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Development Economics - Science topic

Development economics is a branch of economics which deals with economic aspects of the development process in low-income countries.
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In our recent review article, we have conducted a thematic synthesis of China’s rural industrialization through the Township and Village Enterprises (TVEs) and generated context-specific lessons that can inform Ethiopia’s rural industrialization. The paper focuses on developing an alternative framework responding to “what” can be drawn and “how” it can be adapted to make the Ethiopian rural economy function properly.
The review work identified the three major driving forces behind China’s growth miracle through in-depth analysis and synthesis. These were policy drivers, entrepreneurial drivers, and sociocultural drivers. The finding showed that the driving forces were successfully held together with formal and informal institutions to form a rural industrialization framework (RIF). The constructed RIF provides a holistic perspective on the rural industrialization process and can be used in promoting the planning and implementation process of rural industrialization in Ethiopia. We also believe that such a holistic approach can be helpful to other developing countries as well.
More details can be found hereunder:
Any opinion or suggestion on the framework, i.e., the RIF, we developed?
Can the Rural Industrialization Framework (RIF) we developed for Ethiopia could also be helpful for other developing countries in promoting the planning and implementation process of rural industrialization?
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I do agree that these three drivers can be applicable to other developing countries to some extent because the main important thing is that Politics which is ruling those developing countries have tremendous impact of functioning the Rural Industrialization Framework successfully.
Mostly the developing are generally looking for the development in terms of mobilization of different resources. So the Rural Industrialization is stakeholders friendly at the gross root level profession to sustain the livelihoods of many rural people.
Financial sources is the major constraints in most of the developing countries but the Government Policy matters to decide to promote the Rural Industrialization in the rural areas because huge mass if the unemployed rural youth in these developing countries.
There must be a Green Invitation to involve the graduates who are really innovative could be encouraged their skills, knowledge and experience etc.
Above all, the conducive environment to mobilize the human, financial and material resources to support this RIF.
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Most microfinance institutions were founded as non-profit organizations with main mission of providing financial services to the low income class or financially excluded people, mostly women. Although, it appears that transformation of microfinance institutions into regulated financial institutions comes with many benefits such as influx of new capital, deposit mobilization, increase outreach and improved management and governance among others. There is fear that transformed microfinance institutions may deviate from their original mission to serve the low income class and alleviate poverty. More specifically, some observers believe that the transformation of microfinance institutions into regulated financial institutions may encourage profit motive over social impact of alleviating poverty.
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transformation in this paper is defined as an establishment of a regulated. financial institution (RFI) by a non-government organization (NGO) or a. group of NGOs by transferring its loan portfolio completely or partially to the. RFI. Among the varying factors that motivated the microfinance NGOs to
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A quest for real-world examples (Best Practices) from developing countries.
Some research findings show that there is a significant relationship observed between entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial culture. Given the private sector’s involvement is essential in economic development and also that the capacity to recruit new graduates in the formal sector is very much limited, it’s highly vital that existing and new entrepreneurial cultures are adequately exploited. And, it is also necessary to link this cultural dimension with formal entrepreneurial education.
Is there any program/project successfully implemented so that those two issues are properly linked and resulted in achieving the desired goal (As Best Practice)? (Good if country and program/project examples are mentioned.)
Many thanks!
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I appreciate you Mr Melkamu Tadesse Wazza that you have raised the mind blowing question in RG.Entrepreneurship Education is a streamlined program designed by the respective Government to tap up the potential entrepreneurial skills, knowledge and techniques to promote the budding entrepreneurs in the particular location.
The term Entrepreneurial culture means that practices are being followed over the years or decades among the young entrepreneurs in the given geographical location.
Of course, the Entrepreneurial culture is not exploited in some societies due to some factors which hinders the development of those entrepreneurs.
There will be a wide gap between these two groups of entrepreneurs. Some societies may not encourage the entrepreneurial culture because of the lack of awareness, knowledge and skills among the young entrepreneurs.
It is very challenging issue among the budding entrepreneurs those who are reluctant to apply the new skills, knowledge and technical ideas etc to the society.
It is important to note that the psychological factors like Achievement Motivation, Perception, Attitude and Awareness creation etc could help to change the mind of these entrepreneurs in the given society.
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Hello,
I'm looking for a topic for writing a blog or policy brief on the most popular topics in Economics development in Pakistan. kindly suggest to me some interesting and fruitful topics.
Thank you!
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External loans and their impact on economic development
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I have been struggling to get the export import data of Taiwan. In wb website, Taiwan is not listed as a country, so nothing can be found. Is there any reliable sources for country specific (Taiwan) data?
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Also check please the following very good link: https://www.ceicdata.com/en/indicator/taiwan/total-exports
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I am currently looking for import, export, current account balance and Balance of payment data from the year 1960. WDI, unctadstat show lesser amount of data (starting from 1980s). Is there any reliable data streams/sources where i can access the data free of cost? How about the published data?
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You can check IMF as well, if not visited their website yet?
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What socio-economic policy is appropriate for reducing poverty and social exclusion in contemporary social market economies?
Please answer
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Dear Friends and Colleagues of RG,
The issues of specific programs to improve the economic, financial, material and housing situation of households as key instruments of pro-development state intervention and significant components of the socio-economic policy of the state I described in the publications:
I invite you to discussion and cooperation.
Best wishes
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Gioacchino de Candia You are right, but not all dogs are the same.
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Do you agree with my opinion that in the context of the forecasted slowdown in the economic growth of many countries in 2019, policies for activating entrepreneurship and innovation should be developed within the framework of active, pro-development, anti-crisis, Keynesian, national socio-economic policies?
Please reply
Best wishes
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Entrepreneurship and innovation at the level of small and medium enterprises, represent the "core" of the economy at European level, especially since a percentage of over 80% of the number of companies at European level is represented by SMEs.
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The economy of Singapore is highly developed. It has been ranked by World economic forum as the most open economy in the world.
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Why Singapore can become a developed country? (1) Singapore relies on the industrial and service sectors as its main economic activity and source of income. (2) 5Human resources in Singapore are excellent and have skills. (3) Singapore's strategic location makes it easy for the country to export its industrial products and import its various needs. (4) The Singaporean government always monitors the country's economic development and makes this a special concern.
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Coal based power plants are one of the cheapest and more effective instruments to produce electricity. Many developed countries have already applied this plants and had the benefit from it. Although some of the countries have now stopped using coal based plants because of the negative impact being created towards the nature.
At present, many developing countries specifically in Asian and African region, are choosing Coal to produce more electricity as the demand is at the highest peak; even though a huge environmental degradation is happening due to these circumstances.
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Coal is cheapest source of energy production, if we use new technology for removal of the pollution
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Malaysia's success story has been highlighted by the outstanding economic growth and social transformation.
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Overall perception of Malaysia is good progress in economic growth and development but the ground reality is totally different from the statistics.
I t could be the best factors like Physical or Environmental factor, Institutional factor and Personal factor or Demographic factor may influence the economic growth and development and to alleviate the poverty at the ground level.
The Physical or Environmental factor will determine the agricultural production and productivity will help to increase the export promotion in turn earn foreign exchange. Tapping agricultural resources will pave the way for the country's economic development activities.
Personal or Demographic factor includes the variables like sex, education, family size, dependency ratio have direct influence of the economic boost up in economic growth and development. Vocational education will teaches many new technologies and inputs to the poor households stakeholders to begin a new micro businesses ideas etc.
Regarding the Institutional factor will support the citizens who are living in poverty conditions can be identified by conducting the Baseline Survey.
Moreover, the Institutional factor has many variables such as Access to Market, Access to Mass media, ICT gadgets, Bank or Microfinance Institution to get micro loan to start petty businesses according to their capacity.
Self Help Groups and Microfinance Institution support for the poor like Grameen Bank in Bangladesh. According to Prof.Muhamed Yunus has introduced the Grameen Bank in the poverty stricken areas to draw the attention on poor people.
America, Australia are following the Grameen Bank Policy to rejenuevate the poverty conditions. The developing countries like India and other African countries have succeeded through Microfinance concept.
Moreover Public Private Partnership (PPP) have collaborated to promote the poverty stricken communities are the special attention is to be paid on this poverty issues.
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I am a Master's Student who specialized in development economics (especially rural development), now I am eager to publish my thesis in an academic journal. The topic is about determinants of vulnerability and roles of livelihood assets, so at this time, I would like to ask what kind of journal (paper) is more suitable? if possible, I would like to publish a high rank in terms of impact factors. thank you in advance.
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I am trying to find topics for my PhD thesis. I am interested in working on Solidarity Economy and income redistribution. Can someone please guide me in this field as to what topics I can research?
Thank you
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Kindly visit...
Social and
Solidarity Economy
and the Future
of Work
July 2017
BY CARLO BORZAGA, GIANLUCA SALVATORI
AND RICCARDO BODINI
*The authors are respectively President, CEO and Coordinator of the European
Research Institute on Cooperative and Social Ente
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Dear scholars,
Kindly suggest some trending, interesting and researchable topics in development economics with data availability..
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Dear Hamid Muili,
I propose the following research topic: Analysis of various anti-crisis, interventionist and pro-development formulas and variants of anti-crisis, interventionist, pro-development instruments of socio-economic, social, budget, fiscal, sectoral, innovation, pro-environmental and also monetary policy in the context of accelerating the process of recovering the economy from the economic crisis caused by in 2020 by the SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) coronavirus pandemic.
Best wishes,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Hi everyone, I am currently in the process of writing a research proposal. I was planning on researching illicit economies influence and affect on development, especially with emphasis on developing countries. As we all know, it is extremely difficult to obtain a substantial amount of data on anything to do with drug trafficking/human trafficking/etc., but I thought asking here would lead me in the right direction. Any sources, further research ideas, pretty much anything would help me out. I hope to be able to complete a regression of some sorts to explore and strengthen some of my research more. Thank you!
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Venezuela is a big data source for your research, Dear Marguerite Healy.
Probably you won't find any other country in the world where illicit economy policies such as drugs and human trafficking, and billionaire corruption are promoted by the rule of law of CastroChavistas.
Best Regards.
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Dear Colleagues,
I am running a time series regression (OLS) based on stationary dependent variables and log form of explanatory variables. Very few of logged exp. variables are stationary. When I took 1st difference, I could not get any significant results, plus, also the 1st difference did not make much sense to me when I analyzed it graphically. My question is, will my regression results be untrusted if I report such an analysis. I asked a similar question and got some replies that even if you log your variables, still you have to test it for a unit root; however, I am observing several papers with log variables where stationarity was not taken into account. Thank you beforehand.
Best
Ibrahim
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To answer to criticism of spurious regression, if it is time trended. Causality is still a bigger issue than just uncovering stationarity of time dated series. We need the theory to guide us and the use of statistics in experimental research design to handle causality is still not resolve.
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The journal "Environment and Development Economics" is not on the list available. How to proceed to add?
Thanks.
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Yes, thank you.
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I am solving some regression equations based on the OLS method in Eviews software. I have overall 12 variables and 11 of them are non-stationary. I am planning to use Log forms. If so, do I need to report the ADF or Philips-Perron unit root tests on the paper? Shouldn't the Log form of variables become stationary? Your answers are highly appreciated, thank you beforehand.
Best
Ibrahim
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logging variables does not remove unit root from a series, it only smoothens the line a bit and make interpretation easier as it will be interpreted in percentages.
Reporting either ADF or PP is at your own discretion. But for confirmatory purpose you can report both ADF and PP unit root test as well as KPSS stationarity test provided your variable does not have a structural breaks.
Furthermore, Using 11 variables might be too much except you have a very large dataset say 100 or more. Because using a large variables on s sample size shrinkens the degree of freedom which might affect the true inference made from the estimation
Best Regards
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I do not have the figures for researchers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), but for this discussion, I will assume that in a population of researchers, a fair fraction will be researchers in STEM.
The Philippines has a frustratingly small number of researchers (~188 researchers for every 1 million inhabitants). This is probably the reason it lags behind its neighbors in the STEM fields. This, I would suppose, has detrimental effects on the overall development of the country. Its neighbors, such as South Korea (~7500 researchers/million inhabitants), Singapore (~6700 researchers/million inhabitants), Japan (~5300 researchers/million inhabitants), Malaysia (~2400 researchers/million inhabitants), Thailand (~1200 researchers/million inhabitants), China (~1200 researchers/million inhabitants), and Vietnam (~700 researchers/million inhabitants), that have significantly larger densities of researchers have overtaken the Philippines in many aspects of development. Other countries, such as Laos (~16 researchers/million inhabitants), Cambodia (~30 researchers/million inhabitants), Myanmar (~29 researchers/million inhabitants) seem to also lag in many aspects of progress.
What might it take for countries such as ours to raise more researchers and scientists? Would you be able to provide suggestions on how we might do so despite the fact that the Philippines and other countries with small densities of researchers are low- to middle-income countries?
(Data on number of researchers per million inhabitants taken from UNESCO Institute for Statistics: http://data.uis.unesco.org/index.aspx?queryid=64)
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I agree with Mr. Mohammedali that this is a political choice. As per your question about the role of local academia in promoting the solution, its role would be limited at best. Unless of course, an environment advantageous to research and researchers is created. That I doubt it would happen as fast as one wishes (it takes time).
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i have companies data as dependent variable for 10 years across 200 companies (all companies from one country only) whereas the macro economic variables are for 10 years as independent variable  (again the same one country). 
can this analysis be completed using panel data technique? if yes, then how the data will be arranged first because the macro variables are same for each company in sample for 10 years. or is there any alternative to study the influence of macro variables on company's financial ratios.
can someone please help with my analysis? 
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My question is:
I have data of 7 life insurance companies for 10 years and i included 9 independent variables & 1 dependent variable. So how could i arrange this data in excel sheet i.e in table form so that i could apply certain statistical techniques in eviews/spss.????
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Dear Members, I am studying the impact of financial development on economic growth. For that i am using panel data 64 countries, 11 years by using few proxies for financial development and simple and policy conditioning control variables. Hausman test result supports fixed effects. But i am bit confused to use either time dummies or country dummies or both. could you please comment on it or suggest any relevant literature with same methodology.
Best Regards.
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Use both types of dummies. You can do it manually or, if using Stata, you can use xtreg, fe for the country dummies and include manually year dummies.
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In which economic conditions, active housing policy, under which new housing estates are being built on a large scale, can be an effective instrument for pro-development, Keynesian, counter-cyclical state interventionism?
How should the state run an active, investment housing policy within which new housing estates are being built on a large scale in order to support balanced economic development without generating credit risk growth and subsequent economic crises as part of pro-development, Keynesian, anti-cyclical state intervention?
Please reply
Best wishes
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Addressing social housing shortages with housing investments can have a multiplier effects.
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For example, I am familiar with the debt to GDP ratio and the debt servicing to revenue ratio.
I was wondering if they are other metrics out there and which is most preferred.
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Negative ratio can be understood as the public debt is larger than the fiscal balance. Probably, the government budget runs a deficit. Alternatively, the budget runs a surplus, yet it is too small to cover the debt.
Public debt may not always be considered negative. Often, it is needed for keeping the momentum of development, particularly in developing countries. Accordingly, government of these countries may run deficit budget. Deficit budget is acceptable when the government has confidence there is current and future revenue to cover the debt. Unfortunately, many governments need to create new debts to cover old ones. When things get out of hand, assistance from international institution such as the IMF may be needed.
The limit where the ratio is too much may differ from country to country. We understand it as fiscal discipline. In some countries, it may be determined solely by the minister of finance or the head of the state. Others may implement stricker measure when the fiscal discipline is determined together by the government and the parliament.
As an illustration, in normal time Indonesia's fiscal discipline allows deficit up to 3%. However, due to the pandemic, the government and the parliament agreed to loosened the fiscal discipline. The government is now allowed to run budget deficit more than 3% for the next 3 year.
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I'm researching virtual water exports since 2017, globally but specifically from South Asia, and seeking research papers and authors with specific knowledge in that field.
I'm particularly interest in virtual water to countries where there are limited or no water security issues, rather than use of virtual water as a tool to improve water security.
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The aim behind this question is to encourage us to share the research topics/subjects/questions we are currently working on in order to (1) identify if there is any overlap/common themes between us and (2) to determine whether what you are researching is also applicable in other countries.
On my part, and to start this topic, I am currently interested in policy approaches for tackling the informal economy. To do this, I am evaluating critically three competing theoretical standpoints. These are firstly, the modernisation thesis that the size f the informal economy is simply a product of the level of modoernisation of economies, secondly, the neo-liberal thesis that the informal economy is a direct result of high taxes, state corruption and burdensome regulations and controls, and therefore that economies should pursue tax reductions, de-regulation and minimal state intervention to prevent the undeclared economy from growing, and thirdly, the political economy thesis that the informal economy is a by-product of too little intervention in work and welfare regimes and that state interventions in the labour market and social protection is required. To do this, I am comparing cross-national variations in the extent and nature of the informal economy with cross-national variations in various indicators that are proxies of the above (e.g., tax rates, corruption, social protection expenditure).
Please share your current research interests. There are well over 1000 of us with an interest in 'informal sector economics' and I am sure that many of us are researching common themes/topics/questions but do not know that we are doing so.
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My current research agenda revolves around the macroeconomic and policy implications of informal activities and markets. For this, I (together with my coauthors) construct dynamic general equilibrium models that are calibrated to specific economies (mainly developing countries). Most of these models involve heterogeneous agents and uncertainty of some sort (either aggregate or idiosyncratic).
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Institutional economics is gaining attention from researchers to explain why some economies attain higher economic growth while others not. Reasons for not attaining economic growth have been (according to Estrin et al.,(2006)) institutional framework.
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Formal institutions don't replace informal ones. They interact with each other. I suggest reading for North and Willamson. Also, I invite you to read my PhD thesis concerning your question.
North, D.C. (1990), Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY.
North, D.C. (2005), Understanding the Process of Institutional Change, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
Williamson, O.E. (2000), The new institutional economics: taking stock, looking ahead, Journal of Economic Literature, 38(3), 595-613.
Ghura, H. (2019). The interaction effect of formal and informal institutions on the development of entrepreneurial activity. A panel data analysis for emerging economies (Doctoral dissertation, Brunel University London).
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I want to get that the data regarding contribution of micro small medium enterprises in all developing and developed country so that i can analyse the differences 
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How did you go about this? Were you able to get the data?
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Data starting in the early 1900s or before, with a broad cross-country representation would be great.
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The MacroFinance and MacroHistory Lab in Bonn can be of some help with data on exports, imports and IP sin 1870 for 17 countries. You can find it here: http://www.macrohistory.net/data/
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Economics struggles with rigour. Development struggles with prejudicial questions. So, why don't we teach our young people social physics? Look at social space as a phenomenon of physics. Deeper economics tried that. But that attempt seems to have ended with Paul Samuelson and his lot. Why? Anyway, it is time for the more complex emerging economies to teach social physics instead of development economics. 
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Social physics can be incorporated in development economics.
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I've been looking at the economics undergraduate curriculum and have been thinking and wondering as to what specific skillset we want to equip undergraduate students with in the working world.
One can think about this by thinking about the ideal career outcomes of economics undergraduates. Most undergraduates with economics degrees should ideally end up in two occupations* (ideally meaning that their education will correspond to a desired occupation):
  1. Data Analyst (using exclusively data to identify actionable information)
  2. Business Analyst (using data and qualitative information regarding the economic environment relevant to a given business to identify actionable information).
With these two ideal career outcomes in mind its very clear as to why intermediate microeconomics, econometrics and market macro makes a difference. However as to why the Solow Growth model is taught on the undergraduate level is a bit confusing for me and Im left with any satisfactory answer.This is a relevant question because its a part of the core undergraduate macroeconomics education so its relevant for even those not intending to go to graduate school.
In terms of specific career outcomes (it could be that this list is lacking) why is studying the Solow model relevant for the undergraduate student who does not intend to go to graduate school?
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I support Andrea. It is necessary to teach Solow-Swan growth model, only because it is the most famous growth model. But if you only teach it and do not add comments on the problems that the model contains, we must say that you are intellectually dishonest.
It depends much how many hours your can spend on growth theory. If you have three hours., you can teach in the first hour the model, the claimed meaning (total factor productivity = technological development, etc.) and the arithmetic exercise to calculate total factor productivity.
In the second hour, you can tell your students that there are many objections on Solow's claim. One of most useful objections must be that of Hebert A. Simon 's paper (1979) "On Parsimonious Explanations of Production Relations" The Scandinavian Journal of Economics 81(4): 459-474. Simon thought his objection so important that he published this paper at the moment of his Nobel Prize reception. He claimed that the Cob-Douglas function only reflects accounting identity at the base of phenomena. For curious advanced students you can refer to a book by J. Felipe and J. S. L. McCombie (2013) The Aggregate Production Function and the Measurement of Technical Change, Edward Elgar.
If you have a third hour, Solow's Growth model is a good example that you can teach some econometric procedure can give apparently good but erroneous results if observers do not study the in-depth causal structure beneath the apparent phenomenon. This might be the most important lesson that you can teach your students who want to be data analysts or business analysts.
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I want to estimate the effect of investment and other economic variables on "growth" (the dependent variable) through the Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS) method (I have a panel data set of six countries and 19 year periods). Should GDP be added as an independent variable? (all variables are I(1) and are cointegrated). I appreciate very much your help.
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You may use logGDP which denotes growth variable.
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Hi all,
I am looking for ideas to work on for the research proposal for my PhD application. I am interested in conflicts, migration, poverty and fiscal policies in emerging markets. However, I am open to any and all topics that might interest me.
Thank you.
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Mr Gupta. I think, as far as development economics is concerned, there are research gaps everywhere. The areas you have mentioned are among the most popular, and may be one would add to them unemployment income distribution and governance, and there are interesting research gaps in each of them. How about topics related to youth unemployment in southeast Asia, or income distribution and economic growth in Africa. Best of luck.
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What is the role of commercial banks in achieving economic development in developing countries ?
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Along with the rest of the financial system, the commercial banks help in achieving economic development through the following functions: They provide payment services which reduces risk elements for businesses, they match saving and investment for individuals and firms, they allocate credit more efficiently, they help increasing asset liquidity. private Development Banks, in particular, play a distinguished role in the aforementioned functions.
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Hi. I'm looking for data for FDI flows from China to Nigeria (and elsewhere in Africa if possible). I've done a decent amount of searching so far, and the best I have been able to find only runs from 2003 to 2017. I would very much like to find data earlier than this - any idea where?
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According to this, there were more flows from Nigeria to China pre-2003 than the other way around! https://unctad.org/sections/dite_fdistat/docs/wid_cp_ng_en.pdf
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Insurance economic model
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Look at the research conducted by IPA and Y-RISE on Innovations to Improve Agricultural Insurance. There are several research projects referenced. I am highlighting just two - Mobarak and Rosenweig, 2013; Ward and Makhija, 2018.
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Financial inclusion ... is a big concept ... that can give us a lot of indicators .... I think that indicator is linked to many variables
1- Financial stability
2 - The efficiency of financial markets
3. Sustainable development
Economic development
In addition to the determinants ........... waiting for your discussion
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WSBI is doing a lot for financial inclusion and they have leading experience in this field
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I'm developing an economic evaluation of ONDRISeq, and I have a couple of questions:
1. Who is expected to benefit from gene sequencing? Patients with a family history of neurodegenerative disease?
2. What are the benefits for patients who undergo gene sequencing?
3. Does gene sequencing associate a risk for neurodegenerative disease? in other words, is it possible that patients experience an unnecessary emotional burden (due to the test results) considering some will never develop a neurodegenerative disease?
Thanks for your time and help!
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Dear Nicolas;
Thanks for contacting me through ResearchGate. I'm being cc'd on all the emails between you, the other students, Natalie, John and Allison. You can simply email me with any future questions, if you wish.
In response to the above:
For questions 1 and 2:
It's true that patients presenting with neurodegenerative disease, who also have a family history of the disease will benefit from genetic sequencing, as it can play an important role in diagnosis.
Neurodegenerative diseases often have overlapping features clinically and getting a clear diagnosis can be difficult, with misdiagnosis being relatively common. But if a disease-causing variant is identified in a gene associated with a specific disease, then we can be more confident about a person’s diagnosis and we may gain a better idea about how their disease will progress over time. This diagnostic certainty can help ease some of the emotional toll faced by affected individuals and their caregivers.
Further, discovery of a disease-causing variant in an affected individual can prompt testing in family members, if they so choose, allowing asymptomatic relatives to be more informed about their risk of also developing the neurodegenerative disease.
Finally, there are actually ongoing clinical trials targeting neurodegenerative diseases that are specific to persons with genetic risk factors; therefore, by performing this genetic testing, affected individuals may find they are eligible to enroll in these studies that are attempting to validate promising new treatment options.
For question 3:
Yes, genetic sequencing associates a risk for the development of neurodegenerative disease. However, genetic testing will primarily be performed on individuals already experiencing features of the disease, so rather than the results placing an emotional burden on the patient, often genetic testing can relieve emotional burdens routed in diagnostic uncertainty. Although at this time genetic results may not change an individuals course of treatment, it may give a better understanding of how an individual will progress through their disease.
With that said, it's important to consider than once an affected individual receives a genetic testing result, there can be implications for their family members, as the genetic variant could be present in relatives, thereby increasing their risk of disease. In that case, there can be added emotional burdens and is a reason that genetic testing should be thoroughly discussed with an individual’s doctor and family members before proceeding.
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There is a great paper from Nature about the perception of AI in organizational settings. Here is abstract, you can find it online. I wish to know your thoughts on the topic of perception of AI, where will it matter the most, where will it be necessary to change people's attitudes towards it?
Advances in robotics and artificial intelligence are increasingly enabling organizations to replace humans with intelligent machines and algorithms. Forecasts predict that, in the coming years, these new technologies will affect millions of workers in a wide range of occupations, replacing human workers in numerous tasks, but potentially also in whole occupations. Despite the intense debate about these developments in economics, sociology and other social sciences, research has not examined how people react to the technological replacement of human labour. We begin to address this gap by examining the psychology of technological replacement. Our investigation reveals that people tend to prefer workers to be replaced by other human workers (versus robots); however, paradoxically, this preference reverses when people consider the prospect of their own job loss. We further demonstrate that this preference reversal occurs because being replaced by machines, robots or software (versus other humans) is associated with reduced selfthreat. In contrast, being replaced by robots is associated with a greater perceived threat to one’s economic future. These findings suggest that technological replacement of human labour has unique psychological consequences that should be taken into account by policy measures (for example, appropriately tailoring support programmes for the unemployed).
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Dear researchers,
It would be useful to distinguish A.I. marketing from honest scientific research.
Best regards,
Konstantin M. Golubev
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The rate of economic growth varies from country to country.
In developing countries it is usually faster than in developed countries, but despite this new economic goods no more is created.
Usually lower economic growth in richer, developed countries generates more new economic goods or a greater range of value added than in developing countries.
However, in order to develop economic growth in a longer, long-term period, economic growth should take place for many years, but it does not necessarily have to have high value.
According to the concept of the new, green economy, in the future the pace of economic growth does not have to be high to ensure sustainable pro-ecological economic development in the long term.
Please, answer, comments.
I invite you to the discussion.
Best wishes
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Rapid growth in poor developing countries is commonplace because early technological advances are easier to achieve.
It's like looking at the growth rates of infants over teenagers. If a baby continued to grow for 20 years at the same rate he grew during the first two years of his life, all 20 year old people would be 17 feet tall and weigh 900 pounds. But growth slows.
When people living in grass huts and using stone tools are first given advanced seeds, fertilizers, and simple machinery their economic output can increase a-thousandfold. But this steep increase is tempered as they move closer to the tools and standards of modern society.
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It is often argued that even in low- and middle-income countries social protection or, more in general, social policies can improve social cohesion and state-society relationship. However, it is very difficult to find evidence to support this argument. Do you know any empirical study?
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For anyone interested in this topic, see our Call for Papers for a Workshop at the German Development Institute (DIE), Bonn, 4-5 December!!
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I am using the consumption expenditure unit level household data set for India which is collected by National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) for the three time-periods 1993-94, 2004-05 and 2011-12. All data set is deflated on the 2011-12 level and the poverty line is also the same for all time period. Population data set taken from Census of India (Planning Commission, Government of India) which is published the data set on every ten years. Population data set will be extrapolation as per the requirement of our study. I want to estimate growth effect, inequality effect and population shift effect. But unfortunately, I have found some difficulties in the implementing data set.
I could not understand that which commands and Statistical Packages will be used for estimating these all thing specially for growth effect, inequality effect and Population shift effect and which variable is needed for population shift effect?
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I’d say start by writing down your equation. Which of the variables is dependant and which ones are independent ? The all you need to do is to run regression analysis and estimate the coefficients
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Common people have become more engrossed in the role economics plays in our daily life. Economics deals from the property market to the macroeconomics of the household budget. Everything is connected to economics and therefore its interpretation is enthralling. For the upgrading of employability in banking, government sector, NGOs and businesses, attaining a comprehensive understanding of the diverse ways that people scrutinise economics phenomena allows for more compliant and ingenious practice. Development economics can expose exhilarating ideas and elucidations regarding the big concerns of the 21st century such as poverty, inequality, unemployment and globalization. A need is to cultivate international acquaintances to reveal economic propensities. There is a need to introduce a deep understanding of specific countries and issues established on tangible analysis of antiquity, establishments and political economy. It is an opportunity that will undoubtedly instigate economists to rethink their approach to economics. Economics can be used to fight poverty by implementing the right economic policies. The politicians have to translate the research into action from instigating appropriate plug-ins. There is a need to ascertain explicit programmes that can assuage poverty, ranging from low cost medical treatments to innovative education programmes. We need to examine the causes of unemployment, absenteeism in education, social programmes and other issues.
Economic output (GDP) and inflation are two significant features that need to be studied meticulously. The relationship between GDP and inflation, how they interact, how much inflation is good annually, are the factors of interest to any investor. There is supposed to be no profit if the GDP is constant or declining. On the other hand, if the GDP is increasing it may intensify inflation. A minor escalation in percentage of GDP growth per year is rewarding for the economy without any side-effects. This annual GDP may drop the unemployment rate. In order to maximize profits, wages are to be raised, which will in turn result in higher prices. Some economists argue that 0% inflation is ideal for stable prices. On the other hand some argue that a little inflation is a good thing. Global integration and technological progress offer substantial benefits. But these may lead to intensifying inequality and political turmoil. Tightening monetary and fiscal policy may lead to recession. High tariffs on imports increases demand for domestically produced goods and of course domestic workers. In the coming years, economy will provoke serious challenges. The markets are nervy because of the impending of debts. This increases the system vulnerability. It is unlikely that economic performance will be insusceptible to centrifugal and social forces. Operational management of imbalances and more consumption and innovation-driven growth can be expected.
In India 20% of the educated youth are unemployed. The priority should be to create jobs. The economists and the engineers need to brainstorm together to make a proper economic policy. The government need to target the job growth and we should emphasize on the high economic expansion for job-creation. In order to boon the economy we need to be clear about health and education, agriculture and rural development, urban and infrastructure connectivity, manufacturing and exports, and employment. We need an intuitive outlook on several facets of economy and policy-making. Economic growth can be sponsored through innovation, start-up, job-creation, risk taking and ingenious ideas. We should always reassure innovation and entrepreneurship. Those national policies should be tailed that promote innovation to certify that there will be adequate prosperity. We need not to reward unemployed because it only leads to more redundancy. It will only lead to pandemonium if the jobless stay unemployed for longer time. If the jobless contribute to the benefits of the society, they can gain skills, contacts and references which will in turn make them successful in the next job they attain.
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Thank you sir, i pray for u the same.
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What index should me more useful and accurate in calculating the diversity of the livelihood sources.  
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Livelihood diversification can be measured using different indicators and indices, such as Simpson index, Herfindahl index, Ogive index, Entropy index, Modified Entropy index and Composite Entropy index. But Simpson index is better due to its computational simplicity, robustness and wider applicability.
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I am doing Masters in Development Economics at Hiroshima University, Japan. My methodology for my master's thesis is DEA. But I am not familiar with it before. I want to understand it in an easy way. I already searched at Google and found some ideas but not clear already the actual idea of DEA. Now, can anyone give me some appropriate guidelines or links about DEA to understand the theory easily and, is there any recent development of DEA?
I have some questions on DEA method. Expert suggestions needed.
1. We are measuring efficiency by the ratio of the summation of weight multiplied by output and input, respectively. So my question is that, actually how it works for efficiency measurement only taking summation? what is the validity behind it? and also, what is its advantage?
2. Is it works for a different to different unit for outputs and inputs such as output variables unit is currency and input variables unit is number?
3. Is this method finds or consider any Gap among firm's outputs and inputs for performing the analysis?
Experts suggestions needed. Thanks in Advance.
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Dear Syed Mohammad Sadat,
A1. Different inputs and outputs have different preferences, so they should be considered with different input and output weight in the definition. This can be an interpretation plus from the mathematical theory behind, the weights can not be ignored!
A2. Inputs are the ones that we are in favor of using them as less as possible and outputs, of producing them as mush as possible, so it depends on the context you are applying DEA. There are very important issues that how we choose inputs and outputs. For example, CO2 is an output of a factory, but who is interested to maximize it? So this is defined as undesirable outputs and they should be behaved in another way. From this example you can see how problematic can be the choice of variables because the wrong choice will provide completely wrong results. You should refer to the literature in this case. Be careful with your choice.
I did not understand your third question.
Good Luck
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Post-Keynesian economics is the basis of the current anti-cyclical, anti-crisis, pro-development socio-economic policies. I described these issues in my publications below.
In the context of the slowdown in global economic growth forecasted in 2019, the following key question appears:
What kind of instruments of interventionist, Keynesian, anti-crisis, pro-development socio-economic policy should be used in the period of slowdown in the country's economic growth?
More and more macroeconomic analyzes indicate that in 2019 a slowdown in economic growth will appear in many countries. In order to limit the scale of the decline in growth or absolute economic decline, the governments of individual countries try to activate economic processes and consumption using various instruments of socio-economic policy.
In my opinion, the improvement of pro-development instruments of socio-economic policy is particularly important in a situation of a downturn in the economy.
Currently, this issue is particularly important in connection with the forecasted decline in the rate of economic growth in 2019.
In my opinion, post-Keynesianism has been used in practice many times in countries when leaving deep economic crises. Until now, post-Keynesianism has been used to a large extent in many countries to restore the entire national financial systems and, indirectly, entire economies and to save the selected major manufacturing enterprises and financial institutions from the bankruptcy of the global financial crisis in autumn 2008.
The economy was restored to balance at the expense of increasing budget deficits in national public finances. New formulas of post-keyism were applied under state intervention. Paradoxically, the potential consequences of the potential deepening of the global financial and economic crisis in the event that this state intervention is not applied are unknown.
Probably the crisis would be much deeper, more socially costly and would last much longer. this type of assumption determines that post-Keynesian instruments of state intervention are used almost without restrictions, ie according to the proverb: "the end justifies the means". In this assumption, theoretical foundations become a secondary element, added according to anti-crisis, anti-cyclical interventionist, and active economic policy. I conducted research and wrote scientific publications on this topic.
Do you agree with my opinion on this matter?
In connection with the above, I am asking you:
- What anti-crisis instruments of Keynesian state intervention in the framework of an active socio-economic policy are applied in your country in order to limit the scale of the forecasted slowdown in economic growth in 2019?
- What kind of instruments of interventionist, Keynesian, anti-crisis, pro-development socio-economic policy should be used in the period of slowdown in the country's economic growth?
- Does government co-financed by the state budget, national housing development programs as part of housing policy, be an important element of anti-crisis, pro-development socio-economic policy as an effective instrument for reviving economic processes and improving the economic slowdown in the global economy?
- Do you know examples of countries where in recent years new concepts of pro-development, anti-crisis, Keynesian socio-economic policy have been implemented and developed, used to improve the country's economic growth, which have been developed and described in scientific publications in recent years?
- What kind of instruments of socio-economic policy have been applied with the positive effects of a significant improvement of the country's economic growth?
- What new concept of pro-development, anti-crisis, Keynesian socio-economic policy has been implemented and why?
- What positive effects on the functioning of the economy have been achieved by using a specific concept of socio-economic policy?
- Is the importance of improving the pro-development and anti-crisis concept, Keynesian socio-economic policy growing due to the predicted decline in the economic growth rate of the global economy in 2019?
In view of the above, I am asking you the following question:
Is the Keynesian and Post-Keynesian economics the basis of the current anti-crisis national socio-economic policies?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Dear Friends and Colleagues of RG
The issues of specific programs to improve the economic, financial, material and housing situation of households as key instruments of pro-development keynesian anti-crisis state intervention and significant components of the socio-economic policy of the state I described in the publications:
I invite you to discussion and cooperation.
Best wishes
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yes, It is possible but with limitations
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The way of development in the economic, social and cultural fields in the information society passes through the combination of qualified person, qualified enterprise, qualified society and even qualified world in our global environment. In this context, the qualified person is the sine qua non of success. Being qualified means not only the feature to do a job in the best way (in terms of technical), but also the moral and moral values (ethics) of the person. In this sense, which technical, moral and ethical values should a digital entrepreneur have? How are these values gained?
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The digital entrepreneur should have ability to maximize the usage of media social that give big impact on business online and offline . And of course the integrity part of the value should remain intact
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Development economics is a plus of traditional economics and political economy. Does the development economists in the Sub-Sahara really set up research in the area, especially, the academics in Nigeria?
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I do not know to Sub-Saharan countries but the Development Economics in its broad spectrum will be that which encompasses also ecological and equality problems.
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It is widely recognized that donor intervention in fragile States circumvents the state systems by delivering aid through non-state actors such as NGOs. Examples include the Democratic Republic of Congo, Central African Republic, South Sudan, among others.
  1. Is it the role of NGOs to provide health care, education, water, sanitation, food (and other services) as part of a permanent (or sustainable) solution to fragility?
  2. Under what conditions can aid strengthen institutional capacities in African fragile states?
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Dear Katoka,
Any development assistant or aid is beneficiary as far as it helps to build sustainable internal capacity and managed properly to address certain gaps. Otherwise, there is no country in the world that developed itself with external assistance , NGO, Governmental, multilateral, or a combination of these, without developing its own political, economic and social institutional apparatus. hence, external assistance apart from its transitional role it cannot bring long lasting solution nor replace own government developmental role.
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I am about to embark on the studies and I need clarification as regards the theoretical background that can be used to anchor the study.
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Dear Muritala Adewale Taiwo, your headline as a question and the response you had given after Dr. Shiozawa post, inquiring for clarity of your question, is a kind of difficult to decipher exactly the intent of your study and what you seek to achieve. I will recommend, you do more reading on the subject to refined the objective of your study and expected result aspired to.
Because with your latter response, there are numerous papers responding to such question. As i earlier advised, do quality reading to refined your objective of studies.
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The issue of corporate governance is very important and directly affects the efficiency of the entity's operation, the relationships between the recruiters employed at various levels of the organization and indirectly also on the relations between business entities and contractors and clients. Corporate governance is therefore particularly important in terms of the long-term development of an economic entity, also in terms of its successes in the competitive game and the holding of specific positions and shares in the markets of the sold product or service offer.
In my opinion, most parameters in the area of ​​corporate governance research in enterprises, companies, corporations and financial institutions are the same but not all. The same are those that relate to the issues of analogous models used, concepts of managing the entire organization, personnel management, offer, marketing, innovation, relations with contractors, shareholders, clients, etc. In contrast, differences arise in terms of specific differences regarding accounting, specificity business activity, risk analysis, prudential procedures used, IT technologies that support the operation of individual departments and departments, the specificity of the work positions of the staff employed, etc.
I invite you to the discussion
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The management board is responsible for the implementation and development of the controlling system, while the supervisory board has to review the effectiveness.
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I am looking for resources that can assist me in developing a course module on sociology of development for a bachelors program. It will be great if you can share with me book chapters, articles on theories of development, gender and development, social development, economic development, sustainable development, globalization and development, indicators of development and international development. I will also appreciate any course module outlines that cover any of these topics to help me develop an interesting module for the program
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There is loads of stuff on this if you start on Google
An old chapter of mine
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Today, one of the economic issues under discussion is the transition from the traditional linear model to the circular one. This implies that maximum value should be extracted from available resources. In this regard, there are several questions:
1. How to measure the degree of "circularity" of the economy at the level of enterprises, districts or nations? In other words, on the basis of what we can say that we are moving or have already moved to a circular economy?
2. How to conclude that we have extracted maximum value from the resource? Firstly, the same resources can be used in different areas, some of which are more preferable from an economic point of view than others. Secondly, technologies are developing very fast, which does not allow to create a reference version of the life cycle for any resource due to the appearance of new, more effective ways to use it.
3. What is the role of human resources in the circular economy? Are there any differences between this role in linear and circular economy?
I would be grateful for any comments, suggestions and answers to these questions, including literature recommendations.
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Dear Pavel,
This is a really interesting and relevant topic. I think that these references could be helpful to you, especially regarding Quetion #1:
Measuring the Circular Economy progresses at the level of enterprises:
Measuring the Circular Economy progresses at a national level:
I also developed a framework to support the assessment of the impacts of Circular Economy scenarios ( ). If you are interested, I can share by private message the full paper.
Regards,
Gianmarco
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Whatever our views, NAIRU provides a structure of policy for the central bank. Not quite. Take Africa. Definition of employment is fuzzy, which should be a point of different not value judgement. Wage inflation, we cannot measure it if we cannot define employment. Consequently, the central bank has no structure for policy. They will leave graduate schools in the West armed with NAIRU and kindred frames. How often do they go back with the fundamentals of dynamical systems that would allow them mould appropriate frames? We would make progress if development economics found physics. How?
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Dear Fred, I will not defend the economics behind your question, but I would recommend to try an operational definition of employment for your environment and then use it in order to determine the evolution of aggregate demand. I am sure this is possible nd therefore, central bank does have the required structure.
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Dear Researcher,
I urgently need to know that is there any publication charge free Scopus indexed journal related to Environmental Economics or Development Economics?
Please inform me.
Regards,
Bezon Kumar
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Cuadernos de Economia is an economics journal that publishes articles in English and Spanish in all areas of economics. https://revistas.unal.edu.co/index.php/ceconomia/about
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Dear all,
I am wishing to investigate on linkages between microfinance and sustainable (renewable) energy and/or climate change issue. I have found the area has limited previous studies. Thus, I am looking for suggestions, opinions, advices and sources of material, literature and data.
It would be helpful, if you put your thought about different dimensions of the linkage between mentioned issues.
Particularly, how microfinance can support to sustainable energy and/or climate change adaptation?
You can suggest me from both institution’s and borrower’s perspectives.
Thanks in advance.
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Climate change has been global issues and it is necessary to develop strategies to cope risk associated with climatic risk. Microfinance institution can protect farmers who borrow loan from them. We can see successful example of credit gurantee system in Nepal and India.
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developing economics,urban and rural, health care
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Some of them already do that, others can not.
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Human capital development is an essential indicator in judging the growth and development of a country. How important is it?
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I am late! You already have a lot of significant contributions. Good work!
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I am working on my Master's thesis in the area of development economics and would like to evaluate, among others, how well competition in the media market works in hindering corrupt activities. However, in order to avoid reverse causality I need an IV for competition in the media market. Does anyone have a good idea?
Thanks a lot!
Best wishes,
Ines
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I suggest you read Noam Chomsky's book" manufacturing consent by the mass media. I am attaching a pdf of his book.
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I am working on my Master's thesis in the area of development economics and would like to evaluate, among others, how well media works in disguising corrupt activities in countries with high levels of corruption. However, so far I only found survey based, very subjective data on corruption. Is there any good way to proxy corruption levels in a more objective way?
Thanks a lot!
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Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index? My feeling is that subjective variables are not necessarily inferior to 'objective' ones. Both have limitations and can be influenced by biases and unidentified causal factors. As long as the potential for this is acknowledged then there is no problem in using them.
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SMEs should not compete with large businesses by selling the same products the big companies are producing. Instead, they should concentrate in differentiated products.
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I would like to analyse the relationship between the social progress of a country with the level of population growth. What other variables should I take into account in order to conduct a regression analysis?
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Social progress may also be linked to culture defined in two ways: dimentionalist and non-dimentionalist approaches ( see for example Reuter (2011), Finance, vol. 32(1).
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Hello,
I need Life Expectancy Index and Education Index from 1990-2015. I searched UNDP website. Although they have full data set for HDI, but only a discontinuous dataset for the two index that i mentioned above (1990,1995,2000,2005,2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015).
Is there any other alternative sources where I can find the full data set over 1990-2015?
If it is not available, how to adjust data for the years in which the data are not available? I need to run a panel regression.
Please suggest. Thank you.
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Thank you all. I have found it.
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development economics
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Interesting session
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As scholar and academics, how do you suggest we draw the line between preserving the environment and its resources for posterity as well as giving room for infrastructural development and economic growth? Thanks a lot for your responses.
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Ecological sustainability can be obtained, even in a capitalist economic system. At the same time, high degrees of social inequality or distributive injustice will be maintained. The only workable way to find a humanitarian balance between these 2 contra-polar parameters (natural ecology vs. human welfare) is to tax economic rent and to make it public revenue. The Henry George Foundation in the UK has enough practical proposals for this social reform at hand.
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Dear all,
What is the conceptual & estimation differences between
a) Capital expenditure,
b) Capital formation,
c) Investment ?
Can someone use any one of the above as a proxy to the rest when data of the rest are not available?
Or any methods to derive one from the others?
Thanks in advance
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In a strict sense, capital expenditure, capital formation and investment seem to have a little bit difference.
Capital formation is an investment in a newly produced asset. This word may be matched with numbers at the national level.
Capital expenditure is an investment in a newly produced asset as well as exising asset. This word may be more matched with numbers at the sectoral level under the nation. If the analysis is done for households or businesses, capital expenditure will be more relevant.
Investment is a kind of acquisition of assets. The asset can be financial or non-financial. Capital formation and capital expenditure are more relevant to non-financial produced assets.
Therefore depending on the analytical scope, data should be carefully selected, in my opinion.
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I really want to know examples of both fiscal and economic costs of corruption(definitions)
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What is difference between logistic regression and pooled logistic regression? How to use pooled logistic regression to simulate almost 10, 000 data set (secondary data)? Can anybody explain that please?
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I am from South Africa..Masters' student in Economics, also employed at the Department of Economics at University of South Africa. My studies focus on Neuroeconomics. It is a very interesting topic (field). Kindly revert back to me
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Good evening! Herman Rudolph,Could you share the content of Neuroeconomics, and on which concept are you working.Looking forward to it.All the best
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Spatial distribution of tourism resources has a lot of implications in terms of development, economic and job creation. But the way and manner it is distributed can equally affect regional development in a given locality, and neglect of development of other tourism resources.
Therefore result of previous academic articles done in this regards needed.
Thanks for your anticipated contributions and suggestions 
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New developmentalism is a theoretical framework of development economics that is developed mainly by Luis Carlos Bresser-Pereira and aims to present an alternative to the neoclassical development economics. For the most recent overview, see his paper which appeared in Review of Keynesian Economics, 2016:
Reflecting on the new developmentalism and classical developmentalism
It has a good theory of macroeconomics and a set of policies, but its microeconomics is still in the state of a draft. In particular, I believe it lacks a theory of international values. How do you think of the state of the art?
This is a question in relation to Breser-Pereira’s project:
The political economy of new developmentalism.
I posed a long question on it but it seems my question was refuted because it was too long (see the question "How do you think of microeconomic foundations of the new developmentalism?") I will post it as one of my answer to the question.
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Dear Kurt Dopfer,
thank you for the information. I have asked Harry Bloch to share his paper with me.
Yoshinori Shiozawa
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I have two questions. (1) I want to generate estimates of gross output at industry-by-district level based on total sales value of business establishments. What additions/deductions do I need to make to the total sales value to arrive at the gross output figure for an establishment or industry. (2) Once I have arrived at gross output for industry, then I need to generate estimates of aggregate gross output for the whole economy. To arrive at aggregate gross output for the whole economy, do I simply need to take sum of gross output of all establishments, or there is a particular methodology for this purpose.
I am doing this for Zambian economy. Actually the problem is that when I take the aggregate sum of total sales value of all establishments in the economy, and compare it with an estimate of aggregate gross output published by a government report, I find my aggregate sum of total sales value exceeding the aggregate gross output in the publication. It exceeds by a huge difference.   So, what could be possible reasons? Is it that I miss out any deductions? or there could be some other reasons?
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Hi Irfan,
You are much closer to the actual data sources; however, it is likely that the summation of industry output is a multiple of GDP.  
An example might help here.  Consider a cotton shirt that sells for $10.  In the beginning a farmer grows cotton and sells it (let's say the amount of cotton needed for this is $2; however, the farmer probably bought fuel, seeds, chemicals, and the like; these should not be more than $2 in this example and let's say this subtotal is $1.  The cotton is refined and woven into cotton cloth; let's say this cotton cloth sells for $4. The fabric may be printed, dyed, or something else somewhere along the line; this sells for $5.   The shirt maker uses the printed cotton cloth along with thread, sewing machines, and other things.  The shirt-maker pays for accounting, marketing, legal advice, inventory control, and many other things. Transportation is probably in many of these steps and although I am not including these here, they are included it as $1.25. Packaging might be $0.75. So, in this example we see $1 + $2 + $4 + $5 +$1.25 +$0.75 + $10 = $24.  Many industries are involved and my quick example probably understates the double counting.  
Smaller regions would tend to reduce this multiple, especially if the goods produced have significant imports from other regions.  I hope this helps.
Rob 
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Do we have in practice a policy and/strategy that promotes urbanization/indusralization doing less evil on pastoralists?
How does economic growth projections integrate the growth of industries and the subsequent increase in GDP while at the same time considering the contribution of the pastoralism sector? 
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The problem of the whole of Africa is in the domination of Western corporations (American, English and Italian). All African countries need to succeed in political and economic co-operation with Russia, China and India. They need to join the Eurasian alliance, join the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa).
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I am going to write a review article on the above topic. Anybody wants to participate as a co author? Everyone is invited.