Science topic

Democracy - Science topic

Democracy is a system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.
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Marta Wojciechowska states:
"As the saying goes, history is written from the perspective of the winners. We could say the same about democracy. Its written meanings, historically, have been constructed and written by those who are considerably privileged."
What method would you propose to uncover marginalised perspectives of democracy?
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Democracy is a formal, technical alternative to tyranny. Although it is frequently attempted, any claim by a tyrant to democratic forms is illegitimate.
Tyrant: an absolute ruler unrestrained by law or constitution. : a usurper of sovereignty. : a ruler who exercises absolute power oppressively or brutally. : one resembling an oppressive ruler in the harsh use of authority or power.
(google)
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In his essay, John Capps raises a number of difficult questions: "What should we make of how 'democracy' is used in so many different ways? What can we learn from this? And does this make the job of explaining and defending it harder?" (See: https://theloop.ecpr.eu/the-open-texture-of-democracy/)
His questions make me think of a recent article by Pascal D. König & colleagues (see: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/00104140211066213?journalCode=cpsa) which argues that not only do people support democracy - they support different kinds of democracy in their polities!
There is something of a "model wars" afoot here where e.g. supporters of "liberal democracy" are struggling against supporters of "direct democracy" and they are being struggled against (or just not engaged by) supporters of "stealth democracy". There are, to my understanding of the empirics here, usually more players than this.
That point also returns me to the so-called "unbreakable law of >=2 democracies" that University of Canberra students and I formulated years ago: we wager that you won't find a polity in the world (perhaps you could in just the smallest village or family?) in which just 1 kind of democracy prevails - there will always be 2 or more kinds in play.
So what, indeed, should we make of how 'democracy' is used in so many different ways? Are these model wars good for democratisation/the future of democracy or not? How can we amplify the good if there is any?
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Democracy, in its very original concept, is quite distant of what today is called democracy and the various strange types of it!! What I would make is to recover the deep strategic human values we all need and expect of Democracy. We need to end inequality and foster an integral sustainability on all aspects of our lives, which, a representative democratic election gives, some temporal authorities, through various administrative periods, the responsibility to design ways and strategies to make it possible. Democracy is not a political game to win power to solve particular interests, but the good and wellbeing of everyone, everywhere, whatever the political party is in power.
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In their essay, Erica Dorn and Federico Vaz make the assertion that:
"Current democratic structures designed to be representative of the people cannot adapt to the increasing number of people on the move. As a result, an overwhelming gap exists between the rapidly changing reality of democracies made up of ineligible voters, and the need for inclusive participation in the democratic process."
How, therefore, can representative democratic structures account for an increasingly mobile demos?
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Whatever the forms of government or governance there will be remain a gap in between the government and governed, now the question is how and to what extent we can minimize the gap to mobilize all in the process of democratization. In this regard, to involve ineligible voters participation to make accountable government may not good enough as the eligible voters participation, in many different democratic societies, can not make their government accountable in true sense. On the other hand, the youth are nowadays participating in different kinds of activities to promote democratic culture in a society without voting in elections. Thus it possibly prove both together or individually might not good enough to democratize the society if the government or governance culture allow them to enter such political institutions or process to promote the democracy.
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In his essay, Ramon Van Der Does (https://theloop.ecpr.eu/the-best-use-of-our-limited-resources-in-service-of-democracy/) argues that: "We already know the cures for many of democracy's ills. What we lack are ways to realise the transition towards a deeply democratic society".
Why is that the case? What is preventing us from achieving deeply democratic societies?
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Education, education, education!
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"The shapes and meanings of democracy are evolving swiftly — perhaps with an overwhelming speed. So, there may be a need for a genetic understanding of democracy’s words."
This is Petr Specian's phrase which can be found in his ECPR essay here: https://theloop.ecpr.eu/science-of-democracy-and-the-owl-of-minerva/
What is your understanding of Specian's proposed genetic methodology and how should it work? In other words, how can a genetic methodology of words allow us to track the evolution of democracy?
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Jean-Paul Gagnon The term "a genetic knowledge of democracy's words" by Petr Specian alludes to the notion of studying the evolution of language, especially the words and concepts connected with democracy, using a genetic method. In this sense, genetic technique refers to the study of how words and concepts evolve through time, similar to how genetic mutations develop in biological creatures over time.
The theory behind Specian's research is that by analyzing the history of language, we may gain a better understanding of how the concept of democracy has evolved through time. For example, we may learn about how various civilizations understood and implemented different types of governance by tracking the origins and changes in the meaning of terms like "democracy" and "republic" throughout history.
Analyzing historical writings, speeches, and other written materials to track the evolution of major concepts and words across time would be part of a genetic approach of words. This might entail researching the use of a given term in various time periods and languages, as well as examining how the meaning of the word has evolved through time.
A genetic approach of words, in this sense, would help us to comprehend the history of democracy by offering a historical perspective on how the notion has been perceived and employed in various countries and cultures. It would also aid in understanding how the meaning of democracy has evolved through time, including how it was perceived in the past, how it is perceived today, and how it may be perceived in the future.
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Alexander Hudson, of International IDEA, sheds light on how democracy measurement is changing and, arguably, getting better at what it is trying to do for the anthropos. His essay, here (https://theloop.ecpr.eu/how-to-measure-democracy-a-practitioners-view/), opens the question of what exactly is being measured when democracy is under measurement.
What do you think? If you were to measure democracy how would you go about doing it?
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Dear Dr. Jean-Paul Gagnon,
You may find interesting the following data:
Sabari Ganesh (Quora)
Educational qualifications of the elected representatives and how relevant are those qualifications to the portfolios they are handling.
Percentage of voter turnout during elections - To measure whether people care for the country or not.
Educational qualifications of people who turned out and skipped to exercise their franchise.
Number of violent incidents on the election day.
Proportional representation.
Level of access of judiciary to everyone.
Percentage of police cases that are solved and brought to justice in every economic segment of the population in a year.
Average number of days that would take to get a bail to a person in every economic level, (very poor, poor, lower middle class, upper middle class, rich, ultra-rich) whether or not he really committed some shit.
Difference of net worth of elected leaders and his/her family before and after their tenure.
Detailed receipts and statements of pollical parties campaign expenditure.
Number of items people are receiving free of cost as freebies from elected governments.
Success rate of those candidates contesting the election whose religion/caste has very less population in his/her constituency. (This is used to see if Muslim majority constituency is able to vote for a Hindu leader and vice versa. People should elect a person based on his credibility, not his religion/caste.)
Gender ratio of contesting candidates in each constituency and the respective success rates.
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Democracy data: how do researchers measure democracy?
There are many ways to classify and measure political systems. What approaches do different researchers take?
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What Is Democracy and How It Can Be Measured?
September 27, 2019
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Friedel Marquardt avers the following:
"[The] naming and recording of various definitions of democracy gives place to those definitions that may not have been considered or acknowledged before, often eclipsed by more prominent definitions like liberal democracy. Identifying a manifestation as 'democracy' and applying the term to it has the effect of recognising a wide range of practices as democratic. It gives them legitimacy among the other more prominent democracies identified." (For more, please read Marquardt's essay here: https://theloop.ecpr.eu/who-gets-a-say-in-the-meanings-of-democracy/)
Which practices around you, perhaps ones you conduct yourself, are not formally part of the "canon of democracy" but should be?
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Very True Jean-Paul Gagnon
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Sandra Leonie Field asks, in her essay here (https://theloop.ecpr.eu/data-mountains-and-usable-concepts-a-lesson-from-francis-bacon/), what is the best way to diversify the study of democracy?
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The best methods to diversify the study of democracy are the use of philosophical phenomenological and hermeneutic analysis as well as modern sociological theories, such as structural functionalism, symbolic interactionism, exchange theory, dramaturgical theory, network theory and post-modernism.
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In his essay here (https://theloop.ecpr.eu/mountains-of-data-need-a-democratic-horizon/), Rafael Khachaturian argues that it is important for people to develop their own theory of democracy through self-reflexion.
Which method(s) can be used to develop such a "self-reflexive" theory of democracy? How does it work?
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The best way to have a "self-reflexive" theory of democracy is to write the analytical esse of insights in a free form. It has to contain not only "gnoseological" aspects, bet "ontological" and "axiological" (values) as well.
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In his essay (https://theloop.ecpr.eu/untangling-description-deception-and-denunciation-a-linguistic-twist-to-the-science-of-democracy/), Rikki J. Dean clarifies that we need to both be able to identify types of democracy and, thereafter, to sort them from "real" and "fake". But how do we do this without a universal concept, a singular truth, of what democracy is?
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I think, we can have "genuine" democracy, "effective" democracy, and other kinds of democracy, as well as we can have "fascist" totalitarianism, "communist" totalitarianism and - more important nowadays - "digital totalitarianism". All are totalitarianisms and bad for mental and physical health. What is more important, dear Jean-Paul Gagnon, is that "digital totalitarianism" thrives together or under neoliberal democracies too. Can You explain that? And who can explain that? Please, waiting for the argumented answers.
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In his essay (https://theloop.ecpr.eu/can-you-put-food-inside-words-are-invitations-not-containers/), Christian Ewert argues that narratives - or stories - are powerful. This is so because they can be shared and, through that virtue, they can inform others, challenge beliefs, broaden horizons, lead to changed thoughts, even new outcomes in behaviour, policies, and so forth.
Given the power of stories, which Agustin Goenaga (https://theloop.ecpr.eu/what-democracy-should-be-for-us/) also highlights, should we all be doing more to tell stories to others, to so called "lay persons", from our research - especially to sing praise of the works of those we admire?
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Yes theories can take the form of story telling in one form to make learned appreciate past fruitful leadership event by focus leaders. As well as comparison with others. Though it can be analytical too.
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Freedom and rights to live as natural as did some countries did ,and social problems arises from loneliness' and lost life ,so do we need to follow religion and conservative life as democracy seek or go to optimum life ?
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Freedom and demogracy are not against each others, but on the contrary complementary of each others. Without freedom these is no democracy and without democracy there is no freedom.
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In his essay (https://theloop.ecpr.eu/to-understand-democracy-we-need-democratic-theory/), Tom Theuns mentions that "democracy is sometimes used in a deliberately misleading way". What are examples of this?
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The tyranny of the majority; democracy by quantity is flawed without democracy by quality.
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The Top 3 reasons why journal lists (e.g.., FT50, UTD) are stupid:
3. They attempt to motivate people who are already motivated.
2. They’re an autocratic means of manipulating a democracy.
1. External rewards decrease intrinsic motivation, and intrinsic motivation drives productivity.
Comments?
Tom Becker
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I agree. And I'll add.
They encourage people to write for a very narrow audience that limits the impact of their work.
They create too much power for a limited number of journals that abuse authors, especially the untenured. Those journals abuse their power by giving out R&Rs multiple times for a paper, knowing authors need the pub and will comply, only to reject the paper. A colleague had that happen back-to-back at two FT50 outlets when she was still untenured.
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Nigeria urban population has grown from 20% of the total in 1920 to 65% in 2020 and is projected to continue growing to 75% by 2050. While the rural population is expected to decline in 2050, the urban population is expected to increase from the current 155 million in 2020 to 180 million by 2050.[4] This upward trend of urbanization is expected to continue in both more developed regions and less developed regions.
Are people happier living in the rural area or in a Urban area? The urban/rural gap is present regardless of country income level (based on World Bank classifications). Individuals living in cities are more likely to report access to financial resources, the ability to afford food, and having people they can rely on. people living in rural areas are less likely to report that they have a bank account than those in Urban areas. This is most pronounced in low-income states. Lack of access to bank accounts can substantially affect peoples' lives.
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Yes, we can certainly say that ignorance and illiteracy are part of the problem. Education and access to information are essential factors in promoting economic development, and these are both areas that Nigeria is struggling in. Poor infrastructure, inadequate access to healthcare, and government corruption are also major contributors to the lack of progress in Nigeria. These issues all contribute to a feeling of unhappiness among the population, and to a lack of hope for a brighter future. Investing in education and infrastructure, as well as tackling corruption and improving access to healthcare, can all help to improve the level of happiness among Nigerians.
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Reginald Oduour explains that prior to Western Imperialist incursions into Africa, many peoples therein had consensus-building (not majoritarian) political systems. Today, there is a huge emphasis on elections and many people seem to be under the illusion that democracy parses with election/voting. How do we break electoral majoritarianism's spell?
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Hi Justin! Thanks very much for your contribution here! :)
How would you go about raising awareness?
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Patricia Roberts-Miller writes that people need to deliberate about the democracy they want to have. Brigitte Geissel is also arguing this in her forthcoming (Routledge) book on democratic innovation.
Does anyone know of an instance where such a deliberative event may have happened?
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The emerging narrative is obviously to domesticate democracy within the context of peculiarities of political systems. Therefore, democracy in such condition should constitute elements such as, ethnicity, religion, economy, language, culture,clanical be structure etc.
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Taina Meriluoto argues that "total democracy" refers to the way democratic arrangements are pervasive in Finnish society. https://theloop.ecpr.eu/democracy-what-a-lovely-mess/
In your experience, does this extend to:
1) Individual psychology?
2) How families/households govern themselves?
3) How schools, workplaces, apartment buildings, etc., govern themselves?
How pervasive is democracy in Finnish society and what kinds of democracy? Where are they happening? What is considered "common" here?
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She does not present Mouffe's key points adequately. But regardless...the 'battle of values' is not really an explanatorily profitable notion. Interestingly, I think that Mouffe would endorse exactly the notion of 'democracy as an empty signifier' because that's how her ex, Ernesto L., put it in a number of his writings. Personally, I dislike the essays with strong emotional undertones, but it seems that the 'woke culture' is changing fashions quickly.
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I have come to the conclusion that chieftaincy and Democracy have similar features. Both have three arms of Government ie Executive, Judiciary and legislative. Why do we have to adopt one to neglect the other, Can we enhance African chieftaincy to suit the African space?
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Can we enhance African chieftaincy to suit the African space? I guess you could say that. But there is a but. Firstly, will chieftaincy benefit the people?
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The recent American election has brought Trump to the fore again, a man under investigation for his last term in office, and throughout the world autocracies have climbed to the forefront, some run by known criminals.
In addition, autocracies, according to Acemoglu and Robinson in Why Nations Fail (2012), advance poverty. Are we going backward, not just to more war?
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The most debatable problem with modern democracies is pertained to "the separation of powers principle" when the two main branches of a government (legislative and executive) get in the hands of a single political party through two related elections.
The said principle, being one of the most important principles of democracy, gets null in such a situation, and democracy can be considered have fallen into a patitocracy.
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If you look carefully as how exism movements like Trumpism or Italianism or Brexism or Brazilianism come to exist under majority rule based democracies, they all need the same conditions to exist,....without this condition they can not come to power....
which raises the question, what is the necessary and sufficient condition for an exism movement to come to exist under majority rule based liberal democracies?
What do you think?
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Dear Ludo, thank you for taking the time to write.
Keep in mind, in a normal liberal democratic environment based on majority rule and the independent rule of law, power moves from one normal democratic outcome to another normal democratic outcome through a peaceful transfer of power, where the normal democratic outcome is the one that reflect the majority view rule.....If the current normal democratic outcome is not working in the best interest of the majority as it should, then voters can vote with their HEADS AND FEETS and keep electing normal democratic outcomes that actually reflect the best interest of the majority....If somebody lies to you and you have the power to get rid of him/her with your vote, they you vote him/her out at the first opportunity and bring someone else committed to the best interest of the majority. The voter can use happiness to re-elect RESPONSIBLE normal democratic outcomes or to vote out irresponsable ones to bring in a responsible or more responsible one....
If the majority allows unhappiness to lead to natural full complacency or be the victim of effective targeted chaos induced full complacency, then it allows an extreme democratic outcome to win instead of another normal democratic outcome and then the majority rule process will be held hostage by the minority view as the minority view wins the democratic contest....
The minority view is the exism view, with values contrary to the normal democratic thinking and rule of law as it places the best interest of the exism movement over the best interest of the country and places the best interest of the minority over the best interest of the majority.
So Ludo, to understand the direction where informed and independent rational voter discontent should go to ensure the preservation of the best interest of the majority is always the outcome or where they go to lead to the lost of the best interest of the majority you need to think in terms of NORMAL DEMOCRATIC OUTCOMES/NORMAL LIBERAL DEMOCRACIES and EXTREME DEMOCRATIC OUTCOMES/EXTREME LIBERAL DEMOCRACIES, then you can understand how they can compete for power and persist in power as a competition between normal democratic outcome vrs extreme democratic outcome instead of the USUAL normal democratic outcome agains normal democratic outcome.
Luco, do you have a view on the actual question now that you have the context shared above?: What is the necessary and sufficient condition for an exism movement to come to exist under majority rule based liberal democracies?
If yes, please share that necessary and sufficient condition.
Respectfully yours;
Lucio
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Definition of Democracy.
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In terms of general human democratic values, democracy is unique. I think it is possible to divide democracy into West, Middle East and East in terms of public structure and social values.
Traditionalism has hindered the direct implementation of the Western type of democracy in the East. However, when we look at the historical development process of the society, the remains of settlements in the East inform that it has a democracy of its own. There is a distinctive form of democracy in Middle Eastern societies such as Israel, where religion is determinant in social life and public administration.
Another approach might be the democracy of industrial and post-industrial societies, which is reflected in the quality of social relations. The democracy of the information society makes the distinction between east and west meaningless.
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Michael Saward argues: "it is important for us to know what people have made of democracy – or what they have made and could make with it. It may well mean some things, plural. And lots of different people and groups may have answers to offer. Meanings will be multiple, possibly incommensurable, as will any models built on them."
Which examples, do you think or guess, are not well known to mainstream democracy studies and democratic theory?
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Jean-Paul Gagnon Well, we know that democracy is government by the people for the people. Beyond that, I am afraid that Sawards words sound like waffle to me. Different societies have made different decisions as would be expected based on norms and values, as well as power relationships internal to any society. Of course, it is going to mean some things PLURAL. This sounds like an idiotic statement to me. Of course different societies will have different meanings and approaches. Sorry, but this is just some random person trying to make himself sound intellectual and important, in my humble opinion. Politics needs to be more grounded in social science in order to provide any meaningful answers.
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Kei Nishiyama says "teaching democracy is hard work". https://theloop.ecpr.eu/if-democracy-is-hard-to-love-how-can-we-teach-it/
What are effective ways of teaching democracy? I'm thinking especially outside of schools!
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Dear Jean-Paul Gagnon, to teach democracy outside school, you have to take your students to participate in different democratic activities of ideal political parties, visit election booths where people are exercising their voting rights in a fair election and join different mock parliamentary sessions organized by different agencies.
They should be given opportunities for viewing documentary film shows of different countries where democracy has taken firm roots.
Moreover, to visit some model institutions as often as possible, where decision-making procedure includes administration, teachers, students and their parents.
Besides this, democracy has to be practiced in the classroom and opinions of the students should be freely voiced and heard. Last but not least, mock sessions should be organized on the exercise of democratic values in the school.
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Laurence Whitehead writes that different cultures hold different meanings of democracy. Whilst there is no universal concept of "democracy" the concepts or meanings of democracy held by various cultures across the globe are still mutually intelligible. He says we can learn from them, learn from each other, as a world family, and I think he is entirely right.
But what are democratic cultures and how can we "grow" them? What does learning from each other look like here?
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I make a distinction between ideology (what people believe or profess to believe) and culture (the learned habits that determine how people actually behave). The two can find themselves at cross-purposes. Think of an avowed socialist who underdeclares his or her income in a country where tax evasion is common, or a conservative rule-of-law type who pulls strings to evade prosecution for traffic offences in a country where people with connections have that option. As these examples show, culture is a more fundamental determinant of how most people behave than ideology. Seems to me Whitehead's article is more about democratic ideology than democratic culture.
If "democratic culture" means a popular culture that is supportive of democracy and sustains democratic political institutions, I suspect that a key issue may instead be whether the majority of voters are lifetime supporters of their political parties or whether they are willing to vote for a different party, and if so what sort of considerations might induce them to do so. I suspect that corruption and misgovernment are more prevalent in democracies where lifelong party loyalties predominate, even if parties alternate in government, whereas in democracies where people are more willing to switch their vote there is more accountability and corrupt or incompetent ministers are more likely to get sacked. Party-switching by voters encourages greater accountability and cleaner government because it compels governments to respond to scandals in order to minimise the loss of votes.
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There is a necessary and sufficient condition for exism movements to come to power under majority rule based democracy and rule of law when competing in elections; and there is a necessary and sufficient condition for exism movement to lose power when going through reelection.
Exism movements like Trumpism, Brexism, Brazilianism and Italianism came to power under the same condition to gain power; and both Brazilianims and Trumpism lost power when seeking reelection under the same condition to lose power, Trumpism fell in 2020 and Brazilianism fell in 2022.
And this leads to the question: Under majority rule and the independent rule of law, what is the necessary and sufficient condition for exism movements to lose power?
What do you think?
This is an academic question, please provide your own comments, not third party comments
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Good day Jeffrey, if you are thinking inside the box, you may not be able to see the answer to this question, you need to be able to think outside the box to understand the nature and working of exism movements within democratic contest....Just defining exism will not help you much.....I think you need to read more of what is out there....However, the definition used in my publications is below:
All my publications related to this question directly or indirectly have a list of operational concepts relevant to each question.....
In one of the article EXISM is defined as concept No. 30
30) EXISM, the extreme democratic movements aiming at destroying majority rule based institutions, locally and globally.
Now that you have the concept, the context is: There is a necessary and sufficient condition for exism movements to come to power under majority rule based democracy and rule of law when competing in elections; and there is a necessary and sufficient condition for exism movement to lose power when going through reelection. Exism movements like Trumpism, Brexism, Brazilianism and Italianism came to power under the same condition to gain power; and both Brazilianims and Trumpism lost power when seeking reelection under the same condition to lose power, Trumpism fell in 2020 and Brazilianism fell in 2022.
And this leads to the question: Under majority rule and the independent rule of law, what is the necessary and sufficient condition for exism movements to lose power?
What do you think?
This is an academic question, please provide your own comments, not third party comments
And the question is: Under majority rule based democracies and the rule of law, what is the necessary and sufficient condition for exism movements to lose power?
What do you think?
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In her excellent and provocative essay, Anna Drake states that "democracy benefits and harms people in selective ways". How can we unravel this statement more?
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It is not possible for a democracy not to cause harm, if You want to have no harm to minority, You have to achieve sociocracy.
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Sonia Bussu says "that the way we understand democracy has been colonised by ‘liberal democracy’ and capitalism." We know from others, like Wolfgang Merkel and John Keane, that liberal democracy is intimately entwined with capitalism. So if one goes perhaps the other does too. What, therefore, does a non-capitalist, post liberal?, democracy look like? Visions of the future are sought!
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It could be good to have a non-capitalist democracy, but it is impossible. The only thing remains is to improve capitalism by democracy and other means.
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True imperfect market theory suggest that imperfect markets do not exist when there is both market equality and freedom at the same time, which raises the question: Is a market where there is only economic freedom a true perfect economic market?
Think about it, what do you think?
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I would like to remind you that as much as what is written, the results on the field are at least as important as what is written. Applications produce results that are at least as important as what is written. After all, if there is an expectation of the perfection of the field on the subject, the results in the field are open to discussion.
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Hi frds,
Normative assessment requested:
Should Artificial intelligence be supervised and guided by a central delegated institution with a framework or shall it be left to bottom-up Laissez-faire?
Quite a different approach in the Renaissance Societies in comparison to the Confucian-influenced ones.
What is the better long-term "utility", given ethical constraints?
Cherish your ideas.
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Comprehensive supervision and guidance of AI in general and ML in particular, is not practical, or useful. We are an AI technology window of rapid innovation and disruption. Understanding how to cultivate and sustain, global explain-ability, interpretability, safety, trustability... and how to rein in harmful bias, deep fakes, privacy erosion, ... are not yet mature, widely deployed and standardizable (much less fully automatable) disciplines. In short we are not ready for asserting a tight governance model, and if we do so prematurely, we may inhibit the innovations that may actually help address the challenges.
At the same time, a pure bottoms up approach, can do so much damage, that consequent and inevitable legislative and regulatory restriction responses may well inhibit the cultivation and adoption of AI technologies , far too broadly.
I would advocate an intermediate approach that establishes guardrails of accountability, which may be addressed by the innovator, technology incubator and solution provider, in ways that are appropriate to the AI technology/process in question. The accountability should involve transparency and attestation (to design, development, testing, deployment and operational monitoring provisions to address the guardrail guidelines). This seems to be the course embraced within a number of "Responsible"/"Trustable" AI initiatives (see NIST, EU AIA, ...)
Just my perspective
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In his essay, Erik Liam Severson argues that Wittgenstein brings a lot to the table in terms of helping us understand what "democracy" means linguistically. What would you add?
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Wasn't it Yul Brynner, who said in the King and I, "Democracy takes many forms. In my country it takes a form called absolute monarchy"?
And C.B. Macpherson, The Real World of Democracy (1964), who would have us believe that African dictatorships were a form of democracy?
Where's Wittgenstein's story on legitimate uses of a term?
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This question is conceived from Phil Paine's short essay in the ECPR's "Sciences of the Democracies" series. Paine is a thoroughly-travelled & reflexive practitioner who has published well-cited research articles especially in the history of democracy. His perspectives have always fascinated me and his emphasis against "democratism" (ideology/ies of democracy/ies) has done so again.
What do you think?
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I don't see democracy as an ideology. It exists in so many variants, in different countries with radically different systems. It means elections, where people choose their government. it also means accountability to the people -- though this can be achieved without elections too. Wonder if you agree. Thanks, Kishan
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I think Yes, what do you think?
Below are some articles with some food for thoughts shared recently in order to understand the nature, structure and expected working of exism movements
Sustainability thoughts 133: Stating the expected step by step road from majority rule based liberal democracies to permanent authoritarianism: The case of the 2016-2020 rise and fall of Trumpism
Moral and Amoral Liberal Democracies: How Targeted Chaos Can Affect the Democratic Process?
The 2016 shift from normal liberal democracy to extreme liberal democracy in the USA: Pointing out the structure of Trumpconomics, its meaning, and its expected local and global implications, both analytically and graphically
Sustainability thoughts 131: How can the shift from normal liberal democracies to extreme liberal democracies be used to extract the democratic structure that leads to the rise of temporary and permanent authoritarianism from within?
Sustainability thoughts 131: How can the shift from normal liberal democracies to extreme liberal democracies be used to extract the democratic structure that leads to the rise of temporary and permanent authoritarianism from within?
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Yusuf, if you look at exism movements from the point of view of an paradigm shift from normal democratic outcomes to extreme democratic outcomes you need an outside the box thinking model to solve the problem of the paradigm shift knowledge gap created, you need new concepts/ideas no found in dictionaries that how the growth of knowledge works if you remember thomas kuhn's paradigm evolution loop.
If you know what exism movements are you can point out to the answer without looking at the specific concepts.
What is your view on the answer to the question?
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What are the reasons for the failure of participatory democracy in Iraq?
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External Interference in Internal matters of the Country.
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What is the relationship between democracy and bureaucracy
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Both are mechanisms designed to operate institutions. Democracy is conventional because it synchronises, while bureaucracy is administrative due to technicality.
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Can abstention be a way of paradox political participation? And if so, how could we "measure" or analyse it?
In many democracies, participation in elections is declining. In some cases, we can assume that non-participation/abstention in elections is a kind of political statement that expresses dissatisfaction with representative democracy. Would you agree and if so, how can we best analyse this phenomenon with our methods in political science? Qualitative research definitely, interviews, surveys, observation, participatory research? Looking forward to your suggestions.
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Political abstention has two-fold meanings/alternatives - one is very principal and honest - that You do not have any whom to choose - and You do not participate at all, the other is more practical - that You may choose the best from all bad - that is the one that is slightly better. This one is not an open, but, I think, "secret abstention", which needs to be explored by more "original" scientific research methods.
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Research-policy discussions have been the most underrated feature of democracy in the 21st century. In comparison with the last century, it dropped 60%.
How to best disseminate research with policy-makers and politicians?
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The failure of researchers to link evidence to policy and practice produces evidence that no one uses, impedes innovation, and leads to mediocre or even detrimental development policies. To help improve the definition, design, and implementation of policy research, researchers should adopt a strategic outcome-oriented approach.
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Dear friends!
I hope you are doing well. I recently wrote an article dealing with democracy in Russia. What do you think? Will there be democracy in Russia, what factors are in play? Article can be found here below:
Best wishes Henrik
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The author of the question should have started with the definition of democracy that he adheres to. Dealing with clear formulations, it is easy to prove the thesis. The trouble is that there is a universally recognized definition of democracy, but it only corresponds to the realities in which its authors exist.
In connection with discussions about such phenomena, I always recall a Russian joke: “A military man and a scientist are traveling by train. The road is long, a conversation began and the scientist told the military man about his activities. The military man listened, and then asked: “Well, yes, I understand that you guys are very smart, but then why don't you walk in formation?"
The political system of Russia has only one drawback: the elite do not understand that from time to time it is necessary to change the party in power (out of two real ones as in the USA or Great Britain, or even more of these in other countries), in 4-8-12 years voters simply forget a lot, and the old, familiar evil does not seem so terrible to them. And many have the illusion that the former ruling political force is better than the current one, and that they even worked on the mistakes.
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Hello Seniors I hope you are doing well
Recently I've read some very good research articles. In those articles datasets were taken from V-Dem, Polity and Freedom House. Though they have shared the link of supplementary datasets and the process of how they analyzed these datasets in SPSS or R in brief but I couldn't understand and replicate these findings. It may be because I am not very good at quantitative data analysis.
So I want to know how could I better understand this Datasets analysis easily like V-Dem etc. Is there any good course online, lectures or conference video etc. Or good book?
Article links
Any help would be appreciated.
Thanks in anticipation.
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Please find some online course for learning R on Edx and Coursera platforms.
Thanks ~PB
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Hello,
I am looking for papers that talk about short term thinking in democracies/elected politicians. I remember reading something in democratic theory about this a long time ago which argued that elected politicians can be short term in their decisions because they need to win the next election and need to please people now. I am reading Stephen M. Gardiner's book The Perfect Moral Strom and he applies this argument to why Western democracies have failed to take action on climate change (The costs of climate action are mostly felt by the present generation and most of the cost of climate change are felt by future generations). My question is have people done empirical studies of this to see if politicians are short term in their thinking and what are some good essays in democratic theory on this? Thanks in advance!
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See the The Concept of Representationc by [Hanna_F._Pitkin]
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tax to democracy
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The documents may come from teaching and research institutions or from public or private research centers and NGOs.
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Might those of us associated with the "Western" concept of (neo)liberal democracies, in which we champion the rights of individuals, perhaps above and beyond any potential obligations to society, stand challenged by the accusation that we disrespect the imagination of individuals? Do we make too many assumptions about individuals, whether in our Western democracies or outside them?
If we had respected the imagination of one Vladimir Putin, for example, might we have been in a better place to have acknowledged his capacity to act on that imagination, and his ability to create the space in which to play with it? To what extent can Western democracies be accused of a disrespect for the imagination of the individual, and its role in the negotiation of an emergent reality? Interested in the views of all those who might offer critical insight.
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In his “The Productive Anarchy of Scientific Imagination” (2020), Michael Stuart argues that the epistemic power of imagination in the sciences is also to be found in its being productively anarchic. That is, researchers may achieve cognitive advancements by breaking the rules that they (or others) have set for themselves. If we recognize this epistemic value of the imagination, then we should take into account the imaginative efforts with which each individual challenge the rules that guide imaginative projects (such as thought experiments) – in order to evaluate their novel proposals within the social community of researchers. I wrote a paper (forthcoming in the Croatian Journal of Philosophy) on this. Even Paul Feyerabend has written very insightful material on this topic.
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US President Donald Trump said the international terrorist organization ISIS was founded by former US President Obama. Why isn't the account being asked in the US, which is claimed to be famous for its democracy? Why isn't the court of such an important and serious claim?
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More than one party contributed to the creation of ISIS, al-Maliki in Iraq allowed the militants to escape from Iraqi prisons to Syria in 2011, then Assad allowed them to establish a militant organization in which the Free Syrian Army would fight, to relieve pressure on the Syrian government, then the Americans used them to overthrow the al-Maliki government in Iraq in 2014,
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Newly established democratic countries are badly affected from crony capitalism or Cronyism as business elites and politicians formulate rules favorable to themselves and kill the real and fair business environment. Collusion between economically rich and political masters has been the real threat to democracy where everybody are equal before the law.
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Thank you all for your constructive inputs and answers.
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Hi dear scholar! With best wishes for you all. I know a little about heterogeneity problems in a model, such as slope heterogeneity due to cross sections differences. Is there any other heterogeneity exist in panel data ? To solve this slope heterogeneity we split the units into subgroups based on a characteristics such as income level, democracy, etc. Or use interaction term even in homogeneous models, or use heterogeneous mode such as DCCEMG, CS ARDL etc. Please let me know if there is another method. Thank you
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There is no possible end to heterogeneity, since circumstances alter cases and the world has grown more heterogeneous with several permutations arising from cultural- association intermixes.
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How do Western imperial powers compromise the notion of democracy and people's right in self-governance on the one hand, with political, cultural, and military expansionism on the other?
For example, how could America's long cherished institutions of democracy and liberty as acclaimed human rights hold integrity before the American public? Is it pragmatism on the part of the public, or being subjugated to the political authority, or ignorance about the current American international policy?
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Sadly, even countries that espouse universalistic values like human rights and democracy can apply those values selectively on a particularistic basis, that is to say "we" (defined by citizenship, race or what have you) deserve rights and freedom but "they" do not. This can happen not only if "they" are far away and out of sight, but also if "they" are close by. Think of the US constitution which said it was a self-evident truth that all men were created equal, while counting slaves as equivalent to three fifths of free people for representational purposes.
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Liquid democracy and the future of governance is a very important scenario to discover. I am planning to work on Southeast Asia as a case study. If anyone is interested, please share your views.
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Liquid democracy is ready to use or apply in the Good Governance issues..
It can be achieved if the administration has become flexible to administer to amend in all possible ways.
Most of the societies hard stricken that could not be applicable to amend these liquid democracy aspects.
It is not only the effect of the Good Governance but also the behaviour and mentality of the stakeholders in the community or society.
The liquid democracy could be successful if the people have greater freedom to express their ideas and opinions openly in the forum's.
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I am collecting expert opinion for the research.
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Journalism often destabilizes democracy. In the example of media, a contemporary democratic backsliding paradigm is related between state and non-state actors and social actors’ power positions, political identities, and professional practices. The reliable press should be cautious not to internalize a proto-democratic responsibility to represent public attitude in ways that justify attention to mobilized irrationalism. Journalists must recognize the synergy of media with populism during elections. The purpose of anti-media populists is to undermine faith in journalism and other institutions.
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My master's thesis main question is how did self-organized\ARI's in visual arts apply cultural democracy values in their art production and consumption in the last 10 years. And I am looking for papers on cultural democracy in general and how it was applied in an independent\autonomos area, not as an official public policy.
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Dear Adele,
This journal features numerous research on art and politics. Especially in the Portuguese-speaking world. Regards,
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We need a Global Wealth Tax How rich are the rich relative to the poor? If they had ten times the wealth, no problem. It has always been that way. But what if the ratio was a million to one? That's undemocratic power. You know when democracy has gone. Elections become a sham, and leaders become increasingly incompetent, dishonest, and corrupt. Sound familiar? The existence of just one billionaire -- a single person with the wealth of a thousand millionaires, or a million workers with $1000 each -- is a sign that democracy is on the way out. We now have 3000 billionaries, including three smiling centibillionaires (Bezos, Gates, Zuckerberg). A centibillionare has the wealth of 100 billionaires or 100,000 millionaires. Capitalism may have its pros and cons, but this is getting ridiculous. If we want our democracy back, we have no choice but to reduce the wealth of the wealthiest. If we want peace, we have to do that gradually and fairly. In a word: democratically. Don't despair. It can be done. Big changes have happened before. Our main task is to think clearly and tell the truth.
Richard Parncutt
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I totally agree with you, there has to be a plan to this. If things like this are ignored many poor people will suffer and this will continuously increase the gap between poor people and the rich ones. Increasing tax amongst rich people is a great idea, but i think the is more that need to be done than increasing their Tax, because these rich people run their companies and businesses according to systems and structures which they built to benefit themselves and sideline poor people and outgrowing young business and entrepreneurs. These systems are not only sidelining poor people but young upcoming businessman/women's are sidelined, these are system built to prevent everyone from entering the mainstream for a long run, only those who work with them will share the wealth . Yes i agree to what you have raised regarding Tax, but understand that there is more to be done than tax, if they could break the systems formed to benefit them into benefiting everyone. The GWT would be a great impact and it will reduce the gap in a massive way. This was an interesting question thank you for raising it, the need to be a discussion about this, thanks
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The history means evolution from Antique period to modern time (for democracy, for example).
It needs to understand the roots of modern European values, transformation of them from century to century, the reasons of these transformations.
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Dear Eldar,
A bit on European welfare state values from 20-th century in our article:
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How do you see clientelist politics?
What are effects of Clientelism upon democracy?
Is this a threat to democratic system?
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In my opinion it is increasing.
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After eight months in the COVID-19 pandemic and millions of infections, there are some that still think this is a conspiracy and go against the advice of the expert in the field just because their leader said so!. How can a literate society become so polarized and influence to such a degree that fail to see the obvious? Is it the lack of transparency, mistrust, or lack of correct information? Can such a society be healed? How would you rebuild trust?
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I think it is because they have a very small universe
of understanding or a great intention to profit from
incorrect decisions.
Best regards
Marlúbia
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A question for deep thought: Does the democracy in its current form, based on the model of ancient Athens and Montesquieu's idea of a tripartite power model with political parties in power, not causing a gradual collapse of the market economy?
Why do I think so:
first, since the Western world has:
a) crowd manipulation technologies (social engineering),
b) mass media (especially television, Internet)
c) is in the credit money regime, and it easily creates electronic money
in democracies based on the rule of political parties, there is a tendency to a very high rate of debt borrowing by governments (debt often above the critical limit of 90% in relation to GDP), but also to allowing such debt from the electorate. Societies have become very demanding, expecting multi-faceted welfare and even a basic / guaranteed income for the unemployed. The oldest democracies, such as Greece, Italy (including ancient Rome) or France, have been plunging for many years into gigantic debt, both domestic and foreign, contributing to the weakening of their region (Western Europe), and they also set a negative example for young democracies from post-communist countries that you can expect a lot of expenses from your government and live beyond the means (i.e. at the expense of future generations now, with impunity)
Secondly, I observe the process of state appropriation by the ruling parties, i.e. taking up positions in state-owned companies and in public media by politicians and their supporters, who often finance a selected political party in the election struggle during the next elections.
Third, I see a process of growing negative selection for the highest state positions in Western democracies. People with low professional achievements and low personal culture are becoming more and more often (see examples of the USA, Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Greece and many others) among the highest political authorities, we notice it especially since the end of the 20th century people who are poorly prepared to govern with low professional qualifications, low morals, but pushed by big corporate capital and / or by the party power apparatus. These new leaders of modern democracies are unable to introduce wide-ranging economic reforms (pension reforms, health care reforms, or urgent ecological shifting of the economy), put off difficult matters to be dealt with now.
What reforms does modern democracy need for the economy to have healthy finance, clear and simple fiscal system, healthy society, people who can not only get an education in a given country, but also a creative job?
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Dear Dariusz,
Interesting question. However, I think, it is more necessary to talk about advantages and how to succeed for social market economy instead of free market economy. Social justice (equity) can and should stand in the one line with economic efficiency and freedom.
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Hi, I am interested in focusing my dissertation on corruption (specifically in Colombia or Latin America). As the theme is very broad, I would really appreciate if you could give me some suggestions on what to focus my research on so that I can come up with a narrowed research question. Also, if you have specific corruption theories I could look into that would be great. (I already looked into underdevelopment theories such as neo-patrimonialism and dependency theory).
I have brainstormed some ideas that can be linked to corruption:
- underdevelopment (health, education, infrastructure)
- as a threat to democracy (institutions, transparency, public policy, unpunishment)
Thank you!
(International Political Economy)
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fundamental reason behind lack of health facilities, education and basic life needs? Is it political failure, corruption or negligence Val Camacho
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The coming of exism movements in 2016 led to the coming of extreme democratic outcomes within majority rule based liberal democracies like in the USA.
And this brought a change in the nature of democracy as it has led to a shift from true democracy thinking to temporary democratic authoritarianism thinking.
We are probably familiar with the structure of the forces competing for power in a true democracy, I think. but not with the forces competing in a temporary democratic authoritarianism system. Which raises the question, what is the structure of temporary democratic authoritarianism? Any ideas?
Feel free to express your own views so we can exchange ideas in a positive academic environment as this is an academic question, not a political one.
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Lucio Muñoz , I would like to correct your impression, as follows: "If she would have thought that my answer was lacking, she would have said so including why she thought my answer was lacking so I have the change to reply, but she did not say so…
If there is a paradigm shift, Thomas Kuhn told us in the structure of scientific revolutions, those inside the box cannot see it and they will resist it at the beginning…. During the time of resistance in my view “they are a kind of living in the past”….
The question and focus here is: What is the structure of temporary democratic authoritarianism?"
This is my first opportunity to read your response to my question(s) because I had to work on several manuscripts, in case you are wondering, (1) a theoretical paper on Sacajawea as the matriarchal leader of the United States of America; and (2) East-West influences on Derek Walcott, the 1992 Nobel Award Winner in Literature, the first African American to win it, which blazed a pathway for Toni Morrison, in 1993 the first African American woman to win a Nobel Prize in Literature. If I had been here, I would have thanked you for responding to my request to define "outside of the box." However, it is true that my question, or rebuttal and supporting timeline, with regard to your assertion of what you posited as Trumponomics' dependency on warfare has remained unanswered.
I apologize in advance if there is another delay. Today's email brought a request that I revise a manuscript I wrote a couple of months ago and submitted for consideration for publication as a refereed journal article, which tries to argue my case for the multifaceted depiction of Capitalism in a classic film by Hitchcock, in which I also attempt to indicate ways in which the film coincides with the ideas of Newton, Einstein, Darwin, Freud, Marx, and Veblen. Needless to say, there is a good deal of generalized topical material, which makes a study like this quite vulnerable to (constructive) criticism, for which I am grateful.
I am still interested in knowing whether or not you still hold the view that what you call "Trumponomics" is inextricably bound together with a wartime economy, or have you changed your view?
With best wishes.
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The organic linkages between development, democracy and governance, are monumentally huge, if empirically supported, then what happened in Libya?
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all the three having link between each other.
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Who has done or wants to do research on how technology can scale moral courage--can make it far easier to recruit &commit critical mass numbers of volunteers for nonviolent civil resistance. campaigns? And how can I reach them to invite them to a brainstorm session (maybe several) on what might be the behavioral levers that are most likely to motivate most "concerned" but not activist people to minimize their fears sufficiently and inspire "their better angels" to commit to tactics that history has proven are the most effective for achieving positive system change in the battles against greed, racism, autocracy and ignorance; to be able to recruit the numbers necessary to vastly improve our chances to save what is still savable of Mother Nature and democracy in the little time we have left.' Entre to senior level programmers, or crowdfunding social media mavens would also be especially appreciated, as well as possible research interns. Any location.
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Gary cane, I am interested sir.
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We all know about the traditional perfect market of Adam Smith and its place at the heart of pure or perfect capitalism.
We usually associate perfect market thinking with no government intervention unless there is market failure, but the perfect market of Adam Smith, like any other possible perfect market, can better be defined in terms of equality and freedom so as to be able to link it for example to imperfect markets such as dictatorship based markets or link it to distorted markets from the democracy point of view, which leads to the question, what is the conjunctural necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of perfect markets for example a la Adam Smith?
Feel free to provide your views, and keep in mind the angle of this question is “equality and freedom”, not government intervention or supply and demand interactions, even though they are linked.
This is an academic question, not a political one, and as usual my questions usually have a simple answer.
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Steven, nobody is accusing anybody here. When you say that an entity has more power than another in the market and that is why there is no equality and freedom, by definition you are not talking about Adam Smith's perfect market...
If you look carefully at the pareto efficient and optimal point/conditions of the perfect traditional market, you can not be there without freedom and equality, but if you assume equality away you can be there only with freedom.
Let's leave it here. I am here to exchange ideas, not to impose ideas.
Respectfully yours;
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Daily news from all around the world are feeding fear because we hear a lot about death, control, containment-mechanisms and suffering accoring to COVID-19. Following the media we see a lot of "important" people saying "...we need more security, more prevention… we have underestimated that Virus" - And smilingly in fear the we accept measures which may be helpful for prevention for one thing but harmful for our souls on the other hand. Prohibition to meet at the playgrounds for children, prohibition to connect each other, stay togehter in hard times and strongly not to touch each other and many more. Even cashless payment and within this total loss of finance liberty is discussed in political rounds…
So what can we do?! We need a logical but also heartful and soulful handling and very urgent a respectful handling of COVID-19 otherwise the biggest damage will be the loss of humanity!
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I fully agree and support the opinions of colleagues Janet Lane, Chinaza Godswill Awuchi. Thank you so much!
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Aristotle, in his book titled Politics, notes that one of the weak points in a democracy is that because people are considered "politically equal" they imagine they should be equal to everyone else in all other ways.
We see the same cultural movements occurring in our democracies today.
The push for equality in everything is being exploited by politicians everywhere through assorted wealth redistribution efforts, or efforts to lower education standards so that everyone can be awarded college degrees in something.
Prior to the Industrial Age, where almost limitless amounts of money have become available to governmentally empowered social tinkerers, making oneself "equal" to someone else was a personal responsibility. Now it appears "social leveling" has become the responsibility of government.
To make one citizen equal to another in as many ways as the social engineers can devise appears to be the aim of innumerable public efforts.
Is this a wise approach and do you think this will lead to a more harmonious and productive society in the future?
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People are different..in their capabilities and capabilities..the government can provide a decent living for citizens..but the issue of equality..is not possible..whether we are individuals or governments..if the rich give out even a small group of their money to the poor..it will be possible to achieve solidarity and eliminate the Class, albeit in a simple way...
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Most of the troubled and poorest countries have high levels of natural resource wealth, comparing with developed countries. Why is the negative affect of natural resources much higher in democratic nations, but not among none democratic nations?
Thanks a lot ahead.
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There is no inherent contradiction between natural resource endowments and democracy, in the sense that oil, for example, need not hinder democracy. That said, democracy is necessary for the good governance of political institutions and good governance in government is the key to sustainable development via processes that promote transparency, openness, predictability, participation, accountability, political legitimacy, freedom of association and participation in the process of governance, an established legal outline based on the rule of law, the independence of judiciary to protect human rights and freedom of information and expression, etc.
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Big tech is constrained by the political environment in which they operate, locally and globally.
If the world is divided between democracy and non-democracy given current capitalism dynamics, we should expect big tech to face fewer constraints; and therefore enjoy more business stability under democracy than under a non-democracy, and this should expected to affect future globalization trends. Which raises the question, Democratic capitalism vrs non-democratic capitalism: Is this the end of true globalization?
I think, perhaps yes and perhaps no. What do you think?
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Thanks; I agree with you, we need to leave here.
Have a nice evening.
Mohamed
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Working on a theory of paradigm shift and flips that is linked to equality and freedom it is possible to see clearly the structure of markets, including deep social markets and red socialism/communism based markets….
This understanding helps us see the options available to markets in terms of flips or shifts when under specific sustainability gap pressures, and it allows us to see which option they would exercise if they have a choice before paradigm death/collapse like the one we saw in 1991 related to the fall of Karl Marx's world/Red socialism.
From this angle, knowing the difference between different types of markets, especially close ones, is very relevant.
Looking at the deep social markets and red socialism/communism based markets, raises the question, can you see what was or is the difference between deep social markets and red socialism/communism based markets?
If you think you can see it please share it or describe it so we can exchange ideas.
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Dear Lucio,
Dear Dariusz,
If You do not analyze in this respect the communist China politically and its capitalism economically nowadays, and Yugoslavian system before 1990-s, which can be characterized as "self-governance socialism" politically and "market socialism" economically, You will lack the main points in Your raised problem. Additionally You need to analyze carefully "the Swedish model" of the seventies in 20-th century with its "functional democratic socialism" politically, Meidner "wage-earners funds" economically and elements which implemented economic efficiency and social justice at the same time (as Saltsjobaden agreement of social dialogue from 1938), etc. Other countries are much less important to analyze in this respect.
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The objective in formulating the questioning is the search to identify what is the feeling that the researchers have about the interactions between the strengthening of democracy through the improvement of the popular legislative initiative.
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In this case, I totally agree with the theory that it is a mechanism of direct democracy; It is the possibility protected in the Constitution, people can present bills, without being popular representatives in their respective bodies
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There are apparently clear concepts and they are terminated or with little possibility of reinvention and innovation: State, participation, citizenship, democracy, duties or obligations, rights. They must intersect in a complex symbiosis in the Constitution of each country. The question we must ask ourselves and try to answer is, how is the interweaving between these concepts in our Constitution? Is that joint effective? Are they an illusion?
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Parliamentary democracies are under pressure around the world. It is shown by the Index of Democracy, published by the British Institute of Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU). The report says that less than 5 percent of the world's population lives in 20 countries that, according to the Index, are countries of accurate and complete democracy. When governments do not pursue the policies that voters demand and when voters lose confidence in democracy, then a problem arises." Despite everything, existing democratic institutions have an enormous emancipatory character that must be defended over and over again every day. This is not just about equality but also about collective self-determination, according to which we as a society rationally organize and manage our everyday life. In a globalized world, more and more decisions are made by companies and concerns, not parliaments. These are decisions aimed at privatization, profit, and competition. Democracy as we have it promises things that it cannot fulfill because its area of ​​activity is enormously narrowed.
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In a liberal democracy, there is a free market, and in a free market big tech has the freedom it needs to maximize profits even when their actions are not socially and/or environmentally friendly. Big tech can spread easier around the world in countries under liberal democratic structures as the risk of expanding and operating freely there is technically small, rarely futile, than in places where there are non-liberal democracies where the risk of operating freely is very high, even futile.
Usually democracies have been defended by ordinary citizens during elections, not by big tech, but since 2016 and more after the covid19 pandemic big tech has taken a bigger role as it has been expected by their costumer to do so to promote and protect democratic rights using their economic muscle, specially the right to vote/participate, as the case of the USA shows.
Now it seems to be that big tech has realized that profits are more secure the better democracy works, and profits are more at risk when democracy is at risk or when there is no democracy or when democracy ends. They seem to know now that the stability of freedom of operation and expansion is directly related to the freedom that comes from operating under a true democracy.
In other words, current dynamics seem to show that true democracy to succeed needs the support of big tech and big tech to continue to succeed freely needs the support of liberal democracy.
If acting in a coordinated way, big tech can have a huge impact on the political systems inside which they work, be it democratic spaces or non-democratic spaces, which raises the current question, true democracy and big tech, do they need each other now more than ever to succeed locally and globally?.
I think yes, what do you think?
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Characteristic postmodern society information capitalist economy that is, the so-called speculative economy which is imbued with neoliberal ideology whereby most states democratic arranged except the USA where liberal is present politically arranging. A society in which we live it is also post-industrial in which agriculture and industry are losing the role they once had. In fact, not correct to say that these two sectors go out, but the service sector has already gained importance in which it opens a vast number of jobs, while in the previous two we have a considerable reduction of the same. Economic globalization enabled the transfer of production units from developed countries to underdeveloped countries where employees do the same job as their colleagues for 8 to 10 times fewer wages. Globalization processes have affected all world societies, not only society Western Europe and the US but also the rest of the world.
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Many people praising democracy and trying to implement it in their countries, whilst many of the people cursing it a lot and even say it is better to die on your feet than to live on your knee?
Dear RG members!!! what are the current good examples of ruling techniques over the country/state, which are more welcoming to local and international level of acceptance?
Do you think the drawbacks are due to democracy or some other compulsions?
How to improve or optimize the prevailing democracy?
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THERE IS NO ELSE !!: Democracy is not a perfect system (nothing human is) ... BUT THE OTHER SYSTEMS ARE MUCH WORSE !!!
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Nepal’s constitution does not state clearly about political affiliation or membership as criteria for ineligibility for the position of the judge. Can they remain members of a political party? Or can a person who served as a parliamentarian be appointed in the position of judge? How can possible conflict of interest be avoided?
Although the 23 February decision of the Supreme Court on house dissolution set a precedent and firmly established the separation of powers between three branches of the state and established constitutional supremacy, the time taken by the Supreme Court to determine the bench and the prolonged hearings of the case raised serious doubts on judicial fairness. All eyes were on the Supreme Court regarding whether the Court would be able to protect constitutionalism and maintain its integrity - keeping itself away from the political influence.
Public perceive that the judges are and can be influenced politically. Nepal's judicial history has proved that the political influence is the most common threat. Historical evidence shows that during the royal regime, it was controlled by the King and the royal palace and after the establishment of democracy by the political forces – judges are appointed based on political affiliation and political bhagbanda (sharing) and family ties. The provisions of the Interim Constitution, 2007 and the current Constitution, 2015 governing the selection, appointment and removal of judges reflects absolute political control over the judicial branch. Many of them owed their preferment to their party connections and disincline to sever against them undermining judicial integrity and independence.
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A Judge can be a member or politically affiliated in his individual capacity with a political party of his choice as he is having freedom or right to choose his own choice as a citizen
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Dear colleagues, I need your help to reflect on the following questions. I'm engaging in research project concerned about experience of countries in the mechanisms of overcoming violence and divisions in their past politics. All countries have gone through some sort of violent past, how have they reconciled with their past and each other? In cases where they had not established commissions or gone through processes that were explicitly named 'reconciliation', how did they manage to come to state of peace, democracy and development? It is my pleasure also if you can suggest me literature related to this issue.
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Various interpretations of the causes and roots of violence are thanks to narratives and competing myths (and myths are “strangely impervious to facts”). It is the most challenging task, as it raises questions of accountability, and all parties, of course, see themselves as just. Instead of asking why should be asked what made it possible? Mapping an ideology that lies behind the conflict is a crucial task (at least in the former Yugoslavia region). Experts generally agree that the reconciliation and peacebuilding process should be all levels of society involved. Lederach explicitly states that “peacebuilding must be undertaken simultaneously at many levels of society. At the same time, Bar-On observes that “top-down processes and bottom-up is difficult to reconcile due to the lack of a common language and social perspective.” In fact, in the region of the former Yugoslavia, peacebuilding processes have so far not been initiated from the highest level of decision-makers decisions in governments and parliaments.
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From my observations, there appear to be three principal avenues to engender critical thinking in education K-12: debate; mathematics, and science.
For some students, all three avenues are relatable and enjoyable. For others, only one or two avenues would work.
In any case, even one avenue can go a long way towards engendering critical thinking.
The ability and habit of thinking critically is an important remedy for the affliction of people accepting fake news and conspiracy theories. It can become the foundation for a well-functioning democracy.
I invite others to describe what has been done along these lines; or what they think should be done and how to install such educational paradigms.
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What is K-12 education?
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Once extreme democratic outcomes like Trumpism come to exist they must behave autocratically as their model structure, including the political and legal loyalties structures that they needed to persist, are the opposite as those of the normal liberal democracy model inside which extreme democratic outcomes came to exist.
Then when time for re-elections comes for extreme democratic outcomes, there is the possibility of winning or losing if playing the normal liberal democracy way, but there is the need to win at all cost if playing the extreme liberal democracy way.
Which leads to the question, what is the sufficient condition for extreme democratic outcomes like Trumpism to win re-elections or persist in power at all cost? Can the absence of this condition sufficient condition explains why Trumpism failed to persist in 2020?
Any ideas? Please share your own ideas in order to exchange ideas.
Keep in mind; this is an academic question, not a political question as I am a scientist, not a politician.
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George as shown in my pictures, under an independent rule of law system and without effective targeted chaos that induces full true majority complacency, exism movements like Trumpism cannot come to exist, and if they come to exist and when they go into re-election the targeted chaos that once worked is ineffective, they will lose re-election and nothing they can do, but to fade away, as independent courts without proof or evidence of electoral fraud will validate the winner of the contest…..
In 2016 against Hillary Clinton, systematic targeted chaos was effective, trumpism won; in 2020 against Biden, systematic targeted chaos was ineffective, trumpism lost. The dilemma the Trump party has now is how to make targeted chaos be effective again…otherwise; they cannot come into power again as long as there is no full true majority complacency….
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I am trying to start a project on the subject and your help would be appreciated
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Conflict and Peace Building in Divided Societies 1st Edition , Anthony Oberschall
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Olá,
Tenho interesse na temática deste projeto, sobretudo na abordagem das práticas do poder local em políticas públicas urbanas de segurança pública, fator imprescindível às sociedades democráticas.
A perspectiva de segurança adotada em meus estudos, rompe com a noção limitada e limitante de segurança como sinônimo de política penal e ação policial repressiva, dominante na sociedade e nos governos de um modo geral.
Na perspectiva que adotado, segurança envolve outros aspectos que vão além da proteção física e material e avança no campo da sustentabilidade ambiental urbana e do desenvolvimento humano.
Quem souber de sugestões de percursos teóricos e metodológicos que colaborem com essa lacuna de pesquisa, agradeço o compartilhamento comigo.
Grato,
Jovanil Oliveira
PPGPP - UECE
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Olá, meu portugues no e o melhor, eu estive no Brazil meio ano, e foi bolsista da CAPES, mais escrever fica complicado para mi agora. Eu vou responder vc em espanol, ta bom?
Entiendo perfectamente su punto de vista sobre seguridad ciudadana y democracia. En relación al tema de vulnerabilidades, estamos trabajado la vulnerabilidad socioeconómica local, y los factores que la inducen a ella, para el diseño de polítias públicas que los mitiguen.
Estamos empleando para ello los mapas conceptuales neutrosóficos y los números neutrosóficos. Ya hemos avanzado en ello, pronto saldrá una publicación al respecto.
Estás haciendo el doctorado, y dónde?. En lo que pueda ayudarte, aquí estoy. Mi correo personal sfortezarojas@gmail.com
Saludos