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Dermatology - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Dermatology, and find Dermatology experts.
Questions related to Dermatology
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Dermatologically used scales to assess the grade of erythema.
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Mild erythema
moderate erythema
severe erythema
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Are there any European dermatology associations' recommendations or guidelines concerning the free sample dispensing of cosmeceuticals from physician offices?
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Thank you for your answer. In Slovenia, the most delivered free samples of sunscreens are Anthelios of La Roche-Posay, Avene, Eucerin - Beiersdorf, and Actinica - Galderma. Is it the same in Iran?
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Hello everyone,
I hope you are doing well.
I need some information about the skin pH of dog/cats/horses.
Can someone help me and advice me a good dermatology/cosmetics book, article ?
Best regards,
Fatima
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Hi,
I am an old vet and therefore I do not have current knowledge, but in my anatomy book from 1976 it is written that the numerically low occurring Gldd. glomiformes open freely on the body surface and are mainly found on weak or hairless skin areas, so not on the entire body of domestic mammals!!!!
The thin, little concentrated secretion has a pH of 4-6.
If you want to know more, contact the antomic institute of a veterinary faculty.
Best regards
Tina
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Hi all!
Please could someone tell me what is this structure that stains PGP9.5- positive on a hair in rat skin? (see picture)
I am new to skin morphology and textures, and even though I am starting to understand the pattern of innervation, I found a structure that is unfamiliar with me.
It looks like cells with some kind of extended structures / axons? But I do not know of any neuronal cell type that surrounds the hair? It looks like a pericyte but it can't be.
The picture is of Rat dorsal skin, blue = dapi/autofluorescence, green = pgp9.5 (or cell-specific autofluorescence ?)
Does anyone have an idea? Schwann cells?
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I'm not a skin expert, but my first guess (based on the morphology) would be Langerhans cells. And after a quick Pubmed search they also seemed to be also PGP9.5 positive.
Kind regards
Soenke
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📷
Dear Sir,
A 20-year-old woman presented with recurrent painful left auricular erosive plaque for 6 months with left sided cervical and submandibular lymphadenopathy for 5 moths. Her FNAC of lymph node result was lymphadenitis and IGRA test was positive for M tuberculosis. She denied open biopsy for cosmetic purpose. Can we start Cat-1 anti-tb medicine for her.
I need your valuable opinion.
With regards.
Dr. Md. Mostaque Mahmud, Asst. Professor, Dermatology & Venereology,
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Attachment: Picture of the case (with consent of patient)
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Dear Md Mostaque Mahmud, thanks for asking the question which was solved earlier by prescribing anti-TB drugs cat-I. How is the patient doing now? Could you please share the follow up reports of the patient?
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COVID-19 binds to ACE2-receptor and initiate a cascade of cytokine-activation inkluding IL1-beta, IL-12, TNF-alpha and especially an increase of IL-6 and might initiate a so-called cytokine storm.
Can prospective studies with patients with and without Corona COVID-19 theoretical show and increase in the incidence of autoimmune diseases in the Corona group , including our patients with dermatological conditions such as Hidrosadenitis Suppurativa, Psoriasis and Atopic Dermatitis ?
Are such studies of relevance ?
Kind Regards:
Carsten Sauer Mikkelsen
Specialist in dermatovenereology
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FOLLOW
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Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs)are a ubiquitous group of environmental chemicals that cause numerous detrimental impacts on the environment and human health. According to performed studies, these metabolically inert chemicals enter the body of humans and animals and transfer into target tissues such as liver, kidney, bone, skin, etc. with the help of protein carriers in the bloodstream. From a dermatological point of view, what toxic consequences are most likely to occur in response to the dermal bioaccumulation of environmental contaminants such as PFASs? What are the differences between possible toxic effects caused by internal dermal exposure (dermal bioaccumulation) to a chemical and external dermal exposure (dermal absorption) to the same chemical?
Thanks in advance.
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Internal dermal exposure from your query appears to be chronic toxin accumulation of different toxicant posing as health risk. Case examples are emerging chemicals and heavy metals. They follow the processes of bio-accumulation, through bio-concentration and bio-accumulation leading to undue dermal irritations and severe ailments. External dermal exposures on the other hand could refer to the conditions where the skin is exposed to harsh U-V radiations without protecting its delicate nature with the resultant non-melanoma skin cancer.
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Hi, as an skin biologist and dermatology researcher, I have been quite intrigued by the few cases reported regarding patience with SARS-cov-2 infections and skin manifestations. Earlier this year Qi et al made a nice expression analysis of the ACE2 receptor variance in different tissues which showed a minor expression of ACE2 in skin, even though it connected other co-receptors as well. is anyone working on seeing the effects of dead viral content on human keratinocytes and fibroblasts? Just to see what the receptor response is.
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The Covid-19 affect the health of skin such as lesions, erythematous rashes, urticaria, and chicken pox-like vesicles are reported in few patients (20%) with COVID-19. In few cases, lesions involved the acral sites, especially the dorsum of the digits of the feet, beginning as erythematous-violaceous patches that slowly evolved to purpuric lesions and then to blisters and ulceronecrotic lesions, with final complete return to normal. Burning and itching are also present with some of the lesions in covid-19 patients.
For more detail please see highly reputed journal "The Lancet" recent publication entitled "Silent COVID-19: what your skin can reveal"
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53 Y Female was exposed to boiled water which fall on her abdomen. She left the burn untreated and scab formation occurred. TBSA expected 1-4% , probably superficial partial thickness burn. How would you manage this burn? Peel the scab and create a moist wound environment? Or what procedures would you follow now after the scab has formed?
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You would need to determine the depth of the burn and predict healing potential: whether it will heal spontaneously or would need excision and grafting. If grossly infected the wound needs to be debrided early. If not the wound could be dressed with silver sulfadiazine for a few more days to see if the "scab" separates off which would allow you to reassess better.
If you still would have a layer of ?eschar after a week the burn wound is most likely deep and would need excision and grafting.
Posting a picture would help a lot.
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Dear colleagues (dermatology physiologists, biochemists, and immunologists)
Can you paste the links of recent advances in acne's research focusing on the free radical biochemistry, physiology, and immunology in a comment, please?
I want to use them in a research proposal. Your suggestions will also be taken into consideration.
Regards;
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Please take a look at the following PDF attachment.
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For how many minutes 4% hydroquinone has to be applied in the evening and morning . Do we need to wash it off after sometimes?
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To say the truth from a dermatologist perspective 4% Hydroquinone is completely safe to use as topical application with adjunct of Sub screen creams. There is lot of practical evidence in African peoples who use 20% Hydroquinone in ethanol vehicle which develop zero percent ochronasis.
In nutshell to say 4% Hydroquinone is completely safe to use with appropriate sunscreen cream
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What is the problem with the pre-mature cessation of anagen phase and going to the telogen phase if the HF is going to re-enter the anagen phase again?
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Sorry, I do not understand the question correctly - do you mean a pre-mature catagen due to e.g. chemotherapy, or just the reason for anagen in general? I happened to participate in a similar project, and maybe I can help.
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Can women have male pattern baldness and vice versa (males with female pattern baldness)? And if so, will treatment differ? Or treatment is tailored towards male or female regardless of the pattern?
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I hope this is helpful: https://www.bosleypro.com/Blog/Education/What_Is_Female_Pattern_Baldness_qq_
Treatment For Female Pattern Baldness Women often tend to change up their hairstyles when thinning occurs. This is a temporary fix as the thinning and shedding will continue, which is consistent with female pattern baldness. The earlier you begin treatment, the likelier you are to prevent or lessen future hair loss. There is one medication approved by the FDA for female pattern baldness, but these are the options available.
  • Minoxidil Minoxidil (Bosley for women) is the only medication approved as a treatment for female pattern balding and the only medication approved on the market for usage by women. As women generally do not lose as much hair as men, the minoxidil in regrowth treatments usually has about two percent in the formulas. With daily usage, a person will begin to see some regrowth within six weeks to two months, which is why it is an effective option.
  • Spironolactone Spironolactone is a medication that is prescribed as a diuretic. It can also be used to treat androgenic alopecia, although it can take as long as one year to see regrowth of hair. The side effects are also problematic as women on a diuretic can experience irregular menstruations and spotting, fatigue, sensitivity in breasts, and electrolyte irregularities.
  • Laser Treatments or Hair Transplants Women may choose laser treatments or Bosley Hair Restoration to revive growth cycles. There are also a number of non-surgical hair loss treatment that you could consider. It is important to keep in mind that female pattern baldness is not reversible, but it is possible to prevent symptom advancement by implementing a regular Bosley haircare routine that is especially formulated for your scalp health and vivacious hair strand restoration. 
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Several herbs are used by traditional healers and it is proofed to be higly effective for trearing various dermatological disease. In your opinion what are the recommended steps to market these herbs in a conventional dosage form like ointment, cream or gel? Is it better to formulate as a crude or fractionated extract? or formulation should follow the way that they are traditionally used by indigenous people?
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The standard procedure of pilot plant scale up can be followed.
Preformulation , then efficiency study of formulation on animals followed by clinical studies should be done.
Regards
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ًHello! I hope Someone will help me for selection of a reasrch topic on hospital management closely related to dermatology discipline?
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Dermatology is high volume so easy to generate numbers quickly. You could look at how many biopsies are generated from a clinic and see how to streamline this
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Tineal skin infections are a very common dermatological presentation in a country like ours. Patients who has compromised hepatic function and extensive tinea corporis, which oral anti-fungal would be the drug of choice?
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I am thankful to Luis Rodrigo and Zaim Gashi for their suggestions.
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Curriculum is lacking in many academic programs in our country. What we actually have are modified syllabi. In a workshop at university grants commission (UGC) of Bangladesh a common format was proposed for all academic programs. We have customized that format to make it suitable for academic programs in medical science. Now, we are in a need of formulating a 'Outcome based curriculum' for MD (Dermatology and Venereology) residency program. Is there any one who could help me in this regard?
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Thanks to Satyaprasad Venkato, Marko Vok, and Michelle Murphy for your participation in this discussion and comments.
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I invented a cream with some chemicals dissolved in vaseline, which may help to alleviate eczema. I tested on my hands and feet and I am quite well now. At this stage, I need to test on some volunteers for clinical trials. If anyone is interested please contact me.
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Yes
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In Dermatology practice every now and then we deal with diseases where there is a need of long continued oral corticosteroid prescription. In some cases like autoimmune bullous diseases high dose corticosteroids are usually prescribed. When there is a control of acute episode there is a need of tapering the doses though in many cases it is impossible to withdraw the corticosteroids. Usually, I follow the rule of 20% dose decrement at an interval of 2 weeks or when there are signs of disease improvement. Do you think, what is followed by me is ideal? or Is there any better and easier option for tapering?
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I think immediate cesation of steroids is possible in cases of less than 2 to 3 weeks of therapy.
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I would like to know other plants different from the already commercially known, and establish if the major phytochemical content is related to their activity
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Acacia concinna, Azadirachta indica, Centella asiatica, Citrus limon, Cucumis sativus, Curcuma longa, Eclipta alba, Lawsonia inermis, Ocimum tenuiflorum and Phyllanthus emblica are some of the plants used traditionally for cosmetic purposes in India.
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Stem cell based therapy has open a new window in medical practice. It may be effective in diseases of skin , heart, neural tissue, blood and so on. Is there any guideline for selecting dermatological patients who are most likely to benefit from stem cell based therapy?
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How is neomycin is precribed in second degree burn and it is contraindicated in broken skin because of the systemic absorption?!!
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Neomycin is used in prophylaxis of skin infection in minor injury , the main side effects of this drug may aggrevate the severity of burn because already it may cause:
  • irritation
  • burning
  • redness
  • rash
  • itching
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Acroangiodermatitis has been described in amputees (especially in those with poorly fitting suction-type devices), in patients with paralyzed legs, in patients undergoing hemodialysis (from arteriovenous shunts distally), and in association with hepatitis C. It has been documented in chronic venous insufficiency and in vascular malformations (eg, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, Stewart-Bluefarb syndrome, Prader-Labhart-Willi syndrome).
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Acroangiodermatitis of Mali is usualy caused by chronic venous
insufficiency
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Would you describe it as brown? And if so does this mean that purpura preceded this color? And what could be the differential diagnosis of this color?
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I don't think it's purpura but more of a hyperpigmentation spots like lentigo or freckles. Although you can test it by give some pressure on it or use dermoscopy to help the visualization.
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Cons and pros of of Neurotoxins and Facial Fillers, your experience especially in young age.
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Problem is how long they last over time without complication.
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Is there any study with significant scientific value proving that sunscreen can directly or indirectly cause skin cancer?
I do believe that they protect the skin from the UVA and UVB thus reducing the risk of cancer.
Oxybenzone is being mentioned as a sunscreen chemical with high risk of causing cancer. Retinyl Palmitate is mentioned to be increasing the speed of development of malignant cells. However, after analysis of the ingredients of several sunscreen creams and lotions (Nivea, Garnier Ambre Solaire and Eucerin Sun Protection) I didn't find any of these compounds.
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May be you can useful from the following article
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Would you describe it as brown? And if so does this mean that purpura preceded this color? And what could be the differential diagnosis of this color?
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It's always difficult to analyse isolate images and better to the physician if you see the patient directly.
This lesions remember me scleroderma, but would be interesting after correct inspection you feel the skin through palpation.
It looks like the salt and pepper skin common in scleroderma. The following article published in new england journal of medicine reveal a similar finding. But be carefully, It is importante to evaluate this findings with the laboratory and patients' anamnesis.
Another important differential diagnosis would be the relationship with peripheral arteriovenous insufficiency which can cause a very similar findings.
Cicatricial findings due other types of dermatitis may also be a possibility.
Hope i could help,
Best regards,
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What indications...how often...can we combine with PRP or MESO
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Do we need any special training for using derma pens & photo facial?
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A woman went to a beauty salon to use hyaluronic acid to hydrate her skin.Before injection,the worker smeared lidocaine and procaine mixture on her face for topical anesthesia.Just for a few minutes, her face turned red and were full of red macules and papules on her forehead and bilateral of ala nasi like manifestation of SLE.
The next day she went to see me and I gave the diagnosis of acute allergic contact dermatitis.
As we all know,allergic contact dermatitis is a type of Type IV hypersensitivity reaction,then why the onset was so fast like Type I? I was confused about that.
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An erythematous rash developed within a few minutes after a topical preparation could be either allergic contact dermatitis (type IV HSR) or contact urticaria (Usually type I HSR)! To differentiate between these two possibilities is according to the type of rash whether eczematous (allergic contact dermatitis) or wealing (contact urticaria). Topical anesthetics of “caine“ group are well known topical inducers of allergic contact dermatitis. Lastly, allergic contact dermatitis usually develops within 48-72 hours after exposure to the culprit (elicitation phase), however, this is the usual scenario for first reaction. In subsequent reactions in “already sensitized individual“ the elicitation phase will be shortened and occasionally to a very short period! To confirm the diagnosi, PATCH TESTING can help.
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What is the evidence based protocol for tapering off topical Corticosteroids? And when to consider tapering off instead of discontinuing abruptly? After 2 months for example?
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I think it depends on the type of that topical steroid, potency, duration, combination with other drugs... but in general tapering may be needed after 1 month of it use to be on the safe side.
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This is a challenging case I've been facing, about a 65-year-old lady presenting with weekly recurrences of herpes infection on sacrum and inner thigh (most likely HSV type 2) in the last 20 years. Recurrent vaginal candidiasis coexists. I suspected of acquired immunosuppression and her immunological panel revealed:
leukocytes 1,908
lymphocytes 816
CD4+ 542
CD8+ 166
IgA 44mg/dl
Hb 14,4g%
plat 219,000
Complement levels and other immunoglobulins are within the normal range.
She takes the following drugs continuously (could any of them explain leukopenia + lymphopenia?): omeprazole, ranitidine, amitriptyline, desvenlafaxine, pregabalin, and vaginal ovules of boric acid.
I prescribed imiquimod cream locally, 3 times a week, and she reports parcial improvement of frequency and severity of skin infection.
My doubts now are regarding the continuation of propaedeutics and therapeutics. Any thoughts? Relevant literature?
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i think you should continuous in treatment of local lesion with stop the therapeutic after doing the level of lymphocytes and WBC count
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For how long? Just 2-4 weeks? And is topical steroid necessary? Or it the patient can be on other medications without fearing complication? I.E does topical steroid prevent any serious complications? Or just treat the symptoms like Erythema?
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Dear Dr. Elsersy.
Long term use of topic steroids is not recommended for stasis dermatitis. It can be used as a short course to reduce the inflamation. Treatment aimed to correct the hemodinamic abnormality in venous system responsable for skin changes is most important. Treatment plan also includes elastic and non-elastic compression and veno-active drugs.
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I'm in a hurry and I don't have enough time to do in-depth research. How do you differentiate between cutaneous vasculitis and dermatitis?
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Dermatitis is inflamation of skin and vasculiti is inflammation of blood vessel.
examples of dermatitis is atopic dermatitis eczema allergic or infectious contact over a large area of skin or over a small region of contact
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We want to measure TEWL in NC/Nga mice and wonder whether someone has experience with the different "vapometer" available?
Our experience with dog skin was somewhat unreliable...
Thanks Wolfgang
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Hi.
we have been measure the TEWL in mice and got some experience by using the AquaFlux AF20 without shaving the belly of the mice and without anesthesia. Indeed the data have high variation, but so far n>10 is enough for comparison between groups. the more important issue was to acclimate the animals at least 30 min in dry bedding, control the room humidity and Temperature.
Regards
Antonio
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I am conducting a meta-analytic review on the effects of botulinum toxin on emotional outcomes. I am seeking any unpublished studies, data sets, or “in press” papers that include individuals who have received botulinum toxin treatments (i.e., Botox) and measures of emotion (e.g., depression, positive affect, sadness). If you have any unpublished data, or if you have questions/comments, please let me know by February 8th.
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The Engineer's Point of View .
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There are basically 2 types. One used aluminum oxide crystals to "blast away" the stratum corneum, but many aestheticians and clients don't like the "sand" blowing all over so they also make "crystal free" units that use an industrial diamond encrusted tip for the exfoliation.
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According to the formula by mansur, if absorbance of a material is 0, then the SPF is 0 which should be atleast 1. This is what I am confused about.
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But I though SPF is a ratio as defined in the following link https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sunscreen. According to that, it might be greater than 1.
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I have a patient who is being evaluated by physicians for thoracic lymphadenopathy. A CT guided biopsy of thoracic  lymph node has revealed features of dermatopathic lymphadenopathy.This patient has been referred to dermatology to rule out a cutraneous condition as an underlying reason for the histology noted as above. Would appreciate your input on how to proceed with this case?Are there any conditions with visceral lymphadenopathy that resemble dermatopathic lypmphadenopathy?
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Dear Pankaj,
Double check that the histologic diagnosis is correct and if it is (should contain melanophages and paracortical histiocytosis), I totally agree with Markus Meissner and you have to rule-out dermatologic diseases starting with CTCL and eczemas. 
Have a nice week,
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40-year-old female presents with an 8-year history of alopecia. No other symptoms, no regular medication. Clinical and dermoscopic features of alopecia areata (attached pictures). Reviewing her previous lab exams, I noticed persistent positive ANA (1/160) and high levels of anti-SSA/Ro (range: 69 to 108) since 2013. I failed to find any evidence associating AA with such serological markers. 
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after going through the records and articles for anti ssa and ro  they seem to be most common lab findings. it may not have much significance. but may show some significance for Sjogrens. or ss, or possibility of sun allergy. or photo sensitivity. immunoflorosence biosps study of the alopecia lesions may throw some light
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One of the greatest benefits of dermoscopy is to decrease the rates of unnecessary surgical excisions and biopsies, which leads to a reduction in both costs and invasive procedures. In this specific case (attached photos) would you remove the "ugly duckling" mole or just follow-up? 
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Dear Ana Cristina Diniz Silva,
Look the link, may be useful.
Regards, Shafagat
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One of the adverse event of lenalidomide are the cutaneous rush, how do you treat this condition? 
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Thanks you! !
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e.g. eczema of nipple, pyoderma gangrenosum on breast, nipple piercing, tatoos on breast and their complications, complications in breast implants etc.
Would you like to contribute? You will be acknowledged.
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Dear Ranthilaka, I may provide you with accessory nipples,eczema, psoriasis, clear cell acanthoma, BCC et cetera. Please notify me how connect with you. Sincerely. Carlo.
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Hy, has somebody heard about a correlation of Hashimoto thyreoditis & Necrobiosis lipoidica & Ulcer cruris?
My mother is suffering since summer 2008 from Necrobiosis lipoidica, since spring 2009 from Ulcer cruris and now since spring 2017 from Hashimoto thyreoditis. The former two now became more disturbing. She smokes since 45 years and about 1-2 packages a day.
Thank you very much in advance!
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Thank you very much for your comprehensive answer! 
This is tempting to speculate that Necrobiosis lipoidica and Hashimoto thyreoditis are somehow linked here. I guess, it is possible that HT may have evolved due to the long immunological stress by NL?
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For all I know, the underlying adhesive chemistries (acrylic, silicone, polyuerethane, hydrocolloid, rubber, hydrogels, etc) play a crucial role for potential skin irritation.
Which skin adhesives and wet electrodes typically cause most severe skin reactions (allergies, itching, redness etc) during long-term wear (few days)? What is the influence of adhesive chemistries on skin reactions? 
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In my experience the ones with silver or nickel contained in either the adhesive or the gel have the most and highest reactivity.  Some that contain nickel aren't even listed by the manufacturer because it is such a small amount.  You can call the manufacturers and ask this.  
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Diabetic male, 76 years old, black skin, in peritoneal dialysis, main complaint of a non-healing foot ulcer. During examination, I found this single lesion on the the scalp by chance. Dermoscopy features of SCC: white circles, white structureless zones (keratin), blood spots. What's the best management for this specific patient? Is surgical excision safe? Shall I refer to radiotherapy instead of operating him?
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Noduloulcerative lesion ,seems to be on the scalp and as you said in an elderly patient- Few things need to be done
1 FNAC, Bx for Histopathological confirmation of grade  and type of Squamous cell carcinoma
2 Evaluation for local metastases to the regional lymphnodes- CT Neck and head 
3  In view of comorbidities - xcision/ 5-FU/ Immiquammod topically  
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doxycycline is long acting tetracycline which mostly used for treatment of acne vulgaris
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Primarily, doxycycline is excreted in bile to feces, and part of doxycycline is inactivated in the liver and 40 % of it is excreted by kidneys in urine, while the majority of first-generation tetracyclines are not metabolized Instead, they are most often eliminated by renal excretion.
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dermatologists and immunologists
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I don't think that there is, someone need to translate.
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89-year-old man, extensively photodamaged skin with widespread skin tags and SK. This unique lesion on the right temple concerned me (attached files, dermoscopy and macroscopy pictures).
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If this patient was in my clinic they would for sure get a biopsy - one has to be highly suspicious of melanoma, likely lentigo maligna melanoma. The blue-white veil, rhomboidal structures and ablation of hair follicles by pigment is concerning.
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This case just brought to our attention (patient's report with pictures attached). Patient urgently seeking consultation by a local dermatologist who is willing to prove/disprove the alleged etiology. Needed for liability and for adequate medical documentation for publishing the case in a scholarly journal.
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Dear Theodor,
Were you able to find a Toronto-based dermatologist to help with the case? The way the system works in Canada is that this patient could see a family doctor, and then get referred to her local dermatologist.
It seems like an interesting cause of chronic dermatitis. A few biopsies may help - and I wonder if the material is polarizable? Also, I wonder if tape stripping could be used to make the diagnosis (like in fiberglass dermatitis). I would agree with Marko in that the photos really look like self-induced excoriations without a primary dermatosis. However, you must rule out all other causes before jumping directly to that.
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EOSINOPHILIC ULCERATION of oral mucosa?
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Eosinophilic ulcer (EU) is a rare self-limiting chronic benign lesion of the oral mucosa. The ulceration has been most frequently found in tongue and it is characterized by the presence of mildly indurated borders which may resemble malignancies, traumatic ulcerations and some infections such as deep fungal infections, tuberculosis and primary syphilis). EU also has been referred as traumatic ulcerative granuloma with stromal eosinophilia, traumatic eosinophilic granuloma, traumatic granuloma and ulcerative eosinophilic granuloma. In infants, usually on the ventral surface of the anterior tongue secondary to trauma from newly erupted primary teeth, EU is referred as Riga-Fede disease. The pathogenesis of the EU is still unclear, however the lesion is thought to be reactive since trauma has been implicated as initiating factor, nevertheless trauma cannot be demonstrated in many cases. Histopathological findings consist of eosinophil-rich mixed infiltrates involving the superficial mucosa and the deeper muscle layer, accompanied by a population of large mononuclear cells that may correspond either to histiocytic cells, myofobroblastic cells or activated lymphoid cells.
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Dermatophytes fungi grow on human skin and cause brown lesions spread on the skin especially nick , chest and  armpit. Please kindly  tell me about the optimal treatments.
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Several human skin diseases and disorders are associated with two groups of fungi, the dermatophytes and Malassezia. Although these skin-related problems are not generally life threatening, they are among the most common diseases and disorders of mankind. These fungi are phylogenetically divergent, with the dermatophytes within the Ascomycota and Malassezia within Basidiomycota. Genome analysis indicates that the adaptations to the skin environment are different in these two groups of fungi. Malassezia are dependent on host lipids and secrete lipases and phospholipases that likely release host fatty acids. The dermatophytes encode multiple enzymes with potential roles in modulating host interactions: polyketide synthases, nonribosomal peptide synthetases, LysM, proteases, kinases, and pseudokinases. These two fungal groups have maximized their interactions with the host using two very different mechanisms.
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Is there anything known about different skin types (Fitzpatrick) and population characteristics (age, gender, ethnicities) in relation to skin sensitvity, allergies, contact dermatitis)?
Do certain skin types have higher predisposition to adhesive-related skin reactions (eg people who need to wear wound dressings, medical tapes, plasters, bandages, skin electrodes, etc)?
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atopy and rosacea, from my point, is the answer.
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Glycerin with extra virgin olive oil lotion can be given to which age group for skin application 
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hello rupa,
the following article may be help ful to you.
glycerin and extra virgin olive oil can be given to all age groups except  for infants with extra care and purity of glycerin
all the best
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We recently develop a kind of dissolving micro-needle which can dissolve in dermal system to deliver medicine, skin-care product inside of it.
We first want to make an application in skin-care area because it is not regulated as medicine does.
Here are what we have in mind, we want to use this microneedle to  Wrinkles, scars, hair growth, hair removal. But we do not know which chemicals or compound should we use for those applications?
Besides, are there some treatment only can be performed by needle injection?
Any suggestion and comment are welcome! Thanks
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can carry slow filling fillers or slow acting botox in threads. to be inserted in face. or in cerebral palsy or trigeminal neuralgia.
as of now no threads carry medication. may be it can be tried in chronic pains
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I want to isolate the dermal fat layer from the skin of my mouse model. Is this possible? If so, how do I go about it?
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Hi Husain,
for which purpose do you want to get rid of the subcutaneous adipous tissue?
If you want to investigate it, I would remove it with forceps (take the skin, pin it down on a styropor pad epidermal side down) and then pluck off the fat.
If you just want to remove it in order to enzymatically dissociate the dermis and epidermis, gently scrape it off with a scalpel.
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I am looking into finding a method or, possibly, a drug that is a potent antifungal against Trichophyton rubrum with minimal or no effect on malassezia when applied to the skin.
Another possible question that might help; what do they feed on exactly?
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Khaled Rashwan
Terbinafine was the most potent drug against T. rubrum, in vitro, followed by itraconazole, ketoconazole and griseofulvin. The following link is quit useful for your question
Best regards
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I am a cosmetic chemist and have recently received many questions about possible beard softening agents. I know what works for a head of hair, but have no experience with beards
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Thanks Francisco, I found the article thanks. Now I will be searching for articles about skin conditions associated with beard, because the goal is to look for preparations that will enhance / soften beard, but also, if possible, keep the skin in good condition at the same time.
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I would like to analyse proapoptotic activity of a compound to be used on Actinic keratosis. Is there any cell line that might represent early phases of photocarcinogenesis?
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Dear Vieri,
I suppose you can ask professor Jean Kanitakis from Lyon.
Regards,
Aldona
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Searching for ideal holding solution for hair transplant
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Most often Ringer lactate is used to hold Follicles. temperature is important.
even normal saline is used in some cases. 
depends on how long you want to hold the follicles.
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What is the best treatment of vitiligo as regard phototherapy, artificial or natural light?
dermatolgists
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Accepter sa maladie est bien plus nécessaire que de quérir un traitement, si onéreux soit-il...
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I searched the literature but didn´t find many studies using topical psoralen combined to NB-UVB to treat vitiligo. Do you know if it could be effective and safe? Thank you very much!
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Thank you very much for you responses and for sharing experiences and knowledge. As I started to work with UVB recently, I haven´t followed many patients. Please let me know if you hava any advice for new or combined vitiligo treatment! I follow the literature but maybe something new could appear in you clinical practice. 
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Within the last few years, I experienced three cases of pneumoperitoneum with and without pneumomediastinum developed immediately after the colonic stent implantation in patients with severe malignant colonic stenosis. Despite the presence of pneumoperitoneum, no patients complained about abdominal pain and presented peritoneal irritation. Moreover, there was no evidence of panperitonitis and elevated inflammatory reactions. Oral intake became possible after the deployment of colonic stents. All these patients underwent surgical resection of colon cancers. Operative findings revealed no evidence of colonic perforation. Postoperative course was uneventful. Does anybody have concerns about pneumoperitoneum that develops after the colonic stent implantation in patients with severe malignant colonic stenosis?
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I must say, I agree with Dr Wong. Close monitoring is indicated, but, even if the incidence of an asymptomatic pneumoperitoneum were 10%, I would find routine post-procedure CT difficult to justify, considering management is based on the clinical findings. The scenario in oesophageal stenting is much different, where spontaneous resolution is not the norm and one has to look for pneumomediastinum proactively. 
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the quick diagnostic aid is needed to clarify the diagnosis 
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excellent article sir. informative
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Hi all,
Does anyone have an experience in using a specific or a set of specific biomarkers for indication of metastasis progression in melanoma?
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Do you kno some test, to demonstrate the effectiveness of a lotion to prevent jellyfish stings?
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The best  way for sure is the in vivo testing on swimmers and snorkelers that have to be stung by a jellyfish. I believe that it is quite difficult to create a reliable in vitro model because there are so many variables concerning not only skin jellyfish reactions, but also the effectiveness and availability of a topical preparation. Of course, in cases of very dangerous venomous jellyfish, animal studies should be performed first to prove the efficacy. As always, the main difficulty is to obtain a sufficient number of testees. As a swimmer, I have my own experiences with Pelagia noctiluca stings and it is surprising how the skin from different body areas differently reacts to the same kind of sting.
Boulware DR. A Randomized, Controlled Field Trial for the Prevention of Jellyfish Stings With a Topical Sting Inhibitor. J Travel Med. 2006 May-Jun;13(3):166-71.
Kimball AB, Arambula KZ, Stauffer AR, et al. Efficacy of a jellyfish sting inhibitor in preventing jellyfish stings in normal volunteers. Wilderness Environ Med 2004;15:102–108. 
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Polymorphic light eruption is a common phenomena. will this reaction end up leading to SLE.
how different are these two entities?
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Dear coleague
PLE never change to LE, the former is only cutaneous. And LE is a systemic disease, whith cutaneous lesions that are diferent them PLE.
It´s not usually expected the coexistence of this diseases.
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I am doing flow cytometry and would like to verify whether the neutrophil influx I am seeing in my sample is from neutrophils within the tissue or from the increased blood present in the inflamed sample. I can check by histology but ideally I was hoping for a flow cytometry method to differentiate. Thank you!
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Dear Paul, in mice blood neutrophils are CD31+. After activation and transendothelial migration, neutrophils are CD31-. 
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This is a rare dermatological disorder with very little research and about 3 case studies. There is a case in the US of a young adult female 33 year old female with this disorder of hair imbedded in the skin that migrates in long strands into  the scalp, eyebrows, extremities, torso, just about everywhere on the body. Exfoliation can be performed by massaging; hair loss occurs when exfoliation is performed. For example, loss of eyebrow hair and hair at temples.
Other marked signs are linear indentations at a site of migration, or a raised red line, irregular patches of "goose bumps".
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Dear Janet, 
It is indeed a rare condition. Some authors suggest that it is also related to some psychological factors (I am currently looking for that information). 
In the meantime, the attached articles may be of interest to you. 
Best wishes, 
Julio 
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A 47 years old lady who is not in physical relationship for the last few years develops rashes over face following masturbation. Areas of hyperpigmentation are left over face after few days. What could be the reason? How to manage?
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Please do not post any pictures of the patients face - we should always preserve anonymity and confidentiality. Other than that, you provide too little clinical information to conclude or give you any advice. All I can say is that in my opinion, false causality with masturbation is assumed and all possible causes of this rash should be explored (infectious, allergenic or autoimmune ethiologies).
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Hello, I am searching for QES-questionnaire on experience with skin complaints. Does anyone have any study based on this questionnaire?
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Hello Sopiko,
some years ago I investigated the construct validity of the QES. As far as I remember the general results were good, but some subscales were not sensitive to change. The study and the results are described in the attached publication.
Best wishes,
Horst
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What is the best remediation schedule/practice for human epidermal infection caused by dermatophyte (Trichophyton rubrum) in tropical humid-sub humid conditions?
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Systemic terbinafine during 16 days with, sometimes, a topical imidazole
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I find that dermatologists are very aware of this problem. What research evidences do we have in order to reverse the problem (i.e. thickening skin)?
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Reitamo S, et al. J Invest Dermatol 1998; 111:396–398: here we can find evidence that tacrolimus can reverse poststeriodal skin atrophy
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early Rhinophyma in a young girl of 23 years.. How best ccan it be managed without much recurrence, and improving QOLI. quality of life Index.
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Dear Venkata, Rhinophyma and other phymas are localized swellings of facial soft tissues due to variable combinations of fibrosis, sebaceous hyperplasia and lymphoedema. They develop almost entirely in males. The commonest is rhinophyma, a swelling of the nose which may become grossly distorted in contour. Other areas which may be affected include the forehead (metophyma), chin (gnathophyma), eyelids (blepharophyma) and ears (otophyma). In many cases rhinophyma develops in patients with a long
history of other features of rosacea, and it is often regarded as a complication or ‘end stage’ of the disease. However, rhinophyma is sometimes also seen in patients who do not have any history of other manifestations of rosacea. Occasionally rhinophyma is complicated by the development of a malignancy and this can be difficult to recognize. It is likely, but not proved, that active treatment of
rosacea may inhibit the development of rhinophyma. Unfortunately neither systemic nor topical treatments for rosacea have any useful impact on established rhinophyma. One exception is systemic isotretinoin, which can significantly reduce the bulk of rhinophyma although it does not restore normal skin contours. Treatment of rhinophyma and other phymas therefore usually involves surgical removal of excess tissue or other means of physical ablation. Remodelling can often be successfully achieved simply by paring off the excess tissue with a
scalpel. Electrosurgery is an inexpensive alternative method. Excision and vaporization with argon, carbon dioxide or Nd : Yag lasers is effective. Other treatments have included cryotherapy and ionizing radiation. The latter approach is probably most useful in cases with coexisting malignancy.
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How can I evaluate implementation in health services like dermatoscopy in dermatology services ?
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Dear Sandra,
Basic steps of evaluation are input, process, output, outcome & impact of a particular service component based on its objectives & targeted intervention programme. U need to select appropriate indicator/s for each of the above steps. Then assess quantitatively & qualitatively against each indicator.
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Bans of tanning salons and legislation in this direction in many countries has been warranted by evidence of cancer, esp. melanoma. While there are many reports and publications pointing to the negative health effects of the excessive recurrence to tanning procedures and the tanning salons-cancer correlation, I wonder whether someone has investigated the role of cleaning and sanitizing agents used to clean tanning salons as well as the numerous cosmetic products applied by clients before, during and after tanning procedures.
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You are right, there are.
Some of the formulas are obscure, and the manufacturers do not declare their complete presence, but these chemicals are mostly related with skin allergies or irritations not melanoma. regards
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We are undertaking laboratory studies relating to toxic gas exposure and dermal absorption (invitro) for hazmat scenario was wondering if anyone is doing this type of study.
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I have looking for and I find these last studies relating to toxic gas exposure and dermal absorption:
I think there is no studies using human skin.  
I do not know if it can be used.
1.In-vitro methods for testing dermal absorption and penetration of toxic gases.
Gaskin S, Pisaniello D, Edwards JW, Bromwich D, Reed S, Logan M, Baxter C.
Toxicol Mech Methods. 2014 Jan;24(1):70-2. doi: 10.3109/15376516.2013.859193. Epub 2013 Nov 20.
Pollution characteristics and potential health risk of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in soil/sediment from Baiyin City, North West, China.
2.Hu X, Xu Z, Peng X, Ren M, Zhang S, Liu X, Wang J.
Environ Geochem Health. 2013 Oct;35(5):593-604. doi: 10.1007/s10653-013-9542-y. Epub 2013 Jun 23.
3.Dermal and pulmonary absorption of ethanol from alcohol-based hand rub.
Ahmed-Lecheheb D, Cunat L, Hartemann P, Hautemanière A.
J Hosp Infect. 2012 May;81(1):31-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2012.02.006. Epub 2012 Mar 22.
4.Dermal and pulmonary absorption of propan-1-ol and propan-2-ol from hand rubs.
Below H, Partecke I, Huebner NO, Bieber N, Nicolai T, Usche A, Assadian O, Below E, Kampf G, Parzefall W, Heidecke CD, Zuba D, Bessonneau V, Kohlmann T, Kramer A.
Am J Infect Control. 2012 Apr;40(3):250-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2011.03.009. Epub 2011 Jul 8.
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task analysis can be useful for improving preservice or in-service education or regulation of health workers.
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