Science topic

Development Research - Science topic

Research to promote growth and development in developing countries and to develop innovative, lasting local solutions that build "healthier, more equitable, and more prosperous societies."
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I would like to know more about your research with the aim of studying the possibility of sharing information, papers, and perhaps in the future, to develop research together.
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As you know I studied about pesian carpet. After that I did alot of research abot it.
Actually I think there are alot of wonderful information about this art.
In my book I tried to explain important thing about a kourdish group infact they have attractive products with historical approach.
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My research is about the evaluation of curriculum (one subject of social sciences) at higher secondary level by using the CIPP model. I developed Research questions based on CIPP model.
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Mainly it depends on the objectives of your evaluation, but if you use JAP test, in my opinion it will very beneficial for you.
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Sensitizations act as more of a publicity/ad for companies, government and other bodies. They make use of it through a hidden motivation; the companies name or the "welfare of the people" from the state. Sensitization involves targeting a group of a population and giving specific access to knowledge which is thought to perpetuate. But it doesn't!
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Kindly see also the following RG link:
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I am developing my postgraduate thesis on the application of the i-Tree Hydro hydrological model with different scenarios of increase in urban trees and its ecosystem benefits compared to the increase in gray coverage in an urban watershed in Costa Rica. I would like to know if there are related studies in Latin America, since I only know one implemented in Colombia in 2019.
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Developing research papers require readily available documents to grasp ideas, summarize and articulate these professionally that may not be much helpful thru quick scanning. Still there is no alternative to published documents. In other word, reading habit for academic purpose will drastically decelerate because availability of online resources. After COVID, academic institute face difficulty.
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I think it also depends on effectiveness of of the online materials and how these are used.
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The preliminary reports about SARS-CoV-2 presented high spread potential but no evidence for high mortality or virulence, suggesting that these new mutations may be suitable for the consideration of vaccine development research.
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Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine seems effective against mutant variants of SARS-CoV-2.
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What is the appropriate Research Design for software development and Geomapping (GIS) researches? I have come across several sources but there are diverse answers to my questions.
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This was one of the reference documents I had used while doing one of my projects in public health. Hope you'll find it useful.
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I do not have the figures for researchers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), but for this discussion, I will assume that in a population of researchers, a fair fraction will be researchers in STEM.
The Philippines has a frustratingly small number of researchers (~188 researchers for every 1 million inhabitants). This is probably the reason it lags behind its neighbors in the STEM fields. This, I would suppose, has detrimental effects on the overall development of the country. Its neighbors, such as South Korea (~7500 researchers/million inhabitants), Singapore (~6700 researchers/million inhabitants), Japan (~5300 researchers/million inhabitants), Malaysia (~2400 researchers/million inhabitants), Thailand (~1200 researchers/million inhabitants), China (~1200 researchers/million inhabitants), and Vietnam (~700 researchers/million inhabitants), that have significantly larger densities of researchers have overtaken the Philippines in many aspects of development. Other countries, such as Laos (~16 researchers/million inhabitants), Cambodia (~30 researchers/million inhabitants), Myanmar (~29 researchers/million inhabitants) seem to also lag in many aspects of progress.
What might it take for countries such as ours to raise more researchers and scientists? Would you be able to provide suggestions on how we might do so despite the fact that the Philippines and other countries with small densities of researchers are low- to middle-income countries?
(Data on number of researchers per million inhabitants taken from UNESCO Institute for Statistics: http://data.uis.unesco.org/index.aspx?queryid=64)
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I agree with Mr. Mohammedali that this is a political choice. As per your question about the role of local academia in promoting the solution, its role would be limited at best. Unless of course, an environment advantageous to research and researchers is created. That I doubt it would happen as fast as one wishes (it takes time).
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This is probably the most important problem to explore and solve in the 21st century.
Unfortunately, many people, including politicians and entrepreneurs managing large industrial corporations ignore the seriousness of this problem. It is necessary to develop research in this area, in the matter of examining the determinants of climate change, global warming, rising average temperature on the Earth, progressing greenhouse effect on Earth. These problems must be publicized in the mass media. While it is not too late, while this unfavorable process can be partially reversed. Or maybe we can not reverse this process anymore? Maybe it's too late? What then, will we be able to protect, at least partially, the biosphere, natural ecosystems due to these adverse climate changes, anomalies and climatic cataclysms, from drought in many areas currently agricultural or possessing a rich biosphere? Research on these topics needs to be developed, publicized, and published. Perhaps, finally, politicians and owners of industrial corporations will change their approach to more pro-ecological. This is probably the most important question for the 21st century: Will we be able to stop adverse climate changes, including the progressing greenhouse effect on Earth?
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
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Possible, with law enforcements.
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My colleagues and I are developing research network for nursing leadership and emotional intelligence. In order to carry out international and comparative researches, we are looking for the partners from different countries.
If you are interested to join the network, please let me know.
If you know someone who would be interested to join the network, please share this invitation.
If you have any questions, don't hesitate to ask.
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I'm interested. Currently, I'm a PhD student at the Centre for Rural Health. This initiative would be beneficial. Kindly contact me paduatonia@yahoo.com
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Everyone understands that fresh air, working conditions, comfortable conditions both at home and at work, clean water, food, etc. very beneficial effect on the activities of any person. All the same, I would like to know from a scientific point of view the influence of fresh mountain air on the development of the researcher’s creative potential.
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Obviosly , a nice weather will enhance your mood / creative mind ie research ability .
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After giving my presentation on Dyslexia, Identity and Academic Writing Development at the EATAW conference in Sweden, I have been invited to present my research at a conference in USA by the CCCC, approximately £1,500 costs. As an independent researcher, and not being attached to a university, I find it difficult to fit into many of the funding structures. I'm also looking for someone interested in working me with my research, who is currently getting funding they could share with me. I'm dyslexic and I am interested in contributing the dyslexic voice to research on dyslexic scholars and students in higher education contexts. My focus in development of academic writing. Thanks, Aileen
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Thank you, yes I have tried that. Aileen
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This might be a familiar area of discussion. Just wondering how to gain admission into higher degree by research without a publication. Most universities require this, especially where scholarships are involved. Does it mean research studies wouldn't be welcoming to newbies, or they have to as a matter of fact develop research skills elsewhere prior to enrolment? What is the best possible way to get into Higher degree by research?
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The best possible way to get into Higher degrees is get more publications. Actually, the more the merrier. Based on my observation, publications are one of the implicit conditions in most universities in the world.
If you do not have a publication, perhaps you have participated in a research? Involved in critical stage/stages in a research project? Involved in writing a paper, even without acknowledgement? Attended academic conferences?
Also, you can present a really nice research proposal.
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Does the development of online open databases of scientific publications and scientific materials increase the potential for the development of research and scientific discoveries?
Please reply
Thank you very much
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Yes. There is easier access to publications because they are not limited to payments for access or membership.
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Research gate is very much helpful for researchers throughout world to share our knowledge and gain from others. My suggestion for admins is to develop a mobile application for research gate. It'd be a handy professional application to share knowledge like quora. What do the other researchers using research gate think about this.
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Thumb-up. It is long overdue.
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Hello,
I am working on the different use and perception of different terms for describing a procedure / activity to solve a problem from the point of view of different research areas; these terms are 'method', 'tool', 'strategy', 'approach', 'guideline', 'framework', 'methodology', and similar. For this purpose, I plan to compare the above terms, their definition and usage from the point of view of product development research with those of business management research as well as human-computer interaction/ computer sciences. My hypotheses are that they 1) name similar activities differently and 2) in some cases use different definitions for the same terms. The definitions I am looking for are usually published in standard works and textbooks. However, I find it difficult to find these for the two disciplines that are unfamilar to me, business administration and computer science. Can someone help me?
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Following
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I am interested in learning more about HR Analytics (Data to report on, predictive and prescriptive data, etc). I would like to get to know people who are also interested in analytics and who will be happy to develop research. 
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I studying in "HR analytics Framework for State Owned Enterprises". My scope is organization level and in Thailand.
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Hello everyone,
I am Edgar Caliento Barbosa, from the Federal University of Alagoas, Brazil, where I develop research on information sources used in protected area management plans around the world.
Unfortunately, I am not finding sufficient plans for protected areas in the country of India, so I am asking you for some help in indicating some sites or documenting sources that may contain such management plans in India.
Thanks for any assistance or advice.
Best regards
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Hi Nirjhar Dasgupta, thank you for the contribution. I will use these two files also in my research. Thanks for the contact.
Hi Choki Gyeltshen , many parks, perhaps all, have their management plans, but few make available for consultation these documents. This is my difficulty ... to have access to this data. Thanks for the contact.
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As there are developments and researches in Artificial general intelligence and strong AI in the field of AI, terms like consciousness, intelligence, intellect are vaguely used in different articles and papers. Apart from the fact that we still could not understand/define term like consciousness completely, atleast the distinction has to be clear against one another. Are there any particular sources where they are clearly defined and distinguished?. Do computer science people use the terms unknowingly or is it unclear.
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Thanks
Hassan Syed
Arturo Geigel
Larry Carlson
Short summary of all the responses.
  • with respect to legal problems, they are taken care of by defining in the laws as understanding how the society will be affected.
  • As far as there is a distinction between technology and psychological aspect, it is fine to have ambigous definitions of such words
  • Due to unclear common understanding, it would be better to have such words defined at the beginning of a paper or article
  • In theoretical point of view, anything could be intelligent or conscious, but the level and intensity differs. since, there are no specific measurements it is recommended either to define it as said above or not use them at all
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to what extent has the relationship between spiritual intelligence (SQ) and economic output been examined? how well developed or researched is it?
for example, constructive/ destructive zeitgeist or spiritual constructs, like fear or negativity, and the impact thereof on economic output...
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Economics principally lacks spiritual sight as a today predominantly non-moral discipline.
Concerning entrepreneurial activity, spiritual intelligence (SQ) definitely plays a major role in new value creation and economic output. Not only the physical forces (tangibles) of a firm are value shapers, but also the spiritual forces (intangibles) of the respective team. Creativity and alertness, according to I.Kirzner (who is also a rabbi), are key spiritual forces of physical economic success.
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Hello everybody.
I know the Standard Penetration Test (SPT) was mostly developed to estimate geotechnical parameters of cohesion-less materials, but I would like to know if someone has developed or researched some correlations with respect to c-phi materials, especially if those soils are formed by weathering of rocks.
Thanks!
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This table may be useful:
Look, B. G. (2014). Handbook of geotechnical investigation and design tables. CRC Press.
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I am interested in the possibility that youth is limited by the influence of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development in actual educational practice. Are students between the ages of 12-14 able to reach higher cognitive levels, if the necessary tools and methods are presented? Can there be a training of the brain? And/or is there more recent neurological evidence suggesting- individually- the adolescent brain matures and develops differently? I have read studies on maturation of the brain, cognitive growth, and their correlation. However, I am appealing to those who may be more savvy in actual brain development, cognitive development, and research.
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hello ,yes they may be do
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Dear all,
we are looking for scientific papers or other literature to the following topics for a research project on the state-of-the-art of German tourism science/research:
- definition of “research” - We have found various publications what is meant by science, but our yield to the concept of research is unfortunately not so great yet.
- history/development of research activities at universities
- research activities of professors at universities - We are primarily concerned here with the evaluation of the research achievements/activities of professors/scientists.
Does anyone have recommendations?
Thank you very much for all suggestions and help!
Best regards from sunny Germany,
Katharina Dröge
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Hi dear some paper can help you
best regard
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I am particularly worried about development challenges most African countries face despite their human and natural resources potentials. Moreover, International organisations have funded several development research highlighting the challenges of development in Africa, yet, the outcomes are often dead on arrival. This makes to wonder why the research in the first place if there is not obligation to use its output.
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It could possibly be because most of those research are not problem oriented I. e those research are never designed in the first place to address any known problem that are of important to the development of African countries.
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I am looking forward to developing research proposals for the BBSRC call for proposals. Thanks.
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Hi Sylester,
You should contact: Prof. Nicolas Lampkin at the Welsh Institute of Rural Studies, The University of Wales in Aberystwyth, Wales, UK. At the same university more people who may me interested in collaborating with you could be: Susanne Padel, Sue Fowler, Lesley Langstaff and Tony O' Regan. Good Luck!
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In our development as researchers we are always in constant movement, whether to attend an international conference, a meeting for a project or simply if we go on vacation, sometimes these trips are intercontinetal and we are affected by jet lag, as to prevent it, what advice would you suggest that you have experienced it once?
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Drink plenty of water. Sleep at your normal sleep time during the plane.
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I have gone through some literature that focuses more on privatization failure and failure to privatize but I haven’t found much literature/case studies where privatization process went well (relatively smoothly, without substantive failure and/or reversal) and, privatization goals and objectives are accomplished. I am also curious to know if there are any specific criteria to evaluate privatization success or failure.
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Dear Fred
If you need more references please le me know. i could also try and retrieve my Leeds University lecture PPTs which I used for teaching a Leeds
Best wishes
Colin Barnes
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The Space exploration is driven by Spatial Robotics, Automation, Smart Computation and Interplanetary Communications Systems, that are developed by Research Development Teams nationally and globally.
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Hi everyone, and thank you for your valuable comments. It is evident that new technologies are well applied in support of spatial research and automation. The fundamental challenge of transmission delays still remains with other significant challenges of Power Supply, and Real-time Monitoring and Maintenance Support.
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To develop research about modeling the path of the planets by fuzzy systems and artificial neural networks, what methods can be useful?
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Read about 'Fuzzy motion control'.
Read the paper available at: http://mech-ing.com/journal/papers/6.pdf
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Dear Dr. Laderman,
I also develop research related to the congruence of school achievement texts. I am currently developing tests to measure attitudes and critical thinking skills with hight school students in the state of Sergipe (Brazil). I would like to know if there is any possibility of knowing more about this project and if it is possible to participate as a collaborator? Sincerity,
Dr. Edson José Wartha
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Dear Dr. Wartha,
The main problem here is to define a role for the observer (you) that you can take and that allows you to stay in the field or at its edge and observe it at the same time.
The more public and unstructured the field is, the easier it will be to take a role that is not conspicuous and does not influence the field. The easier a field is to overlook, the more difficult it is to participate in it without becoming a member.
More commonly used in qualitative research is participant observation.
According to Denzin (1989), participant observation will be defined as s field strategy that simultaneously combines document analysis, interviewing of respondents and informants, direct participation and observation, and introspection.
The main features of the method are that you as a researcher dive headlong into the field.
You will observer from a member's perspective but also influence what you observe due to your participation.
openness is essential when collecting data based solely on communicating with the observed.
The participant observation should be understood as a process in two respects.
First, the researcher should increasingly become a participant and gain access to the field and to persons.
Second, the observation should also move through a process of becoming increasingly concrete and concentrated on the aspects that are essential for the research questions.
The participant observation has three phases:
1. DESCRIPTIVE OBSERVATION, at the beginning, serves to provide the researcher with an orientation to the field under study. It provides nonspecific descriptions and is used to grasp the complexity of the field as far as possible and to develop (at the same time) more concrete research questions and lines of vision.
2. FOCUSED OBSERVATION narrows your perspective on those processes and problems, which are most essential for your question.
3. SELECTIVE OBSERVATION, toward the end of the data collection, is focused on finding further evidence and example for the types of practices and processes, found in the second step.
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Leadership is a very popular subject for research. For every individual who has researched the subject there have been numerous attempts to define leadership. In fact, there are in excess over 200 definitions of leadership. Many were developed by researchers to support their finding. In addition, there are a lot of assumptions of what leadership is and how it is defined. Do organizations adhere to a particular leadership definition? Do the members of the organization know the leadership definition the organization adapted? Is it important to have an organization definition for leadership?
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At a minimum, definitions of leadership are likely to vary by country, sector (or industry), and age group, conditioning perceptions of it as a characteristic or a process of, say, change, development, influence, service, etc.; within organizations, there will be differences too depending on integration, differentiation, and fragmentation perspectives.
PS: Leadership can also be distributed.
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The use of analytic bearing solutions became obsolete in the 1970's with the rapid progress of computer speeds. This is no longer being attempted in academic research and has little place in industry. GE, for example, had state of the art computer programs for multi lobed and tilting pad bearings developed in their research center. All this capability seems to have been lost when they shut down their research facility.
I would like to see what type of bearings you are attempting to compute.
Analytic solutions can not handle fluid film bearings when heat transfer and turbulent flow conditions are assumed. The computer speeds and codes have progressed to the point that we can compute the instantaneous bearing forces for direct application to nonlinear time transient rotor studies. This is required for high speed turbochargers and aircraft squeeze film dampers.
E. J. Gunter, Prof. Emeritus Dept. of Mech & Aerospace Eng. Univ. of Virginia
Former Director Rotor Dynamics Laboratory
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Your statement is incorrect that analytic solutions are faster and simpler than FEA solutions. You apparently have never worked in the real world of the analysis of multistage compressors in tilting pad bearings supported on nonlinear squeeze film dampers under large whirl orbits excited by aerodynamic cross coupling effects.
To view and download papers on modern rotor-bearing dynamics presentations please review our papers on our web site at www.rodyn.com. Please also feel free to send me any of your analytic papers on bearing or rotor dynamic analysis.
Analytic solutions were most useful when I was teaching fundamentals of dynamics of machinery and fluid film bearings.
However, in the real world of high speed turbines, compressors and highly nonlinear turbochargers, analytic solutions has little role outside of the class room.
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 Would it be possible today to use genomic selection for more efficient breeding?
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In my opinion the guiding philosophy on the issue of milk production in camels should be "to work with nature not to rape nature". In my personal experience very high yielding camels are seldom able to have long lactations (over 12 months) and regular calving (every 2 years) and often develop udder problems. To select camels that produce 40 liters a day it may be possible but has a lot of disadvantages, a bit like selecting a cow for the Dubai World Cup horse race ! If you want lactating animals that produce 40 liters a day keep cattle not camels.
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I'm currently doing research on the process of analysis of visual sources of inspiration. As part of the collection of information I'm conducting a survey aimed at people with a background in Design and teaching.
The research is focused to a better understanding of the analysis of visual stimuli and their analogy with the learning process.
The survey is completely anonymous and will not be asked for any personal information. Your participation would be a great help for the development of the research. Thank you very much for your time!
The link to access the online survey in English is:
Best Regards,
Laura Valdés
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Estoy actualmente realizando una investigación sobre el proceso de análisis de fuentes de inspiración visuales y como parte de la recopilación de información estoy realizando una encuesta dirigida a personas con experiencia en algún campo del Diseño y en la docencia.
La encuesta es completamente anónima y no se pedirá por ningún tipo de dato personal. La investigación está dirigida a entender mejor el análisis de estímulos visuales y su relación con el proceso de aprendizaje.
El enlace a la encuesta en Español es:
Atentamente,
Laura Valdés
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I think I know what you are asking. But I am not sure I can answer your question because it is not easy.
In the old days I used to write things on the blackboard. When done, I'll erase the board and write something else. Then came slides or transparencies. We had to prepare them ahead of time, but we can use slides repeatedly. Not just from one semester to another, but if a student has a question, I can go back to it. Unlike the days of the blackboard, if I already erased the board then a student asks a question, I can not go back to what I erased.
Then came power point. Now I can use a dark background with a light font or vice versa. I can animate and make things clearer, but here is the difficulty in answering your question. We do not know WHY a student understood a specific point. Is it because he/she is smart? It is because of the way I phrases the explanation? or is it because the animation I did made it very clear?
I think I understand what you are asking, but it is a difficult question to answer.
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I'm currently doing research on the process of analysis of visual sources of inspiration. As part of the collection of information I'm conducting a survey aimed at people with a background in Design and teaching.
The research is focused to a better understanding of the analysis of visual stimuli and their analogy with the learning process.
The survey is completely anonymous and will not be asked for any personal information. Your participation would be a great help for the development of the research. Thank you very much for your time!
Please, feel free to share. Thanks!
The link to access the online survey in English is:
Best Regards,
Laura Valdés
-------------------------
Estoy actualmente realizando una investigación sobre el proceso de análisis de fuentes de inspiración visuales y como parte de la recopilación de información estoy realizando una encuesta dirigida a personas con experiencia en algún campo del Diseño y en la docencia.
La encuesta es completamente anónima y no se pedirá por ningún tipo de dato personal. La investigación está dirigida a entender mejor el análisis de estímulos visuales y su relación con el proceso de aprendizaje.
Por favor, siéntase libre de compartir. Gracias!
El enlace a la encuesta en Español es:
Atentamente,
Laura Valdés
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Con gusto Laura. Saludos, Guillermo
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I am planning to conduct an instrument development research, may I ask for any reference materials and/or published articles? 
What are the prime considerations that I must observe?
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Knut Samset's book, Early Projet Appraisal, published by Palgrave Macmillan may also be useful for your proposed study. 
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Good day,
I am Aireen Y.  Clores of Paniman Caramoan.  I am currently enrolled in doctoral in management at the Philippine womens University. AT present I am conducting my disseration research for homestay service quality cusomer satisfaction and behavioral intention in Caramoan.
I am interested to read your full paper tourist satisfaction in Homestay at davao  and able to apply some ideas in my diasertation especially in the development of research questionnaire.  This will help me in my dissertation.
I am hoping if you allow me to use your research as one of my reference. I am hoping for a positive response on this request. Thank you and God Bless.
Aireen Y. CLORES
DBM HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT
PWU MANILA
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Dear Sir,
Yes you can use my paper in your work no problem at all
Thanks about  your consideration
Dr. Burhan Alomari
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Developing researcher's competencies in doctorate school is more important and complicated than we ever thought. This why we would like to change experiences with those who have already collected a lot.  
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A screening of www.researchgate.net/project/Researcher-Skills-Improvement may lead you to some valuable links to follow up.
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In the first step I have used absolute beta convergence models as specified below:
In[Y_( i, t+k)/Y_(i,t) ]= α+β.ln⁡(Y_(i.t) )+ε_it
Where In[Y_( i, t+k)/Y_(i,t) ] is the mean annualized growth rate of the variable Y in state i in the period (t, t+k), Y_(i.t) is the value in the initial time t and ε_it are corresponding residuals.
Then estimated speed of convergence as
The speed of convergence is computed as s = −1/T (ln (1+Tβ). Where s= speed of convergence and Tβ is the β-convergence in T period.
However, when beta value is larger this equation is not yielding any result. What does this indicate?
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Please refer to the article
"Socioeconomic Progress across the Major Indian states: Converging or Diverging"
at
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I'm making paper to develop software in education. Please help if know about development research.
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I think this is not about developmental research. In my opinion this is much more related to Research and Development Reseearch model. 
So Habsi
There are many models of R& D study
But, in my opinion all of these models consists of
1. Preliminary study stage
2. Prototyping stage,
3. Evaluation stage
4. Dissemination stage
In the preliminary study, you are trying to justify why you need to develop something new. You have to study the existing and cisculating softwares whether they are good or not. If you see that the existing softwares are not good, you have a chance to develop something new. But if the existing are already good, seemingly you dont have the chance for developing it. But, i believe that there is nothing perfect. Every softwares have its own deficiencies. Dont worry. You can find it out.
In the prototyping stage, you are trying to put the theories and new ideas into your project. You try to apply what you have learned and develop the desigin and its protytipe.
In the evaluation stage, you should evaluate your design and your product based on criteria that apply to your product. You have to revise, whenever needed, your prototype until the prottype fulfills the criteria. 
In the dissemintation, you will try to produce in and disseminate it in the market. 
You can search the web to study many R&D models. 
Good luck 
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Can anyone provide some insights on gender disparities in access, use, managemnt, governance of water resources? Examples from different countries are very welcome!
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Hi, I would suggest you get in touch with Indus Earth Trust, Pakistan. They are working with water supply in the rural sector.  the email address is indusearthtrust@gmail.com.
They are establishing community organizations to manage water supply. perhaps they have women led organizations - they do have community organization where women are 50% of the members. 
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Dear Colleagues
Currently I would like to compute an absolute poverty line for my research. However, in my dataset, I don't the information of complete information  of calorie data and standard price of each food component. What I have in my data is food expenditure, non food expenditure and some specific expenditures for good and services.
While I can compute poverty line in other datasets and then transform the poverty line in my dataset (it is what has been done by other people who are using the similar data like mine), I am curious whether there are any study compute absolute poverty line without using calorie data? for example what can be used to replace calories when compute poverty line using Ravallion and Bidani's (1994) engel methods? Thank you very much.
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Hello
I saw this - it is from UNIVERSITY OF YORK Social Policy Research Unit: 
I don't know if there is anything relevant for you.
These are some more links:
Very best wishes for your PhD,
Mary
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I found a remarkable under-count in the economic method for measuring the energy demands of business, and published a correction in a recent paper (1). The standard method implies that virtually all businesses have far below world average intensity, for energy consumed per $GDP. What fixed that problem was counting all the implied energy demand of the services that businesses directly paid for to operate, but with no reported energy demand.
The underlying source of the blind spot is that the self-managing services that businesses employ don't report or otherwise expose how they work. So businesses appear to be physically outsourcing energy uses when buying independent services that report no energy use. The only way to determine how much, was to consider money as a physical measure of purchased energy use. That was shown to be at least far more accurate when treating it as having "average" rather than "zero" energy intensity.
The question also opens up great new issues about everything else hidden from observers, about the working processes of the complex self-managing (& self-organizing) systems of the economy and nature we rely on. They all hide from view most of how they work, within their own internal organization. Some small progress on that broader question has been accumulating(3), but it needs attention from other views.
The recent paper (1) is in a special issue on EROI (2) recently released by Sustainability, and an overview of my questions and links to the subject are on my blog (3)
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My method is to interpret patterns of regular proportional change as probably indicating system growth and decay curves.   I then use that primary evidence of accumulative organizational development to help locate boundaries of the system and identify the working relationships within it.  One of the main uses for that is as a versatile forensic science tool.   
So for your example I'd look for periods of time when there was growth or decay in the culture (i.e. accumulative organizational change) to help identify what domain is being monopolized and how.  
An example of one of my studies is my investigation of why income levels in the US went from all changing in proportion to each other to all splitting apart.  In ~1970 all wage earning sectors stopped tracking the growth of the economy as they had before.  fyi, see: "Did the new 1964 SEC Rules wreck the US Economy??" at http://synapse9.com/signals/2016/05/26/did-1964-sec-rules-wreck-us-economy/
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Lately I have studied Toyota Manufacturing System, but it seems I go in circles, because the tools are so intertwined, sometimes so overlapped, that I cannot let go one tool while studying another one. I go round and round, it gets me boring. I think that the System as a whole is a masterpiece, but when it comes to be studied under systematic methods, it seems so redundant. I feel like wasting tons of times, and I get in the same place of the beginning. Because you need to link the dots between and among tools to make sense of this whole thing. So, my question is: how can one study Toyota System tools, as a self-learner, harnessing the study time as best as possible? (I consider that this study lacks practice, so in this sense I rise my question, as a newbie in this subject.)
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Dear Eric 
Thank you so much. I think you hit the nail, it is all about to avoid losses, wastes, time. Nevertheless, there are so many other approaches out of Toyota tools that address such goal of losses avoiding. Some are new one, as Manufacturing 4.0. And other are old one. As those linked to cleaner production, eco-efficiency etc. Also, I have found articles that highlight disadvantages of lean production in terms of the avoidance/elimination of intermmediary stocks, mainly in cases of supply chain disruption. I have found several examples of losses in Toyota, Nissan, and Seagate facilities in Thai during the 2011 floods in that country. There were mentioned losses due to lack of intermmediary stocks because the suppliers could not delivered raw materials during such natural disaster. Actually any system or theory work under limitation.
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Can anyone help me to suggest studies on the direct relation between self-disclosure and social adjustment?
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I would suggest also the inspiring keynote speech at the the SWSD2016 Conference in Seoul: The Benefits of Disclosure – One Step towards Ending HIV-Discrimination
Romy Mathys (Quartierverein Sentitreff Luzern & Aids Hilfe Bern, Switzerland) - The abstract is available here: http://swsd2016.org/swsd2016_final/papers/PLENARY/PL01-02.pdf
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Which countries have developed a systematic approach to housing policy that addresses effectively different modalities of housing provision (government, market, civil society) and housing options (informal/formal, finished/incremental, ownership/rental)? I am currently preparing a presentation on urban development challenges in the Global South and would like to show some telling success stories of the Global South. Thank you for all your help and input!
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The key concepts, "systematic" and "approach"  need to be located in the actual lived experiences of people, [cf Pierre Bourdieu etc in this regard]. In this case you have to contrast different housing policies in different socio-historical contexts and then try to define what would be considered as "systematic" and "approach" in general and in relation to your own research context (s) -- as there are different systems and approaches. See my work on Pierre Bourdieu, etc
Best wishes with your research!
John J
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Hi, I am planning to validate an instrument which is developed by an expert. Is it possible that i use exploratory factor analysis to validate the instrument? or is there any other alternative?
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As validity is inherently multidimensional, it all depends on what aspects of validity you want to assess. EFA/CFA provides information for appraising the structural validity of an instrument (which one you use will depend on the context of what is known theoretically about the instrument though when results from both analyses converge there is greater confidence in latent structure). Structural validity is necessary but not sufficient for construct validity. Once structural validity is established it is beneficial to examine relationships between those constructs and external criteria (i.e., do they predict things that we think they should, etc.).  
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What are the options for hospital to develop the non-operating revenue?
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There is a very good article by Singh SR and Song PH.You can go through it.
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What analytical framework will you advise for study are study?
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Look up expert publications by UNDP on the topic
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I want to carry on a Ph. D on sustainable development indicators.
I'll be gratefull if one of you can advice me? which uni is the appropriate?, can I find an advisor
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thank you to be so cheerful :)
I have also seen that, and I have a dream to study there, but I have a problem:) I have commitments ( I have a baby and I breastfeed him) and I Can not attend the course!
have you another solution?, if yes please don't Do not skimp byظ
Thanks
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For this project we need information (literature) about theoretical and empirical comparisson of two alternative methods of workforce intimidation: high unemployment rates vs. highly (mass media) emphasized collective layoffs (e.g. is a 20% unemployment rate as intimidating as 100,000 (temporally concentrated and mass media disseminated) layoffs, in a 7% unemployment rate economy?). Conservative governments apply both of them but recent examples of Latin American Countries (most of them with wage-led demand) confirm a bias towards the second.
Any suggestion will be very welcome!
Thanks a lot.
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Perhaps the 'demonstration' would come from the argument that begins with the observation that sustained maximisation of profit in a changing world requires a constant focus on the minimisation of transaction costs, however they may be constituted.  It follows from this that minimisation of the transactions costs relevant to the sustained provision of an effective labour force requires that labour force to be acquiescent and compliant at minimum cost and least damage to their motivational profiles - they have to be de facto complicit in the supply of their labour even if not actually willing.  This 'ideal' is unlikely to be consistent with the presumed high physical costs of physical intimidation, a route which also has decreasing returns to length of time pursued since populations become inured and resentful to physical force and will eventually resort to similar physicality.    The least cost sustainable alternative, we know from the historical record, are those in which the populations believes in the desired status quo.  It might be argued that for fifty years the paradigm by and large enjoyed the benefits of such a system of belief across all major economies.  But just as in past civilisations and dispensation, once general credibility ceases to hold the population in general in thrall it cannot be recovered.  Only if that credibility and belief is able to be reinstated will you see papers appearing describing how it works and thus demonstrate, retrospectively the policy's effectiveness.    It will not happen.  'Advertising and political spin is only effective in the short-term.  It is also transparent and general awareness is well embedded throughout society.  Unless the entire media industry acts to common purpose and consistently and effectively transforms the social reality we each of us experience then the necessary level of willing belief cannot be built up, locally in Southern South America, sufficiently to be self-sustaining.  It can only ever be imposed as an overt example of psychological and mental violence to the person.  It will therefore be costly as well as being unsustainable and it will not achieve its objectives of creating a compliant and acquiescent low-transaction cost supply of flexible labour.
We can expect to see more and more frequently these types of desperate and ill-thought out rear-guard actions from the  neoclassical axis, on the left and the right, as they obsessively refuse to confront and evolve away from the fundamental institution tenants of a limitless accumualtive cadastrelism by individuals unbound by the needs and rights of society, and effectively unaccountable to it.   I doubt many papers will appear.  Far fewer perhaps than potential and actual authors of them will disappear meanwhile.
Robin
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I am currently engaged in a study and one of my objectives aims at developing a conceptual framework for use in a specified context, which could also be further tested and validated subsequently. My question is, is there any methodology or steps based on scientific evidence to developing a framework from research. I have a picture of what this framework could constitute, but i don't want to go about developing this outside established research frames. Your contributions and inputs are highly valued, thank you
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An important question to ask yourself is what the function of the resulting framework will perform for researchers/practitioners... Is it descriptive? prescriptive? etc. This statement of desired utility leads into requirements for the resulting methodology, which can in turn guide your choice of methods. 
It is quite normal to be a bit lenient on methodology when constructing the framework as long as this is matched by rigorous evaluation. Something like a creative leap is hard to capture in prescriptive methodologies.
One approach that is often considered as a methodology to arrive at the type of insights you appear to be aiming at is grounded theory. But I am not an expert on this. 
My2Cents
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This is a question to all the researchers of development politics all over the world . Is Lingam commission necessary or not?
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It would be helpful to know what the Lingam Commission is before deciding whether it is necessary.
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A RESEARCHER IN FISHERIES MANAGEMENT, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT RESEARCHER.
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Your question is too broad to receive a concrete answer in terms of a "theoretical framework". Are you searching for the framework itself or only as applied to fisheries in West Africa?
If a general theoretical framework is sought, sustainability is often missunderstood and confused with MSY. The range of sustainability however is wide and encompass biomass levels close to the unexploited population down to very small percentages of the original biomass. The risk is greater under the low end of the spectrum, but if nothing extreme happens, the harvest may as well be sustainably. With this in mind, and assuming that management emphasis is on the harvested stock and the fishers, a very basic theoretical framework would be that to assess or determine the status of a fishery, you first need to agree together with fishers, authorities and stakeholders a set of management goals that are acceptable to everyone. These goals should establish the level of biomass (or fishing mortality) that correspond to a specific level of sustainability reflecting the diversity of interests of the involved sectors. The assessment then may provide an image of the status of the fishery compared to the goals and it should be possible to determine if management action is required. A similar approach can be developed if management emphasis is on the ecosystem rather than the stock.
Hope this helps.
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I want to conduct a socioeconomic survey to observe the scenario of present livelihood condition of a community. However, researches have already been conducted to observe their livelihood pattern and government has already started to develop their livelihood pattern. My question is that can i conduct a research based on livelihood pattern where my objective will be to compare the present and past livelihood condition.
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Indeed you can. Just need to be careful in what you want to compare. The variables must be relevant for both past and present situations.
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In Tarija, Bolivia I have found a paradox, a WWTP project which has funding and technical support from NL and Argentina has been stalled for already 10 years, it is being said that is due to social resistance (rural communities). But  according to empirical data gathered, it seems that the underlying causes are political interests...
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Hi Mariel,
It seems to me that many links could be done with another researches, one concerning the National Park Sanjay Gandhi (Munbai, Indian Republic) made by 2 geographers Émilie Edelblutte and Yanni Gunnell (file below), the second concerning the pacific Colombia area made by the anthropologist Arturo Escobar (file below) I used theses papers  for lecture in France and they are really clear and interesting concerning the links between ecological/political groups and social/spatial conflicts.
Even if you cannot read french papers, you can, at least, have a look on their bibliographies which is almost in english or spanish.
Hope it can be useful,
Christophe
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Hey there, I'm currently writing my graduation paper and I have a chapter where I have to compare the normal development with the development of a child with DCD.
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Look for attributions of Moto Miyahara  Otago University Dunedin NZ
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The fixities in our behavior can be conceptualized as being the outcomes of uncritical thought and rational thought, i.e., automatic behavior and behavior resulting from conscious considerations.
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Dear Emery,
 I’d express a few further comments on the question you raised as it is perceived from an economic perspective. The economic literature more attentive to the psychological implications of individual behavior has emphasized persistently the lack of commitment of the economist to deal adequately with the process of formation of preferences, especially with reference to its stability, selfish nature and rationality.
Such an assessment is connected to the disapproval of that mental ‘habitus’ of a large part of economists which leads them to consider a utility model to still have a scant relation with the current thinking in psychology. Moreover, this school of economic thought is still inclined to appraise a large part of the human behavior as "abnormal" because of the usual assumptions of continuity and linearity in the variables or their simple transformations imposed on the model, as well as of the omission of significant variables. All that, in spite of the results of research in psychology that tend to exclude the operation of the human brain as a central processing unit and to consider it - instead - as a system of parallel processing. Moreover, account must be taken of the fact that studies in psychology have prompted new economic approaches in the field of utility theory. Specifically, in a distinguished lecture Henry J. Aaron states that: “Economists rapidly acquire the capacity to think of human behavior in terms of the standard utility function, U = f(X), where X is a vector of whatever goods or bundles of goods or attributes of goods happen to be relevant for the problem at hand. This characterization of human behavior contains powerful assumptions that simplify analysis… However, it is clearly an "as if" formulation. It posits that people behave as if their preferences were stable, egoistic, and rational (meaning that preferences obey the laws of transitivity) and cover all states of the world. Much (perhaps most) human behavior violates these standards. Indeed, whole sub-disciplines of economics, to say nothing of the entireties of sociology and psychology and much of political science, have grown up to analyze these "irrationalities" and to explain why they occur” (see Aaron, HJ, "Public policy, values and consciousness", Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol.8, n.2, Spring 1994).
Profound changes in theoretical direction and research methods are necessary if we are to make significant progress in analyzing major social issues. Moreover, modification of the psychological prizes that direct the behavior should be carefully thought-out. This means consideration of the role that emotions that induce agents to behave in a manner not only inspired by the observance of the principle of self-interest. The inclusion of emotions in behavior patterns alter the predictions provided by models based on self-interest. It is so from the moment of change of the matrix of pay-off in the DP model, with the addition - for those who cooperate - of a 'good' resulting from knowing that the other agent has been able to achieve a specific benefit or the fact that he acted in fulfillment of the commitment of adherence to a social norm shared by the group.
Individual behavior - intentional and emotional together - originates from the intersection between biology and cultural environment, intersection governed by the nature of epigenetic rules of thumb that allow individuals to find quick solutions to problems posed by the process of decision and choice. These rules of thumb tend to reduce complex tasks, such as those which seek to determine the probability of occurrence of certain outcomes, such simple tasks of evaluation.
A different meaning of the rationality of economic behavior has been proposed which takes into account realistically and primarily the fact that a process of information management leads to the formulation of choice taking place under conditions of imperfection and limited capacity to process fully the information available. Moreover, this approach of understanding the rationality of economic action must take into account the existence of forms of social conditioning that are a mirror image of moral values and standards of conduct that invite to explore the possibility of integrating them into the basic model of the economic agent and to imagine forms of interaction between them and the existing incentive and social structures. Specifically, the neoclassical approach seemed  inadequate under another viewpoint. In fact, it proves inappropriate to consider how the various impulses evolve because it considers altruism and selfishness as fixed and pre-existing stocks when allocative effects are analyzed. By doing so, even the role of society is neglected as well as the social and moral norms and practices of what is included in the term "culture". All this  when the different impulses to action are taken into account, while it is explicitly postulated by the neoclassical school that experience has no feed-back effect on the preferences of the agents.
As a general rule and only in respect to the issue of information, incomplete and costly to acquire, it is proper to remember that this topic closely affects the analysis of economic relations between formal rules and informal norms of social conduct. It has been suggested and ascertained that individuals demonstrate a willingness to learn also from the experiences of other people, supplemented by a predisposition to imitate patterns of behavior based on social rules not only directly and indirectly beneficial. It is considered a primary task of anthropological and sociological studies on the mechanisms of cultural evolution to deepen - for instance - if and to what extent the use of forms of social learning, such as imitation of the experience that others have taken in similar contexts about the solution of the problems posed by the human interrelations, approaches on average the optimal behavior compared to the solutions that individuals can come up with on their own. This type of informal rules is made - according to Douglass North - of conventions, norms of behavior, and self- imposed codes of conduct, i.e. that form of 'codification' of the lessons learned from the common experience which becoming institutional rules, "….are a part of the heritage that we call culture”. (D.C. North, ‘Institutions, institutional change and economic performance’, Cambridge University Press, 1990, 5,37).
 Thank you for reading and best regards,
Gianrocco
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I am currently developing research protocol on the involvement of men in reproductive/maternal health care services. I want to work on different perspective this time around and I am attracted to Afrocentricity (Afrocentric method) because my protocol focusses on African men/males and reproductive health.
Hope to hear from you all.
Khethisa Radebe Taole
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We have a book coming out in the next months that addresses the issues of women's versus men's involvement in reproductive health, when considering the Millennium Development Goals #4.5 for African and Oceanian societies - follow Naomi McPherson's as editor, MISSING THE MARK 2016.  
Also check on publications from Austria by Dr. Armin Prinz - especially if you read German.  Best wishes
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I'm especially interested in studies that use administrative data directly recorded in the refugees' camps or centers in the receiving countries.
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Hello Mary.
First of all, thank you for your answer and your suggestions.
I have already found some of the papers you cite, but some other resources you suggest may be useful for my work. So, thanks!
Anyway, probably I must have been more clear in asking my question or provide more details.
What I'm searching for are studies which use administrative individual data from refugees' centers. So, not aggregate data from various statistical sources, and not data on refugees collected somehow after they left the centers or in another period of their lives.
I hope this further explanation will be useful to have additional suggestions from you and from other readers.
Thanks again for your help.
Best regards.
Manuela
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Complex PTSD includes the symptoms of PTSD plus a range of disturbances of self-regulation (e.g., in emotion, relationships, belief systems, dissociation, somatic distress) as a result of prolonged or repeated or multiple forms of interpersonal trauma (e.g., childhood physical and sexual abuse, domestic violence, sex trafficking, experiencing torture, exposure to genocide, etc.).
In 2012, the ISTSS Expert Consensus Treatment Guidelines for complex PTSD in Adults recommended that the treatment "be patient-centered" and with three stages/phases of treatment. (Please see the attached PDF). I am very interested to know if there are any new developments in the research and clinical practice in this area. Any empirical studies and/or practice-based evidences would be appreciated.
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I agree with Nader. Eventhough there are guidelines for treatment not everyone responds positively. Prolonged exposures are a good tool for most and not for everyone depending on their level of anxiety, the severity of the trauma and any additional diagnosis. Because BPD and PTSD can present  with similar symptoms, I believe it is important to not rush  with a BPD diagnosis too early.
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I am specifically looking for studies that can reproduce the results of this study/leaflet from 2010 that bases on Thompson Reuters Web of Science-Data:
Interestingly, this study clusters internal African research cooperation by four groups (see p. 8), singling out not only the North-African States as a homogeneous group but also the Francophone countries of West Africa. However, Web of Science is known to be dominated by Anglophone journals. Therefore I wonder whether for example Scopus can deliver sharper pictures of such relationships, taking into account also Franco- and Lusophone publications.
Thanks in advance for any hints!
Best regards, Stefan
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Dear Jörg, dear Elango,
you're hints are very much appreciated!
Best regards, Stefan
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There are various measures of checking socioeconomic development of the developing or least developed countries for examples HDI, PCI, GNI, Gini -coefficient, Gross domestic happiness Index (GDHI). Among them and besides them which parameters give the real situation of socioeconomic development of developing world? 
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I would suggest HDI is combined with
-Gender Gap Index brought out  by World Economic Forum  http://reports.weforum.org/global-gender-gap-report-2014/part-1/
- Rule of Law index by World Justice Project 
- Environment performance index http://epi.yale.edu/
To me the first is an indicator of human well being, the second of gender inequalities, the third an indicator is whether justice prevails and fourth of environmentally sustainable.  The last two are crucial for whether gains are sustainable)
Best 
Ranjani
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Is anyone aware of a participatory exercise carried out to derive a list of poverty, well-being or (human) development dimensions? Except for the well-known "Voices of the Poor" etc. It can be a national level or regional level.
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I want to share an example. 
Around ten women had assembled to discuss the goal of a livelihood and microfinance project,  how they would measure if it had been achieved and actually assessed progress. The steps that I follow are:
1. Divide the participants into groups of 5-6 women.
2. Ask the participants whether they know the goals of the project/programme. If they are not aware, share the goal with them. The goal needs to be written in big letters and on a big piece of paper!
3. Give the participants flash cards.
4. Ask the group what is required to achieve the goal. If they are non-literate they can draw on the flash card. Do not stick at this stage, as they may change their mind.
5. Then ask - to achieve what is written in the flash cards, what are the measures required and proceed similarly.
6. The participants may change their mind on the level of flash cards. Give them time to come to a firm conclusion and then stick the flash cards.
7. Now give the participants a pen, and ask them to rate achievement of indicator at each level. A rating of * means not achieved, a rating of *** means fully achieved, and a rating of **means partially achieved.
.
Interestingly the women stated the goal of the project was poverty reduction of women. The women identified two pathways to poverty reduction- increase women’s income and reduce household expenditure.  They observed that women’s income could increase if women-managed  income-generation programmes expanded  (many) and if their control over existing income enhanced (a few).  They further shared that women-managed income generation can expand only if they had livestock (many) or land (few) on their names.  The women noted that their control over income would be reflected in them having savings accounts on their name.  On the expenditure front, majority of women stated that expenditure can come down if men drank less and a few mentioned that if domestic violence was less health expenditure would be reduced.  Women observed that group should collectively intervene on these issues.
The project, the women observed, had had a moderate impact on most of the indicators they had listed, other than reduction in alcohol consumption and violence against women.  While the group did intervene in instances of violence against women it did not always meet with success
Source: Murthy, 2015, Tool kit on gender sensitive participatory methods for evaluation, Institute of Social Studies, New Delhi (being published in a month) 
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Can we have development models per region like Kerala model, Gujarat model etc?
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One function served by modeling is "generalizability." If the model is regional specific, it not really a model. Take for instance, GDP is a model. no matter what country in the world, the model is applicable. If we have a specific model for a particular country, the proposed model is reduced to a collection of facts, information and data. The purpose of the model is to gather these bits and pieces and explain by one over-arching statement called model.
India has 5 main regions, if each region has its own model, it becomes unpredictable for the country. A unified model for the entire India provide an over all picture. When we discover if any region does not fit the over-all picture, we can track the problem, i.e. under-development, inequality, industrialization, etc. However, if each region has its own model, these potential problems would be hidden and not be detected or get solved.
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 Bt cotton Production,  consumption, export and  import for the last five years?
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Any Randomised controlled trials on this subject
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Improved sanitation is one of the part in reducing diarrhoea among children under five years of age. There is another important part which is health education which needs to be given to mothers time to time regarding the cause of the disease and how to prevent it by taking up different measures.
Dr.Lawrence Gomes
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Government of India is planning and also taking steps like collaboration with other countries like Japan, China etc to establish 100 smart cities in all over India. after 68 years of independence also India is still facing and fighting with poverty, unemployment, illiteracy etc. My question is that without solving these basic problems, will establishing smart cities lead to economic development in India?
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The development of smart cities could be a change in paradigm in how cities are management.
If the city is built accordingly with city smart concepts the long term benefits are various, especially considering the sustainable aspects (economic, social and environmental aspects), despite the high initial investments. The same is true for solving the basic unsolved problems in India, such as basic sanitation, unemployment (which it will always happen, the question I think is: is it getting better?) and illiteracy. Once a paradigm is broken in one area and population can see its benefits a path could be opened to break the paradigm in other areas.
I am not saying that Smart cities should be government priorities, but it could give a new perspective to problem solution at the country.
Regards,
Tulio.
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Guide me in the designing of methodology for the collection of primary data form the rural people regarding NRM and its different indicators through the new approach of participatory development.   
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Hi Muhammad,
For primary data collection you can do following methods: Develop structured questionnaire to compare general query on social Characteristics, land resources, forest products, forest management practices, etc. And select the sample design for the survey based on criteria such as time constraints and density of households Number of Households selected for the entire study from each category of Occupation of the Respondent.
 Structured Interview
Semi-structured Interview
This technique is considered to be the best tool for good PRA. This is an open Discussion with open-ended questions that can take place everywhere in the Community with groups. It can be done using mental or written checklists and thus is Also known as informal discussion.
 Identification and discussion with key Informants
Transect Walk
 the researcher can walk with few key informants in the study area observing, Analyzing, listening, identifying different zones, local technologies, and searching for the problems and solutions for the community.
Transect walk is helpful mainly in the study of land use pattern, distribution of private and natural forests.
Hope this will help little bit
All the best
Regards,
Yagya
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In trying to understand community responses to tourism development, it is common to use the irritation index proposed by Doxey (1975). This model suggests that communities have (or may be in) one of these 4 "irritation" levels: euphoria, apathy, irritation and antagonism. Unfortunately, I haven't found a paper that indicates how to accommodate research results into any of these categories. Does any one know whether there is a mathematical calculation that can do this? How can someone, from the research results, conclude that community responses fall in one of these categories?
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I need a bit more information. First, it sounds like there are five "points" on the response scale for the question (for example., from Strongly Agree to Strongly Disagree, with a score of 3 in the middle). There is no problem with that.
What I really need to know is how many such questions there are in the overall index.
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Apparently, different models and approaches on land distribution and land management have been introduced in various developing countries. I am trying to think of some of these methods that work in developing countries and perhaps with some details as to why these succeded, or even failed to do so?
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Many initiatives have been taken in the Southern parts of India by the Governments to distribute unused public lands to the poor people from tribal and rural areas. However, they are not supported with agricultural inputs. Being economically survived on daily wage earnings, these people unable to invest money to develop and cultivate the land. The local elites and rich, usually exploit this situation and get the control of the land by providing small amounts, and continue to use the poor as laborers. In such cases the title would continue to be in the name of the poor  to avoid legal obstacles. Hence, the provision of land should be facilitated with the required inputs including the technology. Getting the poor farmers as a cooperative and enable them to go in for scalable farming may be an option.
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I am interested in Kazakhstan and in particular with its economic development efforts.  Can anyone lead me to articles, reports, etc. that provide good accounts of this?  Thanks!
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Here are some good and/or promising sources. Cheers
1. Globalizing Central Asia: Geopolitics and the Challenges of Economic Development
2. The Central Asian Economies Since Independence By Richard Pomfret
3. The Economies of Central Asia By Richard Pomfret
4. Introducing the new era of Eurasian Geography and Economics
5. Kazakhstan: Oil endowment and oil empowerment
6. Risky business: The political economy of Chinese investment in Kazakhstan
7. Uncertainty, Insecurity, and Emigration from Kazakhstan to Russia
8. Resource concentration, institutional quality and the natural resource curse
9. Kazakhstan seeks economic diversification, fast growth in ADB deal
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It is believed that trade union power and density across countries is declining in the post-globalization period. I could not find any systematically compiled data in support or against this. Can you share data including research papers in this regard?
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For Europe, the most complete and up-to-date data set is that operated by Jelle Visser at AIAS, to be found here: http://www.uva-aias.net/208
This is surely the most reliable and cited reference. For instance, see quotation in European Commission's report on "Industrial relations in Europe 2014" (http://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?catId=738&langId=en&pubId=7739).
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Despite the efforts of development programs to upgrade the technologies, particularly of farmers, adoption is still low. What ingredients are missing in the approaches so far?
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In a word, NO. We didn't get it right. We've fallen into economic traps that have no escape, with the same thinking that created our significant and terminal problems. Two critical points come to mind.
First when we believe/act as if the environment is a subset of our economy, we seem to trash it with impunity and greed.
Secondly we haven't shown the wisdom of the 'precautionary principal' where we insure that we do no harm before we unleash any chemicals or technology. That should have been established in the 1930's when the beginning of man made chemicals began.
Lastly, we have yet to address the structural unemployment that follows in the wake of high tech and automation. Geometrically increasing population and extraction of earths resources with increasing economic, environmental and social consequences is a recipe for disaster. It''s just a matter of time now.... hold on.. the going is going to get rocky.....