image the cell biological properties of explanted Xenopus cap cells in tissue culture. We illustrate how this protocol can be applied to visualize lysosomes...
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Here, we provide a protocol combing single-cell genomics and functional experiments to study stepwise folliculogenesis. This protocol isolates different developmental stages of mouse ovarian follicles to perform single-cell RNA-seq and in vitro culture, allowing to dissect and validate key molecular events in guiding folliculogenesis, thus bringing...
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Here, we present a detailed protocol for identification and analysis of senescent neuronal stem cells (NSCs) in the developing mouse embryonic neocortex using in utero electroporation. We describe the procedures of in utero electroporation and brain slide preparation. We then detail the procedures of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal)...
Article
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Drosophila neural stem cells (NSCs) divide asymmetrically to generate siblings of different sizes. This model system has proved helpful in deciphering the contribution of polarity cues and the mitotic spindle in asymmetric cell division. Here, we describe a technique we developed to flatten cultured Drosophila brain explants to accurately image the...
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Metabolism regulates cell fates during early mammalian cell differentiation. This protocol describes the steps for directed differentiation of primed human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into the three primary germ lineages—ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm—using a chemically defined nutrient-balanced media formulation. Although the transient remova...
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Biological pattern formation ensures that tissues and organs develop in the correct place and orientation within the body. A great deal has been learned about cell and tissue staining techniques, and today’s microscopes can capture digital images. A light microscope is an essential tool in biology and medicine. Analyzing the generated images will i...
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Fruits, vegetables and other plant-derived foods contribute important ingredients for human diets, and are thus favored by consumers worldwide. Among these horticultural crops, tomato belongs to the Solanaceae family, ranks only secondary to potato (S. tuberosum L.) in yields and is widely cultivated for fresh fruit and processed foods owing to its...
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Over several generations of evolutionary and developmental biologists, ever since Olson and Miller’s pioneering work of the 1950’s, the concept of “morphological integration” as applied to Gaussian representations $$N(\mu ,\Sigma )$$ N ( μ , Σ ) of morphometric data has been a focus equally of methodological innovation and methodological perplexity...
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Maternally synthesized products play critical roles in the development of offspring. A premier example is the Caenorhabditis elegans H3K36 methyltransferase MES-4, which is essential for germline survival and development in offspring. How maternal MES-4 protects the germline is not well understood, but its role in H3K36 methylation hinted that it m...
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Background Zebrafish (Danio rerio), a small freshwater fish that originates from India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and northern Myanmar, have been widely used as a model organism for studies of developmental biology and genetics. The current study aimed to determine the origin of South African pet shop stock that are currently being used to establis...
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We introduce two 2D mechanical models reproducing the evolution of two viscous tissues in contact. Their main property is to model the swirling cell motions while keeping the tissues segregated, as observed during vertebrate embryo elongation. Segregation is encoded differently in the two models: by passive or active segregation (based on a mechani...
Preprint
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Developmental psychobiology (DPB) seems to be an appropriate discipline to link the study of behavioral development to evolution. DPB incorporates the Schneirla/Lehrman individual-environment co-actional and transactional causal notions about behavioral development with the Tinbergen distinction between evolutionary and developmental questions to p...
Preprint
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The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is used as a model organism to better understand developmental biology and neurobiology. C. elegans features an invariant cell lineage, which has been catalogued and observed using fluorescence microscopy images. However, established methods to track cells in late-stage development fail to generalize...
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A crucial evolutionary change in vertebrate history was the Palaeozoic (Devonian 419-359 million years ago) water-to-land transition, allowed by key morphological and physiological modifications including the acquisition of lungs. Nonetheless, the origin and early evolution of vertebrate lungs remain highly controversial, particularly whether the a...
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Embryonic diapause is a reproductive strategy in which embryo development and growth is temporarily arrested within the uterus to ensure the survival of neonates and mothers during unfavorable conditions. Pregnancy is reinitiated when conditions become favorable for neonatal survival. The mechanism of how the uterus enters diapause in various speci...
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The fundamental physical features such as the mechanical properties and microstructures of the uterus need to be considered when building in vitro culture platforms to mimic the uterus for embryo implantation and further development but have long been neglected. Here, a uterus‐inspired niche (UN) constructed by grafting collagen gels onto polydimet...
Article
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In multicellular eukaryotic organisms, the initiation of DNA replication occurs asynchronously throughout S-phase according to a regulated replication timing program. Here, using Xenopus egg extracts, we showed that Yap (Yes-associated protein 1), a downstream effector of the Hippo signalling pathway, is required for the control of DNA replication...
Article
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Purpose of review The current paradigm of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) pathogenesis involves recurrent injury to a sensitive alveolar epithelium followed by impaired repair responses marked by fibroblast activation and deposition of extracellular matrix. Multiple cell types are involved in this response with potential roles suggested by adva...
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Spindle orientation is often achieved by a complex of Partner of Inscuteable (Pins)/LGN, Mushroom Body Defect (Mud)/Nuclear Mitotic Apparatus (NuMa), Gαi, and Dynein, which interacts with astral microtubules to rotate the spindle. Cortical Pins/LGN recruitment serves as a critical step in this process. Here, we identify Pins-mediated planar cell po...
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The human placenta contains two specialized regions: the villous chorion where gases and nutrients are exchanged between maternal and fetal blood, and the smooth chorion which surrounds more than 70% of the developing fetus but whose cellular composition and function is poorly understood. Here, we use single cell RNA sequencing to compare the cell...
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The diploid anuran Xenopus tropicalis has emerged as a key research model in cell and developmental biology. To enhance the usefulness of this species, we developed methods for generating immortal cell lines from Nigerian strain (NXR_1018, RRID:SCR_013731) X. tropicalis embryos. We generated 14 cell lines that were propagated for several months. We...
Cover Page
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The Journal of Safe Future and Agricultural Research (SFARJ) is an international peer-reviewed journal that publishes major articles, reviews, briefings, and scientific reports of high scientific and ethical standards in the agricultural sciences and related academic disciplines. The SFARJ is published in English every season. This journal is dedic...
Preprint
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Advances in science and engineering often reveal the limitations of classical approaches initially used to understand, predict, and control phenomena. With progress, conceptual categories must often be re-evaluated to better track recently discovered invariants across disciplines. It is essential to refine frameworks and resolve conflicting boundar...
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After gut tube patterning in early embryos, the cellular and molecular changes of developing stomach and intestine remain largely unknown. Here, combining single-cell RNA sequencing and spatial RNA sequencing, we construct a spatiotemporal transcriptomic landscape of the mouse stomach and intestine during embryonic days E9.5–E15.5. Several subpopul...
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Within the hair follicle (HF) niche, dermal papilla (DP) cells are well known for the hair induction capacity; however, DP cell signaling also regulates HF pigmentation. Here we describe how Sox2 in the DP is a key regulator of melanocyte signaling. To study the largely unknown regulatory role the DP has on hair pigmentation, we characterize leptin...
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Bungarus multicinctus is a widely distributed and medically important elapid snake that produces lethal neurotoxic venom. To study and enhance existing antivenom, we explore the complete repertoire of its toxin genes based on de novo chromosome-level assembly and multi-tissue transcriptome data. Comparative genomic analyses suggest that the three-f...
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Epigenomics has become a significant research interest at a time when rapid environmental changes are occurring. Epigenetic mechanisms mainly result from systems like DNA methylation, histone modification, and RNA interference. Epigenetic mechanisms are gaining importance in classical genetics, developmental biology, molecular biology, cancer biolo...
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Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) generation in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros region requires HSC specification signals from the surrounding microenvironment. In zebrafish, PDGF-B/PDGFRβ signaling controls hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) generation and is required in the HSC specification niche. Little is known about murine HSPC specification i...
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The tooth shape of sharks and mice are regulated by a similar signaling center despite their teeth having very different geometries.
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Field surveys at four neighbouring but discrete sites in southern France revealed the presence of five ichneumonid parasitoids of the Lathyrus -feeding sterictiphorine argid sawfly Aprosthema tardum . Four of these parasitoids, Lathrolestes erythrocephalus , Ischyrocnemis goesi (both Ctenopelmatinae), Terozoa quadridens and Thibetoides aprosthemae...
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Advanced imaging techniques reveal details of the interactions between the two layers of the embryonic midgut that influence its ultimate shape.
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SMCHD1 (structural maintenance of chromosomes hinge domain containing 1) is a noncanonical SMC protein that mediates long-range repressive chromatin structures. SMCHD1 is required for X chromosome inactivation in female cells and repression of imprinted and clustered autosomal genes, with SMCHD1 mutations linked to human diseases facioscapulohumera...
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Though phospho-receptor-interacting protein 3 (RIP3 or RIPK3) antibodies are used in western blot, immunostaining of murine phospho-RIPK3 is challenging. Here, we verify and describe a detailed protocol for immunofluorescent detection of phospho-RIPK3 in L929 cells and mouse yolk sacs. We also describe in detail the model construction methods, samp...
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Structural and physiological changes in the female reproductive system underlie the origins of pregnancy in multiple vertebrate lineages. In mammals, the glandular portion of the lower reproductive tract has transformed into a structure specialized for supporting fetal development. These specializations range from relatively simple maternal nutrien...
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Insect pests of stored products are organisms that damage agricultural products in fields or warehouses and cause a lot of product loss. For this reason, it is an important problem to protect the products in warehouses after harvest. Producers and researchers try many chemical methods to prevent this damage in warehouses. However, in recent years,...
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The spine has essential roles in supporting body weight, and passaging the neural elements between the body and the brain. In this study, we used integrated single-cell RNA sequencing and single-cell transposase-accessible chromatin sequencing analyses to reveal the cellular heterogeneity, lineage, and transcriptional regulatory network of the deve...
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Single-cell transcriptomics (scRNA-seq) has become essential for biomedical research over the past decade, particularly in developmental biology, cancer, immunology, and neuroscience. Most commercially available scRNA-seq protocols require cells to be recovered intact and viable from tissue. This has precluded many cell types from study and largely...
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A critical task for organizations is how to best structure themselves to efficiently allocate information and resources to individuals tasked with solving sub-components of the organization’s central problems. Despite this criticality, the processes by which organizational structures form remain largely opaque within organizational theory, with mos...
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Successful regeneration requires the coordinated execution of multiple cellular responses to injury. In amputated zebrafish fins, mature osteoblasts dedifferentiate, migrate towards the injury and form proliferative osteogenic blastema cells. We show that osteoblast migration is preceded by cell elongation and alignment along the proximodistal axis...
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Auxin-inducible degrons are a chemical genetic tool for targeted protein degradation and are widely used to study protein function in cultured mammalian cells. Here we develop CRISPR-engineered mouse lines that enable rapid and highly specific degradation of tagged endogenous proteins in vivo . Most but not all cell types are competent for degradat...
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In Drosophila, mutations in genes that prevent normal Ca2+ influx after light stimulation usually cause light-dependent retinal degeneration or neurodegeneration, detectable by defects in eye morphology. Here, we present a protocol based on electron microscopy (EM) to observe the morphological structure of photoreceptor cells in Drosophila. We deta...
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Single cell sequencing has been widely employed to construct the developmental cell atlas of several representative species of vertebrates (human, mouse, zebrafish and frog) and tunicate (sea squirts). Here, we performe single-nucleus RNA sequencing (snRNA-seq) and single-cell assay for transposase accessible chromatin sequencing (scATAC-seq) for d...
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Starvation resistance is important to disease and fitness, but the genetic basis of its natural variation is unknown. Uncovering the genetic basis of complex, quantitative traits such as starvation resistance is technically challenging. We developed a synthetic-population (re)sequencing approach using molecular inversion probes (MIP-seq) to measure...
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How circuits self-assemble starting from neuronal stem cells is a fundamental question in developmental neurobiology. Here, we addressed how neurons from different stem cell lineages wire with each other to form a specific circuit motif. In Drosophila larvae, we combined developmental genetics (Twin spot MARCM, Multi-color Flip Out, permanent label...
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Plusieurs observations d’Issoria lathonia (Linnaeus, 1758) ont été faites aux mois de janvier et février 2022 à des altitudes comprises entre 1 700 et 2 250 m dans les Alpes de Hautes Provence et les Alpes Maritimes. Ces données semblent être les plus précoces jamais enregistrées pour cette espèce en région PACA et sont peut-être une représentation...
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Animal chimeras are widely used for biomedical discoveries, from developmental biology to cancer research. However, the accurate quantitation of mixed cell types in chimeric and mosaic tissues is complicated by sample preparation bias, transgenic silencing, phenotypic similarity, and low-throughput analytical pipelines. Here, we have developed and...
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Familial Dysautonomia (FD) is a sensory and autonomic neuropathy caused by mutations in Elongator complex protein 1 ( ELP1 ). FD patients have small trigeminal nerves and impaired facial pain and temperature perception. These signals are relayed by nociceptive neurons in the trigeminal ganglion, a structure comprised of both neural crest- and placo...
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The cranial endo- and dermal skeletons, which comprise the vertebrate skull, evolved independently over 470 million years ago and form separately during embryogenesis. In mammals, much of the cartilaginous chondrocranium is transient, undergoing endochondral ossification or disappearing, so its role in skull morphogenesis is not well studied and it...
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The pituitary represents the endocrine master regulator. In mouse, the gland undergoes active maturation immediately after birth. Here, we in detail portrayed the stem cell compartment of neonatal pituitary. Single-cell RNA-sequencing pictured an active gland, revealing proliferative stem as well as hormonal (progenitor) cell populations. The stem...
Preprint
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The Hippo pathway plays an imperative role in cellular processes such as differentiation, regeneration, cell migration, organ growth, apoptosis, and cell cycle. Transcription coregulator component of Hippo pathway, YAP1, promotes transcription of genes involved in cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, and suppressing apoptosis. However, i...
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Timely progression of a genetic program is critical for embryonic development. However, gene expression involves inevitable fluctuations in biochemical reactions leading to substantial cell-to-cell variability (gene expression noise). One of the important questions in developmental biology is how pattern formation is reproducibly executed despite t...