Science topic

Cyanobacteria - Science topic

A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
Questions related to Cyanobacteria
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
3 answers
Hi everyone,
I am trying to grow marine cyanobacteria from my samples using BG11 and L1 as nutrient and agar as gelling agent. I found agarolytic bacteria thrives in my plates, liquifying my agar. So, I tried using gellan gum as an alternative to agar. In my trials, I keep getting wobbly unstable gellan gels even though I used magnesium sulphate as cations. After overnight upside-down, I got dome-shaped gellan gel surface. When I tried using cell spreader, the gelling broke. Has anyone encounter this problem?
Relevant answer
Answer
Kristova Yubilius Indrataruna I have two suggestions for you: 1) Use ASNIII medium for marine CB: BG-11 was elaborated for freshwater CB; 2) Use very purified agarose (like Kim Sea) instead of either agar or gellan gum because very purified agarose does not support the proliferation of heterotrophs. Good luck. Igor Brown
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
3 answers
Hello:
Does anybody have experience culturing ciliates grazing on cyanobacteria? I have an environmental sample with Nassula grazing on Microcoleus and would like to keep the ciliate living in lab culture. I would love to talk with somebody about ciliate's culturing conditions, food requirements, starvation, and so on. Thank you in advance for your help!
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello, Rosalina, how are you? I'm not sure how to cultivate just a single species, but a cultivation technique that has worked well in our laboratory is to prepare a bacterial culture of raw rice with tap water... just break up a few pieces of rice grain, add to a falcon tube, put about 10mL of water in the tube, close it and wait about 2 days for there to be a considerable amount of bacteria, then just use that water in isolated cultures of protists to feed them whenever you need to. I hope to help a little with my comment, hugs!
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
1 answer
I am interested in using flow cytometry to measure blue green algae (cyanobacteria) populations in freshwater samples. However, most of the species we find are colonial (Woronichinia sp) or filamentous (Anabaena sp. and Oscillatoria sp.). How can I best separate these colonies and filaments into their single cells, without damaging or lysing the cells? The purpose of this is to allow the single cells to pass through the flow cytometer one cell at a time. Does anyone know of any routine procedures using vortexing or sonication?
Many thanks.
Relevant answer
Answer
You might try KOH for Microcystis and Woronichinia, but that will kill the cells. However, it will take at least 24 hours for the cells to lyse. I don’t know of any method for breaking up filaments.
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
2 answers
I have been reading up about fossil algaes since quite a while, and cyanobacterias, as you can expect, very commonly come up when looking at papers concerning Palaeozoic reefs. However, there's been a certain element that seems quite... strange, concerning how fossil evidence is sorted. There seems to be a plethora of fossil generas and families erected for said fossils, stretching across seemingly absurd amounts of time, & upon closer inspection there seems to be several papers relating the observation of similar or almost identical forms among living genera, as well as fossils being recovered from very recent fossil deposits which would imply they just disappeared in an almost unnatural fashion just recently.
Since these generas and species are very often differentiated based on very small morphological differences (this mostly applies to species) and seem to have almost perfect replicas amongst living genera, then i ponder : what is the purpose of such families and generas if they essentially encompass just fossil equivalents of modern forms with very little differences between them ?
Wouldn't it be wiser to assign them to corresponding modern generas or families instead ? Or do they truly represent different organisms ?
I apologize if the question seems very intrusive but i cannot seem to found a conclusive answer anywhere else
Relevant answer
Answer
As for some other people who work on paleophycology I have abandoned long time ago the use of species for so-called microbial genera, which I prefer to refer to microbial structures, e.g., girvanella structures, cayeuxia structures, bacinella structures, ... the latter was typically made by various consortia of microbes. As a consequence I do not refer to families either!
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
6 answers
Hello,
We use the commercial eurofins abraxis kit's for the detection of anatoxin-a (toxin produced by cyanobacteria). The test is a direct competitive ELISA based on the recognition of Anatoxin-a by a monoclonal antibody. Anatoxin-a, when present in a sample, and an Anatoxin-a-enzyme conjugate compete for the binding sites of mouse anti-Anatoxin-a antibodies in solution.
The concentrations of the samples are determined by interpolation using the standard curve constructed with each run.
The sample was containing a large concentration of cyanobacteria. So we analysed the sample pur and diluted at 1/100 and 1/200 (to be ine the linearity zone of the standard range). The sample pur was negative. However the dilutions gave positive results and I don't know why.
Thank you for helping me understand.
Relevant answer
Answer
Andrew Paul McKenzie Pegman I Think you're right, I should do that ^^
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
5 answers
During estimate certain 16S rRNA sequencing using NCBI. I found that all most of the results are unculture cyanobacteria with high identity %. Could you please explain what this means? When I will be able to decide if this isolate novel?
Thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
Formally, "uncultured Cyanobacterium sp. clone" should means that your hit is an uncultivated bacterium belonging to the particular genus, Cyanobacterium (Oscillatoriophyceae:Chroococales:Geminicystaceae). However, "sp." could be added by mistake, and then it could mean any cyanobacteria (e.g., Nostocales). For verification, it is better to blast your closest hits or exclude uncultured sequences from blast. But do not limit your search to type strains - their list among Cyanobacteria is far from complete.
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
6 answers
Hello, do anybody know of a study that looked if microbial mats of cyanobacteria produce methane in a benthic marine environment?
As these mats spread now along our coasts it could become important so i wanted to know if here exist some observations...
All the best
Jan
Relevant answer
Answer
I don't know, but methane is produced in an anaerobic environment. In dystrophic water, marsh water, so much methane is formed that it bubbles up. The gas can be collected and ignited. See foto
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
1 answer
I am looking for files (stl, obj or 3mf) of diatoms and cyanobacteria to make 3D printing.
Relevant answer
Answer
I think only old edition books are available
📷
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
4 answers
I am looking for a good, very detailed, book on freshwater cyanobacteria identification. Most of the specimen I am encountering are in the Nostocales order so a book focused on Nostocales or filamentous cyanobacteria is preferable. My specimen have lots of nuances that match more than one genus descriptor. As such I am looking for a detailed species guide.
Relevant answer
Answer
I THINK YOU SHOULD SEE NEEDHAM J G AND NEEDHAM'S ""FRESHWATER BIOLOGY"" BOOK AND ONE MORE Ponds-Small-Lakes-Microorganisms-Naturalists BY Brian-Moss. THESE HELPED ME A LOT IN MY RESEARCH OF ALGAE.
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
3 answers
I am doing my PhD in cyanobacteria causing off-flavor in the water (Mycrocystis, Anabaena, etc), I found the isolate in the pond (Mycrocystis), but when I cultured and purified the Mycrocystis can't grow, but the other species grow well, I tried in mediums with different N:P ratio, 1:1, 1:5, 1:10, 1:15, 1:20, all show the same result. Anyone can help me, or give me suggestions. Thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you very much Ana T Castro-Castellon , for this good advice.
So far I haven't tried BG11, I have cultured using f2 media with modified NP ratio with aeration, next I will try BG11. Then, for light conditions using a standard lamp but the lux has not been measured, is there any recommendation on how many lux of light is needed, as well as other parameters such as temperature?
Thanks
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
2 answers
I have a quastion please. when it comes to chlorophyll a, found in cyanobacteria. is there a specific enzyme or substart that are involved in activating it please? what are they?
Relevant answer
Answer
thank you. one last question. what will be a fit substrate for soil protease? there are a number of options(if you know)
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
5 answers
Hello,
do you know what can be any planktonic organism with size aprox. from 3-10 um, color green, H shape, maybe one or more cells. We realy don´t what is it. It weakly shine under fluorescence for cyanobacteria.
Relevant answer
Answer
The magnification is too low to give a positive identification. Judging from the size and coulour I think it could be Tetraedron minimum or Chlorotetraedron incus. I do not think it is P. kamillae, because the colour does not match the one of Xanthophyceae, also the shape is slightly different, P. kamillae is more 'rounded'.
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
3 answers
Were the stromatolites the product of mineral deposits from the cyanobacteria or were they the structural remains of them?
Relevant answer
Answer
Stromatolites are layered biochemical accretionary structures formed in shallow water by the trapping, binding and cementation of sedimentary grains in biofilms (specifically microbial mats), especially cyanobacteria. They exhibit a variety of forms and structures, or morphologies, including conical, stratiform, domal, columnar, and branching types. @Bachir Achour
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
3 answers
Hello there,
please can you recommend to me an article or write any formula how to remove diatoms and other organisms from samples with cyanobacteria with concentration technique (filtration, centrifugation, or other). I know that Utermöhl (1936) described a technique in the article, but i don´t have access to this article. Unfortunately, i can´t find any other articles about centrifugation´s concentration techniques for separating desired organisms.
Relevant answer
Answer
Try this!
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
3 answers
I performed metagenome analysis of a cyanobacterial culture I try to purify, in order to identify the cyanobacterial species I have. It turns out that only 5% of my culture are picocyanobacteria, while the rest are Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. When I see my culture under the microscope I mostly see cyanobacteria, which is why I am shocked.
Can anyone suggest a way to get rid of the bacteria? The cyanobacteria I'm trying to purify are very small, belonging to Synechococcus and Cyanobium genus (I attach a reference picture).
Tank you in advance.
Edit: grammar.
Relevant answer
Answer
We have used an antibiotic method to produce axenic alga cultures. This might work with your cyanobacterium. If you talk to a microbiologist, they have a kit used to test sensitivity of bacteria to many antibiotics. Your culture is spread on agar and different paper disks containing different antibiotics are placed on the agar plate. Look for a clear zone around a paper disk where the bacteria are killed but your cyanobacterium is not affected. This tells you which antibiotic to add to your culture medium. Our technique was published previously as “One step antibiotic disk method for obtaining axenic cultures of multicellular marine algae.” Bradley et al. 1988. Plant cell, tissue and organ culture 12: 55-60. Available on Peter Bradley’s ResearchGate place. Good luck with your work.
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
2 answers
I need help for this identification.
I think it's a cyanobacteria (maybe an Oscillatorial?) but maybe it's a bacterium.
This taxon is filamentous and the dimensions of the cells are:
* Diameter = 1 - 1.5 microns
* Length = 8 - 23 microns and the majority about 16 microns
The lake Juslibol is a "Galacho", an old meander of the river Ebro (Spain).
This lake has a specific conductivity of about 5000 microS/cm and pH of 8 units.
Relevant answer
Answer
This looks like Gloeotila pelagica, a green alga.
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
5 answers
We recently obtained several cyanobacterial strains (Synechocystis, Chroococcus, Synechococcus, etc.) from the culture collection in Göttingen. Upon first inoculation in BG-11 (UTEX recipe), everything was fine and they grew well. After that, two attempts to grow them in BG-11 failed:
  • subcultures did not grow further in BG-11.
  • fresh inoculation from the original samples (stored at 16 °C, illuminated) failed.
What could be the most likely problem here? Whe have the following hypotheses:
  • they need a microelement that is missing in BG-11 but can survive from stored reserves for a while (is there evidence that cyanobacteria don't grow over prolonged periods in BG-11?)
  • the BG-11 of the subequent cultivations was not prepared properly (unlikely, as two separate batches of BG-11 failed)
  • something else that we missed.
I would greatly appreciate if you could share your experience ("try again, it should be a piece of cake", "don't be surprised, this happens often due to to high illumination/to high CO2/too vigorous shaking") to narrow down the problem!
Relevant answer
Answer
After more than two years, it is time to solve the puzzle: we learned that our strain did not grow in BG-11 but was perfectly fine in Z-medium. Why? I don't know. But once we switched media, everything was fine.
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
3 answers
I am growing cyanobacteria (PCC7942 and 6803) in BG-11 either with or without bicarbonate+HEPES, and seeing a very high pH (9-10) after a few days of growth regardless of the conditions. Any ideas on what could be causing this, and how to deal with it?
Edit: I am using 50 mM NaHCO3 and 25 mM HEPES in Sigma BG-11 media, where the initial pH is ~7.5. I am growing them in 24 well plates (1.5mL culture volume) and 100mL flasks (10mL culture volume), at 30C with a light intensity of 70 umol m-2 s-1. Minimal (orbital) shaking.
Relevant answer
Answer
Have you tried different carbon sources? Have you done a growth curve and some plate counts along with the pH monitoring?
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
3 answers
I am a third-course microbiology student and I am researching relationships between cyanobacteria and bacteriophages that infect them. For my project, I need to do an alignment of host genomes, and all the programs and websites that I used say that my file is too big. 180-120 MB is there any program, that could do an alignment because neither MEGA or UGENE could do it( was waiting >24 hours and no results). I don't have any knowledge in programming and I have windows operating system. So maybe someone has a solution? Thanks in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
Why do you want to align multiple genomes? What is your aim?
Ask this question to your course leader and understand the concepts of your the analysis you want to perform. Those tool you mention and the tool recommended in above post are not meant to align genomes.
Useless processing without proper understanding of aim would not lead you anywhere.
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
4 answers
Do you know of any algal /cyanobacteria species/genus that was consumed before 1997 excluding those that are already listed as novel foods by the EU (e.g., Chlorella luteoviris, Chlorella vulgaris, Tetraselmis chui, Odontella aurita, Euglena gracilis and Arthrospira plantensis)?
Do you have any evidence (can be an advertisement, a product, publication, internet article, etc.) of other (micro-) algae or cyanobacteria that were consumed as whole biomass or single components before 1997? You may follow https://forms.gle/n9bh1QbAQ42sNhPV8, or a 1 min survey or directly comment here.
Relevant answer
Answer
Fucus has been used for hundred of years by humans and in agriculture.
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
3 answers
I am trying to isolate Cyanobacteria and I can see some colonies of other bacteria on plate which bacteria can symbioses with Cyanobacteria?
Relevant answer
Answer
Cyanobacterial symbioses are no longer regarded as mere oddities but as important components of the biosphere, occurring both in terrestrial and aquatic habitats worldwide. It is becoming apparent that they can enter into symbiosis with a wider variety of organisms than hitherto known, and there are many more still to be discovered, particularly in marine environments. The chapters cover cyanobacterial symbioses with plants (algae, bryophytes, Azolla, cycads, Gunnera), cyanobacterial symbioses in marine environments, lichens, Nostoc-Geosiphon (a fungus closely related to arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi) symbiosis, and artificial associations of cyanobacteria with economically important plants. In addition, cyanobiont diversity, sensing-signalling, and evolutionary aspects of the symbiosis are dealt with. Renowned experts actively involved in research on cyanobacterial symbioses deal with ecological, physiological, biochemical, molecular, and applied aspects of all known cyanobacterial symbioses. This volume on cyanobacteria in symbiosis complements the two earlier volumes on cyanobacteria published by Kluwer (Molecular Biology of Cyanobacteria, edited by D.A. Bryant and Ecology of Cyanobacteria, edited by B.A. Whitton and M. Potts). Together, the three volumes provide the most comprehensive treatment of cyanobacterial literature as a whole. The book will serve as a valuable reference work and text for teaching and research in the field of plant-microbe interactions and nitrogen fixation.
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
5 answers
Hi guys I work on cyanobacteria specially hepatotoxin producers but i face a bad problem in winter growth so bad and i can't find species diversity how can i solve this problem and how can prove growth in winter .. for example specific type of media to be used or any preparations in my lab i can make ?
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
6 answers
I studied the whole-cell protein profile in cyanobacteria undergoing abiotic stress. I have two questions regarding the data.
1. Is it mandatory/preferable to submit whole-cell proteomics data to a repository/database before publishing?
2. If it is, what is the best repository/database especially for cyanobacteria?
Relevant answer
Answer
repository deposition of the raw proteomics data is required for most journal as a way of validating the authenticity of the data in the manuscript. It will also increase the global publicity of your manuscript
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
3 answers
I'm looking into AlgaeTorch (bbe Moldaenke), matrixFlu VIS/microFlu/nanoFlu (TriOS) and Cyclops-7F (TurnerDesigns). I couldn't find any application notes on any of those. Does anybody have some experience and recommendations? The main application would be estimating abundance of cyanobacteria in the field, and their ratio within all algae population.
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
3 answers
I have treated my cyanobacterial pellets with lysis Buffer (50mM HEPES + 300mM NaCl, pH 7.5). After adding lysis buffer I have sonicated for 20 mints in the presence of ice. After sonication i have centrifuged the lysate mixture with 8000rpm for 45 mints. After centrifugation the supernatant are still green not blue as usually seen for total proteins. What should be the problem ? Lysis is not done completely ?
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks Anju Kaushal for nice suggestion.
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
3 answers
What is the causes of it losing the green color.
Relevant answer
Answer
@sezgi adalioglu thanks for you response it give more insight to understand about the condition of chlorella sorokiniana. Please is there any documents I can read to know about this? If they is any I need your help to send it for me. Thank you
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
16 answers
What is in your experience the best way to kill contaminant cyanobacteria in a green microalgae culture? Antibiotics, and in case which one do you tried?
Have you ever tried to apply variations in the physical or chemical culture conditions?
Let's me know your experience!
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Laura
Have you thought using hydrogen peroxide? cyanobacteria are usually more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide than eukaryotic microbes and H2O2 is often used to prevent cyanobacterial blooms in enclosed water bodies (
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
4 answers
Hello,
I am currently working on my Master Thesis, and I need to grow fresh-water Oscillatoria sancta in the lab. I have read from multiple sources that nitrogen-fixing filamentous cyanobacteria needs to grow on nitrogen-free medium. I have tried looking for nitrogen-free BG11 medium, however, I can only find it at UTEX's website, and I'm not sure if they ship the medium to Europe.
Therefore, I would like to ask if there is an alternative to nitrogen-free BG11 medium?
Thank you in advance!
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Maria,
Hereby, please find two recent publications about cyanobacteria, which may help you find what you want to know about its methodology.
The short communication published in 2021 is a good one to refer to its references and gives a good idea of overall researches around Cyanobacteria.
The paper published in 2019 may give you tips in methodology of Cyanobactetia grown in harsh environmental situations.
Good luck.
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
4 answers
I have been trying to start some cultures of thermophilic cyanobacteria (in the temperature range of 60-68°C), from environmental samples and from stock cultures, both of which have been stored in a walk-in fridge for 3-4 years. The samples and stock cultures are green in the fridge, but when I try to set them up in the incubator (in 75mL of BG11 medium in flasks, at source pH, under continuous illumination), they photobleach within 3 days. At first, I just set the inoculated flasks into the incubator and raised the temperature with the flasks in it. Then, I've tried several methods to keep the transition more gradual: (1) keeping the inoculated flasks in room temperature in the dark for 1-2 hours prior to moving them to the illuminated incubator and raising the temperature of the incubator while they're in it, (2) covering the flasks, putting them in the incubator, and raising the temperature 10 degrees every hour until they're at the goal temperature, (3) keeping the inoculated flasks in room temperature in the dark for 1 hour, then moving them to the incubator while covered so that they remain in the dark, then raising the temperature 10 degrees every hour, and uncovering them when the temperature reaches 50 degrees.
Could anyone offer me any advice on how to successfully get these cultures growing? Thanks in advance!
Relevant answer
Answer
You may add some growth inducers to your culture media.
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
5 answers
I'm doing my PhD in cyanobacteria, I already began to isolate cyanobacteria, the coccus species grown well in bg-11, but when I cultured filamentous species don't appeared in the medium, I tried to use other media but no results, I tried many time but no response.
Could please to help me, I spent more time to find pure culture for filamentous cyanobacteria.
Relevant answer
Answer
I would suggest that you use the single cell (or filament) technique to start, in liquid media. This medium can be BG-11, ASM-1, WC medium, among other options. I mostly used WC medium for freshwater species (Guillard RRL, Lorenzen CJ (1972) Yellow-green algae with chlorophyllide C 2. J Phycol 8:10–14 doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-8817.1972.tb03995.x).
This is the way I used to do it:
  • Under the microscope, dissecting microscope, or their inverted versions, use a sterile glass pipette to transfer a small volume of your sample containing your target organisms onto a sterile microscope slide (do not use slide covers)*.
  • On that same slide (if you have the space in it) or on another slide, put a drop of newly prepared and sterile medium using another, sterile glass pipette.
  • Then, try to very careful aspire into the pipette one filament of your organism at a time from that drop of your sample and transfer it to the drop of the medium. Get a good number of filaments.
  • Now, transfer only one filament to a second drop of fresh and sterile medium.
  • Check if all looks fine (i.e., no major cell damage) and if you didn't transfer other cells. If there are other organisms in there, repeat the procedure transferring the target organisms to yet another drop of your medium until you have only one healthy filament in the drop.
  • Aspire the now isolated filament and transfer to a test tube previously filled with sterile liquid medium (about 10mL in a tube of approximately 20 ml of volume).
  • For every organisms you are trying to isolate and culture, you should ideally have between 5 and 10 tubes. Sometimes is very hard to grow cyanobacteria in the lab, so it pays off to have several tubes and test different media, maybe with the different media having 3 or 4 tubes each.
I hope that those tips help you isolate your organisms!
All the best,
Guilherme
*We used hydrophilic cotton on the bottom of the pipette to prevent contamination, and also adapted a silicon tube that we would connect to the pipette and would suck with our mouths, with hydrophilic cotton on the "mouth" end. Sounds like it doesn't work, but it is super effective and we didn't have problems with contamination, not even with bacterial contamination when working with axenic cultures.
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
4 answers
Question of the day!
Dear Algal Phycologists and Biotechnologists,
I have read the literature about different method of harvesting of Microalgae but I am confused which is the best method as there is no literature up-to-date calming the best harvesting method which is highly efficient. (Flocculation/Sedimentation/Filtration/ Floatation etc.)
Could you please let me know the highly efficient harvesting method up-to-date.
#research #algae #algartech #algaebiotechnology #microalgae #microalgas #cyanobacteria #diatom #algalbiofuel #phycology #phycobiotechnology #algaebiology #marinebiology #marinebiotechnolgy #biomass #energy #environment #engineering #chemistry #sustainability
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Mohammad Sibtain Kadri , harvesting microalgae is not a straightforward process as such because it varies on numerous factors. One of the most important aspect to consider in this process is the dewatering of the microalgae slurries while limiting damage to the cells, biomass loss and limiting costs. All of the techniques you listed above are useful depending on the type of culture, volume of biomass production, the organism being cultured, desired end product, among many others but a crucial one would be costs involved (how far can investments be made and how much can be spent on energy driven processes).
A simple laboratory experiment might lead to the use of centrifugation directly as indicated by Aradhana Srisivasailam or a combination of them (sedimentation prior to centrifugation). However, as you scale up the production, the techniques then tend to be expensive due to energy consumption.
For my experiments, I make use of auto-flocculation followed by centrifugation at 5000 rpm for <10 min with microalgae Rhexinema paucicellulare, which tends to agglomerate and thus become heavy and sink. Smaller microalgae such as Chlorella sp. will need more intense centrifigation and flocculation might require to be chemically induced.
Therefore, I suggest you decide the most appropriate harvesting process for your experiment by conducting an elimination process based on the various aspects.
I suggest you look into the following papers:
1) Conversion of microalgae to biofuel
doi:10.1016/j.rser.2012.03.047
2) Microalgae: the next best alternative to fossil fuels after biomass. A review
doi:10.4081/mr.2019.7936
3) Harvesting microalgae by flocculation–sedimentation
Hope it helps!
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
4 answers
please suggest suitable extraction buffer for preparing cell free enzymatic extract of cyanobacteria.
NOTE-we have some protocol which uses 1. 50mM KPP
2.1mM EDTA
3.1% PVP
4.0.5%TritonX
5.2.5mM PMSF
but we don't know the exact volume of the chemical needed for making final extraction buffer so please suggest .
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Niharika,
I hope the Antioxydant protocols found in these 2 articles (attached) will help you in your research.
Best wishes
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
3 answers
I work at a fish hatchery in northern Michigan that has had issues with pond rearing Walleye. This year I noticed that both of our 0.4 acre ponds experienced cyanobacteria blooms and continued to dominate the plankton assemblage. One of which has since crashed and has not had a fry sighting since the crash. Is this a problem seen in other facilities? What are some possible routes to prevent cyanobacteria blooms and eventual crashes in such small ponds? We check N:P ratios twice a week and fertilize accordingly to maintain a 20:1 target. Any information would be extremely helpful!
Relevant answer
Answer
Everything that William said and if you have the opportunity to deploy aerators in your pond system that may help also.
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
7 answers
I need to measure total phosphorus in cyanobacteria medium culture
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Sima,
I did a quick search of this mentioned topic in Google scholar and came across by this interesting and recent publication exactly describing a new method of spectrophotometric determination of phosphate in water samples. Just below you can find the link. Hope it helps.
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
6 answers
Hello all.
Been trying a number of kits and modifications of said kits, to try and extract usable DNA from cyanobacteria (source is HAB lake water). I had "ok" results from a Qiagen - Flexigene kit #51206 but I had to extend incubations and crush the cyanobacteria using a mortar and pestle with liquid nitrogen. I also had to increase proteinase concentrations as well. I ALSO just got done trying a Qiagen Plant-Pro DNeasey kit. With this, I even tried a tube with the small glass beads to hopefully lyse the cells. This produced no DNA.
Before I go to the literature and try a method I wanted to ask if anyone has a good kit or modification of a method from a commercial kit for the extraction of DNA from Cyanobacteria.
THANKS
Andrew
Relevant answer
Answer
I agree with Prashant Singh. I have been using the same kit with some modifications aiming to increase DNA concentration and purity.
good luck with your extractions!
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
3 answers
We are attempting to cultivate unicellular cyanobacteria (Aphanothece, Synechococcus) in an open thin-layer cascade system (200 L, 18 m2). The system is in a greenhouse an we have years of experience with green algae. A first test with Synechococus in 2020 worked. Now, a year later, it doesn't work anymore. The cells lose their colour within days and do not grow. Temperature is fine (15--30 °C), pH is neutral ot basic (7.5-8.5), the medium is the one we successfully used in the lab before, the light in the greenhouse is not too strong (max. 200 umul m-2 s-1). What is going on? I wouldn't be surprised if it takes a while for them to start growing, but why do they lose their colour? Any insight would be greatly appreciated.
-> I prefer information from people with hands-on experience. I say this, because the last time, people just sent me links to publications which were rather off-topic.
Thank you very much!
Relevant answer
Answer
One of the largest challenges in scaling cultures to outdoor systems is the process of photobleaching and photoinhibition. This occurs very frequently if the concentration of the inoculum is too low. I typically keep my biomass density above 0.1 g/L of ash-free dry weight. This allows for self-shading of the culture to reduce the impact of high light intensities.
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
3 answers
Hi, I extracted spirulina inoto 80% methanol and dried at 37 degrees in a normal oven. It looks dark and sticky now. I have done this method for several other cyanobacteria species without having sticky products. I'm a bit new for this. If anyone could explain the reasons I'd be grateful.
Thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
It's maybe due to oxidation of pigment.
Thank you
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
5 answers
We have been advised to fix cyanobacterial samples before coating and SEM microscope analysis. I can't find a protocol for cyanobacterial cells fixation method to follow step by step. Do you have any literature or experience on that process?
Relevant answer
Answer
I've never worked with cyanobacterial samples, but it should be Ok to use a standard SEM preparation. For example:
1. Cut small pieces (about 5x5 mm) of glass slide, silicon wafer, coverslip, etc.
2. Coat them with about 20 nm of gold using a sputter coater (very common tool, which can be found almost in every EM facility). Mark them scratching the gold layer with a needle;
3. Prepare a bacterial suspension in a buffer (usually PBS is Ok), concentration should be about 10^6 cells per 1 ml. It should be as pure, as possible (wash a few times with centrifugation);
4. Put a droplet (about 20 ul) onto a gold-coated piece of glass and incubate for a few min;
5. Wash with buffer, then put it into fixative (3 % glutaraldehyde in the same buffer) for 15 min;
6. Wash with buffer, then dehydrate with 30%, 50%, 70%, 90%, 96%, 100%, 100% ethanol, every step - 5 min;
7. Remove the ethanol residue with chemical drying (HMDS) or using a critical point dryer (I prefer this method, usually EM facilities have such a machine);
8. Glue the wafers to standard SEM stubs (usually it is possible to glue three or even four for one) with a conductive glue (carbon or silver paste, or something similar, usually can be found in an EM facility). Make an electrical connection between the surface of the sample and the stub using this conductive glue;
9. Coat with about 5 nm of gold or platinum/iridium;
10. Examine with an SEM. For modern FE-SEMs the best quality of imaging usually can be reached when the acceleration voltage is about 2 kV.
This protocol is described here (for sperm):
and here (for bacteria):
Good luck!
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
4 answers
I've read papers on the luxury uptake of P by cyanobacteria during excess P supply to be stored as polyP (reserves), while the outcome of some other studies also observe increased P uptake during P stress conditions. However, try as I might, I haven't been able to find something on what could cause cyanobacteria to release phosphate, although I suppose the reason being P is such a precious commodity for the cyanobacteria themselves.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi all, do pardon my late reply.
Sate Ahmad: Thanks, I have read before some of the references you mentioned, which weren't what I was expecting (I was looking along the lines of a PO4 release response under different stressors). From your train of thought, I found another paper which mentions the release of PO4 from a cyanobacterial species due to the breakdown of its capsular polysaccharide and subsequent mucilage sheath disaggregation, which technically answers the question:
Thomas Petzoldt: This paper is actually one of my main go-to references whenever I need answers. Unfortunately, it concludes with the same question which I am asking. Although while reading further, I stumbled upon an interesting paper (although EBPR-based) which concluded that Mg2+ ions somewhat inhibited anaerobic PO4 release, while increasing pH stimulated PO4 release. This is however not cyanobacteria-specific.
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
4 answers
I am using a strain of cyanobacteria to extract phycocyanin pigment. Is there any other analytical method to measure phycocyanin? Any relevant material for measuring it will be highly appreciable.
Thanks!
Relevant answer
Answer
Susana Fuentes-Tristan Thanks for sharing the article. It's beneficial.
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
13 answers
In my research on soil algae I found that over a period of 3 months the soil pH dropped by 0.6-0.8 units and the algae grew very well. However I did a correlation between the abundance of algae and the respective soil pH and found a positive correlation between, i.e. the more algae there were, the higher the soil pH. I just don't understand why the overall soil pH is dropped from start of the test?
Relevant answer
Answer
In my opinion and as other RG colleagues mentioned in comments here, this is not a big change to worry about, but should be controlled time to time continuously and this observed decrease in pH is the consequence of the growing circumstances of that soil algae and I think it totally depends on photosynthesis process and soil respiration. In my opinion there is a compatible range of soil pH which is tolerable for soil algae, which may differ in different genera.
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
2 answers
Learning to grow and identify toxin producing strains of cyanobacteria.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you! I have been in touch with them.
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
3 answers
After getting my cyanobacteria-water samples, filtering them through GF/F filters, and freezing-thawing them, I use the trichromatic method to get Chl-a concentration.
I am wondering how much "free" (not cell-associated) chl-a is passing through the filter? is it possible to measure that portion that stays in the filtrate? If so, how would I do it?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Kelly,
the quickest and easiest (but still with high sensitivity) would be using a plankton fluorometer. Most of these will also provide an estimate of phycocyanin and phycoerythrin, which might be useful for your cyanobacteria-related question.
Good luck
Marco
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
4 answers
Hello Everyone,
The past few years have seen a lot of new cyanobacterial taxa being described using a polyphasic approach. It will be interesting to know that what are the various good things about using this approach and importantly, are there some particular taxonomic groups/clusters that are still unresolved where the polyphasic approach is still to give any proper answer?
What further developments do we anticipate in the coming years? What are the new techniques/methods that can be further incorporated for a better understanding of cyanobacterial taxonomy?
Relevant answer
Answer
Although it is not my specialty, I advise you to read the following paper:
A polyphasic approach for the taxonomy of cyanobacteria: principles and applications, by Jiří Komárek (2016).
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
12 answers
I would like to calibrate our LC-MS/MS system for anatoxin-a(s) analysis and cannot seem to find any analytical standards available.
Relevant answer
Answer
National Research Council Canada (NRC CRM-ATX-a)
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
2 answers
The range of thallus structure of Cyanobacteria vary from unicellular to multicellular filamentous types. They are also larger in size than other bacteria. Is there any report on endosymbiotic bacteria inside Cyanobacteria?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Animesh
If you send me your email, I can send you a couple of papers of endosymbiotic bacteria in cyanobacteria. My email is:
Best wishes
Heléne Annadotter
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
4 answers
Growing cyanobacteria in flasks will definitely require some sort of aeration for growth, but in small culture volumes is this needed? If cyanobacteria are grown in small culture volumes (lets say 200ul in a 96 well plate) do they need to be shaken? What are the consequences of not shaking?
Relevant answer
Answer
The purpose of shaking the algal culture medium is to move the cells for proper lighting and aeration. At a volume of 200 microliters, because the thickness of the culture medium is small, light and air reach the cells equally and there is no need to shake.
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
5 answers
I have isolated a cyanobacteria from soil and would to like to identify it. Currently I’m trying to find a suitable kit to enable DNA extraction. I was wondering what would be the best primers to give me some direction as to identifying the species/genus? I have found a variety of different suggestions in my literature search but it’s got pretty confusing!
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you
Kannegalla Venu Srivastav
and Cihelio Alves Amorim
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
4 answers
After analysing the NGS data ( Illumina reads), I have got a contaminant bacteria (marine Bacteria) along with my target bacteria ( Cyanobacteria). The total size of the genome is 14 MB. The annotation result shows two copies of 16s rDNA and two copies of 23s rDNA are present. One is for my target organism and another one is a marine bacteria. How to remove the contaminant bacteria from my target genome?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi!
I would recommend you to have a look at these links:
" How can I remove contaminants from an assembled genome? (biostars.org) "
(13) What methods/programs are recommended to clean-up a genome from contaminating reads? (researchgate.net)
(13) (PDF) Fast Identification and Removal of Sequence Contamination from Genomic and Metagenomic Datasets (researchgate.net)
I hope it helps,
Best regards
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
3 answers
I want to calculate the stress potential of cyanobacterial cells that are inoculated with antagonistic bacteria. My results showed that there is a drastic reduction in the chlorophyll content of cyanobacteria treated with bacterial inoculum compared to the control. So, I want to know whether the CSI used for the calculation of the stress tolerance capacity of plants is applicable for the calculation of the stress tolerance capacity of cyanobacteria?
Relevant answer
Answer
...but I can't imagine in what way antagonistic interactions of cyanobacteria and their "pests" may depend on chlophyll complexes thermal stability.
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
8 answers
I am studying a strange culture of the genus Nostoc (I am quite sure that it is Nostoc by the morphology, ecology, sequencing and phylogeny) which as a natural sample showed branched appearance (yes it did show branched appearance!) but on being grown in the lab in BG11 without nitrogen the branching has been lost. The thing is that we intend to describe it as a new species of Nostoc (it clusters very nicely in the Nostoc sensu stricto clade; quite away from Desmonostoc, Aliinostoc, Mojavia or Halotia) but I suppose the loss of branching is something that needs to be discussed.
Has anyone experienced the same phenomenon?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello All,
Great to see this question being brought up again!
As I mentioned in the question itself, the branching was evident clearly in the natural samples and it was lost while sub-culturing in the lab. I think it is more related to the environmental factors, though it has also been induced in the lab too. This particular sample under study was from the Czech Republic.
Branching has been reported previously too by few workers.
We eventually described the isolated cyanobacterium as a new species of Nostoc using a polyphasic approach (so definitely not a new species on the basis of branching!). I attach the published work herein as it does have detailed story.
In our case, we could not attach taxonomic importance to this character simply because it was lost in the lab. Strong and consistent morphological traits should be given weightage in the polyphasic approach but then unique observations like this too can find just a mention appropriately. It will be great if the branching aspect could be studied in detail in Nostoc's. I do not think anyone tried some detailed study with particular focus on this occasional branching.
-PS
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
4 answers
I am currently looking into this sensor as a means to monitor freshwater lakes for blue-green algae and I am interested to know about other's experience in using it with the ProDSS. For example, its reliability, calibration, under what circumstances it was used, or any limitations to get a better sense of its capabilities. I have read the literature and watched the video's from YSI, but I would like to get some actual user input. TIA.
Relevant answer
Answer
This stream article for the Pac. NW may be of interest:
-Bob
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
4 answers
I need to obtain axenic cultures of cyanobacteria for an experimental purpose. Currently, I’m maintaining axenic cultures of cyanobacterial species (Microcystis sp., Nostoc sp., Oscillatoria sp., Limnothrix sp., Synechococcus sp. etc.) in BG11 liquid. These cultures were isolated from freshwater samples by repeated subculturing on both BG11 liquid and solid media. However, I was unable to remove bacterial species that are attached to the cyanobacterial species. Therefore, when preparing fresh cultures of these cyanobacteria bacteria also grow in BG11 liquid media and BG11 agar media. Although I have used the antibiotic “Ampicillin” (100 mg/mL), it didn’t work. So, can anyone suggest a method to avoid this bacteria contamination?
Relevant answer
Answer
To get rid of bacteria and making your strain axenic requires lot of patience. Especially for Nostocales it's highly difficult as they produce EPS and bacteria usually get attracted..It also depends why you want to have axenic status for your culture..The best method is to revive the culture at regular intervals. And use some ABs so that your target culture does not get affected. For further reference please go through "Algal culturing techniques" book authored by Robert A Anderson...best wishes
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
6 answers
I am using ampicillin but no result
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Toufouti,
You can wash with a detergent and then concentrate the cells and inoculate in a new medium. This process will break up the mucilage and remove the attached bacteria.
Best regards,
Cihelio Amorim
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
5 answers
Hello, I am looking for some advice regarding choosing a direction for hypothesis/statistical testing for a multivariate analysis. I am interested in determining if there is relationship between cyanobacteria bloom frequency and wildfires. So, my dependent continuous variable is the amount of blooms detected, while I have both categorical (NLCD class) and quantitative (fire frequency, wind speed, temperature, etc) independent variables. I am now planning to do a PCA in order to reduce the dimensionality of all these variables, which may lead me to do a multiple regression.
I was wondering if there is another hypothesis test that I am missing regarding multivariate data that may have independent variables related to one another? (i.e fire frequency and area burned may be related). Someone has suggested me to look at a PERMANOVA, but I am not sure if that would be the other route I could take.
I am a novice in statistics, so I apologize if I said something incorrect and would appreciate any suggestions/advice.
Relevant answer
Answer
James R Knaub Thank you so much for the thorough answer, and I did look into the linked paper. Very informative and your help was much appreciated!
Austin Pearce Really cool link, will help a lot for any statistical analysis. Yeah when I did some simple regression relationships between fire freq. and burned area there appeared a limiting factor, which led to me having to integrate so many factors.
Andrew Paul McKenzie Pegman Thank you for the suggestion! Yeah I felt that the regression seemed almost redundant at that point, but wanted an outside opinion, much appreciated :)
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
9 answers
Who knows this organism? Species or at least organismic group. Photosynthetic and covering large water surfaces.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Gregor,
Sorry, it looks dissimilar with any Nostoc and Utricularia.
This net of folds and bubbles is formed from neuston film floating at the water surface and completely covering this puddle. Several groups of algae can be responsible for this pattern of this color, e.g. some Xanthophyceae, Chlorophyceae and even Euglenozoa. The color of this film is not so suitable for cyanobacteria, but it need to be checked with microscopy.
Anyway, this habit of water body indicates its highly eutrophic status and high content of biogens and probably labile organic matter.
The miscroscopy of this film is essential for further ID.
Best regards,
Roman
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
4 answers
I am looking for publications that show what the lower temperature threshold is for cyanobacterial growth. Does anyone know about publications on this?
Many thanks, Miguel
Relevant answer
Answer
Some cyanobacteria can grow in temperatures close to zero, like in ice surface and cold springs.
Cheers,
Cihelio
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
3 answers
My experiment aims to make spheroids by sacrificial micromolding technique.
I am following the easy protocol:
"...The PDMS stamps were deposited onto a 250 μl drop of 3% liquid agarose within the wells of a 24-well plate. Agarose gelation occurred within minutes of placing the 24-well plate at room temperature..." Karen E. Samy, 2019.
The PDMS stamp has pillars with 120 um in diameter and 80 um in height according to the article.
However, the problem is, that during pull out of the PDMS stamp the bottoms or walls of agarose microwells are somehow stuck on the pillars, and they are pulled out with them. So, instead of having nice microwells, there are cones made out of pulled microwells, and the cells can't get inside and form a spheroid.
I have tried 3% agarose (according to protocol), 5% agarose, different timing, place the stamps with agarose to fridge or freezer for 10 - 20 minutes, used plasma on PDMS stamps to make them more hydrophilic and all these combinations together.
I am running out of any other ideas. Does anybody know, what could help my situation?
Unfortunately, the corresponding author hadn't answered.
The photo of the "microwells" is attached. In this picture, you see two successful microwells and poorly done the rest of them.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello guys, thank you for your advice. However, it turns out that whole SU-8 wafer was made in the wrong way. There were missing another nanolayer of the certain chemical substance that makes it easy to remove PDMS from wells. In the first case, the residues of PDMS left in the holes. So now they adjust it and it is working well.
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
13 answers
I am confused about which culture will be best for the Cyanobacteria. There is no specific Cyanobacteria but as a whole. Please suggest.
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes BG11 is the preferred medium for cyanobacteria. But before focusing on the specific medium you need to focus on what cyanobacteria.
If your aim is to target a specific cyanobacterial group, for e,g., N2 fixers, then BG11 without Nitrate will be effective as it will limit the growth of other non-N2 fixing cyanobacteria. If your aim is to grow and study all (most of the) cyanobacterial species then one particular medium may not be effective as 1) due to competition for nutrients (depends on the growth rate, preference for provided nutrients) some of the species will dominate suppressing other groups. In this case, you may consider multiple media (with differing media compositions).
The media composition for cyanobacteria is almost similar to that of phytoplankton, so, most of the phytoplankton media will work for cyanobacteria (though media ingredient concentration will differ). I have personally used BG-11, SN, A+, F/2 media for marine cyanobacteria. If your aim is to focus on smaller cyanobacteria, then to remove higher plankton and other organisms, pre-filter your sample using an appropriate filter (3um).
it is highly recommended to use the same water (from where you collected the sample) for making media instead of distilled water (you need to filter the water and sterilize the media to avoid contamination) for growing/isolating aquatic cyanobacteria (not recommended for N2 fixers). This will add other nutrients, which may not be present in the employed media.
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
15 answers
I am trying to isolate cyanobacteria from soil and freshwater samples, but I have zero experience with them. They grow really slow on plates in colonies ranging from green to brown/black colour. The pictures I attach come from black/brown colonies in three different samples, although the green colours that can be seen in them are not represented in the colony colour. I can only differentiate diatoms in one of the pictures because they are easily distinguishable.
Could anyone with more experience tell me if they look like cyanobacteria? I am trying to obtain pure cultures but they tend to form diffuse colonies which usually overlap.
Any advice in any way will be deeply appreciated. Thank you in advance.
EDIT: Sorry if the quality of the pictures is not enough. I took them with my smartphone directly from an old microscope.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hola Jesús, my answers may come a little late, I´m sorry. I am very sure that the bluegreen cells in the picture "negra - marrón" are Pleurocapsa minor. However, I don´t know what the smaller purple cells might be. I guess it´s a different species or genus. I don´t know which one. But sure it is not a single-species colony but a mix of different species.
The picture called colonia negra to me seems a clean single-species colony. It might be Nostoc. or maybe some other genus of Nostocales.
The last picture, "S2", is a mix of (at least) two different species. The blue-green filaments might be Phormidium, or Oscillatoria, as suggested before. However I tend to think they might bei Geitlerinema. But that depends on the width of the filaments. Regarding the unicellular forms, I have no idea. Chroococcales for sure, but I couldn´t say which family or species.
You can download some information about freshwater abenthic lgae in streams and rivers in Germany here:
The text is in German, but the pictures speak for themselves. : )
best regards, Julia
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
1 answer
Hi there,
in an experiment I used a Cary-60 UV-Vis Spectrophotometer (Agilent Technologies) to collect UV-Vis reflectance spectra of cyanobacteria (~5µm cell diameter) on cellulose nitrate filters. I divided the cell spectra by the spectra of the filters without cells as a reference. Then I applied the Kubelka-Munk function F(R) on this reflectance spectra in order to obtain absorbance spectra.
Now, do the resulting values from F(R) in numbers really represent absorbance, so that it makes sense to include them in the axes of my graphs for my thesis? My values of reflectance were between 0.2 and 1 and the resulting F(R) values are between 0 and 1.4.
Here (http://www.uco.es/organiza/departamentos/decraf/pdf-edaf/DRS08.pdf) I have read that for Kubelka-Munk to apply the grain size should be large in comparison to the used wavelength (which is the case I guess, assuming I can use cell size as particle size?) and significant deviations occut at R<0.6 (my reflectance dips are <0.6 for the most part, which makes me unsecure). Also I don't know whether R would not change any more with making the cell layer on the filter or the filter itsself thicker.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Max, if you measure diffuse reflectance you must be aware of the fact that there is no analytical way to solve the inverse problem and gain the optical constants of your material(s) from the spectra. Applying Kubelka-Munk is an approximative way of solving this problem, but the absorbance you obtain by this procedure is certainly not the same as the one gained by a transmittance experiment. On the other hand, absorbance is nothing but an artificial quantity that somehow relies on the assumption that the Beer-Lambert law is applicable which is not a even a given in transmission experiments. E.g. even a thin homogeneous layer on an index matched substrate will follow in general the Beer-Lambert law. If you want to know more about the Beer-Lambert law, here is a review about it:
Concerning diffuse reflectance the reference about how to treat such spectra for me is still a book from the 60ies of the past century: https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783662282700
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
5 answers
Is there any difference in the life span of current variants of this evolutionarily ancient phototrophic bacteria and the pre-historic ones.?
Relevant answer
Answer
The life cycle under favorable conditions is 6-12 hours. Temperature is important. The lower it is, the longer the cycle. In laboratory conditions, I kept them at 100 C for 3 months.
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
2 answers
Hi,
I want to cultivate cyanobacteria in D2O to achieve a full exchange of H-atoms in the isolated proteins.
I never cultivated in D2O, so I'm looking for literature about it. Can you recommend me some papers/reviews? It does not need to be specifically about cyanobacteria; E. coli or others are fine as well. Hopefully, it will help me to avoid dying cultures and improve the growth rates.
Thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
REVIEW
Photobioreactor cultivation strategies for microalgae and cyanobacteria
Tylor J. Johnson Sarmila Katuwal Gary A. Anderson Liping Gu Ruanbao Zhou William R. GibbonsFirst published: 08 March 2018 https://doi.org/10.1002/btpr.2628
Abstract
The current burden on fossil‐derived chemicals and fuels combined with the rapidly increasing global population has led to a crucial need to develop renewable and sustainable sources of chemicals and biofuels. Photoautotrophic microorganisms, including cyanobacteria and microalgae, have garnered a great deal of attention for their capability to produce these chemicals from carbon dioxide, mineralized water, and solar energy. While there have been substantial amounts of research directed at scaling‐up production from these microorganisms, several factors have proven difficult to overcome, including high costs associated with cultivation, photobioreactor construction, and artificial lighting. Decreasing these costs will substantially increase the economic feasibility of these production processes. Thus, the purpose of this review is to describe various photobioreactor designs, and then provide an overview on lighting systems, mixing, gas transfer, and the hydrodynamics of bubbles. These factors must be considered when the goal of a production process is economic feasibility. Targets for improving microalgae and cyanobacteria cultivation media, including water reduction strategies will also be described. As fossil fuel reserves continue to be depleted and the world population continues to increase, it is imperative that renewable chemical and biofuel production processes be developed toward becoming economically feasible. Thus, it is essential that future research is directed toward improving these processes. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 34:811–827, 2018
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
5 answers
I'm trying to isolate cyanobacteria from fresh water and soil. I've plated several dilutions of my samples into BG11-agar plates and I have a mixture of green colonies/halos and brown stains which are diatoms.
The thing is that when I see the green colonies under the microscope, I see green round-shaped cells which could be unicellular cyanobacteria but also microalgae (they remind me of Chlorella, for instance - I've attached a picture). Could you tell me of any method to differentiate them? Is there any compound I can add to the medium in order to inhibit eukaryotic growth so I can make sure that my colonies are bacteria?
Thank you in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
Try adding cycloheximide.
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
7 answers
We plan to sample a lot of lakes one by one during several days, so we need something quick and reliable to characterize phytoplankton community.
Relevant answer
Answer
Long wish I could afford a fluoroprobe. I use the haemocytometer and differential interference contrast on the microscope. Thinking about whether I can use my vis-spectrometer (not UV, sadly) To do quick throughput of samples. Any thoughts?
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
3 answers
Which is one is better in between 16S rRNA and microsatellite phylogentic study?
Relevant answer
Answer
16s rRNA study
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
4 answers
I am looking for a cyanobacteria to be used in a toxicology assay on agricultural runoff. Preferably a single celled cyanobacteria with a large role in the nitrogen cycle that would survive in freshwater/ pond water and that would be easy to plate on solid media. I have a cultivation set up and plan to use BG-11 media and plates.  I have tried a few strains already but lately have been running into some issues and am looking to start over with something that may be a little closer to ideal.
Any and all suggestions would be appreciated.
Relevant answer
Answer
Good idea .
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
2 answers
Hi all!
I have sequenced a cyanobacteria genome by Illumina and I have mapped the reads to three closely related strains. In all the three, I extracted a consensus sequence, which I regard as a draft genome. Interestingly, in the three consensus sequences, gaps occur in different regions. I think that I can chop the sequences from one draft genome and fill in the gaps in the other provided that they in the same region, for example, in draft genome A the gap is from 1-200, while in B the region 1-200 is fully mapped. Is it possible to chop this sequence and fill the gap in A? If yes is there a quick and precise method or tool to do this? I am new to command line inter-phase, I usually use Unipro Ugene, but any advice from any approach will be helpful, I can find a way how to make use of it.
Relevant answer
Answer
You are joking right? I mean you can't be serious with what you just wrote in your question.
> If you want to fill the gap, design primers based on the flanking regions from the genome sequence you have, sequence the amplicons and try to resolve the gap.
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
4 answers
I want to analyse bio-compounds extracted from cyanobacteria using GCMS Shumadzu. The compounds were extracted by maceration and the methanol was used as the solvent. I would like to ask for assistance on the calibration/tuning of the equipment.
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
3 answers
Diazotrophs 'fix' atmospheric nitrogen into biologically available forms. In very general, non-technical terms, an over-abundance of these organic nitrogen forms within a soil beyond what biota in the soil metabolically require has been suggested to result in the increase of nitric acid in the soil. What I would be very interested in is if anyone has done work to help establish a rate of nitric acid production in response to this over abundance of organic nitrogen.
Cheers!
Eron
Relevant answer
Answer
I think yes...please do experiment
  • asked a question related to Cyanobacteria
Question
4 answers
Dear all,
I have some microalgae isolates that need to be identified and provided an accession number based on morphological attributes. Unfortunately, there are no repositories for microalgae in my country. Any ideas on where I can send my samples for this task please? Any suggestions are most welcome. Thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you everyone for your responses Nataliya Rybalka , Chita Ranjan Sahoo , Elaya Perumal Ulagalanthaperumal ! It is much appreciated.
I will take a look at the lists you all presented here.