Science topics: Agricultural ScienceWater ScienceWater TreatmentDesalination
Desalination - Science method
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Questions related to Desalination
What are the new technologies for desalination and purification of seawater without the consumption of electricity that can already be applied in areas with freshwater scarcity?
But the scarcity of drinking water occurring in an increasing number of countries in Europe and also on other continents is caused not only by the progressive process of global warming, but also by unsustainable agriculture carried out in ignorance of the planet's climate and biosphere. But the scarcity of drinking water occurring in an increasing number of countries in Europe and also on other continents is caused not only by the progressive process of global warming, but also by unsustainable agriculture carried out in ignorance of the planet's climate and biosphere. The over-intensive, production-intensive cultivation of agricultural crops, mainly for the production of fodder for livestock rather than food for humans, and the production of exotic fruit sold mainly in supermarkets and hypermarkets in other countries, is also a significant factor in the excessive consumption of surface water and rainwater and the decline in drinking water levels over ever larger areas.
In view of the above, I address the following question to the esteemed community of scientists and researchers:
What are the new technologies for desalination and purification of seawater without the consumption of electricity that can already be applied in areas characterised by freshwater scarcity?
What do you think about this topic?
What is your opinion on this subject?
I invite you all to discuss,
Thank you very much,
Are there any existing codes or software packages that can be utilized for this purpose? Any suggestions or guidance would be greatly appreciated.
Sometimes the flashing process are calculated with mass and balance equations like the following link:
But sometime the flashing process are calculated with "non equilibrium allowance"(NEA) like MED or MSF desalination
I want a reference to cite please. I only found it in kWh/day.
Hi everyone. I currently am working on a project about "capacitive deionization" for water desalination and I need to design an experimental cell. However, most manuscripts do not have an extensive details about their design an experiment. Can anyone here suggest me a paper or thesis with a thorough design please?
Thank you all in advance.
There are many processes. But overall which one is best ?
I am going to work with spray flash desalination. I have a query related to the single droplet. How do I inject and generate a single droplet, e.g., for a micro droplet of 0.1mm?
I have to take decisions about some activities in marine protected areas - what level protection are we providing if these activities are occurring?
I am looking for any good references on the impact of:
- desalinization plants: its construction will have severe effects, then it seems like the brine should not have a very important impact (salinity in liveable thresholds), but seems there are always some metal pollution, any idea of its impact? what about the water extraction?
- geothermal extraction: same the construction will have a lot of impacts, but once it's built, i have only found info on its carbon footprint. Are there other impacts, pollutions?
Thanks to everyone that have an idea to share with references 🙏🙏
Hello, is it possible to purchase this article,
Analysis of energy usage at membrane water treatment plants, Desalination and Water Treatment, 29:1-3, 63-72, DOI: 10.5004/dwt.2011.2988, R. Singh
Is there any microbe that uses and changes salt? (not just tolerate)
Can we use microbes in desalination?
#salt #desalination #Halophile
Hi, I have conducted membrane performance tests using MD (8 hours) for desalination application. Water flux always fluctuates in the early stage of the performance, usually in the first two hours before it increases. My membrane material is a modified metal-organic framework on alumina substrate.
Capacitive deionization (CDI) is most known for its low cost and efficiency compared to other desalination technologies but has a downgrade in desalinating water when dealing with solutions with a TDS higher than 15,000 ppm as its pores start filling out with no space for other ions to be stored, so increasing the surface area should increase its pores size as well but what I am asking is about the technical reason itself why can't it desalinate higher TDS in addition to why is it not already done in real desalination plants.
Hello, Please I am looking for a file that collects the characteristics of different composite membranes used in desalination.
In many papers, the flowrate determination has been given as the Bernoulli equation for the determination of brine flowrate however the equation does not remain valid for the last effect because the amount of brine getting out of the last effect gets increased because of this. This is needed for the dynamic simulation of multi-effective desalination systems.
So what is the factor effect in salt rejection? What is the expected explanation?
Hi, I am new to comsol Multiphysics, I have an electrodialysis model, I add a separator as an ultrafiltration membrane but it doesn't show any separation in the process. I am doing some mistakes if anyone can help me I will be very thankful to him/her.
Hello, esteemed researcher If you have recent literature regarding understanding desalination, please share it with me.
How we can evaluate different desalination processes when they use different form of energies such as electricity, steam, renewable etc...
I have found two articles in which the correlation is explained but are equivocal. The first one is about spacers and the second one is about woven mesh backings. In the first reference, the maximum stress is formulated to be proportional to the square of pressure difference, while in the second one it has linear relation with pressure difference:
Recently I am working on desalination project . So I need to recent desalination project going on india.
For water treatment (say desalination for example), the charge of any saline solution should be neutral. Analyzing the water via IC and ICP will provide concentrations of anions and cations, which can then be used to calculate milliequivalents per liter.
To calculate the charge balance I have seen equations that state:
[SUM(anions) - SUM(cations)] / [SUM(anions) + SUM(cations)] in meq/L
My question is, why is the denominator taken as the sum of the collective anions and cations? Why not the average of the anions and cations?
Thanks in advance!
How can I determine the vacuum index of the membrane used for desalination?
The unavailability of this software makes me difficult to design this system.
What is the difference between active desalination and inactive desalination?
These days, the more technology is growing, the more experts work on greenways to desalinate seawater to produce drinking water. One of the most notable of them is undoubtedly solar desalination.
But, besides a lot of advantages of the solar method, there are weak points that prevent this technology from maturing compared to conventional methods such as electrical energy, fossil fuel, etc.
Please give your idea and thoughts about these limitations.
I am going to measure antiscalant in brine of a desalination plant. According to the information provided by supplier I have to determine the amount of carboxylic acid. where can I find the protocol?
Solar Multi Effect Distillation (MED) and Multi Stage Flash Distillation (MSF,) though appearing to be natural and tempting solutions, cannot be taken as proven technologies. More and more developments in both solar power and desalination technologies are expected to keep these solutions competitive compared to Reverse Osmosis (RO) systems coupled with conventional power plant. Somewhere, solution lies in combination: combination of heat sources and combination of processes. Recent developments present desalination systems including MSF combined with reverse osmosis, heat source being a thermal power plant, but coupling with solar resource can be imagined Main advantage of that installation is that RO can run during night times when electricity costs are low and MSF work during daytime with low running costs due to low pressure steam. Water storage offers flexible solution with energy consumption optimized. Addition of solar energy from start of the project (with parabolic troughs) would have low cost impact but no GHG emissions. We can note that the range of possibilities is widely open in desalination. Need for fresh water will always be present, therefore desalination technologies must be enhanced to become cleaner, more efficient and more virtuous.
I design a plant for producing caustic soda and chlorine from electrolysis of brine (salt from desalination plants)
How can i use aspen plus in simulate the electro chemical cell (membrane cell) •??
I have a 50uL solution and I need to remove salts from the solution, how would I go about doing so?
To increase the water recovery in RO desalination units, one is to use counterflow RO units, which use osmotic mediation to decrease the required hydraulic pressure. One of the points about them is that it's better to have equal flow rate on low and high pressure sides. Is there any reason beneath it?
I need to monitor all kinds of fouling (colloidal, organic, scaling, biofouling) on the reverse osmosis membrane in the desalination process. what are the practical (easy and reliable) techniques used to monitor (or visualise) these types of fouling?
and what are the settings used to have fouling layer development on a membrane (feed flowrate, membrane surface, feed type, etc...)?
What are the best technologies used to desalinate water on a large scale using solar energy, and how practical are these technologies?
knowing that the source water is not marine water, but rather water taken from rivers and sewers with salinity slightly more than the permissible level.
The problem of the demand for fresh water is greatly exacerbated by the increasing consumption of water as a result of the increase in human population growth around the world on the one hand, and the persistence of the problem of climate change and global warming on the other hand. We do not want to talk about international problems and the possibility of wars due to the conflict over water in the riparian countries on the rivers, but we are talking about air pollution. Building more desalination plants leads to the release of larger quantities of toxic and greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, etc. Are there solutions to control pollutants, or are there desalination plants that do not use fossil fuels?
I am graduate student working on an independent study related to solar desalination. While I am conducting my research on the costs involved and the challenges faced, I wanted to reach out on this forum and see if I can get some inputs on how solar desalination can be made cheaper. Any feedback will be appreciated.
First of all, our destinies are all in the hands of Alla Almighty.
In the field of scientific research, the desalination processes of the seawater "desalt seawater" is very essential to have enough water in the world for the coming years. This technology may help to overcome the expected water shortage in the coming years.
All comments and contributions are welcome
Thank you very much.
My Best Greetings.
We are launching a Ph.D. research looking at the effect of salinity and temperate increase on the bioerosion rates in coral reefs in the northern Persian Gulf. In doing so, artificial and natural blocks will be submerged along a gradient of salinity and temperature where hypersaline water from the desalination plant discharges into the sea. We are planning to use two types of natural and artificial blocks including (1) natural blocks by segmenting dead massive corals (e.g., Platygyra sp.); and (2) artificial blocks made of carbonate calcium.
But wonder how to make artificial blocks that need to be identical to natural blocks in terms of porosity and texture. Can we use crushed dead corals that have been blocked by a glue? If yes? What type of glue?
Wondering if anyone has experience in making such artificial blocks.
As water means life, and under the worse circumstances of gradual scarcity of water resources, desalination technology has became urgent to be applied on a wide range than any other time of the past. Therefore, I open the topic to have feedback of the modern desalination technologies and solutions.
I am trying to analyze cost of desalinated water (LCOW) collectively for a few regions in California using a solar desalination technology. Treating this as a system to be actually producing water for real consumption, I would like to apply all possible incentives such as rebates, tax credits or tax deductions and any other incentive available at state and federal level, as a public utility (small scale desalination plant <100 m3/day).
I found 20% rebates for solar thermal technology and solar PV but nothing on solar / renewable desalination plant. Can anyone please share available materials that I can add to cost models for more accurate picture of cost of water produced?
I want to know how I can prepare a composite membrane with uniform pores to separate sea water(water desalination).
My research is about solar membrane distillation for desalination systems. I'm trying to use Trnsys and Aspen Plus softwares, but I don't know how i can link these two software. Is there anyone who can help me?
On the surface of the planet Mars are the basic components, organic elements and chemical compounds necessary for the cultivation of terrestrial plants on Mars.
There is water on Mars (saline, it would have to be desalinated) and on the surface of Mars there are elements necessary for the development and cultivation of plants.
There is, however, no atmosphere with the right composition for the earth's plants, which could possibly be cultivated in the future on Mars.
In the next few decades, will human civilization reach such a level of technological development that Mars should begin to grow plants and begin to colonize Mars by building specific stations and cosmic bases there?
In the light of the above, encouraging discussion, I turn to you with the following question: What technologies should be developed on Mars so that plants could be grown on Mars in the future?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
I am planning to build a thermal ZLD pilot to separate salt from the effluent of desalination systems. Includes evaporator and crystallizer
I would be very happy if any experts with experience in this field would share with me. Especially the metal material in the parts that are directly exposed to high-temperature saltwater and the type of coating is very important to me. Of course, if you have an opinion about the proposed capacity of the pilot, please let me know. The specification table of the desired effluent that will be the input of this pilot is as follows.
I am pleased to share with you this online training module about Water Desalination.
Desalinated water is a fast-growing demand that exceeded the production of 100 million m3/day and distributed globally in more than 100 countries, especially in the Middle East and North America.
This course helps you gain insights into desalination in terms of desalination statistics in the world, water chemistry, desalination technologies, desalination economics, and other fruitful information with plenty of associated documents.
This course discusses multiple technologies including thermal desalination (MSF, MED, VC), membrane desalination (RO), solar desalination, ion exchange desalination, and others.
Hope you enjoy this course and find it fruitful to build or strengthen your knowledge in this promising multidisciplinary field.
The course link ..
I am trying to assess the sustainability of a floating desalination platform and I am looking for a solid methodology to assess the whole project consisting of a hybrid solar/wind power system, Reverse osmosis desalination plant and an offshore platform.
Desalination plants are often coupled with a water storage tank to mitigate demand/supply fluctuations. What is a good assumption for the capital cost of such a tank in "Dollar per volume". The number should be valid for tanks with a volume > 1000 cubicmeter. A scientific reference supporting the answer would be great.
Thank you all!
In some lower sahara regions groundwater salinity increases continuously where it sometimes reaches 4 times more than the WHO standard for drinking water. We can do desalination treatment. Is there other way toreduce the water salinity? are there some actions done in this field? Thanks
In the Desalination Pretreatment Facility, what is the mechanism and chemical reagents used in Dissolved Air Flotation as pretreatment of water?
#DAF #RO #Water #Desalination #pretreatment #membrane
jelly fish ingress is a major problem affecting the sea water intake systems leading to plant outages in power plants and desalination plants. can anyone through some insight on installed and convinced jelly fish ingress preventions solution...
Hello colleagues, I am currently working on solar desalination experiments. I have to find the optimum angle at which my solar still gives maximum performance. But I only have two solar stills and have to rely on solar radiation for the project. At a time, I can only compare two angles per day, and also the solar radiation is not the same every day. Is there a method or analytics with which I can compare the angles of the system reliably.
Designing a desalination reverse osmosis membrane system. Could someone recommend me some designing publications or a step by step calculation guide for the design? Much appreciate.
Hi world, I'm curious about whether having to put nanofiltration on the first phase then reverse osmosis on the second phase to desalt seawater that has a roughly 35000ppm of TDS will lower down the pressure requirement of the RO process or the overall energy requirement of whole process?
Since after NF, the TDS in seawater will be lowered and during RO process less pressure will be require to turn the seawater (after NF stage) into drinkable water. Does this actually work in terms of having a lower energy requirement in the overall process?
I want to compare various desalination methods. Which model should I adopt to compare them?
I'm Director of Research & Development for a company that specializes in new Alternatives, Exotic and/or Green Technologies for use in Environmental Remediation, Alternative Energies, Waste-to-Energy, Compost/Biogas, Oil Spill Recovery, Water Generation (desalination alternatives) and Protective Materials for Nuclear Fallout and Contamination. Clean Nature Solutions (thecnsgroup(dot)eu) is looking for the latest technologies to help promote and utilize in various projects World Wide. Please contact me if you have something unique.
Oil contamination is a major issue due to spillage, transportation, dumping etc. How much it impact on desalination process/plant. What are the techniques that can be employed to avoid the impact of oil contamination in desalination plants?
SDI indicates the fouling tendency of membrane. Is there a possibility to relate the TOC of saline water to SDI so as to measure indirectly the fouling tendency of membrane in RO desalination systems? Would like to see any reference related to this concept!
Hi world, I'm currently doing a research for my final year project. And currently I'm having trouble in looking for a transport model for COMSOL regarding a reverse osmosis desalination membrane.
Could any kind soul please help me with this? It will be greatly appreciated.
The environmental impacts of all desalination technologies, whether in use or under development, must be considered.
My question : which environmental aspect is s to consider in a seawater desalination project?
What is the best technique to desalinate sea water based on cost and environmental consideration?
Is Solar water desalination Operates on the daylight only? Can it operates after sunset? Can it produce pure water on the midnight for example?
ISSN Print 1944-3994, ISSN Online 1944-3986
In solar desalination still, the water is heated by the absorbed solar energy. At some point, the temperature in the still reaches the boiling temperature. I would like to understand the mechanisms within this process and find out how to calculate the mass transfer.
For non-boiling temperature, I normally use the analogy between heat and mass transfer to calculate the mass transfer. With Sherwood number, we can approximate the convective mass transfer from the diffusive mass transfer, with a Sherwood number obtained from the Schmidt number and Grashof/Reynolds number from heater transfer. But if the water is boiling, the turbulence within the water kind of breaking the laminar boundary assumption used in diffusion theory. In this case, what is the dominant mechanism in the mass transfer? How to calculate the mass transfer?
Any discussion is welcome!
I got the idea from using filters and other filtration systems in previous research experiences, and also how recently... someone gave me a bunch of Monster Energy drinks but they aren't sugar free so it got me thinking how it would be possible to extract the sugar from the Energy Drinks mechanically.
Sugar molecules are 1nm in size
salt (NaCl) is .06nm in size and water molecules are .275nm in size.
Would this work as planned or is there something my reasoning has a huge gap in? :)
I am doing a small research to review the water related open source tools / software (e.g FREEWAT).
if you have used/developed/ heard of similar tools,please share it with me ?
Thanks in advance
what are the advantages of using renewable energies for the desalination of seawater?
What are the Governing equations (Heat and mass transfer Eq.) for a gas-to-liquid while injection from beside hot air and spray liquid downward jet in the cyclone-tape evaporation chamber?
When swirl gas in a cyclone on the small droplet liquid has impacted increased the resistant time and completed the evaporation processes.
For example, follow this Fig but the schematic upward spray jet with a circular nozzle.
There are many types of water desalination plants; Reverse Osmosis, MSF, Solar desalination units, ........... etc.
How much water does each desalination plant type produce and what is the approximate inertial capital cost and running cost of each system per 1 liter of pure water?
I want to find the energy consumption per unit volume during a waste water treatment processes. It should be comparable and also according to the pollutants concentrations.
I'm studying the fouling of RO membrane for desalination of seawater or brackich water. what is the minimal concentration of foulants (inorganic salts, organic foulants) in feed water which would allow the formation of fouling layer in less than hours ? and at what flowrate should I set the feed pump ?
Is there any difference between in the efficiency of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide in water desalination?
I am building a solar desalination still and the inside glass temperature is required for the condition whether the glass has attained the dew point temperature of the vapor inside the still. I am using a thermocouple that is stuck on the glass using a transparent tape inorder to reduce the opaqueness of the object. But the radiation falling on the thermocouple increases its temperature than the glass temperature. I would like an alternative approach without this problem.
Dear sisters and brothers,
I am wondering if anybody has performed experimental work to desalinate high brine concentration of with 60 kg/m3 using spiral wound Reverse Osmosis process and if that was practically afforded or not considering fouling issues. Any guidance for such published research would be highly appreciated.
Hopefully, this question would open the doors to limit the disposing of high concentration brine into the water bodies.
Dr. Mudhar Al-Obaidi
Greetings dear colleagues.
Is there any formula or method, to estimate the salinity of the desalinated water output of a RO (or other system) desalination system? For example if you have 100 m3 of a water with salinity of 10 ds/m, what would be the salinity of the water output? and its volume? what would be the salinity of the brine? and its volume?
DEAR TEAM MEMBER
i am intrested to know the necessary laboratory tests required for the assisment of the existing concrete structure which is around 35 yrs old and is still existing and in use.
We are intrested to used the same intake structure as source of intake of water prior to desalinate.
Accordingly am intrested to know the requird important tests that neet to be conducted on the existing concrete structure prior to decide that it will serve the need or not for the construction of new RO plant
a water desalination system depends on humidification between air and hot sea water to be desalinated from salts and the hot moist air should be condensed to collect fresh water, could honeycomb and venture tube condense the moist air to separate water droplets from air? would it be effective?
Is it possible that the desalination processes are environmentally green and have you heard about the experience of any country?
Is it possible for desalination plants to be environmentally friendly and reduce environmental pollution
I'm working on a project that uses some waste heat to provide the motive steam for multi-effect desalination with the thermal compressor.
Pressure, Temperature, and flow rate of the motive steam are known. I need to calculate the amount of salt-free water and detailed state of the effects.
I would appreciate if anyone can help me with Matlab or EES code.