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Please suggest any simple procedure to measure it.
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Carry out the tensile test and record percentage elongation (after the yielding up to the fracture)..
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Dear Ehsan, hi!
I read a work done by your team on flameless combustion and it is very interesting. I work in a steel company in Sweden, where our furnaces are equipped with flameless oxyfuel. I need to calculate the recirculation factor for this type (for my next publication).
My question is how the formulation in your paper applies to oxy-propane flames? Can you help me with this?
Thank you in advanced 
/Mersedeh Ghadamgahi
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The way we create flameless oxyfuel since 20 years currently used in about 500 installations in the steel and aluminium industries, is by separating the oxygen and fuel nozzles in the burner and using the velocity of the oxygen to drag the furnace gases in to the flame. The whole recirculation, if you want to call it so, takes place in the furnace/vessel space. We typically operate close to stoichiometric combustion, like lambda at 1.03 (oxyfuel firing uses less oxygen than air-fuel firing).
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Since there are materials having high yield strength and good mechanical properties but due to less ductility their usage is limited to only very few applications.
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Surely by adding Ti alloys
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I got this http://thedesignenginnering.com link through some friend. I didn't know that it was fake. I had submitted my paper. They have published it. But they aren't sharing me the full copy PDF. Just at this point, I realized that this is a fake one. I contacted the journal team by email. No response. How do I get it? Our research office will usually ask us to submit the full paper PDF for verification? Can anyone suggest me how to receive the full paper PDF?
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The point is that there is/are fake (hijacked) version(s) of the journal. The real one can be found here: https://www.design-engineering.com/digital-edition/ It is a so-called Trade Journal so only a few of their articles are considered as real (scientific) papers. Do read the following here on RG:
For example, http://www.thedesignengineering.com/index.php/DE is fake. One big red flag is that (high) number of papers published in the fake journal does not match with the number which can be found in the “Scopus content coverage” (https://www.scopus.com/sourceid/28687).
It is a sad example of a hijacked journal and a sad example where Scopus gives a link to the wrong journal. This is unfortunately not the only time that Scopus is having a hard time dealing with the fraudulent version of a legit journal, see for example:
So yes, there is indeed a legit version of this (Trade) journal, but the question relates to a fake (hijacked) version.
Best regards.
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An aircraft hanger has a semi-circular cross section of diameter 50m and its longitudinal axis is perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction. Assuming that the flow over the hanger is two dimensional and the wind has no viscosity, estimate the tensile force per unit length on the hanger when the wind speed is 30 m/s.
I have no idea how to begin or attempt this question. The only thing I do know is the the Pressure coefficient is given as 
(p - p')/(rho*u2/2) = 1 - 4 sin2(theta)
and when this equation is plotted against angle, it has a maximum value of 1 and minimum value of -3.
any tips ? 
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This is a good question.
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Two links are there, which is correct?
and
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Vipin Shrivastava both are fake. Fake domain.
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Hi Dr Anil Singh Yadav . The overall rank of Design Engineering (Toronto) is 32082. According to SCImago Journal Rank (SJR), this trade journal is ranked 0.1. The best quartile for this trade journal is Q4. The ISSN of Design Engineering (Toronto) trade journal is 119342. See the link: https://www.resurchify.com/impact/details/28687
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Dear all,
I am teaching a course on manual limit analyses (yield line theories and Hillerborg's strip method) for reinforced concrete structures. I am not sure whether they are being used in practice (by design engineers) as nonlinear FEA seems to prevail. 
Bests,
Phu
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See this article
Still we are using yield line theory daily indirectly. The bending moment coefficients given in Indian Standards or American Standards are based on Yield line theory. Moreover, we can determine the bending moment coefficients for RC S;labs using yield line theory for different boundary constraints and loading.
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For gripper force calculation.
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It varies from 0.2 to 0.6.
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I am working as a product design engineer for over 5 years. In my career, I have designed many products like electronics product housing, sheet metal structures, and assembly parts with plastic and sheet metals. In the time of simulation frequently, I had to put numerous data manually and perform many repetitive tasks to acquire optimum results. I want to perform these tasks through machine learning algorithms. I am learning ML. Now I need some help to learn the tips and tricks as well as some guidelines to reach my goal.
Thanks in advance.
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I would recommend checking out this free ebook by Michal Nielson. It is a great guide when getting started with AI:
Cheers, Raoul
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SRT = british pendulum
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Hi
The results can be equated from the standards of each and the minimums set in each experiment
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As we know in this epidemic, everything seems difficult to control. which research I hope can discuss and share their research ideas at this time. Especially with regard to product design and mechanical innovation design
In addition, what are the innovative design methods for products? (except TRIZ,QFD,C-K theory)?
What product innovation design theory can be combined with TRIZ in addition to the combination of QFD theory and TRIZ theory?
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  • TRIZ can be combined with several other methods. I personally combined it with
  • FMEA for improving design/problem-solving considering risk assessment,
  • FBS (Function Behaviour Structure) thery (Gero, 1990) to improve early and conceptual design,
  • LCA to enhance eco-design/eco-innovation to have at the same time a quantification of the environemtnal impacts of the initial problem and the provided solutions. in this field I developed a set of guidelines.
  • Finally I am using TRIZ also for classifying documents (papers and patents) about different products avvording to evolutionary logic.
  • If you are interested, please see my research.
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I designed a vehicle model and when runing, an error message appear which:" Algebraic state in algebraic loop containing '....../Product23' computed at time 0 is Inf or NaN. There may be a singularity in the solution. If the model is correct, try reducing the step size (either by reducing the fixed step size or by tightening the error tolerances). i tried to reduce the fixed step size but it appears again, please help me to correct this error.thanks.
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a couple of years ago I have the same problem. i suggest you to insert a certain time delay in your simulation, I think this will solve the problem.
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Researchers experiment with individual and group of designers. In 'engineering design' what are pros and cons (in general) for doing experiment with two designers in a group? By engineering design, I mean a design problem based on mechanical, industrial design etc. By solution, I mean concept generation.
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Modern engineering design education today relying primarily on the project-based coursed, performed by the group of students. For a reason. It is almost impossible to imagine a relevant industrial task implemented by one (even skilled) individual. It's simply not a real-life scenario.
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methods to generate surface waves using COMSOL
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Dear All,
In case someone still follow this question, I asked this question long ago and during my PhD studies solved this question.
In order to generate surface acoustic or surface Rayleigh wave with vertical excitation component, following are some tips.
1. Surface waves exist at the surface of a semi-infinite half space, in order to observe such wave propagation, semi-infinite medium is mandatory.
2. If you are in COMSOL, you may use point load/prescribed displacement as an point for harmonic excitation either in frequency domain or time transient studies. Similarly, you can use applied load condition in ANSYS or Abaqus to do so.
3. For surface acoustic wave/Rayleigh wave, excite z-component/out-of-plane component (2D model) and in case of 3d model, induce excitation in x and z direction. For love wave or shear horizontal surface wave, excite the x and y component of load/prescribed displacement.
4. Use PML (perfectly matched layer) or low reflection boundary (LRB) at the both ends and bottom of the infinite half-space. This will avoid the back-reflection of incident waves from boundaries and ensure surface wave propagation at the semi-infinite surface.
Further details can be find in my papers given below. Pls do cite my work if you find them helpful. You can also visit my profile for more updated works in this realm. I am also attaching my YouTube video for better visualization.
Forest trees as naturally available seismic metamaterials: Low frequency Rayleigh wave with extremely wide bandgaps, International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics, 2020, 2043014. https://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0219455420430142
Cheers!
Regards,
Muhammad
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Salam & Hello everyone,
I have designed a new survey on a topic of product designs ownership during COVID-19 for my latest postdoctoral project. I need your help to answer the survey.
Main Title: The ownership of nature-inspired product designs during COVID-19
Sub-topics:THE PURPOSE, OWNERSHIP AND USAGE OF PRODUCT DESIGNS AND PRODUCT EMBEDDED WITH LIVING ORGANISMS IN THE GLOBAL COVID-19 PANDEMIC
OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH
The main purpose of this study is to find out the perception and preferences of potential users in regards to product designs and product embedded with living organisms during COVID-19/ lockdown (or any similar situation in the future). Moreover, this study also looking into consumers purchasing behaviour during COVID-19/ lockdown to see whether their purchasing decisions are affected during the pandemic.
The survey consisted of 4 main sections:
A. Respondent background
B. Nature and its connectedness during the global Covid-19/ lockdown
C. The purpose and ownership of product embedded with living organisms during COVID-19/ lockdown
D. The ownership of product designs during COVID-19/ lockdown
This survey will be expected to be completed in less 20 minutes. Thank you in advance for participating.
Ayn Sayuti, PhD
Postdoctoral Visiting Researcher,
Design Products/ Innovation Design Engineering,
School of Design,
Royal College of Art, London
United Kingdom
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Thank you so much
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Having surfed the Net, I saw some yardsticks based on which the maximum differential settlement was limited to 50 mm, e.g., Skempton and McDonald (1956). Are there any codes or research studies, letting the design engineers pick a much higher value?
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It is more difficult to predict the differential settlement; thus, it is obtained directly from the total settlement. The differential settlement is automatically controlled if the total settlement is controlled. Observation of existing buildings showed that the differential settlement < 50% total settlement.
The following is the design limits for maximum settlements
Raft on clay: 65 to 100 mm
Raft on sand: 45 to 65 mm
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kindly help me with the design pattern
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Dear Poyen,
There will be required of a field tanks are made of a galvanized sheet. Water supply and drainage collection, control and measurement works are in a separate access chamber of according to your requirement size 2.4 × 1.9 × 3 m. The lysimeter has two modes of use. In the first mode, irrigation water is supplied to the soil surface. In the other mode, water is supplied to the soil surface. In the other mode, water is supplied from the bottom part at any desired depth. A mariotte principle is used to maintain a constant supply head at this depth. The water supply tank and constant head supply cylinder need refilling every 10 days or so. The performance may be done usually during high rainfall during 23–26 days after emergence, the crop suffered from stunted growth.
Hope it is helpful to you.
Ashish
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Just to find out in which gear had I driven the vehicle for my trail or drive. During my drive I will record Engine Speed (RPM) and Vehicle Speed (km/h).
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Did you find the formula for this?
I am working on the same topic and have all the necessary values as stated by joseph.
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With a light RolliT Robot you can compact and smooth or broom finish the surface. And you can use ordinary concrete mix and air additive in the mix. We have done many parking decks and bridges with this method
Please visit www.rollit.se
Best regards
Yngve Alvarsson
Strongcrete AB
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Dear Yngve Kjell Alvarsson,
Yes. It’s possible. I have seen couple of my Indian contractor friend develop a compact wet concrete with a light Roller.
Using vibratory screeds with a light rollar Smooth consolidate & finish fresh concrete surfaces in one step can be done. Roller screeds and vibrating screeds help concrete contractors achieve a quality slab without the bending. The evolution of a concrete contractor starts with casting aside the hand-held striker, standing up straight and taking hold of a hand-held vibratory screed. Vibratory screeds have a relatively low entry price, allowing contractors to see a quick return on their investments when you consider the physical advantages to workers, the speed in which one machine can perform screeding and vibrating, and the quality of the finished product. A roller screed's lack of vibration makes it ideal for pervious concrete, sloped projects like driveways and sidewalks, and inclines. It's especially productive on projects where you're laying concrete in strips.
Hope it help you out.
Ashish
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Research strategies in many institutions require to carefully investigating the future trends in disciplines. Other plans such as hiring researchers, establishing new labs, … are based on the how we look to the future of research and our understanding what others working in. I hope that researchers discuss this important issue and exchange the related experiences and knowledge.
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Artificial Intelligence (AI), operations research (OR) and modelling, supply chain (SC), robotics and renewable energy (RE).
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As part of an ongoing Masters degree currently being undertaken at the Waterford Institute of Technology. We are seeking insight into the critical success factors in construction that could drive successful commissioning of a major project in Ireland. Can i get professionals (PM,Commissioners,Designers, ,Engineers,etc.) in the construction industry to participate in our survey in other to generate result for the research?
Kindly click the link below to participate in the survey that will take just 5- 6 minutes.Thank
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Dear Amadin Igiebor ,
Contact people at Dodge & Data:
They can deliver you huge dataset of contact information into construction industry to get additional answers.
B.R.,
Ari
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As shown in illustration, I have a pipe with details listed below and it is clamped at both ends. Clamps are tightened by applying a torque of 15Nm. How could i find out if the support provided between the clamps, in this case a U bolt supporting at a length from one end of Clamp would be sufficient under 1G loading condition.
Total length of pipe = 4 meters
OD=5"
Wall thickness = 1.5mm
Total mass of pipe = 5 kg
Thank you all folks out here..
Appreciate your help.
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Hi, Apart from axial guiding function, there is perpendicular load to resist as well, which is a combination of temperature and pressure.
The U bolt has to be sufficient strength and stiffness.
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what's the relation of these two terms if it is supposed to be the title of a paper?
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Dear prof.
I found a design group that have a system-oriented approach, this maybe help:
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Arduino supposed to be utilized for prototyping smart ideas like as wearables, however, seems they are narrowing down to certain similar ideas... I guess it can lead to Design Fixation... What's your opinion?
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Design fixation is intrinsic to the designer's personality, capabilities, propensities, etc. and is independent of the immediate and present external world. All tools at some point become limited (and limiting) and they are eventually extended by the demands of those designers who are not anchored by them in their design creativity. In contrast to the "tool extenders" others may be trapped by comfort and success in using a specific tool, and often channel their creative trajectory by what the tool affords them. For example, following Koen Van Turnhout's example, most instructors in product design challenge students to keep sketching with the assumption that sketching is less limiting then CAD, at least in the morphological aspects. It is not always the case, but mostly true, at least with students at earlier stages. Same with Arduino, Fritzing may be more liberating, but then at some point someone will run out of canvas there and will need to extend to another tool (e.g. VHDL equivalent).
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What is the type of clinical waste incinerator advantage anda disvantage any idea ?
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The mixture of flue gas generated from the incinerator is of minimum odor generally and doesn't cause much nuisance in terms of smell. Bu the toxicity depends on various factors. The temperature shouldn't go below 900 degrees C. Otherwise it may generate dioxins and furans.
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What are the advantages of having closed-form solution of a performance matrix than its integral representation for a wireless communication system design engineer?
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A closed-form expression can potentially give you better understanding of how different design variables affect the performance. Does the performance grow linearly with the SNR, or logarithmically, or neither?
Closed-form expressions are also more useful for performance optimization since one can then easily compute the first and second order derivatives, which are often used in numerical optimization methods.
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It is well known that KIC is a measure of materials property (intrinsic) is called a fracture toughness, while the KIFR according to ISO 14627 (2012) is defined as a resistance to cracking as introduced by an indenter and has correlations with wear resistance.
My question is:
if a design engineer were to use a fracture parameter to design a component with, which would he/she choose?
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Zhwan:
The fracture resistance of a material is always best quantified using fracture mechanics methodologies and the plane-strain fracture toughness KIc is the most robust of the many fracture mechanics parameters in use. Specifically, it enables as assessment in test specimens and more importantly real structures of the applied stress which could lead to fracture in the presence of defects. It is the closest thing to a "material property" which describes toughness. However, as you know, there are lots of restrictions on its use, as it is based on an assumption of prevailing linear elastic behavior (a condition of small-scale yielding); additionally, one also needs to determine whether conditions meet plane strain or not. When applied to materials with more ductility, which are the materials generally preferred for industrial use, there is the issue of too much local plasticity which can invalidate its relevance. Under these circumstances, one may have to resort to nonlinear-elastic fracture mechanics, e.g., the use of the J-integral to define a JIc or Jc fracture toughness, which is considerably more complicated and less fundamentally robust.
The ISO 14627 standard, on the other hand, is focused on the toughness of ceramics and the use of KIFR, I believe, is a measure of the indentation fracture toughness where an indentation is made under load and the size of the cracks emanating from the corners of the indent can give you an estimate of the fracture toughness. However, this method can only be used for brittle materials, such as ceramics (it has absolutely no meaning for ductile materials). It is only an approximate, yet highly useful, estimate of the toughness. For example, it gives you no indication of the crack-resistance (or R-) curve which is a vital measure of toughness in most structural materials. There are other problems too as the analysis of the driving force for cracking is based on the residual tensile stresses remaining on unloading (i.e., after you extract the indenter), yet instrumented studies have shown that in many materials, the cracks form on the loading cycle while the indenter is being penetrated. However, in the same way that a hardness test can give you a quick and easy estimate of the tensile strength of any material, the indentation toughness can similarly give you a quick and relatively easy estimate of the fracture toughness of a brittle (but not ductile) material.
The bottom line though is that if you are designing, or "lifing", a critical structure, there is no substitute for measuring the fracture mechanics-based Kc or Jc fracture toughness (preferably with the full R-curve, if the material develops one), using the methods described in the ASTM E1820 Standard or equivalent, but being acutely aware of the all-important validity criteria specified in these standards. Most other methods, such as that described in ISO 14627, are approximate - they can give you an estimate of the toughness but you have to decide whether it's safe to use such an approximation if you are attempting to "guarantee" the structural integrity of your structure or component.
ROR
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You have a cylindrical structure that you want to preserve under impact loading (the force below which the cylindrical structure stays intact is 5kN). How do you design another energy absorbing structure to put between the impactor (which generates a force of 25kN) and the cylindrical structure to make sure that the later stays intact?
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Thanks everyone but my question is more towards what Franco Concli and Jerry Alcone is suggesting.
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I have seen many models and frameworks; from user journey to service design models. Is there a book on how to design descriptive prescriptive models (from the design process)? Are there certain principles; or is it totally intuitive?
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Hello Azam. I worked for a great part of my carrier at Embraer developing a model for our Product Develoment Process. I started by describing the present model (As Is). Later, the team made a number of improvement proposals from which we suggested (prescribed) a new process. Some details of this project are reported in View of the Practice of Integrated Product Development at Embraer (http://terra2.com/home/publicat/Paper-UNIMEP00.PDF)
Regards, Claudiano
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while delphi methods tends to be an old-fashioned methodology; comes to an end through diverse questionnaires and analysing methods.
is there a real example of doing delphi in "design" field? would you share your surveys and results?
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I am sharing one study we did on Delphi, hope this is helpfull
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Many proposals are made (by visionaries and/or academic researchers) about what good design should be (e.g. the cradle-to-cradle manifesto within sustainability), how to do design research (e.g. context mapping), or of tools to help designers. In practice they are often applied in simplified, streamlined or even dogmatic ways. Has anyone studied the potential of anticipating the future applications by professionals (and amateurs), that may not have full expertise of a philosophy, method or tool? Could mis-use and mis-application be prevented by  anticipating this inevitable phenomenon?
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My dear Academic Friends, I'm working on "architectural design" area, I don't know anything about any researching of engineering area.
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My questions are pertaining to design of semi-rigid barrier (w-beam type & thrie type) for :
case-I Normal Containment as per IRC(i.e. vehicle mass=15KN and velocity at impact=110kmph and 20 degree angle of impact)
Case-II  High Containment (i.e. vehicle mass=300KN and velocity at impact=60kmph and 20 degree angle of impact)
(1). What shall be the stiffness of the vehicle and stiffness of the barrier considering W-beam and thrie beam barriers and how the stiffness varies? (2) How many posts shall be taken into consideration as being effective in successful countering the vehicle crash?
(3) What is the height of impact?
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In Germany we have a standard for safety barriers which is RPS 2009 and can be downloaded from the Federal Highway Research Institute,  a link to an English short-description is attached (www.bast.de....). A more detailled presentation in English is given in www. seetoint....
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Hello, 
I have to realize a prototype of a patented invention of sea water dessalination using solar radiation. The performance of the engine increase when water move in small spaces. I need to know what is the limit to consider that we have conditions of nano scale in fluids flow.   I need also a good reference to assess the fluid motion at the nano scale and eventually a suitable software tool,
Best regards. 
Samir Touzani - Inventor
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So 50 nm of itckness of container space seems to be a limit where continum solution still work. . under this range i should apply molecular dynamics simulation. Thaks Henry
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I am in need of consultation sources on virtual reality technology applications  in the product design development, especially in the preliminary design stage and more precisely in relation to the mechanical parts assembly, ie how to make the parts collide during assembly virtual.
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I think what you are lookng for is all SOTA in commercial VR Applications like TechVIz (in combination with you CAD), IC:IDO, Visionary Render or a like.
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Actually i am working on a project about mechaniques of glass wool. I have to see the details of mechanical properties at the junction of fibers.
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In Comsol it is Possible
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I think there is a problem regarding shrinkage of concrete
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Dear Dr...In the method of stitching, it is a normal practice to construct the widening part of the
bridge at first and let it stay undisturbed for several months. After that, concreting will then
be carried out for the stitch between the existing deck and the new deck. In this way, the
dead load of the widened part of bridge is supported by itself and loads arising from the
newly constructed deck will not be transferred to the existing deck which is not designed to
take up these extra loads.
One of the main concerns is the effect of stress induced by shrinkage of newly widened
part of the bridge on the existing bridge. To address this problem, the widened part of the
bridge is constructed a period of time (say 6-9 months) prior to stitching to the existing
bridge so that shrinkage of the new bridge will take place within this period and the effect
of shrinkage stress exerted on the new bridge is minimized.
Traffic vibration on the existing bridge causes adverse effect to the freshly placed stitches.
To solve this problem, rapid hardening cement is used for the stitching concrete so as to
shorten the time of setting of concrete. Moreover, the stitching work is designed to be
carried out at nights of least traffic (Saturday night) and the existing bridge may even be
closed for several hours (e.g. 6 hours) to let the stitching works to left undisturbed.
Sometimes, longitudinal joints are used in connecting new bridge segments to existing
bridges. The main problem associated with this design is the safety concern of vehicles.
The change of frictional coefficients of bridge deck and longitudinal joints when vehicles
change traffic lanes is very dangerous to the vehicles. Moreover, maintenance of
longitudinal joints in bridges is quite difficult.
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Laplace law was used to calculate pressure based on fabric tension and radius of curvature. It is known that most previous studies are referring to limbs area which is have cylindrical shape. However, the concave and convex areas such as facial contour does not have the cylindrical shape and the gap exists when applying head garment. Can the calculation still be applied at this area?
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perhaps here you will find the answer
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Latest Issues in VLSI design
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Dear Monyer
Link is not available can you send me on my email pawanwhig@gmail.com
thanks
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I need to model a reinforced concrete connection in which there are some plates, reinforcement bars, and concrete. I just would like to know how to model concrete with embedded reinforcement bars and a steel plate on it.
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Greetings Sir! You could contact Mr.S.Vaidyanathan for modelling in Abaqus. His mail id is vaidyanathancivil@kamarajengg.edu.in
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Incinerator, Design, Procedures, Heat Transfer, Thermodynamics, Mechanics of Machines, Fluid Mechanics, CAD
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Impossible to go over everything without writing an entire book about it. The first question you need to ask yourself, what is it you are incinerating? An incinerator that disposes of bodies will be entirely different than an incinerator that disposes of expired organophosphates.
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My team and I have been assigned to produce a layout of a production line of a manufacturing company by using WITNESS 14. The layout of the production line has been done. However, we are currently having problem to allocate the labour to take the parts from the shelf and move it to the machines. We have been told that it required some coding to control the action of the labour. Enclosed is the layout of the production line we drawn for this project.
Thanks for the reply.
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The problem in labors allocation can controlled using WITNESS 14, however some coding need to be done for that purpose. For more details, u may refer to the link:
art%3A10.1007%2Fs10951-013-0327-z.pdf
1-s2.0-S0360835210002196-main.pdf
art-3A10.1007-2Fs10845-010-0428-x.pdf
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Hi. I'm trying to model interfacial delamination, where the cohesion at the interface is reduced due to temperature. I have defined the damage initiation criteria in terms of maximum stress and it works fine. When I try use temperature dependent data for the maximum stress criterion the results show that the temperature is not taken into account. What could cause this? I am using tie constraints for the cohesive layer.
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Temperature dependent maximum stress is used to degrade the cohesive zone with temperature. Do you want to model the temperature dependent delamination?
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I have gone through processes such as ATRP , but I still could not figure out how ethylene monomers could grown on the surface of inorganic particles such as SiC , Si3N4 , TiO2 etc.
Thank you
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Look ath this doc it may be helpful for your topic. Good luck
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For designing  heat exchangers  in Boiler economizers and other applications, overall heat transfer coefficient plays a determining role to find out the heating surface of economizers.What is the standard value from range of 20 to 300 for finding out the heating surface for low temperature zone of flue gas path.
Boiler design Engineers and Chemical Engineers with specialization in heat transfer can answer this question. 
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The overall heat transfer coefficient of a heat exchanger or an economizer combine the following elements:
1) Heat transfer coefficient on the tube side. For example, if the flue gas passes on the tube side, then it is the heat transfer coefficient of the flue gas.
2) Heat transfer coefficient on the shell-side of the heat exchanger / economizer. If air is passed on the shell side, then it is the air heat transfer coefficient.
3) The thermal conductivity of the tube material.
The economizer is used to pre-heat the ambient air by capturing heat from the flue gas leaving the boiler region. Pre-heating the air required for fuel combustion will improve the thermal efficiency of the boiler.
Hope this helps answer your question.
There are many heat exchanger software that can calculate the required heat transfer area based on the required temperature rise. Such software has electronic libraries of the gases and liquids heat transfer coefficients and thermal conductivity for a variety of materials of construction.
Professor Yehia Khalil
Yale University
USA
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Dear Friends,
       Researchers of computer science and software engineering committed huge mistake, such mistake was not committed by researchers of any other scientific or engineering field for past 2000 years. The mistake is: Evolving a complex paradigm of computer science and software engineering for nearly 45 years that resulted in a huge body of knowledge, which is rooted in flawed 48 years old hidden beliefs. Only other example I could find is geocentric paradigm that evolved for 1600 years (rooted in flawed belief “the Earth is static”) and was replaced by heliocentric model nearly 400 years ago.
            It is a monumental mistake to have undocumented or unproven beliefs (or assumptions) at the root (i.e. core) of any body of knowledge of any scientific or engineering discipline. The scientific rules (i.e. processes and principles) were created during the first greatest scientific revolution (i.e. when error at the root of geocentric paradigm was exposed by enduring huge pain and suffering) and the rules has been refined over the centuries to avoid repeating of such kind of shocking mistake again at any cost. Of course, researchers may rely on documented beliefs (or assumptions) for proposing hypothesis to investigate or explore scientific or technological frontiers to discover new facts to expand the body of knowledge, but it is a blatant violation of the scientific process to not documenting any such belief as an assumption.
            Likewise, even a fact (i.e. widely accepted to be self-evident) must be treated as an assumption, until it is proven by documented proof backed by evidence. The proof must be clearly documented and publicly available, so that the proof can be falsified (e.g. any time in the future as technology advances over time), if and when new demonstrable anomaly or contradicting evidence is surfaces or discovered. We all know what happened when mankind relied on a belief “the Earth is static” by considering it to be a self-evident fact. Researchers of no scientific or engineering discipline can afford to repeat such monumental mistake again and again.
           Unfortunately, few experts confuse between these two completely different kind of beliefs or assumptions (1) having (or relying) on documented beliefs or assumptions in (or by) a hypothesis for exploring un-chartered frontiers for expanding the boundaries of body of knowledge, and (2) having and relying on undocumented or unproven beliefs at the very core or root of a mature body of knowledge, which has been evolving for decades or even centuries (e.g. by considering the unproven beliefs to be self-evident facts). It is foolish to justify the second kind of beliefs by referring to the first kind of beliefs.
          Relying on documented beliefs for exploring new un-chartered frontiers is not a violation – it is a proven method for research. But having or relying on undocumented or unproven beliefs at the very core/root and as a foundation of a mature body of knowledge makes the whole body of knowledge flawed and invalid. For example, the whole geocentric paradigm that evolved for 1800 years ended up invalid. Likewise, existing paradigm for CBSD that has been evolving for decades end up useless for achieving real CBD for software products, if the beliefs at its root or core are flawed.
        The basic rules (e.g. processes and principles) for any kind of research to advance any scientific or engineering discipline are devised to prevent this kind of mistake at any cost. The researchers of computer science and software engineering violated even such basic common sense rules by relying on undocumented and unproven (or untested) beliefs, when defining nature and properties for so called software components for CBSD (Component Based Design for Software products).
         The definitions for so called software components or many concepts or aspects of existing CBSD has no basis in reality. But in fact those definitions and concepts are in clear contradiction to the facts and reality we know about the physical components that are capable of achieving the CBD of physical products. For example, almost every expert readily admits the facts that the nature and properties of so called software components are in clear contradiction to the reality. If the beliefs (that lead to such contradictory definitions or concepts) are documented, what are those beliefs? If those 45 years old beliefs are facts, where can I find the proof (e.g. to investigate if the proof can be falsified using latest 21st century knowledge and tools)?
        There are many unproven and undocumented beliefs at the root of software engineering, such as: (i) Many software experts give baseless excuses such as software is different or unique, or (ii) believe that it is impossible to invent real-software-components for achieving real CBD for software, which is equivalent to the CBD of physical products. Is there any proof that it is impossible to achieve such real CBSD? It is impossible to find, if any one ever even tried to verify such baseless beliefs.
         I can demonstrate proof that it is possible to achieve such real CBD for software applications or products. In light of this kind of evidence and examples, it is impossible to find a valid reason, why software products can’t be designed as engineers design and build large one-of-a-kind physical products such as an experimental spacecraft or prototype of a next generation fighter-jet (completely free from spaghetti design/code).
Best Regards,
Raju
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Dear Mr. Rodriguez,
            Thank you. I have both top down and bottom up approaches.  I accidentally stumbled on a fascinating new kind of components more than 15 years ago. My self and our engineers created hundreds (or even thousands by now) replaceable components & component hierarchies. First few years I spent as an empiricist.
            Since every one refuse to see the truth (i.e. repeatable experiments - real software components and real CBD) - the demonstrable or repeatable facts, I started working on as rationalism: Trying to provide rational explanation by providing theoretical foundation. This RG account and my web site http://real-software-components.com provides top down approach. Our company web-site http://pioneer-soft.com provides first ever GUI library and technologies that is capable of creating real-software-components that are essential for achieving real CBD (Component Based Design) for software. Any one can freely use the library to create hierarchy of replaceable components.
           The biggest recorded and most widely known mistake committed by main stream philosophers or scientists was: Relying on undocumented and unproven belief (i.e. the Earth is static at the center) by insisting that it is a self-evident fact.
            This error resulted in a complex geocentric paradox and basic sciences ended up in a crisis. Nearly 400 years after exposing the error, the researchers of software committed exactly the similar mistake, which also resulted in many times more complex software engineering paradox and software ended up in a crisis.
         Existing paradox for CBD (Component Based Design) for software products is exhibiting almost similar symptoms as the geocentric paradox.  If it was biggest mistake (when it was exposed 400 years ago), repeating similar mistake in 21st century is much bigger.
           Mr. Rodriguez, I was not trying to propose a hypothesis. I have been trying the find scientific explanation to the things I discovered. I spent many years experimenting to gain deep insights and comprehend to find explanations.
P.S: If you have time review attached PDF. Also Google for "What is Science". One describes science as a tool to gain knowledge. Another two describes science as a body of knowledge for a particular discipline. Both are right depending on the context. Computer science is a body of knowledge for software. Computer science can and must use scientific processes as a tool for gaining necessary knowledge. 
Best Regards,
Raju
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for holding laproscope can we use parallel robot?
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For robotic laproscopic surgery, your tool has to go through a trocar point.  If you use a serial robot, or a parallel Stewart platform this means that you need a relative large workspace outside the patient, and this workspace is a scarse resource.
E.g. the Vesalius surgical robot uses a special type of kinematics to minimize the workspace around the patient.  A parallel robot  typically has a small workspace, so some adaptation of the kinematics is necessary, possibly adding some serial elements to the kinematics.
If it is about actuation of a camera head ( inside the patient), parallel actuation mechanisms can certainly ve used.
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Dear all,
I need to cool 50 L water that is in the cylinder from 27 to about 7 degrees centigrade with    R717 (refrigerant) using a refrigeration cycle includes compressor, condenser and evaporator. 
However, I need to know the proper evaporator size and suitable compressor power and refrigerant type.
Best regards, 
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Sina. 
You need do this steps
1. You need change the refrigerant R717 to R134a.
2. You sketching the diagram for a refrigeration cycle. Remember the refrigerator is a heat pump.
3. Estimate the Cooling Load you need to remove the heat of the water. 
4. Calculate thought a energy balance the refrigerant mass flow, but first you need determine the high an low pressure of the cycle.
5. Then you can determine the evaporation dimension utilize the LMTD or NTU 
6. On the case of the condenser is the same for the evaporation.
7. The compressor you calculate the power with a energy javascript:balance, and then you selected the better technology for you design. Maybe you can use a reciprocate or another kind compresor. 
For more information of these STEPs, please read Thermodynamics for J.P Holman and Incropera Heat Transfer Textbooks. 
best regard. 
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Some academics as well as authors shows TRIZ as the best ideation tool for engineering tasks.  But, as I saw by a survey, most of design engineers applies mostly Brainstorming. What do you think?
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Methodologically, it is also important to consider task dependence and (human) knowledge dependence. This makes a combined application of the two more effective.
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I need to design a push to open mechanism for small drawer. Drawer has to come out slowly and completely, once we push it. Please suggest me appropriate and less costly mechanism.
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Try the K V 8430 push to open drawer slide.
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I'm making a thesis for my university about point measurement in 3D space, and i need to find a sensor which have a signal emiter and a detector. The detector is inside divice that measures the x,y,z parameters due to singnal emiter localization and according to that it give me the parameter of the measured point. For all help i will be very grateful 
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Dear Kacper Pacholsk,
Maybe the instrument right for you is a structured light scanner.
It consist of a projector that project a grid-like pattern onto the sample and of two cameras. This is one of the few solutions that allow you to measure an object in x,y,z at the same time.
It can measure way under the mm with enough interpolation. 
It requires quite some processing power (GPU needed).
I'm assuming you want to measure A LOT of points in space, to have a point cloud. If you only want to track a single object this may not be the best solution.
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Dear friends in the similar field: Happy new year and all the best wishes for you! Can anyone suggest papers about built Motor for skylaunch?
THANK YOU VERY MUCH!
Sincerely yours
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Zouhir,
Are you asking about reaction motors (like a rocket) or for electrical motors that are fit for powering aerospace mechanisms?
If it's the first type, it would be useful to know the thrust levels and impulse that you are looking for: and whether you demand a solid-state motor (basically a large firework) or need the thrust to be throttled, which requires either an electric or chemical engine.
Simply, more details please.
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Author Name.
I need guidance on how to make this area a good skill set of mine as a Design Engineer.
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Hi,
one of the more complete Book on CrashWorthiness is :
Crashworthiness of Transportation Systems: Structural Impact and Occupant
edited by Jorge A.C. Ambrósio,Manuel F.O. etall.
NATO ASI Serie , 1996.
and also : 
VEHICLE CRASHWORTHINESS AND OCCUPANT PROTECTION
by
Paul Du Bois, Clifford C. Chou etall.
This book ie available at the following adress :
bBest regards
P. Galon
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Methods based on functional decomposition and morphology belong to the so called systematic design methodology. They are widely taught in accademia, but their diffusion in industry has not reached the same success. Some hypothesis have been formulated by literature, but it is still not possible to identify concrete reasons.
What do you think about that?
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Because everyone believes that without these methods, you can still design well. There is no comparison between design following a design method and not following. (How can we vigorously compare?)
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I don't understand how people are making a BLDC Motor with 95% to 97% efficient. I myself is a Motor Design Engineer and i use my own Excel calculations for designing various BLDC Motors. Even i use Ansys Software for designing the Motor. But the maximum efficiency i got while designing the Motor in Ansys was 90% and the Motor was an Outrunner. For Inrunner, i could go up to 87%. But when i go through different papers on internet, i see the efficiency of all motors to be around 96% to 97%. I don't know how people are achieving it. Do they actually get that efficiency in practical? 
My Motor practical efficiency was 85.4% (Full load) only even it was showing around 90% in Ansys software. 
Now can anyone tell me where did i go wrong? And please if anyone has practical Motor designing experience then please tell me how i can design a BLDC Motor with atleast 95% efficiency in Ansys or any other softwares such as Speed or Motorcad? And how to get that same efficiency when the Motor is made practically?
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Yes it is quite possible but it costs. To have high efficiency like 97% have to have low current density in windings of the machine. Instead of  normal current density for example being 6A/mm2 You would make windings with larger cross-section and limit current density to 3-4A/mm2 and it costs space the Cu material. The losses in windings will drop with the square of ratio that You diminish the current density. You have also to pay attention  to ferromagnetic material losses in rotor which means good steel with small specific losses and thin steel sheets.
  Piotr Wach, Opole, Poland
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I am building an lab apparatus. It will measure oscillating water in a tank mounted on two single axis small load cells of 40 KG. The problem is- the load cells I am using have only one mounting hole at each side which are not threaded and no matter how tightly I bolt them, the bolts become loose and the tank above rotates as the water sloshes.
There are several possible ways to prevent the rotation. But if anyone have any previous experience, it would be great to know that. Please help me with some good ways to mount them. 
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It is solved. Thanks a lot. :) 
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Can I use solution of water and lithium bromide for cooling purpose of engine?
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Li-Br solution can be effectively used as coolant in IC engines. Literature is available.
Ref:docs.lib.purdue.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1601&context=iracc
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Please provide any information on the maximum diameter of glass fibre reinforced epoxy (GRE) tank /glass fibre reinforced plastic composite tank available in the market.
What is the technical difficulty or is there any barrier to produce glass fibre reinforced epoxy (GRE) tank /glass fibre reinforced plastic composite tank in very large diameter, for example 50 meters in diameter?
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The thickness of the tank wil keep on increasing based on the pressure difference between the outside and inside of the tank. If the height is also large and is to be filled with liquid, the pressure difference will be quite a lot, assuming it is open tank and outside as well as inside is at atmospheric pressure.
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I have simulated 2D deep drawing process using Abaqus software. I got the result for deformed cup output.In the output contour result, the maximum value of PEEQ is indicated in  the Die corner Radius portion and the thinning is maximum at the Punch corner radius. I referred many journals in that the maximum PEEQ value is occurred in the maximum thinning area. But I got the results in different way,what is the exact solution for this.If  there is any chance for error in my simulation.Please give your valuable suggestions.
Thank you,
with regards,
M.Subramanian
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Indeed, these two quantities are independent. PEEQ stands for the equivalent plastic strain, while thinning is the strain component in the thickness direction (it is also one of the principal strain components if through-thickness shear is negligible - e.g. with shells).  So, you also need the in-plane strains to be able to relate equivalent strain and thinning! Thus you may have any combination of PEEQ and thinning for various loading modes. At punch radius the loading mode is plane strain, while at the cup edge you are in uniaxial compression. The results that you describe, if they refer to cylindrical cup drawing, then they are consistent - there is no error.
BTW, none of these should be used as a failure criterion in sheet metal forming. Use the FLD for regular industrial application, and some necking models for more advanced analysis.
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PDMS the film breaks while peeling from the mold after curing
Pattern is checked lines, spacing 200 micron to their adjacent lines using CO2 laser on a PMMA plate of 5mm thickness
The cross section of the mold is shown is the picture with the thickness of the mold cavity
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Hi,
I have used below mentioned trichloro silane from sigma aldrich for polished silicon, SU8 and glass surfaces. http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/product/aldrich/448931?lang=en&region=IN
Never tried on PMMA but you can try. In a vacuum dessicator, put a few drops of silane near your master mould and evacuate with ordinary rotary vacuum pump. Remove after an hour. If you see patches of milky film on the mould, reduce the time (this means too many layers of silane have been deposited). 
Silane layer once deposited has worked for me at least 5 subsequent pdms castings.
(Try it under a fume hood or a well ventilated area as the silane evaporates fast.)
Other trichloro silanes that have long hydrocarbon chain may also work.
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What is the difference between pressure and articulation angles in roller-chains? Also, I assume articulation angle becomes larger for larger gear ratios, does this mean that it is related to the wrap angle?
I am trying to calculate the efficiency of a roller chain and I need to be able to calculate articulation angles properly
Thanks
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You can get the similar or apropriate answer by searching the keyword in the GOOGLE SCHOLAR page. Usually you will get the first paper similar to your keyword.
From my experience, this way will help you a lot. If you still have a problem, do not hasitate to let me know.
Kind regards, Dr ZOL BAHRI - Universiti Malaysia Perlis, MALAYSIA
BNT-BKT-BT. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/post/BNT-BKT-BT#view=54f68badd3df3ee77c8b4638 [accessed May 7, 2015].
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As Shown in attachment,spherical ball is rotating about inclined axis and whole assembly is rotating about vertical axis.In ANSYS 15 -workbench CFX module, I assigned two different domains,one for whole assembly and one for only sphere,but in solution it is giving error of more than one boundary condition. Please help me to specify the boundary conditions.
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try to set another coordinate, then set the ball to rotate with respect to the new coordinate.
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I am simulating Single point incremental forming on Abaqus CAE. Analysis completes successfully but i am not getting any plastic deformation on sheet.
I gave an absurd value of 4mm depth of cut just to see what happens and still the sheet only undergoes elastic deformation.
Warning: THE YIELD STRESS RATIOS GIVEN DEFINE NON POSITIVE CONSTANTS FOR HILL'S STRESS FUNCTION.
Please suggest relevant changes. Thank you in advance. 
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It seems you defined ansiotropic plastic behaviour (Hills's function) but did it incorrectly. I would recommend to switch to something simpler - start with ideally plastic, then plasticity with hardening and then switch to aniisotropy (if this is what you want) to see where exactly the problem lies.
Perhaps a look into the inp-file material card may also show whether you unintentionally clicked some options.
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What degree of freedom shall be applied on the nodes at the intersection of  beam-to-column joint. Is it UX UY UZ (i.e all DOF = 0, completely restrained) or something else. I'm modelling A beam-to-column joint in ANSYS mechanical APDL 14.5. Beam and column both are I sections.
So at the intersection of beam to column, DOF shall be what?
Thanks
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I have done the modeling. when I apply some force, and run the analysis, it runs.! But the problem is, beam is behaving independent of the column. That is, no stresses, moments and forces are transferred to the column. How can I apply weld settings at the beam-column joint .?
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I need sintering of Silicon Nitride-h Boron Nitride..
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Dear sir,
 I got sintering completed...
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at lower strain (elastic-plastic region), FEA using ABAQUS shows that the CF (constraint factor) for Ti-6Al-4V, first increases and then decreases with increase in temperature. however, at higher strain (i.e., fully plastic region) the CF increases and then become constant....
but literature which was done experimentally on same material(2006) shows CF decreases at lower strain and becomes constant at higher strain with increase in temperature... 
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Hi Mr Dewangan,
As I understand, numerically, this Constraint Factor for low strains increases at first with increasing temperature then decreases, whereas experimentally it should only decrease. Besides, at higher strains, numerical and experimental tendencies are the same (or so it seems).
How big is this increase, and on what temperature range? Apart from this "singularity", how far are the simulation results from the experimental results?
In my opinion, if this increase appears on a narrow temperature range compared to the full temperature range (for example 20°C compared to 500°C), and the rest of your results are in good agreement with the experimental data, there might just be a mistake in the material parameters in this temperature range and you should look at the definition of these parameters in this particular range.
However, if this increase persists on a wide temperature range and all the other results are shifted from the experimental data, the constitutive equation might be wrong or at least the way you defined its parameters... Or it can just be due to meshing, but it's hard to tell without more details.
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I am working on heat transfer in rotating pipes that is made to rotate at a distance from the central axis of the pipe in parallel mode. I am using FLUENT for the simulation. Can anyone help to confirm that the distance from central axis of pipe to the centre of rotation (represented by eccentricity H) is the same as the input 'rotation-axis origin' in FLUENT?
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See below
the section: Specifying the Rotation Axis
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I need norms to help us on design activity
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Dear friend, very interesting question.
However, the easiest way is searching the related document by typing the keywords into google scholar. You will find some related articles.
If yet to find the articles, do not hesitate to let me know. InsyaALLAH I will help you in detail.
Good luck. Dr Zol Bahri - Universiti Malaysia Perlis
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You can get the similar or apropriate answer by searching the keyword in the GOOGLE SCHOLAR page. Usually you will get the first paper similar to your keyword.
From my experience, this way will help you a lot. If you still have a problem, do not hasitate to let me know.
Kind regards, Dr ZOL BAHRI - Universiti Malaysia Perlis, MALAYSIA
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I am interested in developing a virtual platform for collaborative engineering design and problem solving. I would like to be able to conduct network analysis to monitor team/individual interactions, information flow, idea conception, and evolution, etc.
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You can get the similar or apropriate answer by searching the keyword in the GOOGLE SCHOLAR page. Usually you will get the first paper similar to your keyword.
From my experience, this way will help you a lot. If you still have a problem, do not hasitate to let me know.
Kind regards, Prof Dr ZOL BAHRI
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For instance I build a ball falling model, at first I didn't consider the ball's deformation when contact with the base. So it seems easily to compute the force if we give the stiffness coefficient K and damping coefficient C the contact force F could be : Fforce=K*[(r+h)-DM(marker_1,marker_2)]-C*VM(marker_1,marker_2)
And it is easily to return the Fforce's value to Adams in sfo-subroutine file by one sentence:value = Fforce ;return. Now I want to consider the deformation of the ball(dr) and the dr is related to Force such as: dr=f(Force),and so the new formulation for the Force will be : 【Ffoce=K*[(r+h-dr)-DM(marker_1,marker_2)]-C*VM(marker_1,marker_2) 】
【dr=f(Fforce) 】
Because the two variable correlative with each other could you give me an advice how could I define the variables in SFOSUB-subroutine and compute the value of Fforce?
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it would be very nice of you! looking forward for your answer and thanks in advance!
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I need a coolant convection coefficient ''library'' or suggestions to calculate this coeff. To setup some FEM simulations of turning machining processes. Thanks a lot for any help or suggestion.
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thanks a lot prof. Halilčević.
Best regards.
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In case of Response Surface Methodology with Central Composite Design design what value of alpha is preferred? What is the effect of high value of alpha on DOE?In MINITAB17 how to change alpha value. 
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The preferred value for alpha for a CCD is k^(1/2) where k is the number of variables
So k = 2 ; alpha = sqrt (2) ; k = 3 ; alpha = sqrt (3) ; k = 4 ; alpha = 2 ...
In fact, it is so because these values put the axial (or star) points on the same hypersphere (circle in 2D, sphere in 3D, ..) as the factorial points 
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For calculating transmission loss of mufflers
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InsyAllah I will explain in detail soon.
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A research is being proposed for the development of an alloy suitable for severe corrosive environment. An explanation is needed for the maximum and minimum percentage inclusion of these ferro-alloys that will achieve significant protection.
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InsyAllah I will explain in detail soon.
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During power reactor operation, the action of electromagnetic forces generate mechanical vibrations through the core, windings and mechanical stability system, resulting in high level noises. The technical challenge consists of obtaining the math relation between electromagnetic forces, mechanical vibration and noise.
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InsyAllah I will explain in detail soon.