Science topic

Dental Caries - Science topic

Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp. The three most prominent theories used to explain the etiology of the disease are that acids produced by bacteria lead to decalcification; that micro-organisms destroy the enamel protein; or that keratolytic micro-organisms produce chelates that lead to decalcification.
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Anyone know how I can obtain this article in Full text and English?:
"Caries prevention effectiveness of aresin based sealant and a glass ionomer sealants: a report of 5-year-follow-up"
Thanks for your input!!
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PubMed. Always good to include: Author, date, volume, etc. Helps the search and it helps in discussions and quoting the reference.
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Hello dear colleagues
I read several articles that deliberately suggested that the two techniques were comparable in terms of diagnostic capability in dental caries.
But considering that I see a maxillofacial radiologist in different cases in the clinic, I think there is a lot of diagnostic error in CBCT. Therefore, I want to use the experiences of other colleagues in this space and to know the opinions and ideas based on the clinical work experience of my colleagues.
With regards
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According to the case
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I have observed white crystal-like spots on the surface of the seaweeds. it is present only on the surface. I can remove it simply by rubbing. As I am new to this process, I want to know that will these white spots affect the research reports? especially for MTT assay.
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Arul it is salt crystals. Some time sodium chloride crystals affect some assay
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Are there any advantages to using a Bayesian approach for the analysis of zero inflated count data, specifically dental caries data? Any references that would support that analysis?
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It really depends where the zeros are coming from. Bayesian models have the principled advantage that one can integrate prior knowledge into the data in a natural way.
For example, assume that a rare event (e.g. a rare disease) did not occur in your study. With frequentist statistics, your estimate for the probability of this event would be zero. However, if you have prior information from previous studies telling you that the probability of this event is, say 0.01, then you could use a prior distribution peaked around 0.01 and combine this with your data. Then, after combining your data (Likelihood) with the prior, the posteriors probability distribution of this rare disease probability would have a peak somewhere below 0.01 (because it did not happen in your data). However, the event would still not be considered impossible, just rare.
As Kerav said, it depends what the situation is. But if this is your problem, you could go for a Bayesian model. Otherwise, ZIP models are also a way of dealing with it.
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Is there a clear justification or any advantage to using a Bayesian approach for the analysis of zero-inflated count data? Specifically dental caries
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A justification would be if you had prior information that you want to incorporate in the analysis in a principled way. Or if you want to make probability statements about parameter values, what requires to fromulate some prior knowledge about these parameters (frequentists analysis make probability statements only about the data).
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Hello,
I'm assisting a lab training on how to gavage rat pups prenatal day 7 to day 15, does anyone have a chart about the size gavage needle used based on age, but maybe by weight they could share? I'm thinking the flexible would be the best. Any help would be appreciated.
Than kyou,
Kari
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Yes, in that study, and in many others, we have used the PE-10 tubing from age P 3 to P 17 (for adults we use PE-50).
Best regards, Gabriela
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Hello all,
I have an Arabidopsis mutant. When I grow it, I found there are lots of white spots on the leaves. I know some insects, like thrips, will feed leaves and leave scars. But I didn't find a clear insect on the plants. So I doubt it's the intrinsic reason. Could anyone help share some thoughts on this phenotype?
Thanks very much.
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Dear @Xian-Hai Zhao Arabidopsis belongs to Brassica family. Various kinds of leaf spot diseases including rust caused by different fungal species have been reported in rapeseed - mustard. You better know about the environmental conditions in which the mutant has been growing. I suspect it may be a fungal disease.
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Despite the improvement in oral dental health in several countries which can be achieved through the use of fluoride measures, caries incidence is still widespread and is a cause of concern in many countries. Although fluoride has had an effect on caries prevalence but it is not eliminate caries totally. dental caries and periodontal disease are affected by several and different factors that it will need to work against the effect of them to achieve their prevention.
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As mentioned above, caries is a multifactorial disease and several risk factors not just genetics (as the quality of saliva) but also enviromental, cultural and behaviour riskfactors must be considered. Caries is not caused by the absence of fluoride or fluoride toothpaste, as in many developing countries. Both at population level but mostly at individual level the causative risk factors of the desease must be indentified. In many cases is our life-style changes, behaviour risk factors are the cause. We are not seeing, unfortunately, a decrease in sugar intake for example (as it increases in every country). We see in increases incidence in caries amongst children here in Sweden.
Periodontal disease, the incidence is rather stabile among the population.
In both cases, these diseases are preventable, and for me as a health practitioner the most important is to teach people, individuals how to achieve a healthy lifestyle, helping them to adapt and practice healthy behaviours, change poor habits but also monitor and support those at high risk of the disease.
Working daily with health promotion my goal is for the individual to develope healthy habits early in life (but as we know is never to late to make a change), and maintain them to old age.
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I would be delighted to send me any article about this point.
If so, what are the available products except Embrace Wetbond that are hydrophilic and at the same time release calcium and phosphate?
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In the case of SEM (scanning electron microscopy) of Fasciola gigantica, some white spots/substances were found but what are the causes for these?
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Hello,
a picture may be useful.
If these white spots have a geometrical form like square it is probably salt crystal. You need to wash extensively with water after fixation. You should also avoid fixation with PBS, which is highly salty.
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I am studying inhibitors effect on LDH activity in Streptococcus mutans and I want to study enamel Demineralization Test in vitro, is there any test to study enamel Demineralization in vitro??
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Based on the information that you are investigating LDH inhibitors of S. mutans, I would assume that you are not interested in how to induce initial enamel caries lesions, but how to monitor lesion progression or assess lesion size. Correct? (you see it is not so easy to formulate a question in an unambiguous way).
The size of a lesion can be assessed for example by means of X-rays. In connection with caries experiments, for example, transverse microradiography (= TMR) is recommended as a well established method (de Josselin de Jong E, ten Bosch JJ, Noordman J: Optimised microcomputer-guided quantitative microradiography on dental mineral tissues slices. Phys Med Biol 1987;32:887-899).
TMR is replaced more and more with microct evaluations (see for example: Thomas, R., Ruben, J. L., De Vries, J., Ten Bosch, J. J., & Huysmans, M. C. D. N. J. M. (2006). Transversal wavelength-independent microradiography, a method for monitoring caries lesions over time, validated with transversal microradiography. Caries research, 40(4), 281-291).
Personally I prefer the microct approach, as you can perform repeated measurements with the same sample. It is a non-destructive method.
However, not everybody has such an expensive device.
Another well established alternative is quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF). You find plenty of publications on the website of www.inspektor.nl.
This publication might be especially interesting for you:
Kim, Y. S., Lee, E. S., Kwon, H. K., & Kim, B. I. (2014). Monitoring the maturation process of a dental microcosm biofilm using the Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence-Digital (QLF-D). Journal of dentistry, 42(6), 691-696.
QLF does not need expensive equipment. You do not need the Inspector devices. You can do it yourself. You can for example use a fluorescence microscope. A simple FITC filter would be sufficient. QLF is valid only for lesions up to a thickness of 500 µm. But you will hardly every induce more tha 500 µm deep enamel lesions in the lab.
If you need software to evaluate your images, use ImageJ. I have written a plugin for ImageJ to perform QLF. Google will help you to find it.
I would go for the QLF in case you have budget restrictions.
If you have access to a microCT, go for the microCT method. But keep in mind. You can only see effects with are roughly 2.5 times the size of the so called voxel size. The explanation behind this is described here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nyquist%E2%80%93Shannon_sampling_theorem
A lot of researchers using a microct does not know this limitation!
Sincerely
Karl-Heinz Kunzelmann
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Is it possible to (automatically) convert annotated dental caries on MicroCT images to 2D X-rays of the same teeth? If so, which software would be recommended and how can this be done?
Thanks in advance!
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Hello,
before I answer, I want to make sure that I have understood the question correctly.
My understanding of the question is that you have MicroCT data sets in which you have marked caries interactively or by image processing. You call this annotation.
In addition, you have 2D radiographs of exactly the same teeth. Are these clinical X-rays or are they in vitro X-rays? I call this dataset in the following clinical/in vitro.
Now you want to transfer the markings from the 3D data set to the 2D data set.
If I had to solve the task, I would make the markings in the MicroCT 3D data using segmentation as a so-called label mask.
Then I would generate a simulated 2D X-ray image from the 3D data set, which is based on the projection of the 2D data set. Do not only use a simple slice, you have to add the projection of all pixels perpenticular to you "projection" and generate an average grayvalue. In ImageJ this would be similar to the algorithm which is used for "z-projection. I call this dataset in the following virtual simulated.
This virtual simulated 2D data set would be generated once with the pure gray scale image data and once using exactly the same parameters with the superimposed label mask.
The two grayscale 2D data sets (virtual simulated and clinical/in vitro) I would match by Image Registration. With the exact same values obtained from the registration, I would transform the virtually simulated 2D data set with Label Mask. Afterwards the Label Mask parts can be overlaid on the clinical/in vitro X-ray data set (alpha channel).
I like to work with open source programs like ImageJ/Fiji. Alternatively you can use Python with for example opencv. You can find good tutorial on Youtube.
Probably you can achieve the same result with any other image processing software.
I just sketched a possible workflow that came to my mind right away. However, the devil is in the details, i.e. it will probably not be as simple as I described it in reality. But it would be boring if there were no more challenges in science.
However, if you want to raise a lot of money for the project due to the current funding policy for grants, then promise to achieve the same result with Artificial Intelligence, deep learning and neural networks. That would be zeitgeist and hip, but it won't work any better than the path I proposed.
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there is established evidence that the amount and frequency of eating sugary snacks or drinks contribute to dental caries. What about if someone brush his/her teeth with fluoride toothpaste after each sugar intake? what will happen about my caries risk if I brush my teeth after each sugar intake (for example: cake, chocolate, sugar drink and so on)?
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Everything is not as easy as it seems. (Murphy's Law)
Unfortunately, fluoride does not protect against tooth decay, since tooth decay is formed inside the tooth, and not outside the tooth. Frequent use of fluoride paste and / or fluids with fluoride can lead to fluorosis.
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Epidemic prevention is like a combat war. Why does the world fighting COVID-19 strategy focus only on studying the enemy, prevent the enemy, fighting the enemy, but no one pays attention to strengthening the enemy, that is, strengthening personal health?
What makes a healthy person? Please read: https://universaltcm.com/health-standard/
Should we study the enemy and defend the enemy in parallel with the strengthening of the self army?
Meanwhile, why do not study the persons who are cured or uninfected is the result of less phlegm in the lung? The white spots on the palm are the phlegm in the lung.
More white spots on the palms mean there is more phlegm in the lungs. And look at the severely sick or dead persons have more white areas on their palms.
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Not at all sir.
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I was previously told by my dentist that tea contains high fluoride, therefore drinking more of it (without sugar) can help protect teeth from caries.
On the other hand, as many people prefer to drink tea with sugar, that may enhance the bacteria causing the dental problems.
Any scientific evidence if tea is good or not for the dental hygiene?
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Dear Hani,
this is an interesting question. Of the many benefits of tea, idid not know that this was one of them. I do not know if fluoridated water is necessary, but it would be an enhancement. I am sending 2 links. Green and oolong teas fight cavities.
brigid
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Hello all,
I'm trying to isolate some cells from pig gingival tissue, I'm working under hood and every thing is sterile and clean, I wash the tissue 5 times with pbs containing 10x pen/strep before starting but every time I'm getting some contamination next day, the media becomes cloudy with some white spots and there are many small black dots when looking under microscope. how can I solve this problem?
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Using rubber dam
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Kids globally suffer from dental caries and pose problems for the dentist to treat it with conventional drilling. SDF is recommended to stop progression of carious lesion with out drilling. It is definitely, very viable alternative solution for attending dentist to manage such uncooperative children. Kindly share your experiences.
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Asaad Javaid Mirza Respected Sir. Thank you so much for bringing in this topic. I know there is a lot of enthusiasm related to this breakthrough recognition of SDF. I am personally using SDF on ECC patients and also pursuing a study on its effectiveness. Till now I am quite satisfied and patients are also not reporting any post-application issues. The only concern some parents had was related to permanent discoloration. This was reasoned out with parents where the child was not willing for the restorations and out of the few eventually agreed upon.
Many thanks
Regards
Amina
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Is the teeth anatomy or size (( anterior teeth or molar ..ie)) have an influence on performance of detecting proximal caries?
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Hi,
The macro- and micro-anatomy of the different functional types of teeth, as well as:
- the presence or absence of occlusion issues
- teeth position in the oral cavity vis-a-vis the dentist (i.e. degree of easy access, tooth's visibility percentage)
- the size of interproximal spaces
- any irregularities in surface enamel
- the variable color of tooth enamel
- the position of patient's body during dental procedures (i.e. sitting angle)
influence the detection of proximal caries.
Relevant references and methods on how to solve the problem (in various languages):
Plus a bonus - am interesting survey, published recently in the Journal of the German Society of Dentistry and Oral Medicine, on how and why dentists deal with proximal caries:
I hope that helps with your research :)
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I want to know more about the advantages and disadvantages of NRCT
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NRCT is not a feasible option for teeth inflicted with caries, as the nonrestored area would cause food impaction or the growth of gingival polyps which could worsen the situation. Thus all carious teeth have to be restored.
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While there are several types of toothbrush models and shapes, which is actually better?
Is there evidence that the use of vibrating (battery-powered) toothbrush better than the regular toothbrush?
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de Jager M, Rmaile A, Darch O, Bikker JW. The effectiveness of manual versus high-frequency, high-amplitude sonic powered toothbrushes for oral health: A meta-analysis. J Clin Dent 2017;28(1 Spec No A):A13-28.
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Some dentist promote fluoride-free toothpaste as a safer alternative, while others say that it's vital to prevent dental caries.
Is fluoride-based toothpaste good or bad?
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Floride would cause pineal gland calcification leading to disfunctioning of the gland. Its bad.
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These lesions show microcavitations that cannot be
completely filled with the infiltrant resin which may increased with time.
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Hello,
please see this excellent review of infiltration technique for the hard scientific facts:
Dorri M1, Dunne SM, Walsh T, Schwendicke F.
Micro-invasive interventions for managing proximal dental decay in primary and permanent teeth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Nov 5;(11):CD010431. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010431.pub2.
Now the personal aspect:
Infiltration technique is intended for small initial lesions where you would not use a conventional drill-fill-(bill) approach.
Based on radiographical examinations in clinical studies the infiltration technique is "significantly more effective than non-invasive professional treatment (e.g. fluoride varnish) or advice (e.g. to floss)." citated form the above mentioned reference.
Therefore: the patient has no disadvantages (except some time and money for the infiltration technique). The patient can only benefit from it.
In case you see a progression of the lesion you still can make a regular filling. Based on one of the 3 year studies about 2/3 of the lesions do not progress (for whatever reason, it might be due to infiltration, but it could be just an improvement of oral hygiene, too).
And all this even with the few microporosities which were not filled in lab experiments :-)
It infiltration a go! It is better than the "wait-and-see" approach.
Sincerely
Karl-Heinz
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Caries traditionally has been primarily treated by removing using a rotating bur and restoring the produced hole with a suitable restorative material. Evidence suggests that digging and filling not only makes the under-treatment tooth weaker but also fails to stop secondary caries.Contrarily, sealing of caries as well, has been found effective to stop caries progression. I wold like sharing of views.
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Hello Nicola,
I do not want to spend a lot of time with this article.
I just want to comment on the second sentence:
"However, longevity of resinous restorations is not satisfactory. The failure rate ranges from 15% to 50% according to previous survival investigations [3,4]."
Now let's look into the very few cited references: 3 and 4
4 is from 2006. The observation time is 17 years. The restorations were made in 1987 and 1988 (in a private practice!). "Dentine walls were covered with glass ionomer cement,..." - nice adhesion by the way.
You can further read in 4 "The main failure cause was repair–fracture of restoration (42.9%), and this failure occurred in most of restorations at the occusal surface."
So: adhesion does not seem to be a major issue, even with dentin isolation from adhesion with glassionomer and the earliest available materials for posterior use.
A quick view into reference 3 reveals the following conclusion of the authors:
"In the high-risk group, composite and amalgam restorations showed comparable performance, with amalgam performing better on smaller restorations. For the combined risk groups and the low-risk group, composite restorations showed better survival at 12 yrs."
What else do you want?
Shall I continue to analyse the article sentence by sentence? Or can draw your own conclusions about the care with which the data for the article have been researched?
Sincerely
Karl-Heinz
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  • Who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1993 for inventing PCR?
    • A. David Baltimore
    • B. Kary Mullis
    • C. Robert Weinberg
    • D. John Nash
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B. Kary Mullis
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White Spot Virus, Shrimp, rapid diagnostic kit
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Hi Alok,
There are several WSSV diagnostic kits available in the market. One is IQ2000 WSSV Detection and Prevention System PCR kit by GeneReach. There are also nested PCR protocols used to detect WSSV such as that of Kimura et al. 1996.
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Apparently, untreated tooth decay can be the source of the appearance and development of various diseases and other diseases in the human body.
Therefore, the current question is: Can dental caries cause other serious diseases?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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Yes, the most important bacterial spread in the blood and recorded cases of atherosclerosis and high risk of CVS problems and the most serious cases registered for patients with diabetes
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Hi,
I'm looking for the detailed list of questions from each domain (social support, perceived discrimination, tribal identity...) of the Basic Research Factors Questionnaire.
This questionnaire is used for early childhood caries.
Thanks.
Thomas
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Thank you so much
Faheema Kimmie
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Other than saponin, which class of compound appears as white spot on plate TLC after spraying with ceric sulphate solution and heating?
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Intra-Oral Hydrogen-Ion Concentrations Associated With Dental Caries Activity
Thanks!!
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I'm looking for a method of coating Biofilm Peg lids (not Innovotech) with Hydroxyapatite. 
I have the HA solution made which works fine to coat a 96 well base plate, however the evaporation/precipitation process does not work to evenly dry down and coat a peg lid (the precipitate sinks to the bottom).
I have tried soaking the pegs in a plate then inverting and drying in an oven at 65.c (any higher melts the peg lid) for 15 min intervals.
Alternatively I'm looking for any basic/simple methods of looking at S. mutans biofilms in vitro in an oral/dental context.
Thanks in advance for your help!
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Hi Fiona,
This may be helpful.
See Section 2.1.1 of Gail Martin's PhD Thesis entitled 'Development of an orally relevant biofilm disinfection model'.
Regards
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DMTF Index is still frequently used in dental caries surveys, although new indexes have been presented.
But did the dmft index suffer any modification in the last years?
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Nyvads criteria...CAST index....ICDAS II have been proved to be valid indices recently to measure caries experience.all this indices considers both cavitated and non cavitated lesions...but for large population surveys WHO modification 1997 is still followed though it considers only cavitated lesions..
WHO Basic Oral Health Survey 2013 is the recent one which recommends calculation of DMFT/ dmft from dentition status index
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Salivary pH and Caries experience (DMFT/dmft) data is collected from each member of a family (parents and children). Data was collected from 200 families. What is the most appropriate statistical test to examine relationship between the level of salivary pH to DMFT among children in the family. Can Mixed model analysis (taking into account family structure) containing both fixed and random effects be used ? Also which test to use to examine relationship between level of salivary pH of parents and children within a family.
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Dear Ritu
Two good references are attached.
Regards,
Zuhair
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My name is Amandine HUFSCHMITT, I am a sixth-grade dentistry student from the university of Strasbourg (France). With another dentistry student, we would like to realise a research thesis about the using of carisolv and Papacarie for caring axious patient (adult or children). This thesis will be based on actual articles but also based on a clinical study that we would like to realise in our dentistry clinic of the University of Strasbourg. In that way we need some carisolv and papacarie syringe however there is no carisolv and papacarie distributor in France. That is the reason why we contact you to know how collecting some carisolv and papacarie products for our study. This carisolv study will be the first in France and we wish our work will be published. Thank you for your precious help, if anyone have an idea who can I contact for this sample.
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Hello,
we investigated proteolytic enzyms a few years ago for self-limiting caries therapy ()
We had similar problems to get the commercial products. If you cannot get hands on the commercial materials I suggest to mix your own solutions. It is much easier than you might expect.
For example, you can buy Papain from Sigma-Aldrich (https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/life-science/metabolomics/enzyme-explorer/analytical-enzymes/papain.html). They have information about the pH-optimum. You will find details about the concentrations in the early publications, probably (See "Buskadory + Papain" in Google or Pubmed ). Or you make several preliminary experiments with varying concentrations.
You can do the same for Carisolv. The recipe is available in the publications or the safety data sheets. In addition, you can look in the published patents of those products.
I would say that for a scientific publication this approach is much better than the use of the commercial products as you know all ingredients.
Just make sure you mix the solutions always fresh.
Good luck and rely on your knowledge about biochemistry from your study. It is no rocket science ;-)
Sincerely
Karl-Heinz
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role of sugar has been well documented in causing dental caries. what are the new paradigms on this domain...
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To the best of my knowledge in 2013, according to WHO consumption of sugar by adult should not exceed 20 kg /person/year.... that can be translated as near 10 tea spoon a day, however consumption of single soft drink was enough to achieve that.... Later WHO recommended it to be 10 kg per person per year, Now ideally it is said that energy from free sugar should be avoided and it should be 0 kg .
In dental practice, It is necessary to give dietary advice to patients? How many dentist know that? or doing that significantly, needs to be monitored through research.
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Caries has been treated by restorative intervention as a primary treatment. Knowing now that caries is a mutifactorial infectious disease which can be reversed if anticipated in an early stage. Despite that fact that around two decades back, medical model has been recommended to treat this infectious disease, not only dentists continue treating it in old fashioned manner but the clinical teaching of caries remains on obsolete principles. When and how this mindset would change??
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Hi!
In response to the title question: Yes, since the other option is to leave caries to progress, and such progress may lead to infection, fractures, and even tooth loss. Drilling and filling is the strategy which showed over the years to work on stopping such progress, maybe sometimes slowing such progress.
Regarding the comment.
Your exposition has several domains.  
Education. On the one side, people should be taught about the importance of oral hygiene, be involved in conscious self-care, and rely on honest regular checks (not moved by the willingness to earn the most performing fancy treatments). On the other side, dentists (stomatologist) have to be committed to the process of educating the persons on the importance of self-care, the correct hygiene procedures according to each person.
Clinical teaching (dentistry). It is imperative to understand the basis of the modern clinical procedures. It may be seen like time-consuming, but it is the way to understand and improve new techniques, otherwise, you will be forming mere-technicians.
Response to the final question: Several conditions have to happen before to promote a change in the teaching procedures of dentistry. The population have to reduce the need for “traditional” (maybe old-fashioned) treatments; similarly, need to be wealthy enough to cover to cost of modern “fancy” non-traditional treatments.
My statement:
If the population experiences the best possible oral health, “old-fashion” treatments, as well as “fancy” treatments, will not be needed at all.
As long as we identify economic disparities combined with the experience of infectious diseases, the best cheap, fast, effective treatments will always be needed. Moreover, personnel trained to perform under several conditions (urban, rural, camp).
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Im  am currently conduct a research on reliability of sensibility test :thermal and electric pulp test(EPT).
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Try to use The sci-hub motor research, it Will Give u thé full text of majority of abstracts.. : www.sci-hub.io
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I would like isolate streptococcus mutans from dental caries with blood agar and i would like to use TSA trypticate soy agar as the basis of this medium
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Answer 2: Mutans streptococci (Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus) are the most important bacteria in the pathogenesis of dental caries due to many epidemiological, experimental and animal studies. This is due to their ability of rapid lactic acid formation from dietary carbohydrates, mainly sucrose and glucose. Principle identification or diagnosis of mutans streptococci is usually made from the characteristic morphology of its colonies on 5% sucrose containing culture media. The ability of the isolates for utilizing various carbohydrates was carried out in growth media containing (mannitol, sorbitol and inulin) with sucrose as (a positive control). Blood agar is an enriched, bacterial growth medium. Fastidious organisms, such as streptococci, do not grow well on ordinary growth media. Blood agar is a type of growth medium (trypticase soya agar enriched with 5% sheep blood) that encourages the growth of bacteria, such as streptococci, that otherwise wouldn’t grow.
S. mutans synthesis extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) i.e. glucan, from the glucosylresiduse of sucrose by secretion glucosyltransferase (GTFs). It is well known that S.mutans has at least three GTFs (GTFB, C, and D). (Nishimura, et al., 2012). GTB and D mainly synthesize water-insoluble -(1-3) - and water soluble -(1-6)-glucan. GTF-C associates with insoluble and soluble glucan synthesis, which is controlled by the genes gtfB, gtfC, and gtfD (Koo et al., 2010; Monchoisetal., 1999). The gtfB and gtfC genes are tandomly arranged on S. mutans chromosomal DNA. (Ueda and Kuramitsu, 1988). The nucleotide sequences of gtf genes from different oral streptococci comply with the same basic pattern. The GTFs are very large proteins of approximately 1300- 1700 amino acids long (Devulapalle et al., 1997). Streptococcal GTFs have two common functional domains. The amino-terminal portion, the catalytic domain, is responsible for the cleavage of sucrose, and the carboxylterminal portion, the glucan binding domain, is responsible for glucan binding (Colby and Russell, 1997).  In addition the two genes share extensive nucleotide sequence homology.  
The primary amino acid sequences of the streptococcal GTF enzymes are highly homologous. The synthesis of extracellular water-insoluble glucans from sucrose is necessary for the formation of dental plaque by S. mutans (Hamada and Slade, 1980). It is generally understood that this polymerization is catalyzed by two types of extracellular glucosyltransferase one synthesizing a water-soluble product from sucrose (GTF-S) and another synthesizing water-insoluble product from sucrose (GTFI). These two types of  GTF, when combined, synthesize a complex, highly branched, adherent, water-insoluble glucan (Walker, 1978).The GTF produced by S. mutans can be found either in the culture supernatant or on the cell surface in an associated form. Certain GTFs can bind to the cell surface of MS and promote cellular adherence via insoluble glucan synthesized de novo from sucrose (Horikoshiet al., 1995). The origin of cell-associated enzyme of sucrose-grown cells has not been determined, nor has the role of soluble enzyme in the formation of cell-associated enzyme been investigated (Horikoshiet al., 1995). Two form of cell-associated GTFs from the serotype c S. mutans  strain GS-5 one enzyme was extracted by treatment 1 M-NaCl from cells grown in TH broth. The other GTFs was an intracellular enzyme released after distruption of cells (Kuramitsu, 2006).
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There have been numerous studies on loss of dimension, changes in micrometers, surface change observed with electron microscope, etc. I cant find any that address the change in weight of tooth/enamel. can anyone help???
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Answer 1: Definitely erosion of enamel can occur due to continuous intake of lemon juice; however no studies have been reported or available in the literature as far as weight change of teeth is concerned in vivo. Effect of fluoride on demineralized enamel is a very well known phenomenon as countless number of studies had been carried out throughout the globe. It is also a known phenomenon that saliva replenished with fluoride ions helps in remineralizing the tooth structure. Fluoride present in whole saliva ranges from 0.01 to 0.05 ppm. If fluoride application has been carried out then concentration of fluoride in saliva could be very high even hours later. Saliva is separated from the tooth surface by a layer of plaque. This serves as a very important source of fluoride because it can concentrate fluoride to very high levels. When the pH drops, this fluoride is released and it combines with hydrogen ions to form HF, which diffuses into enamel. Fluoride can be weakly or strongly adsorbed onto the tooth surface. If present on the tooth surface it is released during an acid challenge. Even low concentration i.e. 0.1 ppm fluoride is sufficient to encourage crystal growth. These crystals are larger and deposition occurs at a faster rate in the presence of fluoride. More importantly the deposition occurs in form of fluoridated hydroxyapatite. Hence, it is the presence of fluoride in the aqueous phase in the oral fluids that is very important. This can occur when fluoride is applied frequently to the tooth surface at concentrations low enough to diffuse into enamel or through the use of high fluoride containing products which result in the formation of calcium fluoride. The formation of calcium fluoride was considered a drawback because of its high solubility in water as demonstrated in some in-vitro experiments. But this situation is not replicated in-vivo. In the oral cavity, calcium fluoride has been found to be retained for a much longer period of time. This is because of the presence of a phosphate-protein-rich protective layer on the calcium fluoride globules. Furthermore, this product gets converted to fluorapatite under cariogenic challenges.
NaF applied topically reacts with hydroxyapatite crystals to form CaF2 which is the dominant product of reaction. This solubility product CaF2 is formed at a faster rate due to high concentration of fluoride (9,000 ppm) in 2% NaF and this initial rapid reaction is followed by drastic reduction in its rate and the phenomenon is called choking off. This occurs because once a thick layer of CaF2 gets formed it interferes with the further diffusion of fluoride from the topical fluoride solution to react with hydroxyapatite. Due to this reason sodium fluoride solution once applied is left to dry for 4 minutes. Then CaF2 reacts with HA (hydroxyapatite) to form fluoridated hydroxyapatite.
            CaF2 + 2Ca5 (PO4)3 OH                             2Ca5 (PO4)3 F + Ca (OH)2
            This reaction leads to manifold anticaries effect by increasing the concentration of surface fluoride which makes the tooth structure more stable and less susceptible to dissolution by acids, interferes with plaque metabolism through anti-enzymatic action and also helps in remineralization of the initial decalcified areas.
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We are searching for a formulation of an adhesive gel in which an natural extract is gone to be added for oral use uin a clnical study.
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Hi Dr.Ruben
You may consider butadiene-based synthetic rubber , which is used in Chewing Gum. Put the extract in it. prepare nice tablets like chewing gum tictacs and once eaten the extract will be out. You may search chewing gum or bubble gum category gums in detail.
Hope this may be useful to you or at least  opens a way out.
Good luck.
Best Regards
Girish
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increases salivary flow, remineralistion property, inhibit growth & metabolism of MS, 
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Different clinical trials showed different results. Most recent opinion on xylitol, it is not as effective as we were told before. We need a systematic review with meta-analysis on this subject to find out the truth. The following trial although on adults didn’t demonstrate significant caries reduction after using xylitol lozenges for 33 months.
Bader JD, and colleagues found that “Daily use of xylitol lozenges did not result in a statistically or clinically significant reduction in 33-month caries increment among adults at an elevated risk of developing caries”
Bader JD, Vollmer WM, Shugars DA, Gilbert GH, Amaechi BT, Brown JP, Laws RL, Funkhouser KA, Makhija SK, Ritter AV, Leo MC.
Results from the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT).
J Am Dent Assoc. 2013 Jan;144(1):21-30.
PMID: 23283923
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including social and biomedical factors 
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Presence of streptococcus M, at young age, OH (brushing at least twice a day), cariogenic diet (frequency of sugar consumption) as well social factors have an impact in developing dental caries.
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Hello! My outcome is the ceod index, is an average or median to population level, but based on count individual data. The ceod index is the addition of teeth with decay, teeth with extraction indication and filled teeth by individual. Then, one calculates the average ceod for the population in study. Therefore, the distribution is with excess zeros (about 30% of the observations) and over-dispersion.
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Dear Maria Jose Monsalves 
please check the resources
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bacterial DNA for meta genomic analysis 
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thank you 
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International Caries Detection and Assessment is one of the simple and comprehensive system available for epidemiological study of dental caries. Can anybody suggest weather this system be adopted for primary dentition? If yes can it it be directly adopted "As it is"  or any modifications available?
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Value of ICDAS index in a preschool community from Iaşi.
Maxim DC, Luchian I, Cernei R, Mihalas E, Toma V.
Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2013 Apr-Jun;117(2):509-14
Braz Oral Res. 2010 Apr-Jun;24(2):211-6.
Dental caries in the primary dentition of a Colombian population according to the ICDAS criteria.
Cadavid AS1, Lince CM, Jaramillo MC
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The product is required for NGS analysis
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Dear Kalpana Vijayakumar
pls check the link
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dmft/dmfs index, pufa index, prs index, icdas
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Depends on what you want to know. If you are doing an epidemiological study on a larger scale, DMFT is a measure for caries activity in the young population (not for adults!). ICDAS is probably the best we have to monitor caries lesions in individuals, so suitable for the dentist in managing caries in his patients.
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Any recent advances in measuring some variables like pH?
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Thank you Dr José Manuel Valdés Reyes 
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For anti-caries, oral antimicrobial agents and oral health care products development, I am looking for an in vitro mouth model system for experiments. One of my mentors (Dr. Bennett T Amaechi, UTHSCSA) has one, but I am looking for somthing more advanced or a commercial one.
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Hi Karthikeyan,
From the sound of it, the Constant Depth Film Fermenter (CDFF) fits the bill. It facilitate control of a number of environmental parameters and can mimic the oral cavity very well. It can allow for the growth of biofilms associated with particular oral diseases through the control of the gaseous environment and change or addition of nutrients. In particular, the model allows for a variety of substrata, including hydroxyapatite or enamel. 
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one million of leukocytes enter in oral cavity every minute..
Why are they ignored in dental caries infection? They contain lysosomal enzymes which are active in acidic environment only They may brake down organic pellicle which cover tooth which is acid resistant, than acid may brake down enamel prisms. that is how caries begin
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Majority of leukocytes in oral cavity are dead and contribute to periodontitis and dental caries If there are bacteria that produce acid from sugar lysosomal enzymes caming from dead leukocytes are active in acidic environment
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And which theory or model is suitable for dental caries?
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AAPD website you can find all the details including prevention and what to expect
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The significance of this disease lies in severe hypodontia, and an accompanying hypoplasia of the alveolar process. The clinical situation is aggravated by a significant xerostomia. No articles at present discuss about the prevalence of dental caries
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A Swedish researcher Birgitta Bergendal have done some research about individuals with ectordermal dysplasia. You can find her studies in pubmed
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I'm trying to make a compendium of many concepts of "dental caries" with different projections.
Thank you in advance and best regards.
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Thank you both of you.... was very helpful all... best regards
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I will appreciate a lot all papers you can share.... thank you in advance and best regards.
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Thank you Gazala this is a great paper for my question. Best regards.
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The etiology for causation of dental caries is known to all but genetics is missed out due to lack of research in the field of genetics and dental caries.
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I have just been checking this topic in Dental Caries (2015) by Fejerskov et al.  They note:
"Familial patterns of caries occurrence have been noted at later dates...but more weight was quite rightly placed on the shared environment in the families than on genetic inheritance when observations were interpreted...Families share dietary practices and oral hygiene behaviors, and these two factors are sufficiently strong determinants of the caries outcome to explain why the notion of caries 'running in families' has arisen".
The only way to sort out which environments are important is by behavioral genetic studies, usually in twins.  In virtually all psychological and physiological traits, genetics is found to have a moderate influence, but shared environment very little, if any.  The important environmental factors are specific to the individual, ie non-shared.   So is dental caries an exception to this general finding?  I had a quick check on the internet but could not find a quick answer to this.
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I have to evaluate a guideline or protocol, and i need it to simpliffy steps of validation of questionnaires developed by us.
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Thank you coleegues !!
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Dentistry 
Eating disorders
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Effects of eating disorders on oral fungal diversity.
Back-Brito GN, da Mota AJ, de Souza Bernardes LÂ, Takamune SS, Prado Ede F, Cordás TA, Balducci I, da Nobrega FG, Koga-Ito CY.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2012
Eating disorders. Part I: Psychiatric diagnosis and dental implications.
Aranha AC, Eduardo Cde P, Cordás TA 
J Contemp Dent Pract. 2008 Sep 1;9(6):73-81.
Eating disorders part II: clinical strategies for dental treatment
Aranha AC, Eduardo Cde P, Cordás TA
J Contemp Dent Pract. 2008 Nov 1;9(7):89-96.
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As we know cortisol has some influence on the inflammation process. Is it possible that if cortisol already exists in saliva that it may influence the caries' severity, instead of when the carie is already there and the release of cortisol follows?
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There is a correlation. There are two schools of thought when it comes to cortisol and dental caries. The first school argues that when you have any inflammation in the body, the body releases steroid based compounds to combat the inflammation. Since cortisol is the end product of the entire family of steriod based families it makes sense that increased inflammation would result in increased cortisol. However, there is an alternate theory. Cortisol is also a biomarker of stress. The general role of stress in promoting dental caries is well known. Therefore while the inflammation of dental  caries is associated with increased cortisol, inflammation alone is not the whole explanation. 
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Dental caries is treated traditionally by drill and fill therapy. In-depth knowledge about caries and advent of newer biorestorative materials have shifted the paradigm and it is recommended to treat caries by minimal intervention and as per  patient's caries risk assessment (CAMBRA). I would appreciate if my dental colleagues share their experiences and difficulties in managing caries by CAMBRA.
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Our first clinical risk management programme (in 2006) was for a South African medical insured population using a caries risk assessment software system (self-developed) to improve treatment outcomes of dental care.
It was for an insured population (under dental insurance benefits) and we showed that focusing care on the High and Medium at-risk-individuals, a 19% cost-savings could be achieved - or around 19% of treatment claims costs of the medical insurer could be re-directed and re-deployed to provide care to the at-risk individuals ...
Medical insurers should compensate dental practitioners for doing a caries risk assessment and should request that the risk assessment scores be used in patient wellnes and disease management programmes - our work shows that it is a win-win for the dental practitioner and the dental health plan (insurance)
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Is the consumption of fruit cariogenic?
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Most fruits contain high concentrations of citric acid as well as sugars. Citric acid has a pH of 2.2 and is a very strong chelator preferentially stripping calcium out of tooth structure. Citric acid is also a strong salivary stimulant causing increased stimulated flow rates. Normally stimulated saliva is rich in buffers  and the combination of increased flow rate and increased buffering capacity neutralises both plaque and mouth acids and physically helps flush out the mouth. Where salivary function is normal and oral hygiene good, normal fruit consumption should not cause problems as teeth have time to re-mineralise. However, erosion may result whenever there is excessive fruit consumption or drinking of beverages containing citric acid.  In patients with salivary gland hypo-function (SGH) saliva function is compromised. In SGH patients, citric acid may not cause any increase in stimulated saliva flow rates to buffer and neutralise mouth acids. SGH patients who ingest excessive  amounts of fruit  or fruit juice containing citric acid will cause progressive acidification of the mouth. All these effects are exacerbated in patients with SGH, poor oral hygiene and poor ability to chew hard foods, leading to increased decay rates and GIC washout as often found in the frail and elderly 
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I am wrapping up a study in which I am forced to use chi stats to test the significance of my data. Some of my data (dental caries) involves dependent observations. Will using chi sqr test-stats in this case hampered my findings/conclusion? What's the way out?
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Zahra Saied-Moallemi given good explanation for Chi squared test
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I wanted to know if there is any effect on retention? I know there are chances of secondary caries but what about the retention?
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Literature stated that there is no effect on the shear bond strength of dentin bonding agent when it is contaminated with saliva.
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Would you use Carbopol® ETD2050 for simulation of caries lesions rather than classic remin/miner solutions applied with cycle methods?
What is your opinion on the benefits and limitations of this method?
Thanks a lot.
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Dear Dr. Robert Shellis,
this is a very good observation and very helpful to understand possible uses of Carbopol in dental research.
Thank you so much for sharing with us your opinion
All the best and happy new year.
Rgards
Tore 
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It has become clear to me that the indication to place a crown or inlay restoration rather then a direct composite (or amalgam) restoration is not based on sufficient scientific evidence. As a result, especially among different countries great differences in treatment choices may exist.
Therefore: would anyone make a crown in a caries risk patient in case of a large defect where the alternative would be a large, probably deep subgingival restoration.
In the Netherlands we tend not to do that as we only place indirect restorations in patients with a stable mouth condition (low caries risk). I know that in other countries that may be different. So please tell me what is the indication for crowns in risk patients in your university or practice.
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My practice is in geriatric dentistry so lot of my patients are high caries risk patients. I definitely prefer a full crown better than a big indirect restoration, porcelain retain less biofilm than composites or even the enamel do. 25% of posterior class I and II indirect composite restorations fail during the first five years after placement, and failures increase in high caries risk patients. 
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I want to know how to achieve a positive identification of an individual regarding forensic odontology and forensic anthropology. Concisely, positive identification of the victim from tooth caries and the ways to determine perpetrator.
2. Can anyone suggest  to me an article about these issues?
Thank you.
İbrahim.
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DNA analysis of dental pulp confirms the identification of the victim and the swabs taken from bite marks and DNA analysis of it can confirm the perpetrator.
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Do we have a research study related to this?
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The necessity for flossing is in a correlation with the arrangement of the dentition in the dental arch and the patients' age. The patients with teeth crowding or teeth spacing are more prone to interproximal caries and thus have a greater need for flossing. Young patients have better contacts between the adjoining teeth and have smaller need for flossing,  older patients suffer from teeth abrasion, have irregular contacts between the teeth and require more flossing.
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This is very important in understanding the development of early pediatric caries.
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Dear Jtim T Rainey,the best method for this patology is the cilinical examination.Abrão Rapoport
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There should a explanation on; how the bacterial component and behavioral component should cooperate together to bring caries and periodontal disease.
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Biofilm is composed of several different kinds of bacteria and their products that develop over the enamel on a layer known as dental pellicle. The process of plaque formation takes several days to weeks and will cause the surrounding environment to become acidic if not removed. Gingivitis and caries lesion appears if there is no disruption of biofilm and this will be established.
The preventive methods should be used daily as a toothbrush, toothpaste and floss, and in the case of children, parents are responsible for the cleaning and feeding, but also by seeking professional guidance. And what's the problem? The problem is that parents are not prepared to care for their children. Socioeconomics, educational and cultural problems interfere with the way parents lead their lives and of their children. See these articles that show different regions of the world and the problem of oral health.
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I am an undergraduate student studying chemistry at Northwestern University. For a research project, I have been researching literature about dental adhesive materials and my review of the literature finds a predominant interest in bond strength testing and fracture mechanics. Are there any key references regarding the problem of secondary caries with dental composites?
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Recently, I have observed in my clinical practice a re-swelling of infected canal after antiseptic dressing. Sometime the tooth become mobile and extruded. Please suggest the possible solution.
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Dear colleagues,
Based on the most current evidence-based literature published in peer-reviewed journals, canals should NOT be left "open to drain"! SC
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In the recent past agents like cpp-app , bio active glass, xylitol and other agents have shown to effectively counter initial carious lesions in tooth enamel, there have been many invitro studies supporting the same, though long term animal or invivo studies are required , never the less these agents have shown promising results to replace fluorides as the major agent for countering tooth caries.
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thank you for the articles Dr Baroni. As we all know enough evidence ,is present on cpp-acp . can be found in the literature regarding its effectiveniess compared to fluoride containing dentifrices. but how effective and promising are the the more advanced/ recently introduced materials like hydroxyapatite and organic fluorides (amide fluorides) , bioactive glass (novamin technology) are when compared to CPP-ACP & fluorides .
Our group has done a study regarding the same and the result have been promising.
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We found a significant influence of the DMFT over the success rate of restorations in high risk school children. In the literature we discovered only few information and all reported that there was no influence found. Is there any research on this topic going on?
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Indeed Ina, we are just finishing an evaluation in primary teeth about the survival rate of posterior restorations in high caries kids and what we could see is that in those in the higher tertile of caries, the failures are more dramatic.
In fact, I think that we should make a rediscussion about the criteria to evaluate restorations and to define what is success and what is survival. In most of the cases when a restoration fail, it could be repair, and following the criteria available, this is an failure, but the restoration remains in function, thus it would not be classified as failure. A good discussion about this you can find in the Dr Niek Opdam (Netherlands) papers. Also, we have discussed this in a review for the dental materials (Longevity of posterior composite restorations: not only a matter of materials.
Demarco FF, Corrêa MB, Cenci MS, Moraes RR, Opdam NJ.
Dent Mater. 2012 Jan;28(1):87-101. doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2011.09.003. Review)
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Fluoride plays a vital role in neurological development and IQ level. Children are more exposed to threat from fluoride,like dental caries,IQ,.
I found lot of articles for IQ associated with Fluoride while writing my review articles"HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH FLUORIDATED WATER SOURCES-A REVIEW OF CENTRAL ASIA " published Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution, Vol. 10, No. 3 (2013), pp. 29–37 http://iospress.metapress.com/content/g71ht64436734l50/?p=9ee3a80b552f4879a2f68358fc631c48&pi=4
I have attached three reference article below
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My opinion is worthless if someone cites epidemiological evidence of a consistent correlation between fluoride and IQ. Animal experiments, or the use of high doses, are only useful in trying to explain any causal link that is found.
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ECC and SECC are emerging public health problems in the developing countries. are we aware of its implications and working in the right direction to solve the problem?
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The most important thing here is the way of using miswak, to get the best results miswak tip should be cut every day so that the active ingriediants are maximum, also the frequency of use is so important, I think it should not be less than 3 times per day and for infants the most important time of use is after the last breast feeding before the mother go to sleep.
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are there any validated tools that can be used in preschoolers to assess the oral hygiene status? Most of the articles have just used the primary tooth surfaces in a modified version of the Greene and Vermillion OHI index. Are there any validations on this, and are there any new tools available?
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I also wanted to add that Periodontal assessments are not usually conducted amongst pre-schoolers as Periodontal disease is not prevalent in that age group.