Science topics: Current
Science topic

# Current - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Current, and find Current experts.
Questions related to Current
• asked a question related to Current
Question
we're using dual-chamber MFC in this project and connect it with multimeter (UNI-T, UT61E+ multimeter) to record the current reading (per minute) for 2 weeks. we didn't connect resistor to the circuit, so it would be hard to calculate the current if we use the multimeter to record the voltage. Plus, the current that we've obtained now only reach microampere, so I'm not sure if resistor is necessary here. Hence, we use the multimeter to only record the current, and use it to calculate the current density later. Can I do that?
Yes, current density = Measured Current/ Wire Cross section area. The multimeter should be of standard company with good accuracy….
• asked a question related to Current
Question
Please, how can I calculate the total current (or global i) from the capacitive cyclic voltammogram (CV curve as shown in the attached figure)?
Dear Fatsah.
Here is my last article. You can find how to calculate the capistance from CV
• asked a question related to Current
Question
Hello All
I have measured the corrosion current and corrosion rate through the Tafel polarisation three-electrode system.
Working electrode - mild steel, the counter electrode - graphite., reference electrode - SCE, Electrolyte - seawater.
The corrosion rate and corrosion currents are increased with the linear increase of operational current (instrument current range) from 10 nA to 1 A.
Please can anyone share the reason for this? and how do I fix the current range (e.g., 1 mA, 100 mA) for corrosion measurement?
Thanks
Vinooth.
I apologize but I can't understand your question easttamente; generally using the Tafel method, once the stability of the open circuit potential Eoc has been reached, the potential is changed (both in the cathodic and anodic sense, preferably with single measurements for the two polarizations, naturally on identical samples prepared for the same mode), recording the generated current density on a logarithmic scale. Then the data analysis is carried out ....
Occasionally problems may arise if we are dealing with particular materials or more banally "random" discrepancies from the normal operating protocol but, generally, this methodology is rather easy and reliable, especially if you work by comparison between different types of materials.
Allow me to suggest some documents that may be of help to you:
- Getting Started with Electrochemical Corrosion Measurement by Gamry
- Metrohm White Paper - Fundamentals of Electrochemical Corrosion Research by Metrohm
- Tafel Plot and Evans Diagram by Palmsens
but you can also find many others…
Good luck and my best regards, Pierluigi Traverso.
• asked a question related to Current
Question
Hello everyone, I want to use DHI Mike software to draw the ocean residual current field, but I don't know what the specific operation steps are, please kindly help me out, thank you.
Soroush Abolfathi Thank you very much for your help, but I can't find a clear method in the guide you recommended.  Good night !
• asked a question related to Current
Question
Good morning,
I would like to know if it is possible to add leakage current to the grid?
When I simulate a GaN HEMT, I have extremely low currents after the Vth (1e-14...). I would like to have more like 1e-5...
I use for that the command #SURF.REC E.TUNNEL BARRIER at the gate contact. Is it necessary to add particular models?
Nevertheless, I have big problems of convergences and also too much leakage current (1e-2...)
I specify that I use workfunctions at the drain/source and gate to simulate
Physically the leakage current is due to tunneling and surface conduction. It may be also due to weak thin oxide regions that may enter into early breakdown. You can consult the book S.M.Sze, the physics of semicondcutor devices. It treats in details the non ideal currents in the oxides and insulators. In the simulators there are built in models for such nonideal current. In order to use them elaborately you have to study them b referring to these models and their model parameters. It can be modeled also phenomenologically by assuming a nonlinear resistor with the characteristics I=KV ^n both n and k can be used to fit the measures curves.
Best wishes
• asked a question related to Current
Question
In contrast to diodes (that maintain a relatively constant voltage when the current through them varies (https://www.researchgate.net/post/How_does_a_diode_maintain_a_constant_voltage), a fundamental property of all types of transistors (BJT, FET...) is to maintain a relatively constant current when the voltage across them varies. How do they do that?
As in the case of diodes, this question can be answered specifically by considering the processes in the semiconductor device. But again it would be interesting to explain this on a conceptual level by revealing the basic idea. As I have already said, this "philosophical" approach has several advantages: first, it does not require in-depth knowledge of semiconductor devices; second, it would be applicable to all 2-terminal devices that have this property. I will do this using the concept of "dynamic resistance".
Generally speaking, a transistor behaves like a resistor that interferes with current creating a voltage drop and heat loss. In the initial steep part of its output IV curve, this "resistor" has a relatively constant low resistance. And if it was really a resistor, the curve would continue in the same direction.
However, when the current threshold of the respective transistor is reached (set by the base-emitter voltage or current), the curve changes its slope and becomes almost horizontal. The voltage continues to change but the current stops changing. Why? Here is my simple explanation…
When the voltage V increases, the transistor also increases its static resistance R with the same rate of change. So, the current through the transistor I = V/R does not change.
This is a simple arithmetic trick where we change the numerator and denominator of a fraction in the same direction and with the same rate of change; as a result, the quotient of the division does not change (see the attached picture).
Thus, by changing its resistance in the same direction with the current, this "dynamic resistor" maintains a constant current. This clever "transistor trick" can be graphically illustrated (https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Circuit_Idea/Group_67b#A_transistor_acting_as_a_current-stable_resistor) - see the second attached picture below.
Tomorrow I have an online exercise on Semiconductor Devices with my students of group 48b, ITI, FCST of Technical University of Sofia, that is about transistor applications. Maybe I will illustrate to them this viewpoint by means of ZOOM pen drawing moving IV curves. And again, to get the attention of my students, I would tell them another fun story - that I could mimic any transistor they wanted with just a variable resistor ("potentiometer")... and that if I hid in a big box, they would think that there is a transistor inside:-)
The next day... Done! Here is a part of the video record (https://photos.app.goo.gl/EqonSNBjzT6Cw2Dj7, in Bulgarian) and the attached screenshot.
It would be interesting for me to know your opinion on my explanation.
Cyril Mechkov if you're just looking at the saturation part of the transistor an ideal transistor would saturate and this is due to the semiconductor junctions in the device. In the case of a FET pinchoff will occur and then the carriers are swept across the electric field at the drain end. This is why the current is constant. In a practical device there is some channel length modulation that makes current increase at increased VD.
• asked a question related to Current
Question
I am not been able to differentiate between two quantities in the context of BJT.
These two quantities are: Is and Icbo.
According to Sedra Smith, Icbo is the collector base reverse current. Whereas Is is the saturation or scale current.
I have been wondering are these two quantities same or share some relation between them because I find the name for both these quantities being used inter-changeably at many places which is quite confusing and I believe they are not the same.
Also, I am confused which current is being referred to when on Internet I find the term "reverse saturation current". Searching on Internet the term "reverse saturation current" gives two kinds of sources: one referring it as Is and the other referring it as Icbo. Another similar quantity is Iceo.
Please see attached images for equations.
Reverse saturation current terminology is generally used in diode whereas leakage current is used in BJT. But both are more or less indicates the same quantity, i.e leakage current and reverse saturation current is flowing due to the minority carriers.
• asked a question related to Current
Question
Dear scientific colleagues,
I consulted an article on IEEE Chakrabarti, A. Krier and A. F. Morgan, "Analysis and simulation of a mid-infrared P/sup +/-InAs/sub 0.55/Sb/sub 0.15/P/sub 0.30//n/sup 0/-InAs/sub 0.89/Sb/sub 0.11//N/sup +/-InAs/sub 0.55/Sb/sub 0.15/P/sub 0.30/ double heterojunction photodetector grown by LPE," in IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 50, no. 10, pp. 2049-2058, Oct. 2003, doi: 10.1109/TED.2003.815604.
I would like to know, how or under what basis the equations 26a, 26b, 26c and 267 were established, to calculate the current. Kindly help
You can understand the group of equations belonging to the boundary conditions of the p+ emitter region with a thickness of t, and also of the neutral region of the n^0 boundary condition. The basic idea in the solution that one has p+ n-n+ hetero diode. One main p-n junction and one low high junction n-n+.
A space charge region will be formed around the x=t. The thickness of this region in the p-side is xp and in the n-side is xn. So there will be a quasi neutral region at the left side of this junction and also there will a neutral region in n^0 side. Th concentration of the minority carrier an non equilibrium of the both regions are np and pn respectively.
at x=0 and at x= t+d yio have a recombination interface.
Also zero bias is assumed.
So, in order to understand the relations 26 you have to refer to Fig 1 and my explanations.
The solution is similar to homojunctions.
Best wishes
• asked a question related to Current
Question
When we look for a marker or an antibody to incubate or to use in electrophoresis or western, we need to look at some requirements before its use. Apart from the MW requirements, what else do you need to look at? (Is it the same in the case of an antibody for incubation?). What do you do with them? How to use the information contained in them? Is there anything you need to discard where to look?
You're welcome Mª Angeles Zorrilla Lopez-Perea.
• asked a question related to Current
Question
do I include any leakage current model in order to obtain leakage current
I agree with you Ali Houadef sir.
• asked a question related to Current
Question
And why does it matter? The intrinsic combination of ambi-polar device give can enhance on-to-off current ratio.
High ION/IOFF ratio can be utilised in digital applications. More the ratio, more it is suitable for digital applications.
• asked a question related to Current
Question
When you apply an electricidad current to the electrophoresis you need to bare in mind the voltage is spread evenly between the two sides. There must be enough for both. Is it more than just half or double? When you do not apply half?
the fixed voltage is physically more appropriate in electrophoresis experiments. Speaking about values, the rule of thumb developed ages ago is simple: use 10 to 15 V per cm of your gel. This gives about 100 V for small gels and up to 300 V for big ones.
• asked a question related to Current
Question
Please suggest the some methods to collect data from Internet or other sources through which I can collect data for Regional Research Study.
Dear Mr. Rasheed!
This is an interesting and relevant point. I consider you refer to international scale of study. I am from Hungary, living in Finland so I looked up research focusing on Europe - I take a case-study approach: COVID-19 . Please see the methodology-sections:
1) Flaxman, S., Mishra, S., Gandy, A. et al. Estimating the effects of non-pharmaceutical interventions on COVID-19 in Europe. Nature 584, 257–261 (2020), Open Access © 2020 Springer Nature Limited Available at:
2) Engin Karadag (2020). Increase in COVID‐19 cases and case‐fatality and case‐recovery rates in Europe: A cross‐temporal meta‐analysis, Journal of Medical Virology, Volume 92, Issue 9 September 2020, Open Access © 2020 Wiley Periodicals LLC Available at:
This paper focuses on different levels at the same time:
Andrew Clark PhD et al. (2020). Global, regional, and national estimates of the population at increased risk of severe COVID-19 due to underlying health conditions in 2020: a modelling study, The Lancet Global Health, Volume 8, Issue 8, August 2020, Pages e1003-e1017 Open Access © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. Available at:
Yours sincerely, Bulcsu Szekely
• asked a question related to Current
Question
Is it possible to find current conductivity of a molecule using gaussian software? The molecule was experimentally proved to be conducting. If it is possible to find, how can we done that?
How we can calculate thermoelectric properties using gaussian 09 only?
• asked a question related to Current
Question
For example, if the duty cycle is 50%, does average current reduced to 50%?
I don't think the Joerg Fricke's answer is right as to the b) example. when driving a fast vehicle on a horizontal plane , then 50% of voltage not must results in 50% of speed . Generally the speed is a bit more than 50% of the original speed .
• asked a question related to Current
Question
We know that by drawing a magnet close to a closed circular circuit, a current in the circuit is induced. Why? (I don't mean the mathematical description or the law of Faraday's induction, what is the cause of physics? What causes electrons to move?)
Answer : As the magnet approaches the ring, the distribution of the magnetic field around the ring changes. Changing the distribution of the magnetic field around the ring leads to the generation of an electric field (on the ring plate). This electric field can change the distribution of ring electrons. Changing the electrons of the ring can create an induced potential in the ring circuit. The induced potential generated in the circuit circuit generates the induced electric current in the circuit circuit. (You can track the appropriate calculations from Maxwell's equations (especially the third and fourth equations)) Hope you got the answer right.
• asked a question related to Current
Question
Anyone knows the practical applications where nanofluids are currently being used. Many researchers have reported enhancement in heat transfer with nanofluid. But, nanofluids are currently being used for any practical applications?
Follow
• asked a question related to Current
Question
we have a double-chambered MFC that produced an OCV that reached 220 mV in 1 h, and was getting higher. after 24 hours the OCV dropped down, and I don't know why.
I want to measure the generated current first to plot the I-V curve, then the power density curve.
1. Is the OCV drop because we didn't use an external resistance? when should we start applying it to the MFC? can someone explain it in details please.
2. How to decide whether to use a fixed resistance over time, or to use a range of different resistances to carry out these measurements (I-V Curve, Power density Curve)?
I'm using a digital Multimeter for recording Voltage across either fixed or varied resistors.
Dear Nedan,
The drop in voltage during the OCV evolution is due to the fact that the substrate is depleting. The substrate, such as organic compounds, has been utilized by the microbes to generate electricity in MFCs. Hence, if you are using a bioelectrochemical system in a batch mode, I strongly recommend you to perform feed (substrate) injection until two sequential equal peaks in voltage are obtained. Depending on the experiment, It is impossible to say the exact time for achieving two consecutive equal peaks in voltage (It may take several days to several months).
Variable external resistances are suggested to obtain polarization and power density curves.
Best Regards,
• asked a question related to Current
Question
Does any experienced such strange I overloads with Gamry 1010E (potentiostat is grounded), with cyclic polarization using Corrosion softver. Please see attached figure. Is there any solution to this problem?
Even the Gamry 1010 E has nominal current ranges 9 (10 nA - 1 A) , 10 nA ranges start from 1 to 10 nA. In some corrosion experiments (cyclic polarization) with stainless steel in a regular cell in 1 M H2SO4, I now obtained with Gamry a few points even in the range of 10-100 pA.
• asked a question related to Current
Question
Hello,
I am using a BLDC motor and I am controlling it with Field Oriented Control method.
I would like to tune my PI current and PID speed control loops but I don't know how.
Could you explain me how to do it or give me some links which could help me?
I have already searched but I am a bit lost.
• asked a question related to Current
Question
In an expression of apparent power (S= VI*), why is conjugate of current considered?
The conjugate of the current is used to calculate the correct phase difference between the voltage phasor and the current phasor.
• asked a question related to Current
Question
The wire/cable in my chamber (for protein electrophoresis) was cut in half. I tried to re-join it by knotting the two ends. But the current still run unevenly among running wells.
I want to ask "what is the material makes up the wire/cable?" so that I can try to weld it. The brand of the chamber is Biorad.
I would appreciate any other suggestions to repair the wire/cable.
Thank you so much!
The thin platinum wire is very brittle and snaps easily. It is very hard to work with. If you try to weld it, the solder will probably corrode from the electrical current. Platinum is used because it is virtually inert and can stand up to having current run through it without corroding. I suggest you send the gel box back to the manufacturer for repair, if they offer that service.
• asked a question related to Current
Question
Can we measure currents of nano or pico amperes range reliably because I assume that normal lab multimeters won't work in this case because of their high internal resistances and noise. We get these low current values in simulation though but I couldn't figure out any method to measure such low current values using any instrument or any other method.
It depends on many factors, but generally such currents (e.g. a few pA from photodiode) can be measured.Sometimes even fA.
1. 'Cheap, quick and dirty': decent usual DMM multimeter has 10Mohm or so of input resistance in voltage mode. That means 1nA forced through it will be seen as 10mV.
2. Advanced specialized low current meters and electrometers like e.g. Keithley 6430 which has +-1pA at the lowest range:
3. You can assemble amplifier circuitry using electrometric opamp like
and e.g. 10 Gohm feedback resistor.
• asked a question related to Current
Question
I have design the system in Matlab simulink, but when i start the current injection in the grid, my Source current become doubled also load current become less. I dont know this is active filtering or not.
Second, I am confuse about the PCC, when we inject current why the amplitude of the Source current changes,
Third, Can i keep the Vdc voltage of the capacitor initial voltage constant before start the simulation.
Your reference current generation is wrong
• asked a question related to Current
Question
I would like to understand why if the secondary of a transformer is short circuited the primary winding will also reflect the short circuit despite the fact that they are isolated. Would the electromagnetic flux through the core be increased with a short circuit on the secondary? If the secondary is shorted I guess it would be as if no turns were present, there's no voltage difference. How would that draw more current from the supply at which the primary is connected?
Hi Victor,
as long as the secondary coil is open (no current) and the primary coil is connected to an AC voltage, the magnetic flux will change in such a way that the voltage induced in the primary coil according to curl E = -d B / d t nearly equals the amount of the external AC voltage, but points in the opposite direction. The remaining small voltage difference causes the current through the (resistive) primary coil which in turn causes the flux.
In a rough approximation you can assume the both coils are perfectly coupled, i. e. both are pervaded by the same flux, and as a consequence, the induced voltage per turn is the same in both.
If the secondary coil is shorted, the current in this coil is so directed that it opposes a change of the flux. Therefore the variation of the flux is much smaller, and so is the induced voltage in the primary coil. So, the difference between external voltage and induced voltage is much larger, and so is the primary current.
To look at it from another perspective: The shortened coil will be heated by the large current, and the electrical power turned into heat has to be delivered from the external voltage source; so, the primary current must increase.
• asked a question related to Current
Question
For example a bipolar PNP diode without base electrode, if we sweep the bias from negative bias to positive bias, will this kind of device have current rectifying ability, why ? thanks!
Assuming that both PN junction diodes are identical, the current flow is mainly generated from thermionic emmission and the measurement is conducted in dark. Then, the only current would pass in both negative and positive voltage sweeping is the dark saturation current
• asked a question related to Current
Question
The step is essential for further PIXEL calculations.
Dear Sanyal
The correct input file of G09 to create .den file use the following input
#MP2/6-31G** guess=core nosym density=MP2 pop=esp cube=cards cube=frozencore
Regards
Anil
• asked a question related to Current
Question
I am doing some corrosion study. For one of my sample I got corrosion potential 115 mv and corrosion current density 0.33 u A/cm^2, respectively, for same amout of exposure to 5% NaCl solution. According to ASTM C876 the threshold value for corrosion potential is 270 mv. And for corrosion current density it is 0.30 u A/cm^2. Which value should i consider as the sample is corroded as per corrosion current density threshold value but it is not corroded as per corrosion potential threshold value. I am a new researcher in this area. So, any help in this regard will be appreciated.
The corrosion current density proved the corrosion activity on the steel substrate. In all papers the performance evaluated via icorr.
• asked a question related to Current
Question
I'm planning to do research in area of vibrations. I want to know the gaps currently and do my bit too bridge those gaps.
GAPS EXIST IN SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES.
• asked a question related to Current
Question
I am using LiFePO4 battery, I measured DCIR using the discharge pulse. I found that the measured value of DCIR changes with respect to both pulse current and SOC. I provided adequate rest period before the pulse and after.
I dont understand the following behaviour. Could anyone give some hints to understand?
1. Why DCIR values are high at both low SOC (<30%) and high SOC (>90%)? I assume that the high resistance in low SOC is due to lower lithium concentration. What about high SOC?
2. Why DCIR value changes with pulse current? is it an error? Duration of the pulse, temperature remains the same.
1. DCIR values (for LFP electrodes, LixFePO4), are high at both low SOC (~0%, Limx=1) and high SOC (~100%, Limx=0), because both (pure) cath. electrode materials "LiFePO4" and "FePO4" are common stoichiometric[1] insulators, for both the mixed carriers : Li+ and e- . 2. Yes, DCIR value changes (increases) with pulse current value; it is not an error; both the carriers : Li+ and e-, are correlated with the LFP-grain's mechanical stress; this electrochemically induced mechanical stress increases along with Li-gradient, due to high(er) current pulses. Very high charge (and current) pulses might form (inside a grain) a textured locus of local stoichiometric insulators. Extremely high charge (and current) pulses might transform the open locus into closed textured locus e.g. internal islands of stress; this island results towards loosing, island by island, piece by piece, a single grain's activity. Upon cycling, and aging, we might loose, not only partially, but fully, "this" aged grain, resulting to an inactive "grain"; so, we have a grain detached from the (macroscopic) LFP electrode; this a model illuminating how a (microscopic) "grain by grain" loss results into the (macroscopic active) material's progressive loss. 1. This is why we can form this stable (stoichiometric-LFP) electrode (not the LFP-battery) in a dry room.
• asked a question related to Current
Question
I am using potentiostat (CHI 660) to perform tafel analysis in three electrode mode, which can provide tafel slope for both electrodes and intercepts and corrosion current. There are different equations for determining (i.) exchange current density , however the simplified equation (attached) contain activation over potential or number of electrons (n). how to calculate these two parameters and exchange current density. The condition are double chamber fuel cell.
Dear Jafar,
the Tafel line is a straight line of the polarization curve in E-log(j) plot E = n+Er, where n is the overpotential and Er reversible electrode potential. So by extrapolating Tafel line to Er or n the current is exchange current, see attached graph
Gretings
• asked a question related to Current
Question
Hello
I would like to measure electrical conductivity (resistivity) of electrospun fibermat of a polymer.
I know that:
Knowing the thickness of the fibermat, one should be able to apply it in the conventional test. Through this measurement, one can calculate conductivity through a correction factor by measuring the voltage and knowing the current applied.
The problem is:
Even when the lowest current value (2 nA) is applied, the instrument does not show enough stability of the current flow, and no voltage reading will be obtained.
What should I do?
I think the 4-point probe method is supposed to apply to semiconductor and non-conductor materials as well.
Does changing compliance help?
I am using one Keithley instrument as my current source and another one to read the voltage.
You mention compliance - is this light flashing on the keithley current source? If so it means it can't supply the current you select with the given voltage compliance. On a Keithley, the compliance setting is a safety to limit the maximum voltage it will go to, to drive the current. For sure if it is flashing (depends on keithley model how it tells you), i.e. you are out of compliance then you don't have the 2nA as it can't supply the voltage required to get there. You can increase this compliance voltage to the max your device / safety can allow and then try.
• asked a question related to Current
Question
Hello! When I take the profiles of diffraction patterns from TEM images the minimum value at axis Y is at -Y, which really affects my results. (I have attached a picture which shows the above.)
Is there a technique I could use with Gatan so I can shift my results so the minimum point is at 0 on the Y axis? Or when I add two or more profiles together to compare them, they all start from the same point?
maybe it will be good to use correlation CORR or XCORR functions to compare the signals
• asked a question related to Current
Question
I’m currently working with those two vectors and need to check them via PCR, but I’ve been unable to find their sequences online so far. If anybody has them I would be really grateful if you can send them to me or direct me to an online source.
I'm also looking for the maps of exactly these two vectors. It seems people don't bother sequencing vectors, used 30 years ago, and just still use them like that, which makes no sense to me, but... Anna, have you managed to obtain them? I'd be happy if you can share them with me!
Thank you!
• asked a question related to Current
Question
What is the maximum distance of the conductor to transfer voltage and current from other conductor?
Theoretically, there is no maximum distance limit; however, the magnetic field decays to levels at which the mutual induction or coupling becomes very small to be considered. The corresponding value depends on quantities such as the value of the current flow. Therefore, there is no a specific general maximum distance.
• asked a question related to Current
Question
Hi colleagues,
What is the effect of increasing temperature in induction motor coil on the output current? Is a math formula can describe this relation?
thanks.
It depends on the used control method. in V/F control, increasing the coil temperature will have no effect on control performance, but the rated motor power/current will be reduced. On the other hand, if the motor is controlled by vector control, the control algorithm will be affected as the orientation will be deviated. The calculated motor torque will be wrong and as a consequence, the motor dynamic performance will be slower. Therefore, most of industrial type drives are equipped with an algorithm to tune the motor resistance parameter by a direct motor winding temperature measurement using a PTC temperature sensor.
• asked a question related to Current
Question
Anyone wants to cite their 'social entrepreneurship' paper in a detailed review paper currently in progress? Please share your paper/link. Social entrepreneurship papers specifically on emerging economies are requested.
Hello Professor Bhowmick,
I would request you to kindly elaborate the question.
Thanks and Regards,
Subhanjan
• asked a question related to Current
Question
how & why a reverse current occur in a circuit? what are the advantages & disadvantages of the current?
With respect to neutral(ground) at zero potential....
• asked a question related to Current
Question
I am trying to control the speed and armature current of a shunt dc motor block in simulink, I am using one pi controller in the outer speed loop and the other pi controller in the inner armature current loop.
But I don't want to change the parameters of the pi controllers manually again and again. I want to use particle swarm optimization(p.S.O.) to do it, so that I can get optimal response.
Please suggest some papers or simulation files that probably include similar work.
Follow this publication, actually controller gain tunning can be converted into the error minimization or optimization problem/ first you have to develop an understanding that how you can call a simulink model in an optimization routine. i hope this link may be helpful
• asked a question related to Current
Question
I have a set of discharge current pulse values (Voltage vs Time) as well as Impedance Spectroscopy data of Li-ion battery. How could I transfer these pulses to frequency domain and fit with other impedance data. Any reference, papers, procedure will be very useful. At the end, I wanted to compare these results. Thanks
Hi,
Wish you luck
• asked a question related to Current
Question
Dear all, i'm currently trying to make a survey to study the perception that have customers about labelled terroir products and i need help, could any one of you suggest me some relevant articles that will help me make a good survey. Thank you in advance
Dear Bouchra El Bakkouri,
I generally agree with the information provided by Chung-San Yu.   However, I would add the following caveats that may be of assistance:
(1)   Specifically separate your data collection into perception and cognition levels, and then make sure that you also capture appropriate demographic information to separate aspects of causation for effects.   Each of these aspects is outlined in the following points.
(2)   Perception.   Remember that some aspects of perception are virtually universal, so you need to separate these out.   For example, ask questions about physical aspects such as look (e.g. salience), touch, smell, etc. (as appropriate).   Remember to keep these questions simple and to the point without blurring the lines into cognition (see below).   As an example, ask things like 'did the packaging catch your eye', or 'did you like the feel of the packaging', etc.   The key at this level is to seek the most basic sensory information, without getting the subjects to jump into cognitive aspects too early.
(3)  Cognition.   Remember that cognition is much more than just the basic perception of the products.   This is where you will need to identify whether the mixing of percepts (e.g. basic perceptual units) and the viewer's knowledge will be important.   You can delve into these aspects by asking questions like 'what did you think about'.
(4)  This separation within the preceding two points will not necessarily get complete segregation of effects, but if you are doing a survey and your questions are specifically designed to align to an analysis of your hypothesis/hypotheses this approach is likely to give you the most helpful solution.   You can also help to control variability by utilising saccade tracking information to gain insights into the perceptual level for visual tracking.   This can be very important, because the order of processing can have a profound effect on higher order processes (e.g. cognition).
(5)  In your survey try to avoid utilising binary questions (e.g. yes/no), and develop each question so they can be answered in terms of a Likert Scale.   This will give you much greater granularity of the resulting data, so you can draw more fundamental conclusions from the results.
(6)   Demographics.  Finally, make sure that your questionnaire captures key demographic information that will be pertinent to the investigation of the hypothesis.   These data should then be utilised as independent variables that can be assessed in relation to the dependent variable/s you are investigating.
I hope that this information will be of assistance.
• asked a question related to Current
Question
I have synthesized Co9S8/graphene nancomposite. I have measured CV of nanocomposites using three-electrode method in 6 M KOH. But I am getting very very low current and hence the Cs value. Also, I am not getting any pseudo peak of Co9S8 also. Do I need to change the electrolyte?? Please suggest.
In other research articles, authors synthesize electrode material with different techniques. So, the morphology, surface area, porosity of the materials are different for each though the active material is same. So, favourable electrolyte for the same material synthesized by others can be different, concentration too. You should go for all the electrolyte variation, and pick the best one. then concentration as I've done in my publications. that's the standard method.
check the electrolyte and then concentration, may be you can get higher capacitance. and getting low capacitance is not the issue. Journals mainly prefer ur novel ideas and concepts, not high/low value. I have attached some papers. Authors report current value in µA, and published in higher impact journals.
so, forget about others. Do your own experimental variations and report ur results.
• asked a question related to Current
Question
To improve upon the existing SL Z source topologies (which are an improvement over classical zsource inverters but still possess inrush currents !!)and the existing soft start methodologies so that the inrush currents in the inductors at starting can be minimized in a contemporay z source inverter based ev drive .is it a potential problm for research ?? kindly give your valuable inputs .
yes
• asked a question related to Current
Question
continues..
• asked a question related to Current
Question
As far as I know all countries are currently experiencing gerontogrowth, but not all countries are experiencing population aging. This is the case of Mozambique. Is there anybody investing this difference, besides obviously Gérard- François Dumond, as I acknowledge in a recente paper? see: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1V4z3,oK5hcTAi
Hello António Alberto da Silva Francisco
• asked a question related to Current
Question
I'm looking for information about current tendencies in matter or Good Practices for the research stage of projects.
The good Practices for research depend of target or aim. The best way is to solidify theorical knowledge before beguin, find a hot topic reading some papers, do what you like, verify if you have all material
• asked a question related to Current
Question
I am studying the Oxygen reduction reaction so i want to know that why reduction start from single point and then current goes on increasing as rotation increases.
When at low ORR overpotentials, the reaction is controlled by the kinetics instead of mass-transfer. Therefore the increasing rotational speed, of which the purpose is to enhance the mass-transfer, has no effect on the catalytic performance, and all the RDE voltammograms start from the same point and may overlap within a narrow potential range near that point. As the overpotential goes higher, the ORR catalytic perforamnce is gradually limited by mass-transfer (i.e. oxygen diffusion to reach the electrode surface); thus the higher the rotational speed is, the higher the diffusion limiting current is.
• asked a question related to Current
Question
What can best be used (Voltage, Current, etc.) to forecast harmonics?
It is firmly dependent on your system. If you have a large number of the inductor in the system the current would not help you to consider the current harmonic for your aim. In contrast, if you have filter capacitors in the system, voltage feedback cannot help you to follow the system harmonic. Therefore, your sensor location is so important to forecast harmonics by prediction algorithms. It seems better to use a current sensor in series with the capacitor filter to analyze the voltage harmonics in a system.
• asked a question related to Current
Question
I am doing research involving an online undergraduate-level introductory statistics course. The majority of our students are returning adults. It's been a few years since I've done any work in the field of adult education. What are currently the major theories that are being applied?  When I was in graduate school Knowles' andragogical theory seemed to be big, but I'm not sure if that it still the case.
good greeting:
Adult education is a type of education characterized by four characteristics:
1 - It is voluntary, organized by the learners of their own choice, it is in most countries of the world is not mandatory, and the experience of many countries to the failure to impose and impose sanctions in adult education.
2. It is an education in which the regularists are not fully discharged; they organize for some time.
3. It is an education organized and funded by various institutions, governmental and non-governmental.
4 - It is an education in which it is organized beyond the age of basic compulsory education, and within the framework of this education, illiteracy education literacy and numeracy.
Adult education patterns vary according to the following considerations:
1. The level of individuals or groups that serve them. These categories begin with children who have not been accommodated by schools in compulsory education, who have dropped out of primary education after joining them for various reasons, or illiterate persons who have missed educational opportunities. These categories are then expanded to include those who are involved in vocational training programs, and employees in different sectors of employment, in the form of programs for revitalization, renewal or transfer training. This vertical division ends with those who enroll in graduate programs.
2. The needs of the groups it serves may be a literacy and numeracy program, health awareness, agricultural extension, maternity or childhood care, building skills training or nursing skills, and may be a social program intended to raise social awareness To individuals, and motivate them to participate in improving conditions at the workplace, in the family or in society at large.
3 - In accordance with the quality of the institutions and services that provide services; where we find a large number of institutions, adult education is its main task, or part of its core functions, and enters into these institutions: departments of community service in universities, vocational training departments in various ministries (defense, , Agriculture, social affairs, industry), training centers in industrial and commercial enterprises, labor universities, labor culture institutions, trade unions, and popular institutions such as charities and child and mothercare centers.
Objectives and functions:
The objectives of adult education and its functions vary according to the political, historical, economic, cultural, educational and technical conditions that exist in each society and according to the future aspirations of individuals. The society aspires to achieve them in various professions, jobs and trades. This means that there are no agreed goals and functions for adult education. However, a review of modern literature in adult education points to three basic functions that adults must undertake in any location and in any field:
1. Self-criticism, in the sense that adult education goes to those who organize it, to know the strengths and weaknesses in the performance of his role, in the family, in the workplace, and in society.
2. Self-management, in the sense that adult education provides the people with knowledge and skills, the type of relationships with the self and with others, and with the tools and devices that enable them to perform the roles assigned to them in a way that belongs to them and to the group they work with. The benefits they had achieved before the program, and carry out their tasks with self-motivation, based on understanding and trying to improve self.
3. Self-preservation in a social context. In the sense that the great knows his duties and seeks to perform them, and knows his rights and the rights of others, he is keen to meet them by means of legitimate democracy, which helped him to maintain his individual and social self.
With regard to this complex mixture of adult education patterns, it is difficult to talk about specific approaches to adult education, because of the different groups in which they are organized, the different programs directed to them, whatever category of adult education is directed, and the different programs, Any adult education entrance must meet the following requirements:
1. The design of the program, the identification of its contents and the selection of means of delivery shall take into account the impact of mental and social maturity and previous experiences of adults. Therefore, those who transfer knowledge and methods of education in the field of education of young people to the field of adult education make a grave error of adults bored, and push them to drop out of education.
2. The program should establish in its objectives, contents and procedures a documented knowledge of the needs of learners: cognitive, emotional, and social skills, and that the program aims to satisfy adult tendencies, respond to their concerns, strengthen their positive perception of themselves and focus on the strengths of the learners rather than on the manifestations of disability and inadequacy. They have.
3. At the beginning of the program, adults feel that they are achieving immediate and immediate goals. It may be useful in educating the illiterate - for example in the first meetings of the program - to teach them how to write their names. Short and multiple, success in the early stages of the success to greater and deeper in the next stages.
4 - Adopt in the education of adults to exploit their mental and social potential, and their experience in life and work, and this requires that the essence of education on the actual activity of adults in learning, which means that the program is flexible, and not imposed on them, Depending on feedback from adult views and their practice in learning.
The choice of the way in which adults are taught depends on the goals and contents of education, the cognitive, cultural, social, occupational and psychological levels of adults.
• asked a question related to Current
Question
Studying the yearly load growth in radial distribution system system require realizing the  maximum allowable currents in distribution networks to determine the maximum  load growth rates?
thanks a lot Dr. Muthanna Al-Sarray
• asked a question related to Current
Question
I am currently working with GSOD Temperature time series analysis using R. I would like to ask suggestion on how to analysis temperature anomalies
You are welcome.  Good luck.
• asked a question related to Current
Question
I am researching on the rise of psychological assessments. Looking for any relevant statistics based on credible research regarding the same. Would like to understand what the current usage of assessments are, what are they mostly used for, what kind of assessments are most popular, etc.
You could consider to follow the journal Psychological Assessment (http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/pas/). You will find many answers here.
• asked a question related to Current
Question
I initially used the landsat gapfil extension in a different system and filled gaps, but the extension is not working on my current system. And I could not get a different data to mosaic and fill the gaps. Please help
Thanks in anticipation
To complement Pete's answer, this article was published later and provides an updated approach based on geostatistics:
The IDL codes for those algorithms are provided here:
And here you can find an R package that interfaces the IDL code as well as most Landsat preprocessing steps:
• asked a question related to Current
Question
Dear Sir,
Can you please tell me how to calculate power in watt from voltampere (VA)in Alternate current supply. Are we really need to power factor or can we just use Watt= volt* ampere.
The major amount of power consumed by a magnetic stirrer is for heating, as the heating elements consists of only pure resistance, the operating power factor can be taken as one and hence the power consumed will be P=V*I*(1) watts.
• asked a question related to Current
Question
In most of the voltage control loop applications, the input variables to a PI controller are reference voltage and actual voltage and the output is usually a current signal. How the controller converts the difference of two voltage signals to current signal?
• asked a question related to Current
Question
how i can solve the error:the selected primary  variable is not avvailable in the current frame in the abaqus
hi Leila
this error could be due to divergence or very slow convergence or using user subroutine UMAT with some mistakes.
regards
• asked a question related to Current
Question
Hello everyone,
I have a little question regarding the current distribution over a slot antenna.
if I want to reverse the current direction over a certain location on a slot antenna, how can we do that?
If i increased the metal strip by half wavelength then the size would become large, the slot is very good option bu what the shape do you think that realize current reversing?
I'm thinking about introducing a short-circuited TL at the desired location to reflect current by 180degree, but the problem is how to introduce such short circuit on a CPW configuration!!!!
• asked a question related to Current
Question
Edge diffusion, anodic and cathodic currents, limiting current conditions
Ferrocene in Acetonitrile solution. But why would the basic physics of edge diffusion change with the electrolyte?
• asked a question related to Current
Question
i am currently working on job performance of on-campus college working students. so far most of the researches available are into academic performance. any related literature that deals with such a concern would definitely be appreciated. thank you.
Thank you for the response. Great help!
• asked a question related to Current
Question
I am trying to measure the velocity of flow around the oyster farm.
depth of wáter is around 70cm or less.
I used every current meter from my lab.
one was i shouldn't stand near it and other one wasn't for ocean...
I think that you could get useful data from one or more drogues, with the investigator in a kayak with GPS.  You can use a large watermelon as a drogue; its diameter will be a significant fraction of the 70-cm depth.  You can attach enough weight at one end of the watermelon to make it float long-end-down.  Attach small flags of different colors to identify individual drogues.  To take a position reading, stealthily get the kayak close to a drogue and obtain time and horizontal position over the course of a passage through or past the oyster farm.  Repeat as needed for a variety of tide phases or current strengths.
• asked a question related to Current
Question
Transportation geography has undergone various developments since the mid-20th century, but does its traditional definition correspond to the current era? So what is the problem? and What definitions can be proposed?
I do not believe. Things are pretty clear.
• asked a question related to Current
Question
What are the current hot topics in robotics? looking forward to your suggestions
Best Regards
Few research avenues (randomly listed) for a CS guy,
- SLAM (Simultaneous Localization & Mapping)
- Navigation, path planning & collision avoidance algos. for Wheeled Mobile Robots (WMRs)
- Artificial Neural Network (ANN)/Artificial Intelligence (AI) based control strategies for robotic manipulators
- Modelling & Simulation side of humanoid robots (e.g. their Balancing, Walking and most challenging running over an uneven terrain)
To have a flavor for novel and up-to-date research, I suggest to see the papers published in following conferences/Journals (particularly during the last 2-3 years)
- IEEE ICRA
- IEEE IROS
- IEEE Robotics Letters
- IEEE Transactions on Robotics, Mechatronics, Automatic Control, Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, ...
Where there is a will, there is a way :) I hope it helps. Good luck and Prayers.
• asked a question related to Current
Question
properties of condensing operators
thanks the chapter 2 of this book is good.
• asked a question related to Current
Question
map on the study area
Sustainable Use of Land and
Water under Rainfed and
Defi cit Irrigation Conditions in
Ogun-Osun River Basin, Nigeria
• asked a question related to Current
Question
Galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) results in the same ideal[1] capacity of a LIB. So, the (GITT-)capacity is the reference value for a new electrode system.
1. Capacity in GITT technique is (usually) the same,  independent from the rate.
• asked a question related to Current
Question
Deciduous trees has increase and waterfowl has decreased in an already considered dry area
I think it would be beneficial, to the extent of habitat heterogeneity. Higher biodiversity leads to greater stability of community structure.
• asked a question related to Current
Question
i want to know the latest or current issues in financial economics pertaining to sub-sahara African
The problem is not simply "foreign interventions" but military equipment that sustains African regimes that are unsavory.  Here is one example: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/two-thirds-of-african-countries-now-using-chinese-military-equipment-a6905286.html
• asked a question related to Current
Question
Hello, i need to replace the currente medium growth for haematoccus for one with N-organic and P-organic (no animal origin)...Some one to know a nutrient that i can try.?
thanks
thanks for your help Budolla and Jai...
Regards
• asked a question related to Current
Question
Currently, we are working on a moderated mediation model, and we want to test this model using smart-pls is it appropriate?
• asked a question related to Current
Question
I am trying to measure galvanostatic charge discharge of supercapacitors by electrochemical workstation. It has three options to measure GCD; based on potential/ charging time or both. Which one should I follow to get the capacitance from the graph? What should I put for discharging current?
you have to select based on E. you have to give the maximum and minimum E value for discharge and charge respectively. The current should be put depending on your active electrode amount. typically range from 1 A/g to 20 A/g. for eg if your electrode amount is 2 mg.then you have to put 2 mA for getting 1 A/g current density. read some review articles and tutorial review articles.
• asked a question related to Current
Question
Hi,
Is it possible to use a photocathode which is currently used in photoelectrochemical cells, in vacuum?
Actually I need to find a simple material which could be coated easily on large sufaces, be a good photoemitter in sunlight and be stable in the air, at least for a few days or so. I need to be able to emit currents larger than 1mA/cm2 , the photocathode is working in vacuum.
My confusion comes from the following fact: I don't know if photoemission is affected by the fact that the material is submersed in a liquid (normally it could be).  I've seen in some publications that CuO can be used as a photoemitter in a photochemical cell (having a good efficiency and being more stable than Cs compounds etc.) and I wanted to know if it could also work efficiently in vacuum.
If you could help me with some information I'll be very grateful.
• asked a question related to Current
Question
We are studying I-V characteristics of MIM structure. In this experiment, we observed that the current was decreased as the scan rate increased. Please tell me a possible reason for such behavior.
It could be parasitic capacitance, which prevents you from reaching the same current at high frequencies that you can attain at DC or low frequencies.
• asked a question related to Current
Question
Greetings,
Can anyone guide me as far as the most current standard in regards to the compressive strength of porous ceramics products?
An easy testing methode which is used in ceramics and refracories industry is the measurement of the cold crushing stength. This is an ISO-Norm standard test for this kind of products. Hope this answer will help.
Kind regards
• asked a question related to Current
Question
In a three-phase asynchronous motorو No measuring sensorsو Knowing the characteristics of asynchronous motor,Voltage and current, How calculate speed?
Read more articles related to the subject
• asked a question related to Current
Question