Science topic

DSM - Science topic

Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)
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Hello I am needing some help in identifying the organisms/bacteria on my plates.
Backstory; this is for a project at uni to identify and research bacteria found in food. I used dog food, let it spoil and grew many plates. From a HB plate I subcultured two colonies, same as for CLED, on plain nutrient agar. I grew two generations and have gram stained from these. Most have died now but still trying to identify.
The bacteria at first I thought bacillus sp., but the following week they had transformed to something I have not observed before. I still have a suspicion it is, but I am not getting any hits from MALDI. There is also a strange chains of something, I am not sure if it is bacteria, but I am so curious and no one is able to identify.
Any input is much appreciated
MALDI hits: Pseudomonas orientalis CIP 105540T HAM; Klebsiella oxvtoca ATCC 700324 THL; Aeromonas molluscorum 848T DSM; Sphingomonas paucimobilis B341 UFL
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Looks like Bacillus to me. It even forms endospores.
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Deep Soil Mixing requires a certain liquidity for injecting into soil. What is the minimum requirement of it?
LRF slag & fly ash will be used as Binder instead of using cement. Sodium Silicate, Sodium Hydroxide will be used as activator.
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Dear Tanjii,
depending on the equipment you use the viscosity of the slurry can vary but of course must be very liquid and fluid.
Check about jet grouting method where you pump at very high pressure the slurry (few seconds on Marsh cone test) in the ground till 40-50 meters in depth. In this case the standard product used are Portland based. I think you will find there all the specifications.
If you use less powerful system you can use more creamy consistency but still with low Marsh cone time, to be pumped in the ground through thin pipes using till 5-6 Bar of air pressure, at 3-4 m of depth.
Using Geopolymers I had good results using both equipments adjusting the fluidity using extra water (quite low however because I designed very fluid GP binder).
But I think you are working with AAM alkali activated materials that have completely different balancing. Because GP and AAM aren’t the same and also they have very different way to harden.
For this application I suggest to check about your precursor because specially fly ash is polluted material with lot of heavy metals and often even lead so pumping into the ground couldn’t be the best solution (I’m thinking about water source ).
But I don’t know your project.
Best regards
Alex Reggiani
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Is there any platform that contains DSM data?
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Do you mean the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association? And if so are you looking for diagnostic data on patients or what? No-one has answered this because it's not at all clear what you want.
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Hello friends
I work on the drying up of forest trees. My data source is RGB images of drones. I processed the images in Agisoft software. Unfortunately, the drought of the trees in the digital model of the canopy surface is not well made.
I did not produce textures in image processing. Is this step necessary to prepare DSM or DEM?
Do you have any comments or suggestions for improving the digital level model?
(The altitude of the drone is 100 meters and the overlap is 80%).
Cheers
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Thank you bro
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Demand Side Management is one of the key tools in smart grids. It is aimed to control and manipulate of the demand by DSM. Demand response programs in DSM provide an option to control and manage the demands via incentives or electricity price. Which performance indices are used in DSM and demand response programs in order to manage the demand? Also, which performance indices are used in DSM in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the DSM?
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Thank you for your answer Dr. Qamar Ul Islam . But I want to learn and discuss the metrics or indices that can be used in evaluation of the DSM performance.
Best regards,
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Hi
I recently took pictures at a height of 100 meters above the ground. But when processing with Agisoft software, part of my study area is lower than other areas (the study area is flat). What could be the reason?
Thanks
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The determination of flight conditions varies based on the UAV model, flight application, and the
size of the imaging area; thus, preparing a manual for flight conditions is extremely dicult. There
are many issues to consider for UAV utilization, such as various flight conditions and di erences in
tree species. Therefore, in order to utilize UAV in forest management, it is important to accumulate
basic data related to estimates of tree height and volume using UAV, for verification of accuracy.
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I need this information for my project
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In DSM 5 there is a specifier for Major Depressive Disorder, "with peripartum onset". This concerns major depressive episodes that start during pregnancy or within the four weeks following delivery. The four week postpartum specifier has been a source of considerable discussion in the literature however that's what is in DSM 5.
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I am looking for a tutorial for an Excel plugin designed by MIT University to draw a Design Structural Matrix(DSM). This code based on C can be run as an add-on in Office Excel software that allows the user to model up to 100 parts. I will be thankful if you have any training or information on how to work with this plugin, help me.
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No, but if you tell me I will.
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I used to work with software DSMMatrix v1.8 to draw the Design Structural Matrix(DSM) in my projects, but now I am looking for better and more powerful software to draw the design structure matrix. The main problem is the limited part entry in DSMMatrix v1.8.
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Which method is being used for interpolation in DSM generation using Pix4D Mapper, Metashape and Inpho UASMaster?
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Normally, these commercial software companies does not reveal the exact interpolation technique or the formula they implemented to derive various UAV products such as DSM, DTM. However, Pix4D mapper has clearly stated that they have implemented spatial interpolation algorithm to create the DSM (check this link: https://community.pix4d.com/t/dtm-interpolation/12000) and this algorithm explained (link: ) is used to derive DTM from DSM.
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Are most people, who score high on neuroticism, score high on covert/ vulnerable/ hypersensitive narcissism, too?
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Narcissism and neuroticism are not the same. The former is a personality disorder and from that often the environment suffers more than the person him/her self. A neurotic person suffers more than the environment from his/her symptoms. There is also a difference in reality perception.
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Hi,
I am hoping someone can inform me as to how the SCID-5-CV is scored? I have been looking online but can't find too much without purchasing handbooks from the DSM.
I am looking at hypomania symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder and want to know if I can use the SCID to measure hypomania symptoms between time points (e.g. at baseline, 6 months, 12 months etc). As such, I want to be able to determine episodes, duration, severity etc. from one time point to the next. Moreover, I would like this to be in a way that is quantifiable, for statistical analysis.
Can the SCID-5-CV allow for this? Or alternatively, is there a more appropriate measure?
Thanks,
Emily.
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I am extracting building height values from DSM polygons with building shapefiles
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If you load the polygons into a file geodatabase it will add a perimeter field. Or just add a field to the shapefile caller "Perim" and then right-click and "Calculate Geometry > Perimeter"
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I had converted building DSM to polygon and trying to extract building height values along boundary of polygon. I am using ArcGIS desktop and pro.
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It sounds like you're trying to extract raster data to a polygon file. If that's the case, the extraction tools in ArcGIS should do the trick: https://desktop.arcgis.com/en/arcmap/10.3/tools/spatial-analyst-toolbox/extract-by-polygon.htm
My guess is that this particular tool is the one that you're looking for: https://desktop.arcgis.com/en/arcmap/10.3/tools/spatial-analyst-toolbox/extract-by-polygon.htm
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In order to fulfill criteria for Somatic symtom disorder (DSM 5) a patient needs to be preoccupied with symtoms or their health. Reasonably a symtom like pain does make you preoccupied to some degree. So how have researchers tried to operationalize "preoccupation"?
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As a logical, normal and adaptive worry or affliction and not as an irrational, hysteroid or hypochondriac cognitive-emotional nanifestation ... moreover, I would classify it as a healthy response and, I reiterate, ADAPTIVE
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DSM V seems to be much better when compared to ICD 10 for clinicians. ICD 11 has a number of changes. It'll be a great guideline once out for use. How do you compare the two guidelines, ICD 11 and DSM V?
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Yes Randy. I too really liked multi axial system of DSM IV. Its very convenient when formulating a case. DSM V diagnostic trees are bit confusing sometimes. ICD 11 seems to be much better.
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Quarantine fatigue is not uncommon during this period. Can we include it under a disorder category in ICD or DSM? Is it an adjustment disorder?
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Features of Cabin fever are very similar to that of quarantine fatigue. The syndrome comes in different disguises. I have seen a number of patients presenting with symptoms of depression and anxiety.
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I've used Agisoft Metashape, and the weeding I.e. the removal of trees and the vegetation is coumbersome. So I need another software that will give a better model. I'm working on Pix4D though. Thanks
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If you are not satisfied with Agisoft, then I recommend 3Dsurvey for DTM generation; however, this software is not as fast as Agisoft and Pix4D. Although 3Dsurvey cannot reconstruct high-quality DSM and orthomosaic, it has a robust semi-automatic DTM generation algorithm, which is quite handy.
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Etzel is a very distinguished figure in Psychology,DSM 5 Dissociative Disorders,and a pioneering investigator and leader and editor of empirical Psi research.
Please consider inviting him to participate in your project .He is on Research gate
Ian Wickramasekera,PhD
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yes, thank you!
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I have a Bacillus cereus strain that never sporulates in DSM (Difco Sporulation Media) and it does not usually sporulate either in LB media, but sometimes when I recover an O/N culture and I heat it at 80ºC 10min, I see several colonies that correspond to spores.
My question is... why sometimes I recover spores in LB media and other times none?
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I think maybe you need pay attention to the initial concentration of Bacillus cereus you inoculated and the culture time of Bacillus cereus. And sporulation is a normal stage of many spore bacteria.
Best wishes.
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We use polyamide 6 / formic acid solutions for electrospinning in the lab. When the prepared dope is aged over 3-5 days, it gets to a gel like state with heavy precipitation. When left longer, it almost completely solidifies. This happens in closed volumes, i.e. in jars with tightly closed lids, so we left out the possibility of solvent evaporation. When using different types and brands(BASF & DSM) of PA6, the curing time changes.
Do you know any mechanism that would cause PA6/FA solution to cure/cross-link/precipitate?
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Abdelkader BOUAZIZ Thanks for the reply, my latest finding is that the same dope solution diluted in benzyl alcohol cures much faster, like in 18 hours. Does this follow with your guess? Also, is there any inhibitor to keep this reaction happenning?
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(I was inspired by a post I just saw)
What books are recommended for newer Master's level clinicians (or perhaps PhD)?
So far I've got:
1) The DSM-V (APA)
2)101 Solution-Focused Questions
3) Theories in Integrated Practices
4) Psychopathology
Please feel free to share books, articles, tips and beyond.
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Viktor E. Frankl: Man's search for meaning has profoundly impacted my way of thinking. As a general rule textbooks are rather old and review articles are more
fresh and useful. This I have discovered. It is impossible to know what you are most interested in. I can attach some papers of my logotherapeutic interest:
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I am undertaking a review of depression in a specific population and the majority of the research studies included use a questionnaire to assess for depression symptoms. When writing up the review is it acceptable in a academic paper to describe the “prevalence” of depressive symptom? are there examples of papers where the authors defend the use of the term “prevalence” when discussing symptoms of depression. Are there definitions of “prevalence“ that can be used to justify using the term “prevalence” for symptoms of depression and not a clinical diagnosis as per the DSM V?
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In general, I concur with the responses from McColloch, Philpott, and Repisti. McCulloch's last sentence, " I personally am happy to see the term used as long as I understand what is being measured in what population. ", is what I would like to focus on. In diagnosing using the DSM-5, we use the terms prevalence and incidence as related to individuals receiving a particular diagnosis with prevalence being the number of individuals receiving that diagnosis at a particular point in time (ex. today or this day) and incidence being the number of NEW cases of a disorder within a given point in time (ex. new cases within the past year). However, prevalence, as stated by the above researchers, does not simply refer to a diagnosis. Like McCulloch, I would happily accept the use of the term prevalence if the research thoroughly describes how prevalence is being used.
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An Unmanned Aerial Veichle (UAV) based survey is being conducted for an area which is more or less a flat terrain type. The post processing of the UAV images results into a digital elevation map which shows the height of buildings along with the surrounding agricultural areas.
So, could anyone please suggest the procedure for separation of the surface heights from the raster file to create the actual elevation of the region?
Thank you in advance
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Hi Saroj Kumar Dash, you could work directly with UAV point clouds and exporting them in CloudCompare, after that try to get the DTM using the CSF plugin.
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I am designing a roof trapezoidal roof profile with both longitudinal and transverse stiffeners. I am looking for related solved problems/design guidelines particular to Direct Strength Method as I am new to this method.
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Refer this it may be useful
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To the microbiologists out there:
I'd like to measure total bacterial/fungal load in clinical samples by qPCR with published primers+ probes targeting the bacterial 16S/fungal 18SRNA gene. For standardization I'm going to create a plasmid standard curves with the PCR product of DNA from pure cultures
For the determination of the molecular weight of one copy, I need the sequence or at least exact length of the area between the primers. However, I cannot find the genome of the strains I'm working with, might be due to lack of knowledge about nomenclature or because it's not published so far?.
--> Do different strains of e.g. E coli or other microorganisms differ in sequence in the 16S/18S rDNA region? Or could I just use the sequence of another strain accessible via ncbi? Or do I necessarily have to sequence if I cannot find the sequence in the internet?
I work with:
- common E. coli, K12, DH5alpha, thyA-
Thanks a lot!
Sarah
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Hi Sarah,
Please take also into account that the number of copies of 16S rRNA on the genome can vary across bacteria from different species (1 to 15). If you will experimentally contaminate your samples with your E. coli strain of interest, this difference is of course not relevant, but it can lead to misleading results if you have more complex microbial communities.
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The focus would be to potentially use DSM to explore the dependencies and interactions between subsystems, where a subsystem may have several technology options available for Product Design/Development (PD).
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Mohsen - I was asking a question about SBD and not an answer on the human condition. I’m an engineer and not a designer. Good luck with your research.
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Since you set up the research project, have you found that your culture ZM1 degrades polystyrene?
In general, you to deposit the culture to a culture collection center such as ATCC, DSM before you publish your results.
Thanks!
Wei-Min Wu
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If you can to west coast, you are welcome to visit our lab.
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Ground improvement methods such as Deep Soil Mixing (DSM) and Jet Grouting (JG) are used for liquefaction mitigation. They reinforce the ground, thereby reducing the cyclic stress ratios (CSRs) induced in the soil. Boulanger et al. CSR reduction factor curves are developed for soil-cement "grid" reinforcement.
I want to use discrete soil-cement "columns" for liquefaction mitigation. Is there any design criteria for soil-cement columns?
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What is the significance of considering discrete soil-element columns? In practice, regular spacing is usually used. If necessary, the spacing may be varied to mitigate the liquefaction susceptibility of the specified cites.
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Hi. I am a MPhil student at Amity University, Noida, India. I am studying the changes in prevalence rates in child onset schizophrenia after the DSM -5 increased the criteria for diagnosis from "1 to 2".
If you have any researches that have studied this, please share.
Thank you.
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Dear Shreya,
You might consider reading the following articles by Tandon et al.
"Data suggest that changes from DSM-IV to DSM-5 in the definition of criterion A symptoms should have little impact on caseness of schizophrenia, with less than 2% of patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia not meeting DSM-5 criteria because of these changes. Our findings are similar to those of the two other studies that have investigated this issue (Peralta and Cuesta, 1999, Allardyce et al., 2007)... the explicit conceptualization of schizophrenia as a psychotic disorder and a requirement that psychotic pathology in the form of delusions, hallucinations, or disorganized speech be present in order for it to be diagnosed... should have little influence on the prevalence of schizophrenia as over 96% of individuals diagnosed with DSM-IV schizophrenia were found to have at least one of these “positive” symptoms."
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We are looking for a "fast" (màx. 1 hour) diagnostic tool for mental health disorders in children and adolescence. We are developing a project with children and adolescences from several hospitals and we need a unique, valid, easy and fast tool to make a diagnosis (following DSM-V or ICD10). Which is the most used tool in research? Can anyone help us? Many thanks in advance.
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Many thanks Norman!! I'll take a look to the website :)
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I have referenced to some papers which extracted DEM and DSM based on LIDAR data. Then HRSI was fused with Lidar data. is this method effective? Are there other effective methods?
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If you are looking for a software, FME has an efficien attribute fusion pipeline. Else, the paper may provide you with additional methodology bulletpoints
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To create a DSM model from DEM points based on Drone Images
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I'm agree with Dr Riedel. In addition you can follow this link:
I hope this will help you
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I need the fors and the against the elimination n of the bereavement exclusion
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Since 1980, the DSM-III and its various iterations through the DSM-IV-TR have systematically excluded individuals from the diagnosis of major depressive disorder if symptoms began within months after the death of a loved one (2 months in DSM-IV), unless the depressive syndrome was 'severely' impairing and/or accompanied by specific features. This criterion became known as the 'bereavement exclusion'. No other adverse life events were noted to negate the diagnosis of major depressive disorder if all other symptomatic, duration, severity and distress/impairment criteria were met. However, studies since the inception of the bereavement exclusion have shown that depressive syndromes occurring after bereavement share many of the same features as other, non-bereavement related depressions, tend to be chronic and/or recurrent if left untreated, interfere with the resolution of grief, and respond to treatment. Furthermore, the bereavement exclusion has had the unintended consequence of suggesting that grief should end in only 2 months, or that grief and major depressive disorder cannot co-occur. To prevent the denial of diagnosis and the consideration of sometimes much needed care, even after bereavement or other significant losses, the DSM-5 no longer contains the bereavement exclusion. Instead, the DSM-5 now permits the diagnosis of major depressive disorder after and during bereavement and includes a note and a comprehensive footnote in the major depressive episode criteria set to guide clinicians in making the diagnosis in this context. The decision to make this change was widely and publically debated and remains controversial. This article reports on the rationale for this decision and the way the DSM-5 now addresses the challenges of diagnosing major depressive disorder in the context of someone grieving the loss of a loved one.
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The authors of DSM-5 chapter on intellectual disability made a significant error (typo!?) in reporting the prevalence of intellectual disability. Actually, subheading PREVALENCE in DSM 5 consists of only two sentences:
Intellectual disability has an overall general population prevalence of approximately 1% and prevalence rates vary by age. Prevalence for severe intellectual disability is approximately 6 per 1000.
So, it means that there are 10 people with intellectual disability (all levels of ID) on 1000 people. According to DSM-5, 6 out of these 10 people are people with severe intellectual disability. However, most studies point that out of all people with ID, the majority of them (85%) have mild ID. I think this needs to be corrected!
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I believe that the prevalence of ID in the overall population is around 1%, and the prevalence of severe ID within the population of people with an intellectual disability is 6 in 1000.
That is, 6 in 1000 individuals with an ID have a severe ID.
I have read that about 85% of individuals with ID have a mild ID, about 10% have a moderate ID, and about 10-15% have a moderate ID, and a small percentage (under 1%), have a severe ID. This fits with what is written in DSM-5.
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Dear all,
I'm looking for DTM or DSM with geometrical resolution below 10 meters for pixel of Dead Sea region (Israel). Priority for free information sources but also ready to pay for any appropriate data.
I heard that Spot-5 DTM should be free to download but I can't find the sources.
If you know any sources for free DTM or by payment, please share.
Thanks in advance
Semion
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Dear all
I have a dense point cloud (.Las) which is consist of 150 million points and I want to create a Raster file (i.e., DSM) from it. The question is: which software can do it? I used the LASTools, ArcGIS and TerraSolid, however; none of them could handle such a big file.
Thank you in advance,
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I would recommend the LAStools software distributed by Rapidlasso (free and commercial versions) that is specially designed to work with large clouds of 3D points.
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I am having WorldView-2 and WorldView-3 imagery (includes SWIR bands) of dense urban areas. I want to extract building footprints (2D and 3D) of very complex buildings. For 3D, I have DSM.
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A multilayer perceptron (MLP) is a class of feedforward artificial neural network. An MLP consists of at least three layers of nodes. In input instead of pixel's value I suggest to use a aggregate pixel's value that is a patch. For example the mean of patch of 100x100 pixel so you taking into accunt adjacent pixel, shape and so on. Patch dimension is function of image sizew and what do you want to classify
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Hi, everyone currently I am working on optimization for demand side management (DSM) problems. So, I want to implement my proposed DSM scheme in the micro-grid environment. For that, I need standard micro-grid system data. Please suggest me how can I get that standard system data or any sample data. I am grateful to you if you help in this.
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thank you Lokeshgupta Bhamidi , you can use simulation data .
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Dear Researchers,
1. The soil improvement technique Deep Soil Mixing (DSM) is very common presently. How do we model the DSM columns of a given site in PLAXIS?
2. While liquefaction risk is present after doing analysis in Plaxis 2D, what measures can be taken to prevent liquefaction ? and can those measures be modelled/applied in Plaxis 2D?
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You can convert from 3D to 2D using an averaging technique mentioned in ppt for numerical simulation of DEEP MIXED column using plaxis 2d
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Hi all,
I just received a LiDAR dataset consisting in five different folders. I am reporting the label of those folder in case there is a standard nomenclature: c_1, c_2, c_3 ,c_4 and c_5.
All the datasets cover the same area. Provided that c_1 represents the DTM (floating) and c_2 represents the DSM (floating), the issue I have is identifying the remaining three layers, and specifically:
- c_3 has a 'unsigned integer' pixel type and a classification range from 0 to 255, maybe they are co-surface point groups?
- c_4 has a 'unsigned integer' pixel type with just 4 groups under the value 'Area'
-c_5 is almost identical to c_1 (the DTM) with slightly different values.
Any help on the meaning of all these layers??
Thanks anyone in advance.
Alessandro
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Hello-
My recommendation would be to contact the vendor for an explanation. There are no standard folder naming conventions for LiDAR data. The standards referenced by the ASPRS website are in regards to the las files, not folder names. I also wouldn't assume that c1 and c2 are the DTM and DSM only because there's no standard for folder naming. Of course all of this could be resolved if there was metadata written, but I'm assuming this doesn't exist either.
Good luck
-al
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How to perform demand side management in smart grid using agents?
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Hi, I am curently doing my research on residential demand side management (DSM). I want to analyse the DSM concept with renewable sources. For that I required sample data of residential solar PV power generation or wind turbine power generation. I am very thankful for anybody to help in this.
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The legacy version of the HOMER energy https://users.homerenergy.com/pages/homer_legacy contains some useful case studies for you. You may also build a model for a small system (like a household) using the HOMER QuickStart http://quickstart.homerenergy.com/#/intro
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Satellite image orthorectification of VHRS data(GSD<0.5m) is challenging in undulating terrain especially hilly areas. And it is known that the DSM available like Alosworl3D(30m posting), Carto DEM(10m posting), ACE2DEM(90m posting), etc., though may be accurate are not directly usable because the hill tops and valleys may not accurately register with the GCPs available.
In such scenario, do we need to go for LIDAR based elevation values which is a costly affair? Or is it suggested to use stereo pair which is also a costly affair?
What are the methods in practice that are in use and are found to be cost effective and accurate inorder to get orthorectified imagery that could be used for urban utility mapping using VHRS satellite imagery(GSD<0.5cm)?
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Hello!
I think you need to work from whole to part, instead of part to whole. In ERDAS imagine mark all GCP and supply respective coordinates, while rectifying select elevation source from DEM either cartsat or dem.
"though may be accurate are not directly usable because the hill tops and valleys may not accurately register with the GCPs available." I dont think it has much effect if you use 90m, 30m, or 10 m DEM. Since the smallest measurable unit in RS is pixel. If you have GCP whose precision is +_ 5 cm, that will fall any where on 10 m pixel.
In such scenario, do we need to go for LIDAR based elevation values which is a costly affair? Or is it suggested to use stereo pair which is also a costly affair?
As you said above methods are costly and doesn't improve your accuracy very much in-terms of orthorectification. 'Economy of the accuracy' is crucial here.
regards
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I would like to know if the MINI neuropsychiatric interview for DSM V is available in Spanish, because we would like to use it in a RCT we are actually carrying out.
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Looking for references on research on various methods (DSM,etc) for interface management of product interfaces during design and development. I am particularly looking for methods used in automotive industry. The interest is more on the system / sub-subsystem / elemental level interfaces rather than organizational. 
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I just saw your question. It is probably too late, but I the following papers might be of some interest to you.
1.       New directions and new tools for interface management
2.      Interface management of subsea field development
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Dear All
Practically, in Direct load control (DLC) demand response programs, the utility has full control over the registered loads? The consumer-side has no control at all?
Thank you
Sincerely,
Ahmad?
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Dear Ahmad
Registered loads include, typically, pool pumps, air conditioners and electric hot water systems. And yes, the utility has full control over these loads. Instead, the consumers are awarded by a way of financial incentive such as recurring annual payment. The consumer may control the local registered loads in a way that the critical peak is not increased, e.g. the consumer may turn off and/or turn down an air-conditioner which is registered in DLC program. Likewise, as Labib said, the consumer control cannot over write the utility control.
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I am planning a study where I am comparing categorical vs. dimensional predictors of success in therapy. I am using a dimensional measurement tool to predict treatment outcome and am unsure how to operationalize DSM diagnoses as the other predictor.
How might I do this? 
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Whichever method you ultimately choose will have its imperfections, so a step forward might be to acknowledge this dilemma and justify the method you've chosen and how it suits your research purposes but not others'. 
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We have created high resolution DSM using LPS software but not getting the surface smooth while checking in vertical profile graph. It is showing so much undulation, even tried lot of method to smooth the surface but still not getting satisfactory output. 
I have gone through many journal, many experts are saying that it can possible to generate 2 meter DEM from high resolution stereo pair image. But in my case, undulation is coming in water body, road, railway track every where...
Please suggest a software or process to generate accurate DSM without undulation...For railway track simulation, undulation is not at all acceptable...
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Hello everyone, I am currently doing some research about DSM approaches. It would be very interesting to find some studies which compared the energy savings of traditional refurbishment alternatives in buildings (increasing wall insulation, changing glazing elements, ventilation,..) with the energy savings of implementing DSM or home automations such as shading controls or smart lighting, thermostats, appliances, plugs or meters in the same buildings. So far I’ve not been able to find such a study, so any help would be much appreciated. Thank you in advance!
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Dear Tobi, dear Edwin,
thank you so much for your answers, they have been very helpful for my research!  
Best regards,
Laura.
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We're looking for it several times and still there's no result related to it. We will be needing it for our research paper. Thank you.
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Did you see this? The link is more of what you seem to be looking for
Looks like things  will change in 2018:
Journal List
World Psychiatry
v.15(3); 2016 Oct
PMC5032513
Logo of worldpsych
World Psychiatry. 2016 Oct; 15(3): 291–292.
Published online 2016 Sep 22. doi: 10.1002/wps.20353
PMCID: PMC5032513
Bodily distress disorder in ICD‐11: problems and prospects
Oye Gureje 1 and Geoffrey M. Reed 2
Classifying the disorders associated with burdensome somatic concerns has been a challenging exercise in psychiatric nosology1. The classifications of these conditions in ICD‐10 and DSM‐IV have not fared much better than earlier attempts2. Even though not exactly identical, these classifications were broadly similar and criticisms of either system are therefore generally applicable to both. Among the most salient criticisms are those relating to their utility in routine clinical practice. These include the rarity of the major categories of the group, both in the community and in general clinical practice, as well as the evidence suggesting poor diagnostic reliability3.
A central feature of the definition of these disorders, that the symptoms are not due to physical or medical causes, has been criticized for being unreliable and for posing a fundamental nosological problem: defining a disorder on the basis of the absence of a feature rather than the presence of a problem4. Labels assigned to burdensome somatic preoccupations that have come to be seen as pejorative create another problem for clinical utility. Some patients object to the term “somatoform”, which they think may imply that their symptoms are of doubtful clinical importance and are “in their heads” or not real. Furthermore, the notion that the symptoms are medically unexplained is often rejected by patients as essentially an issue of detection.
As part of the activities designed to lead to the approval of ICD‐11 by the World Health Assembly in 2018, the World Health Organization, through its International Advisory Group5, constituted the Somatic Distress and Dissociative Disorders Working Group, which, among other tasks, was asked to propose changes to the section on somatoform disorders in ICD‐10. The Working Group has proposed a new and much simplified category of bodily distress disorder, which replaces all of ICD‐10 categories within the group of somatoform disorders (F45.0) and, to a large extent, neurasthenia (F48.0), bringing these together under a single category. The only ICD‐10 somatoform condition excluded from BDD is hypochondriasis (F45.2).
In the proposed new classification, bodily distress disorder is defined as “characterized by the presence of bodily symptoms that are distressing to the individual and excessive attention directed toward the symptoms, which may be manifest by repeated contact with health care providers. If a medical condition is causing or contributing to the symptoms, the degree of attention is clearly excessive in relation to its nature and progression. Excessive attention is not alleviated by appropriate clinical examination and investigations and appropriate reassurance. Bodily symptoms and associated distress are persistent, being present on most days for at least several months, and are associated with significant impairment in personal, family, social, educational, occupational or other important areas of functioning. Typically, the disorder involves multiple bodily symptoms that may vary over time. Occasionally there is a single symptom – usually pain or fatigue – that is associated with the other features of the disorder” (this is the proposed brief definition for bodily distress disorder; for the format of ICD‐11 diagnostic guidelines, see First et al6).
Responding to the same set of criticisms, the DSM‐5 created a new grouping called Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders, in which the prototypic condition is somatic symptom disorder. Even though this diagnosis can be given to a condition with “one or more somatic symptoms”, it nevertheless requires that “excessive thoughts, feelings, or behaviors are related to the somatic symptoms or associated health concerns”. Specifically, for a diagnosis of somatic symptom disorder, at least one of three psychological criteria should be present: health anxiety, disproportionate and persistent concerns about the medical seriousness of the symptoms, and excessive time and energy devoted to the symptoms or health concerns.
In both the proposed bodily distress disorder and somatic symptom disorder, the most fundamental revision has been the abolition of the distinction between medically explained and medically unexplained somatic complaints. On the other hand, there are now specific psychological criteria that need to be fulfilled before the diagnosis can be given. The revised classifications thus address the problem of defining somatoform disorders on the basis of the absence of a feature (a physical or medical cause) by specifying the features that must be present, such as distress and excessive thoughts and behaviors7.
Dropping the criterion of “medically unexplained” is not without its consequences and has been criticized in somatic symptom disorder. It has been argued that patients with medical conditions and with a justifiable reason for somatic complaints may receive an inappropriate psychiatric diagnosis, with the possibility of associated stigma8. The specification in bodily distress disorder that “if a medical condition is causing or contributing to the symptoms, the degree of attention is clearly excessive in relation to its nature and progression” is meant to address this concern.
A single somatic symptom may lead to a diagnosis of bodily distress disorder or somatic symptom disorder. A good justification for this revision is that a single symptom, for example pain, may sometimes be as bothersome as multiple somatic symptoms. However, the point has been made that this lowering of the threshold for the diagnosis may lead to an inappropriate labeling of apparently healthy persons as having a psychological disorder8. This concern is addressed in bodily distress disorder by the requirement that other features, in particular associated psychological features, as well as significant functional impairment, be present before the diagnosis is given. Also, further information is provided in the proposed diagnostic guidelines that seeks to delineate mild bodily distress disorder from normal somatic concerns which may exist in the community and do not require clinical attention.
One of the important differences between the proposed ICD‐11 and the DSM‐5 approaches is the name of the prototype disorder. While the DSM‐5 has retained the word “somatic”, the proposed ICD category has avoided this term altogether. While no label can prevent completely the risk of negative connotations and misinterpretations, a more descriptive label that avoids the term “somatic” might prove more acceptable to both patients and primary care clinicians.
While the DSM‐5 has retained hypochondriasis (or health anxiety) within the cluster of Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders, the current proposal for ICD‐11 has placed hypochondriasis within the grouping of Obsessive‐Compulsive and Related Disorders. The position of DSM‐5 is supported by evidence suggesting a high co‐occurrence of hypochondriasis with somatization disorder as well as shared cognitive perceptual styles between the two conditions. On the other hand, the position of the ICD‐11 Working Group is supported by findings associating repetitive cognition and behaviors as well as task‐related neural activation patterns on brain imaging with hypochondriasis1. Also, there is evidence that, unlike somatization disorders, hypochondriasis responds to some treatments used for obsessive‐compulsive and related disorders9.
The new proposals for bodily distress disorder are being systematically tested in the field studies conducted as part of the ICD revision process. These studies include Internet‐based approaches, in which a large number of clinicians participate through the Global Clinical Practice Network (http://gcp.network), as well field studies conducted in clinical settings. It is hoped that the findings from the field studies will provide opportunities for a further strengthening of the utility and validity of the classification of burdensome somatic concerns in ICD‐11 prior to its approval by the World Health Assembly.
Oye Gureje1, Geoffrey M. Reed2
1WHO Collaborating Centre for Research and Training in Mental Health, Neuroscience and Substance Abuse, Department of Psychiatry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; 2World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland and School of Psychology, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico
O. Gureje is Chair of the WHO Working Group on Somatic Distress and Dissociative Disorders. G.M. Reed is a member of the WHO Secretariat, Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and, except as specifically indicated, do not represent the official positions of the WHO Working Group, the International Advisory Group for the Revision of ICD‐10 Mental and Behavioural Disorders or the WHO.
Go to:
References
1. Gureje O. Curr Opin Psychiatry 2015;5:345‐9. [PubMed]
2. Mayou R, Kirmayer LJ, Simon G et al. Am J Psychiatry 2005;162:847‐55. [PubMed]
3. Creed F, Gureje O. Int Rev Psychiatry 2012;24:556‐67. [PubMed]
4. Voigt K, Nagel A, Meyer B et al. J Psychosom Res 2010;68:403‐14. [PubMed]
5. International Advisory Group for the Revision of ICD‐10 Mental and Behavioural Disorders . World Psychiatry 2011;10:86‐92. [PubMed]
6. First MB, Reed GM, Saxena S et al. World Psychiatry 2015;14:82‐90. [PubMed]
7. Rief W, Martin A. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 2014;10:339‐67. [PubMed]
8. Frances A. J Nerv Ment Dis 2013;201:530‐1. [PubMed]
9. Greeven A, Van Balkom AJ, Visser S et al. Am J Psychiatry 2007;164:91‐9. [PubMed]
Articles from World Psychiatry are provided here courtesy of The World Psychiatric Association
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Can someone recommend me a validated instrument for proxy rating of mental illness which is including all ICD-10 or DSM main categories?
I am planning to do a psychological autopsy and from what I have read so far in previous studies it seems like the SKID is used quite often for post mortem diagnosis of mental illness. Unfortunately the SKID is not validated for ratings by proxy and many of the interview questions can hardly be answered accurately by people who knew the deceased.
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Thank you for your answer! I reframed my question and will look into that paper as well!
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We're having a research paper and we need scales to measure our variable. We need DSM-V based scales and we haven't found one yet. 
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I am looking for a source to purchase commercial volumes of 1,4-butanediol and adipic acid made from renewable raw materials.
What I found out is that for biobased adipic acid, DSM and Rennovia are working on it, and for biobased BDO, BioAmber and Novamont.
Are there any other suppliers who have reached or will soon reach maturity of their production process? The application of the substances is as monomers for a biobased plastics material with food contact approval.
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you can ask Cargill to see if they have them.
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Endogenous is in DSM - I am interested to find out about the psychological impact of having this diagnosis, is there correlation to brain or body?  What interventions are available? Any research in relation to this diagnosis.
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Hi Maureen,
The individual (or group) psychotherapy intervention for the treatment of depression with the strongest empirical evidence is called Behavioral Activation; this is the "active ingredient" in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. If you review the scientific literature, you will find it is as effective as medications at treating depression and more effective at preventing relapse. FYI, while there are undoubtedly cases where it makes sense to consider a purely biological source of depression (e.g., thyroid or brain disease) and to treat the underlying medical condition accordingly, there are compelling reasons to question the medical model of depression as simply reflecting a neurotransmitter imbalance (you can read more in the link below). Also, it may be worth considering that "having" everything doesn't necessarily result in fulfillment; for many (all?) people greater satisfaction is to be found in what you are "giving" through purposeful activity guided by personal values (check out the literature on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, which combines behavioral activation, mindfulness practice, and values clarification to treat depression).
Warm regards,
Paul
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Now i am generating a DSM for Hydrodynamic Modelling so need what is RPC and what is important RPC  for Cartosat-1 data.
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Could you tell me the refinement of  RPCs with data collection  (differential GPS)
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I've recently been studying the issue of psychomotor retardation (PMR) as a symptom of depression. It seems that DSM criteria for depression include at least two other items which seem to duplicate important features of this. Both 'fatigue or loss of energy' and 'diminished ability to think or concentrate, or more indecisiveness' are both well documented elements of PMR, in which case the conflation of these items might artificially inflate the rating of depression by these criteria, and exaggerate the role that PMR symptomatology has to play.
Is this duplication and overlap of the features of depression taken into account by psychiatrists making a diagnosis of depression, or is the importance of PMR deemed high enough to warrant its common features, such as difficulty in concentrating and fatigue being - in effect - 'counted twice'?
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From a clinical perspective sometimes it would be difficult to assess separately fatigue or lack of motivation in a patient with psychomotor inhibition, because this inhibition seems to be a syndrome that includes other 'negative symptoms'. However, in the other hand it is very frequent to find depressed patients with fatigue, lack of energy, lack of interest, etc. in the absence of symptom "psychomotor inhibition"
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These following data are used for flood inundation modelling as link below.
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Hi,
You can get ALOS Global Digital Surface Model from the following website. It is of 30m.
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Hi, I’m looking for following microorganisms, maybe someone can share?:
 Elizabethkingia meningoseptica (Chryseobacterium meningosepticum)
Acetobacter aceti NBRC 14818, Gene: Abac_015_033
Acidobacterium capsulatum (strain ATCC 51196 / DSM 11244 / JCM 7670 / NBRC 15755 / NCIMB 13165 / 161)
Acidiphilium cryptum (strain JF-5)
 Rhizoctonia solani 123EThanatephorus cucumeris (strain AG1-IB / isolate 7/3/14) (Lettuce bottom rot fungus) (Rhizoctonia solani)
Wojciech Wozny
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My dear friend: Don't try to procure from your friends. The best way is to directly approach ATCC, NBRC, NCIMB, JCM etc. You can be sure of the purity of the culture inspite of high mortality of the cell in the vials and your work will go unhindered. It is not that your friends are going to give you contaminated cultures but these organisations (listed above) are more reliable. 
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DSM - Dependency Structure Matrix
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Thank You Sir.
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I'm interested in finding a 30 meter DSM from SRTM with the hope of creating a 30 meter canopy height model. I know that it can be done because the following studies have:
and
However, I can't for the life of me find DSMs, only DEMs.  Does anyone have any suggestions for where to look online?  Or do I need to contact JPL or some other agency directly?  I'm also entertaining the idea of ASTER, but am finding those data to be equally challenging to locate.
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To summarize I followed the advice of Dean Gesch at the USGS which is also mirrored in the Kellndorfer et al. 2004 paper.  The SRTM data is the DSM.  I tried following the Kellndorfer approach and had mixed results. I took the DSM from the SRTM and then subtracted a NED DEM to try to produce a CHM (canopy height model). The results looked promising in some areas, but it was also evident that topography had a huge effect on the accuracy and needed to be dealt with in a comprehensive manner. Miliaresis 2008 http://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/8/5/3134/htm applied a series of aspect/slope/land cover corrections and got decent results, and I attempted some of this using slope and aspect, but never quite followed through to the full extent.  I've got some concerns that using land cover to improve the CHM prediction and then using the CHM to predict land cover may be a bit circular, however.
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What software you use to prepare orthophotomaps, DTM, DSM, point cloud or 3d model with drones? I've used: Pix4D and APS.
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Hello Sebastian, yes we have to have a Remote Pilot Qualification (Ground School and Flight Test) and be approved by the CAA. This enables the correct insurance and for each operation land owner permissions and risk assessments are required. If in controlled airspace we also need to contact air traffic control. 
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There are several treatments that are most often used to manage BPD.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a serious mental illness marked by unstable moods, behavior, and relationships. In 1980, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Third Edition (DSM-III) listed BPD as a diagnosable illness for the first time. Most psychiatrists and other mental health professionals use the DSM to diagnose mental illnesses.
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Dear Abdelfattah,
Every 'mental' disorder (BPD)  patients need to be addressed with dire sensitivities. It is made easier if it is listed as a diagnosable DSM illness.
BPD being a 'serious' mental illness, talking with a highly dedicated and genuinely caring professionals create great trust to the patient.
To the patient, it makes it very worthwhile at one instant to know that someone sympathizes, care and most willing to 'treat' him/her. That's when the talking session, even done once would be very effective.
When this fails, there are several approaches you could apply using -
1. Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT)
- treatments include individual therapy, group skills training and phone coaching
2. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT)
- treatments include recognizing and changing the patient's belief system
3. Mentalization-based Therapy (MBT)
- treatments include talking out the patient's feeling and addresing it accordingly
4. Transference-focused Therapy (TFP)
- treatment includes situational based scenarios brought upon by the therapist for the patient to apply elsewhere
5. Medications
- not useful but not detriment to include supplement like Omega 3 (not vetted) yet could relieve BPD symptoms nonetheless
6. Self-Care
- educating the patient on the importance of caring for one self  at all time
In order to minimise remissions, always refrain verbally from labeling BPD as a PSY patient to or among other healthcare team. 
This is  because such patient (knowing the gravity of this illness) will either walk away for good or die a brutal death because the doctor-patient trust and privacy have been broken totally.
Best regards - Mariam
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I'm working on a survey that provides DSM IV-TR reference because the data have been collected in 2013/2014. Could be a problem? Must we cite the classification of DSM V?
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Note that DSM-5 should be written with a "5" not "V". See here: http://www.apa.org/monitor/2013/04/dsm.aspx where they say "The idea is that there will be versions 5.1, 5.2 and 5.3 and that these sorts of mini-editions can come along more frequently than they had in the past so that the manual can be more responsive to research as things unfold"
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Can someone explain how to convert DT-DSM to CT-DSM and obtain stable Gain feedback for modulator?
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If you mean in simulink, then you only neec to replace the accumulator by ct integrator (1/s)....
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what are the differences between DSM-4 and DSM-5 regarding diagnosis of ASD?
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The Iris Center put out a great side-by-side comparison. I've attached it for you here.
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If definition of mental illness changes so that false positive / negative rates change, it may influence efficacy of drug trials, right?
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Such a 'big big question'. The response you get may also depend upon the area your respondents are in (Psychiatrists, pharmacology, psychology...). It is possible it is a wait and see...
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Recently, I 've worked with transformation of B. megaterium DSM 319. I've tried to apply protoplast transformation method and electroporation, but none gave me a good result. I am very expected of your help. If you have experience or any information about it. Thanks...
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Dear Rojas,
thanks for you recomendation. i will read it soon....
Dear Mahyad,
I have played with B. subtilis DB104 before I got B. megaterium DSM 319 project. I've found promising method for B. subtilis electroporation. You right that we must increasing the recovery time, it would give best effect to the transformation efficiency. But unfortunately I did't got  good result when applied that method to B. megaterium DSM 319. 
I treat my B.subtilis with glycine and sucrose before i did electroporation. how about you? did you give different treatment to your subtilis? maybe it will help me with this megaterium.
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The DSM-5, published in May 2013, finally included a section on Addictive Disorders, however the general concept of "addiction" is not to be found in the current DSM.  It's admittedly hard to define.  Note that there is also no "Substance Use Disorder - Generalized", rather the substances are enumerated, e.g. Dx 304.xx Opioid Use Disorder, etc.  I know the APA can get political as it has real impact in terms of reimbursement, disability, and CMS coverage, especially with the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act kicking in this year.  I'm wondering if any international bodies (WHO, etc) have published a DEFINITION of addiction or even of "substance use disorder", or if anyone has tried to define the condition with specificity in the academic literature.  I find it interesting that we, in the US, now have a law forcing payors to treat "addiction" as any other disease, yet we have no consensus medical definition of "addiction", or at least one that I can find.  Are addictive disorders a type of addiction? (I'm not joking, but asking for accurate Dx purposes -- I'm wondering if someone has really thought this through or published on the subject.)
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Here is the short definition from American Society of Addiction Medicine (highly credible), rewriten in 2011 and considering addiction as a brain chronic illness.
"Addiction is a primary, chronic disease of brain reward, motivation, memory and related circuitry. Dysfunction in these circuits leads to characteristic biological, psychological, social and spiritual manifestations. This is reflected in an individual pathologically pursuing reward and/or relief by substance use and other behaviors.
Addiction is characterized by inability to consistently abstain, impairment in behavioral control, craving, diminished recognition of significant problems with one’s behaviors and interpersonal relationships, and a dysfunctional emotional response. Like other chronic diseases, addiction often involves cycles of relapse and remission. Without treatment or engagement in recovery activities, addiction is progressive and can result in disability or premature death."
If you are interested, I suggest you look at the long definition. Many interesting points of view from neurobiology and genetic. Here's the link.
Best regards
(sorry for any syntaxic error, english isn't my first language :))
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Many of the diagnostic subtypes have been removed from DSM-5. Does this allow clinicians and researchers to better diagnose and treat schizophrenia?
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Thank You Simon I'v seen most of the information but it's hard to find out the complete difference between the two DSM's
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I was told that the section on communication was merged with the section on social interaction in the DSM V because research had shown these impairments to co-occur often. Is this true? Or not? Where might I find some research done by/for the APA which influenced this decision to merge? I would really appreciate some input here.
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Hi Leah,
Kanner actually thought language difficulties in ASD were secondary to social issues and removed it from his core criteria for ASD in the 50s. Rutter then demonstrated strong associations between language and later outcomes and language re-emerged as a core criteria when autism became its own diagnostic category in the DSM-3. 
There has been a lot of work showing overlap between social and communication difficulties in autism including studies showing that language did not differentiate well between autism and AS. For example: 
Tager-Flusberg, H. (1999). A psychological approach to understanding the social and language impairments in autism. International review of psychiatry, 11(4), 325-334.
Lord, C., & Pickles, A. (1996). Language level and nonverbal social-communicative behaviors in autistic and language-delayed children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(11), 1542-1550.
Howlin, P. (2003). Outcome in high-functioning adults with autism with and without early language delays: implications for the differentiation between autism and Asperger syndrome. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 33(1), 3-13.
Cheers,
Kristen
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I am looking at the reliability of the DSM-5 criteria and it would be very useful to know if study subjects who are included in studies under DSM-IV or DSM-5 criteria have differences in the severity of their depressive syndrome by other measures.
I can imagine given the broadening of the criteria in DSM-5 that a subject will satisfy the operationalised definition for depression with a relatively lower HAM-D (or similar rating scale) than a patient who satisfies the DSM-IV criteria.
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You could possibly address this in a preliminary way if you could obtain access to an epidemiological data source such as the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing, which used the World Mental Health version CIDI and for which a public-use microdata file is available. It would be easy to look at what proportion are excluded due to bereavement as those items occur in the CIDI after the the Criterion A items are assessed. The duration of MDE and dysthymia are also assessed by the CIDI, so the the prevalence of PDD could be deduced as well. These datasets do not directly assess severity (as in symptom severity for depression), but they do have a variety of other relevant measures such as distress ratings and measures of impact on functioning in different domains. 
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Hi,
I'm working in Digital Surface Models (DSM) generation with Photoscan from UAV images. I wonder if anybody knows a guide for image selection for these issues. My bigger concerns are optimizing computational cost (adequate number of images for accurate DSM generation), and how the image constrast affects the performance of Photoscan and other similar softwares.
Thanks in advance.
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Hi there
The first thing, I would do is manually delete photographs which are not in the target area as images captured from UAV tend to capture some outliers
Coming to optimizing computational costs, to process photogrammetric data, I would use a fairly standard computing power (16GB  RAM). However, it primarily also depends on the number of photographs and also the camera resolution settings. 
In terms of image contrast, the better the image contrast, the better the overlap between photographs and better the 3D photogrammetric generation and a better DSM or DEM.
I suspect, this would be same with all the commercial and non-commercial software for photogrammetry
hope this helps
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CDD was removed, along with Rett's Syndrome, from the new  DSM (V). Rett's was removed because APA decided it was actually a genetic disorder based on recent research findings. No explanation was given (that I can find) for the removal of CDD. Does anyone know why, or whether it's now elsewhere in the DSM?
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Thank you. I also just found this:
"Autism Spectrum Disorder
Autism spectrum disorder is a new DSM-5 name that reflects a scientific consensus that four previously separate disorders are actually a single condition with different levels of symptom severity in two core domains. ASD now encompasses the previous DSM-IV autistic disorder (autism), Asperger’s disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified."
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why subcategories of schizophrenia (paranoid, disorganized, undifferentiated etc) have been removed as diagnostic entities in DSM-5 ?
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Dear Anil Kumar Mysore Nagaraj
Schizophrenia subtypes are deleted based on the following causes:
The DSM-IV subtypes of schizophrenia (i.e., paranoid, disorganized, catatonic, undifferentiated, and residual types) are eliminated due to their limited diagnostic stability, low reliability, and poor validity. These subtypes also have not been shown to exhibit distinctive patterns of treatment response or longitudinal course. Instead, a dimensional approach to rating severity for the core symptoms of schizophrenia is included in Section III to capture the important heterogeneity in symptom type and severity expressed across individuals with psychotic disorders.
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Since negative bodily sensations, as subjective phenomena, can be observed by listening to the patients’ descriptions, systematic attention to the sensations means a distinct re-evaluation of our receptive attitude as the basis for a reliable diagnosis. Psychodynamics is essential in this context.
However, in practice it is sometimes very difficult to make a satisfactory classification using the currently valid International Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders (ICD 10-11).
The new edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) will give an opportunity to reflect systematically and name the flaws of these classifications.
A guiding principle emerged, which allows to identify and bundle the points in need of amendment clearly: the diagnostic significance of the subjective bodily symptoms, the „body’s complaints“, which in my opinion are better to unterstand than all the “somatoform disorders”. The DSM-5 " Somatic Symptom Disorders" promise a certain progress, too. What is your experience resp. first impression?
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Dear Aniko Huizer-Pajkos or Pajko,
concerning pain in a case of arthritis, you will find nociceptive signs and it is evident, that the nervous system ist  n  o  t   affected, for there is no lesion of the PNS/ZNS. So It's more difficult to diagnose cases of " mixed pain"  (nociceptive spondylarthrosis + neuropathic radiculopathy)  or even pure neuropathic pain (trigeminus neuralgia).  In my opinion, we have to underline the importance of pain symptoms and signs, realizing objective and subjective phenomena in  most cases of "low back pain", Zoster neuralgia and complex regional pain syndrome. There are no "somatoform" signs, I agree with you in this point. But how do you classify the rest of all, the  big group of dissociative disorders and the so called Medical unexplained physikal symptoms (MUPS)?
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I've been thinking a lot lately about the overlap between synesthesia and schizophrenia as some characteristics of the two are quite similar (hyper-associative thinking, hypersensitivity, etc.). I'm aware that synesthesia is not a mental disorder but reading through case reports of patients with diagnosed schizophrenia, several of them also mention synesthetic experiences.
For example, when looking at the two conditions, the following research findings suggest to me a certain correlation, proneness, or similarity between the two:
- synesthetes who experience colour sensations in response to colour-neutral stimuli show increased positive and disorganized schizotypy (http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/1314590/1/1314590.pdf)
- increased intensity of perceptual experiences or hypersensitivity can be used as in indicator of schizophrenia
Other aspects that might indicate a link between the two are vivid imagination and strong ability to form mental images/sounds/sensations/etc., increased daydreaming, etc.
Does anyone know of other similarities between the two (particularly with regard to brain structure & function) and to what extent synesthesia can become pathological?
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