Science topic

Decentralization - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Decentralization, and find Decentralization experts.
Questions related to Decentralization
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
9 answers
Whats Do you know about Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAOs)?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Professor,
Thank you for your appreciation.
From 2014 to 2017, I was working in modern India's oldest and largest vocational training institution. This institution had its corporate office in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. I was working in the franchisee operations department. I had to go and set up a training centre in the neighboring province of Jharkhand, India. There, this model of Decentralized Autonomous Organization had to be followed. In a country like India, when we travel about 50 kms, everything changes. That includes history, culture, language, food, dress, social norms etc. The same is visible in case of West Bengal and Jharkhand. So, when I was setting up the training center in Jharkhand, I was told by the concerned director of the institute to keep these differences in mind and so go ahead with a DAO model. The concerned director of the institute had in his mind the differences in psychologies of West Bengal and Jharkhand.
Best regards,
Anamitra.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
4 answers
In-line with the recent Teams outage, I believe more work has to be done in the area of decentralised communicaiton. Business can't afford dependency on a single tool/product and decentralisation is key to ensure no damage is made in case of future outage of any key product/tool. If you're carry out research that tackle this issue, please share your thoughts here
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks for sharing Felix. I will go through it.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
5 answers
I am interested in above mentioned topic for my research.
Any one can help me to give information related to that topic?
Do you think this topic can be used for dissertation ?
Thank you for your inputs.
Relevant answer
Answer
What does it mean i am interested in research
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
43 answers
What do you think are the major blockchain research topics for 2022? How will the technology evolve? Will the focus be on scalability, security, or decentralization? Which blockchain will solve the trilemma best? Which applications will enable major breakthroughs? How will established industry players and governments react? How will tokenization (and especially NFTs) further evolve?
Relevant answer
Answer
Some of the catchy areas where researchers/industries try to adopt blockchain are as follows:
Transfer of Land Records (Property Record Management)
Digital Certificates Management (Education, Death, Birth, agreements, sale, deeds …)
Pharmaceutical supply chain•e-Notary Service (Blockchain-enabled e-Sign Solution)
Farm Insurance
Identity management
Power distribution
Duty payments
Agriculture and other supply chains
e-voting
Electronic Health Record Management
Digital Evidence Management System•Public Service Delivery
IoT Device Management and Security
Vehicle lifecycle management
Chit fund operations administration
Microfinance for Self-Help Groups (SHG)
Metaverse
Moreover, we have contributed many novel use cases on the blockchain. Please refer to our work
SUDEEP TANWAR'S RESEARCH GROUP (ST Lab)
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
4 answers
Its role and implication to the economy with particular interest in mini-grid,
The role Renewable energy can play
Relevant answer
Answer
Decentralized Distributed generation is in the long run sustainable source of energy for the economic development of a nation, provided after locally meeting the demand well established connectivity is there between systems along with storage to manage perfect balance of demand and supply of electricity.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
1 answer
Hello everyone!
There is no doubt that the future is moving towards decentralized systems. One of the popular decentralized systems is Blockchain technology . In this direction, how to store encrypted and critical data on IPFS? and how we can integrate IPFS with Blockchain platforms (Ethereum, Hyperledger Fabric, etc) to overcome the storage capacity?
Thanks in advance
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
6 answers
In a large power system operating day-in-day-out owing to the variation of load, and under different contingencies in operation configuration of system in terms of generator and their connectivity to decentralized load may vary. After determining inertia at a particular bus through simulation or otherwise how can it be verified from online actual operation of power system?
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
4 answers
I'm conducting a comparative study - by way of most similar systems design - between two countries on their decentralization implementation on a service delivery and attempting herein to understand why some states succeed while others fail in that. Though the literature review I've found three explanations that largely appear to explain for why some succeed or fail; elite capture, lack of a supportive and clear regulatory and legal framework; and central government intervention.
I have those explanations, but i am somewhat unclear on how to proceed with the theory - since I don't have any like e.g., realism. How would I go about writing a theoretical framework if I have some potential explanations but no clear theory to hang onto?
Relevant answer
A general methodological approach can be proposed. Here is the study map
The assumption must be logically consistent.
The assumption should not contradict the fundamental provisions of the science in which the hypothesis is put forward (the provision of this requirement is not absolute, since in some cases it is useful to question these provisions themselves; if the fundamental provisions of science, which the proposed assumption contradicts, cannot be refuted, an assumption is made).
The assumption must be fundamentally verifiable. If an assumption cannot be verified in principle (substantiated or refuted), it is not recognized as a hypothesis.
The assumption should not contradict previously established facts, for the explanation of which it is not intended (not related to the subject area of ​​the proposed hypothesis).
The assumption must be applicable to the widest possible range of phenomena. This requirement allows one to choose the simplest from several hypotheses explaining the same range of phenomena - therefore it is often called the principle of simplicity.
The assumption must be effective in cognitive or practical terms (in particular, allowing the development or concretization of a program for further research).
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
22 answers
Please consider and discuss any or all of the following questions:
1. Can AI be used in Decentralized Autonomous Systems (DAO)? How?
BEST ANSWERS
Arez Wazwaz
2. Would the AI be a platform, a DAO member, manager of the DAO or have some other role?
BEST ANSWERS
Arez Wazwaz
3. What are the advantages and risks of using AI in a DAO?
NOTE: Please share any sources you may be aware of. Thanks for any contribution.
Relevant answer
Answer
Rafael Dean Brown By September 2016, The DAO's value token, known as DAO, had been delisted from major cryptocurrency exchanges (such as Poloniex and Kraken) and had effectively gone inactive.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
3 answers
I am currently in the process of starting my planning for my research proposal. as this will be my first experience doing a dissertation I want to find possible research question that can fit well towards my data analysis stage. ideally something that can be easily measured during for quantitative analysis.
It would be really helpful to get some feedback.
Thanks.
Relevant answer
Answer
You can investigate whether the volume of DeFi activities is positively associated with economic growth in the last 4 years. Select a country that has publicly available DeFi data
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
7 answers
COVID-19 has had a significant impact on the educational sector, resulting in a shift from face-to-face to a decentralized learning environment, creating a unique opportunity for network-based academic dishonesty. Prior research has shown that during the COVID-19 pandemic, students engaged in network-based academic dishonesty as a consequence of the breach of weak and legacy software programs that monitor network-based academic dishonesty.
Are the current mitigation techniques for preventing network-based academic dishonesty well-designed? What are your thoughts on the matter?
Relevant answer
Answer
Len Leonid Mizrah that's a wonderful response and I second you. Atiff Abdalla Mahmoud the issue of academic dishonesty in decentralised learning is an emerging and growing trend. The consequences associated with this trend are also relatively new. This sparks a revision of preventive measures which are currently being used to match the trend. without new inventive and resilient techniques, the issues will only grow to unacceptable proportions of which if this happens the value of education will completely be eroded. My take is that the current measures are not anywhere near enough.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
10 answers
What machine learning or AI techniques can be used to detect and mask sensitive information in a semi-structured or unstructured dataset.
Relevant answer
Answer
جزيل الشكر
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
2 answers
Currently I am able to achieve any desired formation through MATLAB programming without the use of quadrotor dynamics, but I am stuck that how can I implement the tracking control of swarm through any controller. How should I proceed?
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you Peter Jardine
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
9 answers
Hi
I'm going to write a review article on the use of decentralized autonomous organizations(DAO). Can any of my friends help me with this?
thank you
Relevant answer
Answer
Interesting topic. Best wishes for you.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
3 answers
Sir,
This is a general question encountered during research work. You all are requested to provide your views/comments.
Relevant answer
Answer
A decentralized market contains digital technology, which allows buyers and sellers of securities to deal directly with each other instead of meeting in a traditional exchange. A common example of a decentralized market is real estate, where buyers deal directly with sellers.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
2 answers
I want to build Decentralized application .
What is the best platform that supports the creation of dapps and is free and easy to use, and what do I need programming languages?
And if someone can tell the basic steps that I need to start with, I hope
Relevant answer
Answer
Ethereum is free, easy to use, and is well documented. To date, ''Solidity" is the most popular programming language to write smart contracts in Ethereum.
You can find various smart contract examples online. I've written some too (here you can find mine: https://github.com/AydinAbadi)
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
5 answers
Discuss for me the points
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear David Njeri,
Any currency has a permanent lasting though variable value. Bitcoins' key value is in solving a money owner's privacy problem, as the ledger doesn't belong to any private or government property any more, but electronically and geographically disseminated world wide, and cannot be adjudicated or legislated locally. Businesses typically sell either products or services, which do not have a generally recognized permanent lasting values. Moreover, products/services cannot be anonymized and kept locally and world wide non-ajudicated and/or non-legislated. Hence, business products/services distributions cannot function similar to bitcoins due to its nature in a free market economy.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
7 answers
On three accounts, the rapid growth in cryptocurrency is comparable to a ponzi scheme. People invest into these because they expect good returns. There is no identified source of generating revenue on the investment. A Ponzi scheme is an investment fraud that pays existing investors with funds collected from new investors. The Ponzi scheme organizers often promise to invest your money and generate high returns with little or no risk. ... Instead, they use it to pay those who invested earlier and may keep some for themselves.
Cryptocurrencies are essentially digital currencies that are not issued by any central authority and depend on the users of the currency for their validation. The validation is recorded on the Blockchain which is there for everyone to see. Since the currency is decentralized, there is no geopolitics involved. Since the transactions are publicly available, implementing counterfeit transactions is extremely difficult. Since the entire system is encrypted using cryptographic protocols, the transactions are secure. Most importantly, they are easily convertible into USD at the moment. Most “serious” cryptocurrencies, like Bitcoin, are limited in number protecting against inflation. Cryptocurrencies have been the darling of fin-tech observers since 2013 and we are presently in the midst of a cryptocurrency bubble with prices of every kind of cryptocurrency shooting through the roof.
Relevant answer
Answer
The extreme ups and downs of the value of this currency and the non-backup by governments make the dealings with this currency very dangerous. In addition, money laundering and terrorism, among others, find safe heaven for such currency dealings.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
4 answers
I am looking for recommendation of book/chapter/scientific papers explicitly concerned with the event identification and mitigation in power systems. The decentralized control is a plus but will be looking forward for a event observations in distributed systems. Any discussion/sharing of scientific content is appreciated.
Regards,
Relevant answer
Answer
Thankyou
Asit Mohanty
Chaowanan Jamroen and Mohsen Akbari . Sounds interesting!
Regards.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
4 answers
Indian Govt. is planning to introduce regulated crypto-currency. Does it not violate the real essence of cryptocurrency which itself is decentalized?
Crypto-currecy in real sense is decentralized which means that there is no regulatory body who governs the entire system. Does " Regulated crypto-currency" doesn't violate this structure.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Dr. Ashish Seth it's the contradictory process of its ideology.
They said it is decentralized but they want to control it.
The moral of the story is there is a need to set the universal rule for cryptocurrency transactions and then realise the system globally.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
1 answer
the relationship between decentralization ,gender equity and participatory planning
Relevant answer
Answer
You may find some interesting issues pointed out in the work of Lakwo, Alfred (2009): Making decentralization work for women in Uganda published by the African Studies Center of the University of Leiden (African Studies Collection Vol. 16).
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
5 answers
According to the latest information, the number of already connected devices on the planet reaches 9 billion, which are located around the world, it is also necessary to take into account the support of all types of languages and the decentralization of registration systems for digital objects on the Internet, in order to provide a decentralized management system for digital objects. In this regard, one of the most important problems is the choice of an identification system for all IOT devices connected to the Internet.
Relevant answer
Answer
Have you tried Shodan?
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
3 answers
Decentralized finance (DeFi) is growing very fast. The user of DeFi also booting. do we have a way to capture the utilities from participating DeFi activities? examples of DeFi activities include holing governmental tokens, staking cryptocurrencies, lending and borrowing, etc.
Relevant answer
Answer
Good question. People now are interested in this.
Espicially in cryptos.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
3 answers
Ethereum Blockchain is a deterministic Turing machine, meaning there is no randomness involved. If there was a random opcode in place, all miners would obtain different results and the network would be unable to reach a consensus.
There are currently several approaches for generating random numbers:
  1. Use an external service through Oraclize: The problem here is that the service is centralized. Therefore, we have to trust the server (random.org, Wolfram Alpha, etc...) generating random numbers.
  2. RANDAO: A DAO working as RNG. The problem here is mainly with the speed of obtaining the random number, and the transaction fees.
  3. Use Blockhash: The problem with this approach is that miners can cheat and influence the value.
What is the best way to generate random numbers on-chain? It would be ideal if we can assign each listed approach to potential decentralized applications.
Relevant answer
Answer
Unification provides an open API for randomness
Verifiable Open Randomness (VOR) offers on-chain provable randomness on Ethereum.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
5 answers
Decentralize finance or Defi is growing fastly, some think it is the future of finance, Defi provides individuals with lots of financial services, i.e. loans, investments, options, assets management, etc. while critics believe that Defi is full of risk, it can't shock financial institutions.
Relevant answer
Answer
Replace, not in the foreseeable future. Co-evolve, for sure.
In our recent piece, we discuss the persisting reliance of DeFi on the traditional monetary market (see section 6) but also possibility of convergence of the two spaces.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
2 answers
what are the local government reforms in Zimbabwe since 1980 to date
Relevant answer
Answer
Decentralisation allows the development of a framework of greater public participation in local policies, empowers local political entities and allows us to draw good ones in proximity from the bottom up. The most decentralized states administratively and financially tend to be more developed.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
9 answers
I will be grateful for your answers. Or if you have any suggestions in the field of finance, banking.
Relevant answer
Answer
I think blockchain technology diffusion and its impact on the financial
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
6 answers
Historically, the American federalism has centralized. However, the public agenda has zigzagged from centralization to decentralization creating political changes. But, what about rural America?
Relevant answer
Answer
Rural areas of the US have what yo might call "light government" rather than the full extent of government. Most are governed by county governments that do not have the resources - and in most cases don't want them - to offer the full panoply of services that you find in urban areas. sometimes these areas are suburbs; more likely they are farming areas, national or state forests or land, etc. The concept of federalism that governs the relationships between the federal government and the states does not apply within states. Within states, the state government is supreme (google Dillon's rule - see Wikipedia article), and if the state wants to house its prisoners in county jails, it can do so (California about 10 years ago). If a state wishes to apply regulations to the counties, it can do so (see the sustained groundwater management act in California about 5 years ago). And many of the people in rural areas want to have light government as well. it's a system that reflects the preferences of the people in the rural areas. For many, perhaps most, it works well, but there are always those who want to have more government services in areas where they are not provided. The trick is to find a place with the right level of government that you can afford to live in. I hope this helps the questioner.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
49 answers
In the disaster management literature, it is suggested that there is a relationship between disaster-related deaths and the democracy level of countries. According to this view, disaster-related deaths decrease as the level of democracy increases. But COVID-19 contradicts this view. Although the crisis is first seen in countries with low democracy level such as China and Iran, it affects European countries with high democracy level. What do you think about this?
Relevant answer
Answer
I think it is directly related, in countries without democracy, the measures are implemented centrally without measuring the consequences, in democracy it is more difficult to implement a strict quarantine. In Argentina there is quarantine, but people are tired and do not respect much.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
6 answers
The essence of this question is to ascertain if Smart Contract with its Decentralized Transaction Protocols can be applied in Project Management. And if yes, which area of project management will it be applied for efficient project delivery?.
Another basis for the question is the growing concern of the importance of Smart Contract as an easy and security proof transaction platform that removes third party interference.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
19 answers
Is The Planning Will Be Centralized better than Decentralized?
Relevant answer
Answer
Planning developed and targeted through the Centralised level is much more efficient and powerfull. It reduces lots of manpower, funding, prevents massive corruptions, time and leads to uniform implention.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
4 answers
Which is the better in the issue of agricultural development ... is the planning will be centralized or decentralized?
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
3 answers
Many industrialized countries have sought to develop a framework of opportunities and various resources, organized to cause catalysts of economic forces. In countries where this establishment has not done, what is happening?
Relevant answer
Answer
Administrative decentralization can be easily carried out politically, but giving autonomous functioning is not allowed. This is the case in many undeveloped countries like Nigeria. In the case of Nigeria, tribalism/ethnicity, politics, religion, socio-cultural fear, prejudice, stereotype, discrimination and even hatred are often the determinants of administrative decentralization. Basically, administrative decentralization in Nigeria is very fragile, as it can be altered easily to achieve political and ethic favour. The foregoing makes territorial development very challenging.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
2 answers
What are the most important pillars of decentralization in management?
Relevant answer
Answer
Trust
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
19 answers
Democracy and decentralisation is meaningless without the active participation of the people in decision and policy making process. Therefore, how one can measure the level of people's participation? What are the major attributes to identify and investigate citizen participation in decentralization process?
Relevant answer
Answer
Please, you red:
  • Newman, M., Barabasi, A., & Watts, D. J. (2006). The Structure and Dynamics of Networks. (1º ed.). Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Scott, J. P. (2000). Social Network Analysis: A Handbook (2º ed). London; Newbury Park, Calif: Sage Publications Ltd.
  • Thelwall, M. (2008). How are Social Network Sites Embedded in the Web? An Exploratory Link Analysis. International Journal of Scientometrics, Informetrics and Bibliometrics, 12(1).
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
6 answers
I think it is essential that students participate in the evaluation process, using self-evaluation and peer evaluation, as a strategy to become more aware of their responsibility as active subjects of their own learning. This construction as conscious subjects can serve as the basis for the continuous training that they will have throughout their lives, since they can learn to depend more on themselves than on others, allowing greater levels of autonomy. On the other hand, self-evaluation and peer evaluation contribute to decentralize the evaluative power that is in the hands of teachers. If asymmetry is not possible to lose in the formal education framework, given that the teacher is responsible for certifying learning, it can enable the participation of students and collaboration among them, experiences that will surely be very useful for them. in their future citizen participation in the society to which they belong.
Relevant answer
Answer
A heutagogical approach.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
3 answers
As much as I read about decentralized and distributed networks, it becomes more and more difficult to make a clear cut distinction between the two. Kindly, help by providing a clear distinction between decentralized and distributed networks.
Relevant answer
Answer
The question is relevant. However I would also add the Topology of the network:
-star shaped
every node connects to a common center O
With N nodes (counting O), that's N-1 links
-meshed
all nodes connect to each other
with N nodes, that's N. (N-1)/2 links
- daisy chained
let us index the nodes i=1... N
Node i connects to i +1, ..., N to 1.
-tree
etc...
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
5 answers
is it enough by clicking statistics --> frontier model --> then filling the variables in model 1 and model 2 (inefficiency model)?
Anyway, Im trying to evaluate the efficiency of fiscal decentralization in 2010 to 2016. I found a research paper about SFA using stata, but it is a little bit confusing for me since im trying the commands but my result is not good. There are a lot of models like fels, fecs, true fixed effect, true random effect, etc. And actually I still dont understand the concept of each model.
thank you for anyone who are willing to enlighten me
Relevant answer
Answer
I have the same question. Is the standard Hausman test applicable for true fixed effects and true random effects stochastic frontier models?
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
3 answers
Rural development, Urban Development, Rural-urvan partnership, Sustainable development, Federal Nepal.
Relevant answer
Answer
Actually there is no problem in Federal Setup in Nepal but the coordination between the central, provincial and local government is not practiced as intended during the federal formation. The rural-urban partnership is being one of the crucial topics for the implementation of federalism in Nepal.
Regards
Ishwor Thapa
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
2 answers
I'm want to create a decentralized application so I'm trying to understand which platform is better for this purpose. In most cases people use Ethereum for this purpose but are there any alternatives?
Relevant answer
Answer
Ethereum is often used because it has an active community and many tools and frameworks. If you are familiar with react you could use the truffle framework with drizzle to create dapps in a convenient way.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
9 answers
I have an idea of production distribution planning in centralized and decentralized multi period supply chain planning considering time value of money ? Is there any previous papers on this work. I require them for literature work.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Prasad Vsrk
I think you are speaking about this?
The concept is quite interesting, we have not being looking exactly that, even when I have a lot of background on ICT and logistics research work :-)
B.R.,
Ari
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
4 answers
Hello everyone :)
I have a problem that I really can’t figure out about marginal stability. It is as follow:
Consider a group of n agents (can be whatever: spacecraft, ship, robots) decentralised (without a leader). Each agent follow the next agent, so agent 1 follows agent 2, agent 2 follows agent 3, … and agent n follows agent 1, according to the following law
dot_xi = ui
ui = A xi
The matrix A is of size 2n x 2n, and has two conjugate poles on the imaginary axis, which make my system marginally stable. So it means that if there is ant disturbances, those poles go either to LHP or to RHP, and I want neither.
The question is simple:
If there are disturbances, do you know any method that could make my poles “stay” on the imaginary axis, or make them move along the imaginary axis ?
I’m really struggling, and honestly any help is more than welcome !
Thanks in advance
Relevant answer
Answer
thanks for your document. It doesn't reply totally to my question but I spot some little informations that I maybe use :)
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
6 answers
Generally speaking, a linear system is solvable and a decentralized system can be solved more efficiently.
Relevant answer
Answer
Decentralized implies that there is no single point where the choice is made. Each hub settles on a choice for it's very own conduct and the subsequent framework conduct is the total reaction but, a "linear system"deal with all together at once
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
4 answers
access to credit has been understood as a requirement for poor people to start a new job and take themselves out of poverty. But usually they do not have access to bank loans and deprived from society. Blochchain is a distributed and decentralized technology which reduce the role of banks and other financial intermediaries in credit allocation. The question is about pros and cons of Blochchain technology in facilitating financial inclusion.
Relevant answer
Answer
In Ukraine many people don't know about this new technology. We have another problem which consists in the fact that the old people are the poorest and the least technologically advanced. This knowledge schould be spread in the society through availabale sources. Some universities have a program to improve computer literacy but such program usually teaches bacis functions only and doesn't provide an access to new technologies
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
3 answers
With globalization, supply chain has extended its each beyond any boundaries. However, it is important to point out and analyse the trade-off between economic gain vs environmental ans social compromises.
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
2 answers
I am looking for literature specifically focusing on comparing regional/centralized stormwater attenuation with site/development/decentralized stormwater attenuation. Please let me know if you know of any recent (or old) studies
Relevant answer
Answer
"Initial results illustrated that while both approaches are capable of maintaining the pre-development peak flow rate, the distributed approach better mimicked the natural hydrologic condition in terms of groundwater recharge and total runoff volume reduction. With the additional hydrological benefits from the distributed approach, it is expected that the downstream channel morphology, bio-diversity, and water quality can be better preserved. "
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
4 answers
For example, Energy Web Foundation’s (EWF) energy- sector promotes the use of blockchain in energy management. Like Bitcoin, the EWF blockchain is a distributed ledger, upon which users can code applications that run on top of it.
Relevant answer
Answer
I am not sure if the energy companies will allow decentralised control of their sector. this would afford too much power transfer from the incumbent to the prosumer. They may incorporate decentralised infrastructures for energy management, but they will inevitably be afforded by permissioned systems, ultimately under the incumbents' control, or inclusive of some exclusive consensus mechanism such as Proof of Authority. There is too much value staked by those that allocate resources to the physical infrastructure for them to cede control in a sector that is deeply entrenched in legacy organisation methodology.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
1 answer
I want to make a decentralized cloud-oriented storage architecture for large scale data. Any one suggest me which algorithms will helpful.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Ajay,
Just look on HDFS , which is already a proven Storage Solution.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
3 answers
How can we measure the openness of fiscal decentralization in the country through the empirical analysis and which model is most reliable for results?
Relevant answer
Good morning,
Maybe you could study the Spanish case. We have an organic law of financing of the autonomous communities in which it is defined that taxes cede the state to the autonomous communities so that they are collected and managed by them, and of those that the power controls the state, that percentage of the collected in each community is the latter.
The law is called "
Ley 22/2009, de 18 de diciembre, por la que se regula el sistema de financiación de las Comunidades Autónomas de régimen común y Ciudades con Estatuto de Autonomía y se modifican determinadas normas tributarias"
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
6 answers
Hello,
I am working on a three level supplier, manufacturer and retailer game. In a decentralized channel, I used backward induction method to get the optimal values. But is it possible that the supplier optimal profit values in Negative?
Please guide me or suggest me an article for my understanding.
Thank you in advance.
Relevant answer
Short answer: Yes, you can have negative profits.
Long answer: It really depends on what you are trying to prove. Negative profits may point out that a market structure with three players is unfeasible, and therefore, someone should quit the market. Basically, that results what is telling you is that at least one of those players (companies) prefers not to play the game (zero profits).
My suggestion: I will try to compare your results with the duopoly and monopoly cases, to observe to what extent the third company is driving profits down to the negative region.
I hope that helps you. Good luck!
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
1 answer
Using Mixed Integer Linear Programming
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear sir
I have many papers about dispersed power generation included microturbine, fuel cell, photocell,.... you can see it in my page in researchgate.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
3 answers
I am looking to measure department decentralization i..e. degree to which departmental activities are carried out by offices other than the corporate office. These subsidiary offices can be in other countries as well. I am not able to find a suitable measure for this. The centralization scales in management focus on the centralization of decision making instead. Has anyone previously developed such a measure that I can adapt for my purpose. Please let me know.
Relevant answer
Answer
I am looking for a measure of decentralization of a department that has been previously published
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
8 answers
Hi. My research topic is Centralisation versus decentralisation of HR practices. Independent variable of my research question is the level of centralisation and dependent is recruitment and selection of state employees. I am thinking in how to measure the independent variable (level of centralisation). Any ideas?
Relevant answer
Answer
centralization can be measured through authority concentration e.g an organisation with hierarchical structure has centralization of authority, whereas in flatter organisation structure there is decentralization of authority. In HR practices if team approach is adopted authority gets distributed but in case of one man approach authority is centralized.
Regards
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
4 answers
Hello Everyone, I need your kind guidance specifically for the managerial insights. I am working on the decision making model of manufacturer and retailer. I already found the optimal values in centralized and decentralized channel. However, as a fresh PhD scholar, I am unable to find the useful managerial insights out of my work.
Can you please guide or recommend me some studies for managerial insights understanding?
Thank you in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
"Managerial Insights" is a fancy term for "So what?" (See, it has more syllables, so it's more impressive.)
Your analysis should be useful for something: helping managers make a specific decision, avoid an unprofitable option, recognise an opportunity, identify measures that indicate some future event, measure a KPI. One analysis doesn't have to have many "managerial insights": just one good one is enough.
If you have to lie to yourself by saying "I suppose this might give managers a better understanding of blah blah blah", then go back and think about your data and your analysis again.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
5 answers
These tokenized ticketing platforms underpinned by blockchain would ensure anonymity, privacy and security. For instance, could protest movements be organised to evade oppression?
Relevant answer
Answer
Are you sure?
If it isn't possible to delete any information from a chain it gives possibility for security services to find every member of the chain. Even if not possible to read the encrypted message it is possible to find a person who added one. After this the standard methods of receiving information works.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
8 answers
I use the fuzzy set QCA to examine the relationship between decentralization, national contextual factors(such as government capacity, economical development), and environmental policy performance. one of anonymous reviewer comments my manuscript as follows:
I do not think that the authors are able to identify any causality effect with this kind analysis(i.e. fsQCA). Governments are able to develop environmental regulation and taxes, but environmental outcome depends on other kind of external factors that are not included in the analysis and are very difficult to observe (social preferences, elasticities, etc.). I strongly recommend removing this idea from the manuscript (which is the core issue). No causality effect could be detected so the analysis should be reoriented.
In fact, this is not the first time that I hear these suspicious voices about QCA. I sincerely hope that QCA users can have a discussion about this topic and give me some suggestions to answer reviewer's question.
Thank you!
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Yimin,
What your recite from the review you got is by no means specific to QCA. Some researchers simply seem to think that, only because one has not measured all potentially relevant variables ("...environmental outcome depends on other kind [sic] of external factors that are not included in the analysis..."), the purpose of a method breaks down. I highly recommend the recent article "The C-Word: Scientific Euphemisms Do Not Improve Causal Inference From Observational Data" by Harvard epidemiologist Miguel Hernán "The C-Word: Scientific Euphemisms Do Not Improve Causal Inference from Observational Data", which you may want to use next time in your response to reviewers.
Kevin C. Johnson has also already asked a similar question on ResearchGate in this thread: https://www.researchgate.net/post/Want_to_help_with_QCA_Frequently_Asked_Questions_FAQ_List.
Best wishes,
Alrik
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
4 answers
I just wanted to mention that perhaps there is a need to consider how technology might be used to reduce the dependence on central authority. It may be useful to consider modern technological forms of decentralized cooperation such as mesh networks and block chain for financial transactions.
Relevant answer
Answer
You can refer to materials on Industry 4.0
for instance, article by Meissner, Ilsen and Aurich on Analysis of Control architectures in context of Industry 4.0
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
3 answers
According to Braun et al.,( 2006 )Negotiation theory is a decentralized decision-making process that seeks to find an agreement that will satisfy the requirements of two or more parties in the presence of limited common knowledge and conflicting preferences. Negotiation participants are agents who negotiate on their own behalf or represent the interests of their principals. Negotiation is a pervasive feature of relationships among tax preparers ( internal and external ), clients( the taxpayer) and the tax authorities. However, during the negotiation, the negotiators will have to forecast the outcomes and will have expectations of the outcomes based on their own probabilistic estimates.
Thank you in advance
Relevant answer
Answer
I do believe that negotiation theories can coexist with the cooperative compliance model which is used in Australia, not sure of the compliance model used in america. But a major factor for most tax agents and their lawyers in the negotiation process, is the taxpayers appetite for defending their tax position. A risk averse client is more likely to accept the positioning of the tax authority limiting the scope of negotiation, on the other hand risk predilection will result in a client more open to challenging authorities, opening opportunities for stronger negotiation.
May be handy to research the psychology of tax compliance, as this will give clues as to the risk behaviours in taxpayers.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
5 answers
Can we imagine a world without iTunes and Spotify where the ownership of a song is transferred directly from the musicians to the fans? Is Blockchain the "legal revenge" of the #Napster's decentralized system (peer to peer) of music distribution that was introduced many years ago?
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you Levente, I will check the website.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
3 answers
I would like to develop a model/framework for a decentralized student support service - any idea ?
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you very much Mr Singh,
My surname reads Masalesa and written as such. Its not an English name but Setswana in South Africa.
The document is so relevant I feel proud of the chatting platform. The decentralisation model of student support is a reality to bigger institution, hence I explore the topic. I will appreciate other views on decentralisation processes used by other countries for efficiency with implementation of student support model.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
4 answers
Evolution of electric energy sources, evolution of DSOs, RES in role of main energy sources for small and medium consumers, advances in AI and crypto Currencies, liberalization of market. All these features make energy trading business harder and with much guaranteed flexibility not easily achieved at same scale and same cost everywhere and anytime. Modelling energy market as CryptoCurrency market could make this goals possible.
Relevant answer
Answer
Well, this is definitely an interesting question worth reserach.
In contrary to Bitcoin, taking into consideration that e.g. Solarcoin has not been a success yet, we should carefully think about somekind of energy CryptoCurrency design that really would benefit the future decentralized and renewable power market, including flexibilities and storage. And be transparent to the communities, to avoid fraud and money-laundry.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
7 answers
we are looking like minded people/organisation working on the issue to strengthen decentralize primary health care delivery in rural India
Relevant answer
Answer
Definitely,VHND important to involve community for promotion of health and prevention of diseases.Rather can say health care services at door steps.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
3 answers
Decentralized and people-oriented decision making are increasingly gaining importance in terms of policy support and field practices in India. Much is talked and written about the techniques and approaches one can adopt to have a more efficient and effective plan in place that is socially acceptable to the beneficiaries. The experiences and studies on the implementation part, however, remains largely unclear, at least in terms of published literature. While it is evident that there is reluctance and resistance at various levels of plan execution, I have so far found very limited material on the roles and responsibilities of various stakeholders involved in the community participation process.
Relevant answer
Answer
Major constraint is social hierarchy in India. Firstly, community participation depends on how 'community' is defined. Secondly, who is studying the 'community'. and thirdly, how the 'community' is being studied. Techniques of participatory research go only some distance in overcoming these problems and answering these questions. Often, in India, there are formidable questions of theoretical nature to answer before defining community, making a venture into the community and using participatory action research methods. Often the success of these methods in working with the community is inversely proportionate to the politicisation of the community. The more political the community in certain single or more than one manner, the less successful community participation action research methods will be, irrespective of for what end they are used. Planning, local planning is no exception.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
8 answers
Dear RG-Community
Is anyone aware of a comprehensive LCA-Study, comparing the different systems of providing electricity to end users? I'm particularly interested in the comparison of the following two systems:
Firstly, a photovoltaics (PV)-systems with (and without) a battery, which is designed in such a way, that most of the PV-power is consumed locally (e.g. making use of demand side control, intra-day storage in the battery, combining various households). This currently is promoted within Switzerland.
Secondly, a system drawing much more on the electric grid, which would require to strengthen the electric grid to integrate a higher share of renewable energy coming from centralized and decentralized PV and Wind power plants.
Any hints to recent studies, particularly ones that include some technology forecast are highly welcome.
Best,
Beni
Relevant answer
Answer
Many thanks for the answers!
So I learned: It depends on the situation. I had a mid-european scene in mind, like in Switzerland and Germany. There is a Grid, practically everywhere, but the grid is designed for large centralized powerplants.
I like how Robert Istvan Radics reformulated the question. I based on that, I'll be more specific: Is, in central Europe, an assumed 100% renewable-based grid power better than a decentralized PV-battery combo from the environmental perspective? The first one needs cables, transformers, maintenance, occupies the land,  and has a continuous loss in the grid, the second one needs batteries, has losses for storage and does optimize the PV output to meet the local demand and not to maximize electricity production (i.e. non-perfect inclination). 
Suggestions for review papers or LCA-Studies for either of the two cases greatly appreciated. Many thanks.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
3 answers
Organisations are known to vacillate between centralised and decentralised organization structures. Boumgarden et. al. (2012) theorise this and give one such example with organisation structure in HP. Are there other similar research papers on vacillation and examples? 
I know there are papers that suggest such vacillation so that firms can alternatively explore and exploit. But Boumgarden seems to suggest a change of structure that is not directly linked to a change of strategy. Are there other older or newer papers that describe this?
Relevant answer
Answer
Enter your answer
the shift and choice of organisational structure from centralised to decentralised is part of a larger problem and one documented by Chandler in his famous thesis regarding the relationship between strategy and structure.
here are some references that may be helpful to you:
Chandler, A.D. Jr. (1962). Strategy and Structure: Chapters in the History of the American Industrial Enterprise. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Hall, D.J. and Saias, M.A. (1980). Strategy Follows Structure! Strategic Management Journal, Vol 1 No 2 (April-June 1980) 149-163
Mintzberg, H. (1990). The Design School: Reconsidering the Basic Premises of Strategic Management Strategic Management Journal, Vol 11 No 3 (March-April 1990) 171-195
In my view, a close reading of Chandler shows how his work was based on deep empirical and historical study of organisational evolution such that it is full of insights still useful today
:
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
6 answers
Any body can share their idea
Relevant answer
Answer
Decentralization of solid waste can be achieved by providing landfills in different areas, organize the collection efficiently and prevent informal waste deposition along road sides or wild land fills. Decentralization is an important challenge as, if successfully done, helps to prevent the generation of waste caused by waste collection....
Young, Gary C.
Municipal Solid Waste to Energy Conversion Processes (Economic, Technical, and Renewable Comparisons) || From Curbside to Landfill: Cash Flows as a Revenue Source for Waste Solids-to-Energy Management
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
book
Year:2010
First page:49
Last page:123
M. Fehr
The Prospect of Municipal Waste Landfill Diversion Depends on Geographical Location
Springer (Kluwer Academic Publishers)
Environment Systems and Decisions
Year:2002
Month:12
Day:
Volume:22
Issue:4
First page:319
Last page:324
Milosevic, I.; Naunovic, Z.
The application of a multi-parameter analysis in choosing the location of a new solid waste landfill in Serbia
Sage Publications
Waste Management & Research
Year:2013
Month:10
Day:01
Volume:31
Issue:10
First page:1019
Last page:1027
Mokhtarian, M.N.; Sadi-nezhad, S.; Makui, A.
A new flexible and reliable interval valued fuzzy VIKOR method based on uncertainty risk reduction in decision making process: An application for determining a suitable location for digging some pits for municipal wet waste landfill
Elsevier
Computers & Industrial Engineering
Year:2014
Month:12
Day:
Volume:78
Issue:
First page:213
Last page:233
Sunil Kumar, Mohammad Izhar Hassan
Selection of a Landfill Site for Solid Waste Management: An Application of AHP and Spatial Analyst Tool
Springer-Verlag
Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing
Year:2013
Month:03
Day:
Volume:41
Issue:1
First page:45
Last page:56
Ahmad, S. Z.; Ahamad, M. S. S.; Yusoff, M. S.
Spatial effect of new municipal solid waste landfill siting using different guidelines
Sage Publications
Waste Management & Research
Year:2014
Month:01
Day:01
Volume:32
Issue:1
First page:24
Last page:33
Naser Hafezi Moghaddas; Hadi Hajizadeh Namaghi
Hazardous waste landfill site selection in Khorasan Razavi Province, Northeastern Iran
Springer-Verlag
Arabian Journal of Geosciences
Year:2011
Month:02
Day:
Volume:4
Issue:1-2
First page:103
Last page:113
Himan Shahabi,Soroush Keihanfard,Baharin Bin Ahmad…
Evaluating Boolean, AHP and WLC methods for the selection of waste landfill sites using GIS and satellite images
Springer-Verlag
Environmental Earth Sciences
Year:2014
Month:05
Day:
Volume:71
Issue:9
First page:4221
Last page:4233
Arkoc, Orhan
Municipal solid waste landfill site selection using geographical information systems: a case study from Çorlu, Turkey
Springer-Verlag
Arabian Journal of Geosciences
Year:2014
Month:11
Day:
Volume:7
Issue:11
First page:4975
Last page:4985
Al-Khatib, Issam A.; Abu Hammad, Ahmad; Sharkas, Othman A.; Sato, Chikashi
Public concerns about and perceptions of solid waste dump sites and selection of sanitary landfill sites in the West Bank, Palestinian territory
Springer-Verlag
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Year:2015
Month:4
Day:
Volume:187
Issue:4
Jamshidi, Azadeh; Kazemijahandizi, Elmira; Allahgholi, Leili; Monavari, Seyed Masoud; Tajziehchi, Sanaz; Hashemi, Alireza; Moshtaghie, Minoo; Jamshidi, Mojgan
Landfill site selection, a basis towards achieving sustainable waste management
HARD Publishing Company
Polish Journal of Environmental Studies
Year:2015
Month:
Day:
Volume:24
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
3 answers
local Government
Relevant answer
Answer
allocation of local finances is a serious issue across the globe, and particularly so in developing regions. Pakistan is a classic example of this tug of war between the provincial governments and the local governments ( whenever they are allowed to exist). The provincial governments are not willing to let go their fiscal authority and allow the poor to benefit from the public money. under the present system of local government only one province the Khyber Puktun Khaw is implementing the local governance to serve the interest of the poor who exist in oblivion for the ruling elite ,in general.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
1 answer
The contradiction between supply and demand of parking is apparent in the downtown areas of metropolitan around the world. One of the most important reasons is that not all kinds of parking resources within the region have been applied fully. With the advent of shared economy, I wonder how can we tackle this thorny problem of parking by sharing the private parking lots. Are there some relevant research or materials of it? Thanks for your reply!  
Relevant answer
Answer
I wrote this paper to explore the relationship between the sharing economy and urban property rights. I think parking space is an important "durable good" that could be shared by people living in downtowns. It will be interesting to analyze its effects on urban economy.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
2 answers
 I'm looking to establish a linkage between decentralization and school performance. In doing so, I would like to understand how Urban Local Bodies that are mandated to look at matters of education delivery (12th Schedule), interact with the Education officers (Cluster, Block level) and how the hierarchy is designed. 
Relevant answer
Answer
I have written an article based on primary research in two south India states, on the relationship between primary formal education and panchayats. The evidence is that most of the time primary education is subject to political intervention and bureaucracy too plays a role. Educational bureaucracy too has its interests. In this context I can recommend the PhD thesis done by Manisha Priyam at IDS, Sussex, UK, comparing two states Andhra Pradesh and Bihar.  This is a good topic. Best wishes.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
8 answers
Revolutions are events of political unrest and rapid transformations. I am looking for specific cases where political and social demands have been manifested in a grassroots changes in urban policy.
e.g. restructuring a national housing program or decentralization of urban governance.
Relevant answer
Answer
This is a very interesting case study. The library, part of the University of Sevilla, was designed back in 2006 by renowned Iraqi architect Zaha Hadid,but it has been contested by local residents for its violation of green zone regulations.  In 2009 Andalucia’s High Court ordered building to be stopped.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
3 answers
Activated sludge and aerobic process have been widely applied for municipal/domestic wastewater treatment at city-level but there is little possibility of resource recovery in these plants. With new systems like UASB, AD, Algal systems, struvite crystallization etc., nutrients and organic matter can be integrated with wastewater treatment plants. But are there already existing big scale installations/case studies incorporating these?
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
4 answers
How realistic is it in terms of control, if we agree that technology hyperenvironments surround and sustain strategic direction? 
See image below.
Relevant answer
Answer
In terms of control it will only work if input from end users and other stakeholders is included. It is impossible to ignore them. Because of democratisation of internet through open source software and applications their influence is much greater. So, a strategy is possible, but only a strategy that includes more stakeholders and is not focused on controlling. Realistically what can be controlled and what is the long term effect/price of controll?  There must be other management and leadership ways that are more appropriate.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
4 answers
I read about organicity as the desirable structure of entrepreneurial firms, I found Miller (1983) when he originally described organic firms as those that have: integration, communication, decentralisation, loose of control, technoratization, etc. While, Urban 2011 perceived organicity as: "a proclivity toward such qualities as decentralized decision making, low formality, wide spans of control, expertise- (vs. position)-based power, process flexibility, free flowing information networks, and loose adherence to rules and policies". Noting that I don't have access to the measurement scale that Urban 2011 used. 
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Mohamed,
In HRM, these organic characteristics often come under employee empowerment studies. I suggest that you check out some articles by Spreitzer (1995, 1997), Thomas and Velthouse (1990), etc. on employee empowerment and its effect on work performance.  Most of these articles also include scales/measures which can be adapted for your purpose.
All the best.
Dr Aida Idris, Universiti Malaya, Malaysia
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
2 answers
What are the incentives of DSO for integrating decentralized generation in a liberalized energy market? And how does the regulatory framework affects the DSO business?
Relevant answer
Answer
@ Jeremy : Please check you email.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
3 answers
I'm going to write a paper on the extent to which different countries choose to decentralize their Police administrations, with a view to finding out possible connections with fiscal decentralization rates and institutional background. 
Relevant answer
Answer
There is an autonomic police (Ertzaintza) and an own fiscal system (Concierto Económico) in the Basque Country (Spain). Vid. http://www.ehu.eus/ituna/index_en.html.
AGIRREAKZUENAGA, Joseba, ALONSO OLEA, Eduardo J. et al. "Representative Assemblies and Taxes, The Making of the 'Taxation Agreement' (Cancierta Económico) of the Basque Country (1839-1937)." En Assemblee rappresentative, autonomie territoriali, culture politiche. Representative Assemblies, Territorial Autonomies, Political Cultures. Studies Presented to the International Commission for the History of Representative and Parliamentary Institutions, editado por Soddu, Annamari Nieddu e Francesco, 503-10. Sasari: Editrice Democratica Sarda, 2011.
GRAY, Caroline. "A Fiscal Path to Sovereignty? The Basque Economic Agreement and Nationalist Politics." Nationalism and Ethnic Politics 21, nº. 1 (2015): 63-82.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
21 answers
I am particularly interested in comparative analyses on international scale.
There is a common prejudice that decentralisation is a good thing; however, I doubt this is always the case and am curious about deeper analyses.
Thanks everybody!
Relevant answer
Answer
i could direct you to the Ghanaian case. kindly follow the link below.
Yeboah-Assiamah, Emmanuel. "Power to the People! How far has the Power Gone to the People? A Qualitative Assessment of Decentralization Practice in Ghana." Journal of Asian and African Studies (2014): 0021909614555349.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
8 answers
Is the growing use of outsourcing and employment agencies a form of decentralisation in terms of HRM? Why is there so much concern about these developments and are these concerns justified?
Relevant answer
Answer
Outsourcing is not a form of decentralization. They are not related nor influence each other. Decentralization is a concept of allocating portion of decision making power to sub-ordinate, for example, a big organization gives a full authority, including the responsibilities,  to a representative office for arranging their organization structure, financial structure, and so on. The by-product of Decentralization is usually an autonomy. It is common in central/local government relationship.
Outsourcing, on the other hand, is a concept of offering some part of business process in an organization to the third party. For example, a bank offer the cleaning service function to other company that has specialization on that task.
The lack of expertise, process streamlining, and improving efficiency are some justifications for an organization to proceed an outsourcing.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
38 answers
There are such contradictions in public administration, as between public and private interests, between centre and periphery, between centralization and decentralization, between administrative law and new public management, contradictions as national contradictions, etc. Could You mention some more?
Relevant answer
Answer
An important contradiction is also between desires and budget, and then how the necessities are ranked.
  • asked a question related to Decentralization
Question
2 answers
How can the different levels of political decentralization among provinces in Indonesia be measured? Do all provinces have the same level of political decentralization, since all provinces have the same number of government tiers?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Martha:
This is probably late given the date of your posted question but I just received an  alert with the question. Better late than never I suppose.
If you are still working on the topic, you may want to examine some of the work that has been done in centralization/decentralization in the area of fiscal federalism.  While you are looking for political decentralization, it remains that political decentralization can be multi-dimensional and would incorporate some aspects of revenue and expenditure decentralization-which is the measure often used in the fiscal-federalism literature. See some of the following literature:
Di Matteo, L. (1995) “Fiscal Centralization at the Provincial-Local Level in Canada,” Canadian Tax Journal, 43, 3, 639-659.
Giertz, J. Fred (1976)  "Decentralization at the State and Local Level: An Empirical Analyris" National Tax Journal (201-210).
Giertz, J. Fred (1983) "State-Local Centralization and Income: A Theoretical Framework and Further Empirical Results" Public Finance, 3, 398-408.
Letelier, L.S. (2005) “Explaining Fiscal Decentralization,” Public Finance Review, 33,2,155-183.
Oates, Wallace (1985) "Searching for Leviathan: An Empirical Study" American Economic Review, 75, 748-757.
Patsouratis, Vassilis A.  (1990) "Fiscal Decentralization in the EEC Countries" Public Finance, 3, 423-439.
Poitevin, M. (2000) "Can the theory of incentives explain decentralization?" Innis Lecture, Canadian Journal of Economics, Vol. 33, No. 4, 878-906.
Stegareascu, D. (2009) “The Effect of Economic and Political Integration in fiscal decentralization: evidence from OECD countries,” Canadian Journal of Economics, 42,2,694-798.
Hope that is of some assistance. Livio Di Matteo.