Science topic

Culture - Science topic

A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.
Questions related to Culture
Human being is in the top of animal kingdom, why culture is a unique phenomenon associated with human being?
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This question looks strange a little bit. Biological studies do not show significant variations between human and animals in terms of anatomy, physiology, pathology. Furthermore, in studying diseases, animals are used as models to mimic what happens in human being at different systems including psychology, neurological diseases, ..etc. So, why animals do not exhibit cultural variations as in human being.
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So, i believe that culture is the inherent product exclusively from human being because its the way how the things like memes (ideas, politics, loves, etc.) are passed, not about genes, in other words, fenotips, color skin, genetic diseases, etc.
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We have many kinds of great music and songs world wide.
Many of them raise issues of disabilities, as broadly understood human condition. They also indicate specific perception and attitudes towards disabilities of particular times.
Do you know the lyrics, songs of any species, which highlight in any way human disability? I share famous song by Janis Joplin(Big Brother & The Holding Company) entitled "Blindman", depicting person with vision disability, being in the need of help. This great song is from 1967 year, and in my opinion is expressing some need of public awareness of persons with disabilities in public spaces.
What are your opinions ? Please share your lyrics and songs.
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Be careful , we must well choose words and must be more than a psychologist, it is very sensitive, it takes wisdom and true and deep love ...
They must feel that we reaching out , but this hand is low and they are higher and have value ....
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Thanks for responding - will check this out. I became involved in a number of climate change projects from a human rights perspective. Also spent 3 years helping  establish a UNESCO Chair in Community Sustainability here on our campus. Many of my more traditionally-oriented scientific colleagues considered my interest in cultural issues simply as 'social work' - hence my inquiry.
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Does anyone have experience with mouse neuromuscular junction preparation? Can you suggest some suitable reference?
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Drexler B, Thiermann H, Antkowiak B, Grasshoff C. Effects of succinylcholine in an organotypic spinal cord-skeletal muscle coculture of embryonic mice. Chem Biol Interact. 2013 Dec 5;206(3):555-60.
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Can we investigate Edward Said's Orientalism and any colonial influences, as well as  studying Homi Bhabha's theory of location of culture in the Sun Also Rises
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There may be some aspects of colonial or post-colonial theory that can be applied to Spain--but because Spain is not the object of "conventional colonization" (as Ludmilla points out), it may be difficult to apply post-colonial theory, especially Bhabha's.  But if you look at the "exoticizing" (perfect term) of Spain in light of Said's "Orientalism," you might have more success.
If you are willing to look at other texts, I have found Wole Soyinka's drama "Death and the King's Horseman" particularly good for the study of colonial and post-colonial theories. There are a number of other writers whose works could provide superb sources for the application of both Said's and Bhabha's theories.
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I am growing up a bacteria culture in LB broth and would like to know how to measure the change in sugar levels of the growth medium as the bacteria grow.
Thanks for the help
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Ok Thanks guys.. I will look into DNS and Anthrone then. Thanks!
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I have Raw 264.7 culture which are healthy. I infect them with influenza virus and then stimulate the cells using LPS. I incubate them for 24hrs and carryout phagocytosis assay using Vybrant phagocytosis assay kit. I don't see any fluorescent tagged E.coli particles taken up by the infected cells. Is there any solution for this?
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Are you sure that your RAW macrophages are still alive?
Influenza infection plus LPS leads to high cytokine production which may lead to apoptosis of Raw macrophages.Please check our papers on macrophages/monocytes infected by influenza plus/minus LPS...all published from end of 1980 to 2002.Sarry,i hve none uploaded as yet.
Regards,  Diethard Gemsa
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Deception is fundamentally human, but how do various cultures interpret and judge deceptive behavior? In hopes of sparking a discussion, I argue in one of my recent articles (http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2605292) for much needed research on automated deception detection in Asian languages. The task of discerning truthful texts from deceptive ones is challenging, but a logical sequel to opinion mining. I suggest that applied computational linguists pursue broader interdisciplinary research on cultural differences and pragmatic use of language in Asian cultures, before turning to detection methods based on a primarily Western (English-centric) worldview.
Your ideas and responses are much welcome.
 
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Francesca Casani:
I echo your insights about capitalist culture. Also I would say that as often as outright deception, maybe more often, is the truth left unspoken. For example the movement of companies to overseas jurisdictions to avoid paying taxes or receive other perks or advantages, goes almost completely unnoticed and therefore little comment, although the effects from hollowing out an economy is substantial, leaving the victims to point fingers at each other, even justifying the dispatriots.
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I plan to perform pretest for Xenograft tumor growth using 2 different cell groups. I want to perform pre-test to identify the optimum number of cell line that is required for tumor growth. I would like to know if it is good to inject both sides or injecting one side is better. 
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If you're doing a pre-test then you should be fine, however for research purposes two tumors in one mouse is not going to lead to statistically-significant results. We do breast cancer xenografts (http://altogenlabs.com/xenograft-models/breast-cancer-xenograft/) with one tumor per mouse and that helps keep the setup consistent and the growth curves stable. Unless you somehow combine two tumors into one metric you probably won't be able to use the results for publication.
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In the northern hemisphere, it is commonly understood that the first day of Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter occur with the relevant equinox (for Spring and Autumn) or solstice (for Summer and Winter). Every schoolchild knows this. Yet, in Australia, it is conventional to say that each season begins on the 1st day of a month (eg, Winter begins on 1 June).
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In Australia the seasons are taken to start at the beginning of the month so that winter begins on 1 June and spans June, July and August. Supposedly, this is because in the early days of the Colony the NSW (New South Wales Corps) Corps changed from their summer to their winter uniforms at the beginning of the month. It makes sense though as experience suggests that the coldest days are in the middle of July and hence in the middle of the winter season.
There is often some confusion as there is also an astronomical winter that is from the winter solstice, 21 June until the spring equinox, 23 September. This astronomical definition comes about as the winter solstice is the day when the Sun is at its furthest north, it is at its lowest in the sky and the length of daylight is the shortest in the year.
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Academic culture understood as organizational culture has its artifacts, values ​​and hidden assumptions, according to Edgar Schein (2006).
Definitions of rituals have many dimensions I share one concept:
"The word " ritual " commonly brings to mind images of primitive exoticized others diligently engaged in mystical activities, they can find rituals , both sacred and secular , throughout" modern " society: collective experiences, from the Olympics to the commemoration of national Tragedies ; cyclical gatherings, from weekly congregations at the local church to the annual turkey carving at Thanksgiving to the intoxication of Mardi Gras, and personal life-patterns , from morning grooming routines to the ways in Which We greet and interact with one another.
Ritual is in fact an inevitable component of culture, extending from the largest- scale social and political processes to the most intimate aspects of our self - experience . Yet within this universality, the inherent multiplicity of ritual practices , both between and within cultures , also reflects the full diversity of the human experience " (source: http://www.culanth.org/curated_collections/4-ritual ).
I'm interested in rituals during conferences in the world in many aspects.
I wonder what rituals are present during conference moderation panels, coffee breaks, lunches and dinners?
What ritual is connected with so called scientific "stars" and "celebrities" and their demands on conferences court life?
Do you experience interesting rituals during the conference in different dimensions as:(in material and symbolic) negotiation of access, accommodation of your stay, rituals moderation panel session, ritual of greetings, coffee breaks, meals, etiquette and rituals of social life?
Have you experienced the rituals that were complicated, ridiculous or comic to you?
Images analysis welcome.
Below I share some image from last International Conference I participated as guest speaker in 14-15 May in Warsaw.
Very interesting in my opinion are greetings, presenting self with hand shake to new colleagues, coffee breaks and rituals of meeting friends not seen for months or years and "introductions" to famous Professors, whose books are well known.
I share one photo I made on 14th May during International Conference at Maria Grzegorzewska University in Warsaw, Poland in assebley hall. I found that in time, when many places were taken, some of the were free - but students listening to the speeches preferred to sit on the stairs or upstairs, behind the chairs. What is the ritual (I saw it a few times in different situations) of sitting lower ? I'll think about that.
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Dear @Beata, there are many rituals during scientific conferences. "Elements and rituals of a scientific meeting" is a subject of the following article! "A scientific conference is meant to exchange thoughts and ideas. But it often ends up being an absurd but entertaining ritual"! It is fine reading!
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I am trying to get iDCs from PBMCs. After 6-7 days of incubation with GMCF and IL-4 I can clearly see dendritic cells in my flask stuck to the bottom with characteristic dendrites. After another 2 days I collect the floating cells but they appear more round shaped without dendrites. Is this ok? Usually I change the medium and factors after 6-7 days and again keep them for 2-3 days before collecting the non-adherent cells.
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iDC are round-shaped and do not stick to the flask. You can check their differentiation status by checking that they are CD14low, CD1apos, HLA-DRpos, CD83neg, ICAM-1low CD86pos and DC-SIGNpos. If you activate these iDCs with LPS and IFNgamma, you will get mature dendritic cells that are CD14neg, HLA-DRpos, CD83pos and ICAM-1high. mDCs attach strongly to the flask and have a lot of dendrites.
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Maybe it is possible use amazon mechanical turk to make researches about a lots of topics and ivestigate culture influence.
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Unfortunately, amazon have tightened the rules even further very recently. This has now extended beyond the difficulties of just getting an account; now those who own an MTurk account (US or international) can't add money to their existing account without a US social security number.
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The unique adaptive strategy and cultural space of diverse tribal communities has gained huge research attention across the world owing to complexities of the issues related to their bio-cultural diversities, ethnicity, historicity, response to state policies and ongoing negotiation processes in a globalise world. Depending on their exposure to the forces of change and intricate link to the wider socio-political realities of life these issues have accelerated the process of transition/transformation among the diverse tribal population. In view these facts and circumstances, what should be role of human science and other related disciplines to deal with the emergent contemporary issues, which have local, regional as well as global implications?
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In order to encourage building bridges instead of walls between different cultures and communities and to foster dialogue between different categories social, political, economic and other types of researched should be initiated, supported and encourage in these fields.
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Cultural knowledge of the countries concerning various disabilities is also built on the basis of oral or written stories.
In the Middle Ages, in Europe (500 A.D -1500 A.D.), there existed in the cultures the concepts of the "changeling", which to some extent has dominated thinking about the origins of human disabilities. Medieval and later time peoples, believed that a "changeling" was a baby swapped by trolls, devils or elves.
The "Changeling" was perceived as a swapped child. He/she was described as visually and physically different, gluttonous, and weird.
Traces of disability understood as changeling can be found in the German fairy tales of the famous Brothers Grimm. Below I share a picture by Martino di Bartolomeo from the 15th century, which shows the origins of the swapping process. The image is titled "Devil swaps a baby". In medieval and later time Poland, there was the concept of a changeling called "bebok", "babok" or "boginiak" born by a goddess, a nymph (forest nymphs). "Boginiak" frequented in accordance with the beliefs tossed in place of a newborn.
Would you share your opinions please:
What representations of changelings exist in your culture and country?
What are folk tales and fairy tales that speak of changelings or the process of the process of change concerned somehow disabilities?
Who, then, in the folk cultural transmission was a changeling and what was his/her
appearance and role ?
What folk stories and fairy tales in your cultures tell about any symbolic depiction of a changeling and symbolic personality changes ?
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Dear Beata,
While reflecting on many of these folk figures, especially mermaids and good-hearted giants and dwarfs, I am struck by the fact that small children are blind to what we adults call disabilities or deformities. Such children would break into tears if they were aware that their favorite story figures were somehow "deformed." Children think in terms of archetypes. Paul Bunyan is a "good guy." Therefore there can be nothing wrong with him.
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Capacity to learn anything in the classroom Is perhaps region dependent. Perhaps the language in which a learner thinks does have some effect in the process of learning. The culture following which the learner grows up may also have some effect on his learning process. Am I right?
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I don't agree with that. Hundreds of thousands of students study abroad and their learning is more than excellent irrespective of their original language or culture.
Is culture a catalyst or an impediment to economic development in your country?
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Culture is the characteristic of a given group of people which is based on a shared set of behaviors, interactions, norms, common constructs, and a particular way of living. Culture is also defined by language, beliefs, social values, habits, religion, common understanding, cooking, music, and arts. Culture is an essential factor in any economic development process. It is the factor that might determine either the success or the failure of any development initiative especially in the developing world. Economic development is the process which is concerned with the improvement of the lives of people, by raising their standards of living, improving their health, and developing their educational levels. Economic development is a process that embraces economic, structural, and social transformation. Therefore, habits, norms, values, or culture are very important factors in determining the very fate of development in any nation. Thus, is culture a helping factor or an obstacle to economic development in your country? What is your take on culture and economic development?
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Dear Bassam Thanks for this very interesting question. India is an ancient civilization. More than 80 per cent people are Hindus, and rest are Muslims, Sikhs, Christians, Jains, Buddhists, and Parsis. In population, India is more than three times all 55 European countries put together. It has 29 states and 7 union territories, and 18 official languages. You can imagine how complex it is to answer your question in Indian context. One can keep on and on about exploring and writing culture/s in India. Despite this, there are some common culture threads running the length and breadth of the country. Overall, i would say culture is an impediment to economic growth in India: I will say the following in support of this, about Indian culture: 1. India is the largest democracy in the world since 1950, which has become part of its culture now. But there are a large number of political parties which keep fighting for power, and stall right decisions of government that are in the interest of economic development. Labour law reforms have not taken place at all despite 24 years of globalization. 2. Traditionally, Hindus have been observing the caste system. There are about 4000 castes amongst them divided into 4 Verna. Most people from the lower castes have remained educationally backward, and have not had much education. Since they do not have skills for better jobs, they do not contribute much to economic development. 3. Power distance is very high between sets of people in the country. This has positively helped the command and control of the capital over labour. Paternalism is widely practiced, which helps controlling people with low power. 4. India, like China and several other countries, is a collectivist culture, where individual liberty, freedom, merit-orientation are less important than social and collective relations. This negatively effects performance. 5. Women’s position in traditional Hinduism has not been one of power to women; so women have been considerably exploited in terms pf denial of education. It is not appreciated that a woman works outside home. She has property rights in law, but she is not given share in property in reality even after 65 years of independence. Also, a large number of highly qualified women sit at home after marriage due to covert pressure of the joint family. 6. Due to various reasons, it is important as to "who you know" rather than "what you know." Corruption in public systems is very high. This impedes merit, and affects performance and productivity. With the Western modernism discourse in vogue, things have been considerably improving. But in the rural India, where 70 per cent of people live, the realities are still pitiable. Overall it is safe to say that culture in India impedes economic development.
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Since nobody answered this I am editing the question... from asking if anyone teaches courses on indigenous agriculture, to why are we not teaching anything about indigenous agriculture. In many cases in the world high yields have been sustained for thousands of years, and the amount of knowledge and technology that has been acquired in these systems in enormous. And yet we engage these concepts almost not at all within academic settings, and focus instead on an entirely new concept of agriculture that has emerged only within the last few hundred years. Why, and how can we overcome this?
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I dont know if there are any course about these arguments over the world, but i think that you have center a great question. At my Uni there is a new Dept. section that work on Historic Rural Landscapes formed by experience of agronomist, historians, economist and biologists and other researchers. The section is working about processing new courses on rural activities, methods, technical equipment, studies on traces of past activities. I can ask to my colleague that are working in this section, if you need help in this.
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There are many discussions about defining an indigenous group, but are there seminal works on examining the processes through which cultural distinction occurs? For instance the Americas were likely colonized by a few people, but resulted in many distinct cultural tribes with different languages, practices, beliefs, religions, etc. What is this process called and what are the key works about it?
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Maybe you will be interested in the work of the "Grupo Modernidad/Colonialidad" with Aníbal Quijano and Walter Mignolo amongst others. They study -on a theoretical level- how European civilization is constructed at the moment an "other" is met - the indigenous peoples in the Americas. This is understood as the starting point for a mixture between racism, class-discrimination and eurocentrism as a principle of knowing - all of them part of the coloniality of power. The indigenous peoples are unified into "indigenous" or "indians", placed on the lowest social level and considered as backwards and superstitious.
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Historians and economists have recently focused on the collapse of economies, societies, cultures, and even civilizations. The ongoing crises seem to be closely intertwined. The diagnostics are clear enough. However, little if at all about space solutions. How do you see this?
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Denial. That's how I see this. And a hijacking of all other forms of common, intellectual and intuitive sense by neo-liberal techno-rationalism that gives a false sense of confidence that 'they' the experts will fix things, and markets will prevail.
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During the Karolinger and Medieval periods, there was a system of Nobility, Clerics, Peasants and Builders, in short a system of “the Lords” and “the Others”.
The “Lords” consisting of clerics as well as laymen (kings, regents, knights) possessed the land and its revenues—while living in castles, convents and cloisters, whereas they dictated – after having set the laws to be obeyed on a military-based structure—who of “the others” would get work, have a home, would be paid in food rations, and who had to go to war and who was doomed to die.
The education was under the patronage of the Lords with the infamous motto: ”You (the clerics) shall keep them (the others) dumb, whereas we (the governors) will keep them poor”.
This feudal structure was not only practiced at Europe but also at China, the Indus Valley and Africa.
Clerics in almost every religion in order to preserve their supremacy, declared that their society would be a male one. They alone could perform the necessary rites to please (the) God(s). In order to make this attitude binding for the next generations, clerics allegedly divinely-inspired or just taking care of their own salary and that of their offspring, wrote elaborate scrolls and books to see to it that individuals of the female gender would have nothing to say in holy matters, thereby wiping 50% of humanity off the global board.
Basing themselves on religious laws, the kings, regents and knights adopted the female separation “laws” in the medieval social class pyramid. The latter was also followed in normal households where the male was the superior commander.
Currently, after the social revolutions and after 70 years of Communism and Socialism, counter matters are proclaimed by a conglomerate of Government, Supreme Court and Magnates (Tycoons and Moguls) in every field, in the form of new laws wherein selected office-clerks gets salaries that exceed 40-50 times that of “the others” who do the same job, not mentioning the female workers who also get by definition less than their male counterpart.
A new class of Lords is born without that we realized what has happened under our own noses. The new Lord Class is seeing to it that the so-called middle class will slowly disappear in order to obtain the desired gap between the “Lords” and the “Others” as in ancient times of the feudal era.
And so, I ask you: “Is the Feudal Era returning”? And in case your answer is positive, how can we—by thinking out of the well-rusted box—stop this new/old phenomenon? Our scientific research in every domain including the care for our cultural heritage is heavily depending on your/my answer. Let’s start.
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Dear Jan
I think that your description of the European Feudal System is heavily distorted, flawed and simplistic.
For example the books of the bible were all in place for the first century AD, but you put it as an invention of some cleric in the medieval era.
Beside the monasteries may be for men or for women, and there were approximately 50% of each. The monasteries of women were always presided by a woman (the abbess).
The monks were not usually the owner of the land but the religious community, but they were who most labored it. There were monasteries that have external workers but in most monasteries the work in the field was done by the monks themselves . If you read about the origen of Montecasino, Clairveaux, Citeaux, Cluny, etc, you will see that the monks arrived to this places when they were a desert almost inaccessible and they developed the agriculture of the field from the beginning. There were monks that only worked in the field each day, and there were others that worked in the field some time each day and worked in cultural works for part of their time. All of them use time for praying too. This kind of life is the usual life in any monastery which have some agriculture field today.
The Church build the first colleges, universities, did copy all the preserved manuscripts of antiquity, invented the hospitals, teached the agriculture to the barbarians which were nomad at first. She was the pillar of the european civilization as we know it.
There were many women in the first place of influence in the feudal period of the european society (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women_in_the_Middle_Ages), like Isabel of Hungrary, Blanca of Castille, Catherine of Siena, Eleonor of Aquitania, Brigida of Suecia, Teresa of Avila, Joan of Arc, etc. As the quoted paper said: "As with peasant men, the life of peasant women was difficult. Women at this level of society had considerable gender equality,[3] but this often simply meant shared poverty".
The society was more homogeneous in standard of live than today. I do not see how you may be anticipating a new feudal period.
The classic François-Louis Ganshof version of feudalism describes a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility, revolving around the three key concepts of lords, vassals and fiefs. A lord was in broad terms a noble who held land, a vassal was a person who was granted possession of the land by the lord, and the land was known as a fief. In exchange for the use of the fief and the protection of the lord, the vassal would provide some sort of service to the lord. There were many varieties of feudal land tenure, consisting of military and non-military service. The obligations and corresponding rights between lord and vassal concerning the fief form the basis of the feudal relationship (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feudal).
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Over the ages and years every culture and country has developed a lifestyle concept for life and lives by women with intellectual disabilities. Do exists in your culture explicit or tacit rules of adult life for women with intellectual disabilities (ID) (levels mild 70-55IQ and moderate 54-36IQ)?
Do women get married ? Do they became mothers? Maybe they will live alone without intimate relationships until the death? Perhaps they will they stay by generation families until the death, treated rather as children? What is in your culture dominant pattern of lifestyle (culturally acquiescence) for women with ID? What is your opinion on this topic?
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Dear Beata: Not only women everyone with such disabilities facing the same problem They need proper attention, environment and support from the society.
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There are many factors which are involved in media globalization, media imperialism etc.,
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From a historical perspective John Darwin has observed that the European system of imperial domination certainly had a cultural component: "It assumed and asserted a cultural hierarchy in which the belief-systems, literatures, and artefacts of the extra-European world were sometimes admired for their charm but invariably discounted as inimical (in the grand words of the Government of India's annual report) to 'material and moral progress'. " [John Darwin, ‘Diplomacy and Decolonization’, The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, Vol. 28, No. 3 (Sept. 2000), p.6] The cultural imperialism of the nineteenth and early twentieth century emphasized that indigenous peoples could only be considered "civilized" if they adopted Christianity, spoke European languages (especially English), studied Western philosophy, accepted the rule of law, and demonstrated European manners. A spectacular example of the effects of cultural imperialism was the 1857 Indian Mutiny.
The East India Company had given the impression that it was indifferent to indigenous religion. For example, at Vellore in 1806 troops had mutinied because new dress regulations had offended Hindus (who were forbidden to wear caste marks), Sikhs (who were forbidden to wear beards), and Muslims (because the cockade on the headdress appeared to be made from pig skin). The insistence of the East India Company that Hindus must serve overseas (which implied a loss of caste, and was not rewarded by extra pay) remained a source of friction on the eve of the mutiny. The immediate cause of the mutiny was the issue of a controversial cartridge for the new Lee Enfield rifle. The cartridge was greased with beef and pork fat, and since the top of the cartridge would have to be bitten off it would defile Hindus (who regarded cows as sacred) and Muslims (who regarded pigs as unclean). In February 1857 Indian troops mutinied at Barrackpur near Calcutta, and in April the British court-martialled and hanged the ringleader, Mangal Pande. In May mutinous troops of the Third Light Cavalry, based at Meerut near Delhi, were sentenced to ten years hard labour. Their commanding officer humiliated the mutineers by parading them shackled with leg-irons in front of their comrades. This provoked a full mutiny of the Meerut garrison that soon spread to Delhi.
The way in which the East India Company offended the religious sensitivities of the troops in the Indian Army was more widely mirrored by the activities of Christian missionaries in India. During the early nineteenth century the East India Company had resisted attempts to impose British culture on the Indian communities, but the growing influence of missionaries in Britain resulted in a new India Act (1813) that permitted missionary work in India. Thereafter tension grew because the Indian communities resented the fact that Christians were undermining indigenous culture, for example by prevailing upon the British Governor-General, Wiliam Bentinck (1829-35) to ban the Hindu practice of sati. After the rebellion, the British Government acknowledged the problem of cultural imperialism, declaring through the Proclamation of Queen Victoria that in India ‘none be in any way favoured, non molested or disquieted by reason of their Religious Faith or Observances.’
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I want to culture scallops and oysters in lanterns
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You can also treat the surfaces with a natural product antifoulant that will minimize biofouling without posing toxicity to your target organisms.  For instance, several researchers have looked at using zosteric acid surfaces.  
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Hello, I would like to isolate RNA from RIPA lysed cells treated in vitro. Has anyone done this? Can I just use a kit (Qiagen RNeasy, or other) to perform this or are there additional steps required? 
Thanks, 
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I just successfully did this and wanted to add some info to this useful comment string. I had cells frozen in 100 ul of RIPA buffer, and wanted to extract RNA because my RNAProtect-frozen samples were accidentally discarded. I took 50 ul of the cell/buffer mix, added 300 ul of the lysis buffer from the Qiagen RNeasy kit, and then continued on with the rest of the standard Qiagen extraction protocol. The resulting RNA was good quality and decent quantity, and I successfully used it for qPCR. My PCR results look exactly as I would expect them and comparable to previous similar experiments where RNAProtect was used instead. 
Now, my cell samples were frozen at -80 degrees C for only a few days before extraction. But this does seem to be possible should it be necessary. 
I've also extracted RNA from a cell pellet frozen dry and stored for 6+ months. In that case the extracted RNA wasn't great, but was still ok for PCR. I wouldn't recommend doing this if you can avoid it.
I also once had cells frozen in media instead of RNAprotect, and thawed them, spun them down, removed the sups and did RNA extraction on the cell pellet. That did NOT work. The freeze-thaw must have lysed the cells, and I probably lost most of the RNA in the sups. 
Just trying to help people out who find themselves in similar situations. Science does that sometimes!
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I am currently doing research on Sikhs in WW1, and Sikh soldiers who fought for or against the British more generally. I have been spending a lot of time examining photographs from this time period. One image that has been recurring is the adoption of Sikh attire, in particular the turban/pagri by non-Indians. For example, there was a famous warrior who fought against the Sikhs in the Sepoy mutiny, Sir Dighton Probyn, who famously sported Indian dress in battle and when posing for a painting of himself. There was also Alexander Gardner, a soldier in Maharajah Ranjit Singh's army. Why do you think they might have taken this on? I think it certainly has to do with orientalism and the fearsome reputation of the Sikhs as representatives of a martial race. Has anyone come across any research in this area?
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Try this: Dharvan, P. 2011, When Sparrows Became Hawks: The Making of the Sikh Warrior Tradition, 1699-1799. Oxford
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I am interested in the emotions research of Mexican mathematics students, I have read some theories of emotions from other countries (e.g theory of cognitive structure of emotions, Ortony, Clore, Collins, 1988) with the intention of adopting one of them for my studies,but I have read that the words used to describe emotions are highly culture specific. I wonder how I can to face this fact: to adopt a theory that is not arising in my culture?
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Dear Maria,
Culture is a people specific. However, just like mathematics, a strange culture could be learned over time, if time is not of essence.
Extraneous cultures are better contrasted in comparative studies; where culture is used to test hypotheses on specific aspects of one cultural theory, in order to test its external validity, if applied in another culture.
Cheers.
Napoleon
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I am writing an article about cultural influences of the Metropoli in XVII-XVIII centuries in Latin America. The current topic I am writing about is music, and I have not enough idea about it.
I found a book which talks about Cuba and its sounds (Cuba y sus sones, by Natalio Galán). In the introduction, it explains a bit the origins of American music, and why are more important Brazilian and Cuban rythms than others.
But I need to learn more about that field, and to know other points of view. I was wondering if some of you could help me with your opinion.
I will be very grateful.
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Dear Victoria, I noticed that some Bakers' volumes insisted in staying in this side of the world. I send them again.
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We are doing a study related to perception of visitors on the level of crowdedness of coastal and marine sites. We found different levels based on the visitors’ country of origin. 
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Dear Danika, I had two Master students that made two different thesis on perceptions of crowdedness in Macau world heritage sites. Macau receives 32 million visitors for year, mostly from mainland of China. One of the students, a local Chinese lady born in Macau and working for the government tourist department studies mainland Chinese perceptions on two sites the 17th century Jesuit facade of the former College of St. Paul, an ex/-libris of Macau, and the A-Ma temple, one of the oldest religious temples in South China dedicated to de goddess of mercy and fishermen. The inquiry took more than one year and collected more than 4000 validated answers. In general, Chinese visitors didn't complained of crowdedness but, when they came from North provinces as Beijing and Shanghai, they did complained of noisy places and criticized local people speaking Cantonese of speaking to loud. The other student from French origins but married with a Macanese (Eurasian) and working in a tourist agency researched the same subject with foreign non-Chinese tourists. In this case, around 500 validated answers, did stress the huge crowdedness of Macau world heritage sites, also pointing out that they were dirty and difficult to watch in detail. These critics were more intense in European, US and Canadian. It is probably a good idea to research through comparative, connective and contrastive methodologies these common subjects. 
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Dear Colleague,
We would like to invite you to our new, large-scale cross-cultural research project.
Our previous research projects, conducted in 53 study sites, turned out to be a great success. One of our manuscripts (from a first project) was published in Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, other from the new project is currently under review in the same journal, one will soon be submitted to the Journal of Marriage and Family, and three more papers are in the final stages of preparations. Thanks to our efficient team work we now collaborate with, e.g., David Buss.
We would like to continue the research in the area of cross-cultural/evolutionary psychology. This time, we plan to conduct six studies.
a) Sexual Morality Project
b) Comparison of daily life touch between countries
c) Creativity study
d) Love study
e) Mate study
f) Facebook study
Now, we have collaborators from 60 countries.  Algieria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Croatia, Cuba, Czech Rep, Estonia, Etiopia, France, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Hong Kong, Hugary, India, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Korea, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Salvador, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey,  UK, Ukraine, Uruguay, USA.
New collaborators from other countries are WELCOME!
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We completed recruitment, thank you for all answers,
Piotr
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I already have DMEM medium from Sigma Aldrich.
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Hope attached is useful, though not specialized in a particular area.
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Dear All,
May be someone know and able to give me advice.
Where I can find dates about Culture Distance between contries?
I know that was quite all reseach about this, I see a lot of mention, but not the research.
But as well, may be somewhere is more recent data about this?
BR, Olga Pavlovska
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Olga - Have you heard of Oswald Spengler and Arnold Toynbee? They identify specific High Cultures, e.g., Western, Arab-Persian, Sino-Japanese, Indian, and Slavic - (plus others in the past).
To an extent, such 'organic cultural units' tend to be mutually exclusive and self-contained, but it is sometimes possible to be born in one and then transfer later into another.
Despite speaking different languages, Germany, France, Britain, Italy, Spain (and others) are all members of the same (Western) civilization according to those writers - implying that the "cultural distance" between citizens of those nations should be less than it is between Westerners and Orientals, say.... I tried to summarize Spengler's thesis at http://www.dlmcn.com/oswaldspengler.html
Good luck with your research !
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I want to know if the dimensions of Hofstede's Cultural distance model be taken as the parameters to understand the regional cultural differences.
Are there any research papers which have used the same?
If this framework is rejected to study regional cultures, please suggest which cultural distance model would be more helpful or what could be the way forward
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Dear Payel, I do agree with Joan. Hofstede's cultural dimensions have been widely used to study the intra-cultures within same country.There are various reasons to select the Hofstede’s framework. First, sufficient literature is available that has evolved around the framework (Chandy & Williams, 1994). Seondly, many other frameworks supported rather than providing an alternative to his framework (Smith & Bonds, 1999). The other motivation to use this framework is due to recommendations by other studies as well. For instance, Johnson and Lenartowicz (1998) proposed to repeat the Hofstede’s outdated data because rapid economic transformation may change the cultural values rapidly.
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We are doing a systematic review. Our results are mainly animal studies, and cultures, and just a few human studies. 
We don't know which critical appraisal tool its the best for our situation, because we are investigating basic research. We are interested in the biological processes ocurring in them, any changes ocurring at a tissue, cellullar and molecular level, in humans, animals and cultures. 
We would appreciate your guidance in this, since we are kind of lost.
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The AALAS Webinar: "Reproducibility of Animal Models" on Sept. 1st could be of interest to you: https://www.aalas.org/store/meeting?productId=6479473#.Vdw_v3snnhU
With respect to systematic reviews and animal studies, some conclusions from these studies:
1) Although all relevant databases were explored, we cannot exclude that some data reside within company protected domains. Moreover, studies tend to be published only when results are positive and statistically significant. These two factors may have resulted in an incomplete data set and they may have introduced a publication bias in this systematic review.
2) Database searches yielded 1743 references in 3 databases. After removal of duplicates and triplicates 1157 references remained. During the primary screening in EndNote, 883 references that did not meet our inclusion criteria were removed. Secondary screening of the remaining 274 references in EROS led to the removal of 206 references. Full text analyses of the remaining 68 references resulted in the inclusion of only 8 studies:  two abstracts, one poster and five full-text papers.
(Tissue Engineering in Animal Models for Urinary Diversion: A Systematic Review, Marije Sloff1*, Rob de Vries2, Paul Geutjes1, Joanna IntHout3, Merel Ritskes-Hoitinga2, Egbert Oosterwijk1., Wout Feitz1. PLOS ONE, June 2014 | Volume 9 | Issue 6 | e98734)
Systematic reviews of animal studies also have limitations.
First, reviews are time consuming.
Second, because of poor reporting and methodological inadequacies in animal studies, reviews may be unable to produce precise and reliable overall effect estimates.
…….systematic reviews will be unable to address the issue of the low external validity of (certain) animal models to the extent that this is due to biological differences between humans and other animal species.
…..it is too early to provide evidence that systematic reviews lead to improved translational value of animal research……
(Progress in Using Systematic Reviews of Animal Studies to Improve Translational Research. C. R. Hooijmans*, M. Ritskes-Hoitinga, PLOS Medicine, July 2013 | Volume 10 | Issue 7 | e1001482)
The [systematic] reviews have found that, in many cases, reporting omissions, in addition to the limitations of the animal models used in the individual studies assessed in the review, are a barrier to reaching any useful conclusion about the efficacy of the drugs and interventions being compared.
(Improving Bioscience Research Reporting: The ARRIVE Guidelines for Reporting Animal Research, Carol Kilkenny1*, William J. Browne2, Innes C. Cuthill3, Michael Emerson4, Douglas G. Altman, PLoS Biology | www.plosbiology.org 1 June 2010 | Volume 8 | Issue 6 | e1000412)
In conclusion: as long as the ARRIVE guidelines are not followed when publishing results from animal studies, you will come to the same conclusion that systematic reviews will be a waste of time and effort.
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When we use a questionnaire in different societies, its results and answers are different too.What can effect on the results of a questionnaire in different culture?
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Be aware that a questionnaire may be viewed differently even inside the same cultural group because not everybody speaks (and understands) the same language. Present the questionnaire to university students and (same age group) carpenters or car mechanics, and it will be received differently, but university students in Switzerland, Morocco, and India may understand it in the same way.
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I am growing a bacteria which produces PHB. For confirming and for quantification i need standard for its estimation in my culture. so, please suggest me the standard and also the list of suppliers.
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Perhaps ithey contained a slow flowing substance. By the way, are there parallels from continental amphitheatres ?
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Within a culture, there are culturally rich items or ‘key’ words that are important for –and are instantly recognized by– members of this cultural group. These ‘key’ words (and phrases) reflect values, ideals, ideas and beliefs that the people hold dear, even if not each and every individual member of this cultural group fully subscribes to these values and beliefs. For example, “saudade” could be proposed as a ‘key’ word for Portuguese-speaking cultures; for Americans, this could be “American way of life”. 
Though I am particularly interested in Spanish-speaking cultures, I would be happy to receive your ideas about 'key' words in various world languages and cultures. Thank you.
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Hi Larisa,
I am from Mexico and the first key work that comes in my mind : "pinche". Here you have one article in the newspaper. 
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What are former varieties of language worth for current day speakers? Sociolinguistics have proven interesting in a lot of aspects, but - to my mind - mostly in the discussion of how language and varieties/dialects affect, our attitude towards and understanding of, each other. How we sound and the words we use are important in communication human to human. Do we today have any worth of studying, remembering and talking about former dialects in the perspective of improving language today?  
I know this question could become very complex due to our different first languages, cultures and understandings. And, obviously I already have an reply myself to this question, but before I tease you with my own answer, let's try to start this discussion from and "open to interpretation perspective". 
Are there any worth in older languages for current day communication? 
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I don't think people study or attempt to preserve old dialects in order to learn how to speak today or in order to somehow improve our current language skills. One of the main reasons for studying older dialects and languages is to enable us to understand what people have said in the past and how they have thought about life. We don't need any more justification for that than idle curiosity. If you say something and I don't understand you then I'll ask you to clarify it, simply because I'm curious enough to want to understand you despite any difficulties involved. It's the same with utterances made in older languages. Someone scratches a few signs into a clay tablet - I want to know what they meant.
In terms of preserving a language or dialect that is on the verge of extinction I would say that, in addition to the simple argument set out above, it is about identity. Languages, dialects, and ideolects are core aspects of identity. We need not necessarily try to fossilise someone's personality by trying to prevent them from speak some new language with more potential commercial value for them. But at the same time we should definitely resist overt efforts aimed at marginalising or eliminating other languages, for example as part of a nationalisation or nation-building project. Measures like these represent an unwarranted attack on a basic human right - that of controlling the development of one's own identity.
But in the final analysis I don't think that one ought to approach the humanities as a question of utility. If we were washed up on a desert island and had to survive for years among a small community then none of them would go off to pluck coconuts for us to keep us alive just so that we could sit around studying ancient languages, pontificate about art or literature, or try to interpret a poem. We do these things because we have the luxury of being able to use our time in this way and because it simply gives us pleasure to do so. What's the point? There is no point!
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I'm looking to measure people's belief that a piece of culture is either highbrow (intellectual) or lowbrow (popular). To this point, however, I have yet to find a complete definition listing the features a highbrow or lowbrow piece should have. Any help from any source and approach is welcome.
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Dear Ignazio,
You should read Bourdieu's "Distinction" and also Umberto Eco "apocaliptics and integrated.
You should also bear in mind that the distinction itself has been blurred in the last twenty years (i.e Tarantino Films, Hip-Hop, street art). It is no longer as clear as in the sixties.
Hope it helps.
Yours,
Luis
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 What is the relationship with the  DC's and culture? 
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Both Dynamic Capability and organization Culture are well researched topics. Dynamic capability, generally, is thought to have emerged from "Resource Based View - RBV". Literature search on strategy, innovation and RBV will through many articles on Dynamic Capability and organization Culture.
If you have any specific question, pl let me know.
What is the best time to patch on cultured hippocampal neurons (dissociated)?
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I have been trying to patch on dissociated cultured hippocampal neurons from the rat pups 1 or 2 days postnatal. I have seen the RMP being slightly depolarised towards the beginning of the cultured phase. When is the best time to patch after the neurons have been cultured, so that I get an RMP of around -55 to -60 mV?
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P0-2 hippocampal cells 1 DIV are depolarized mainly because of the inverted chloride gradient (immature).
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We would like to de-construct the fans' comments and learn about the nature of these relationship
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Thank you Lars
this is so helpful
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A comment came from a reviewer who indicated that invariance should be done across cultural groups. Invariance across gender may not be conducted. This is the first time I have heard of this. I have done it many times and have read papers in which invariance across gender is done.
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In response to Belen, the sample is in thousands, very large sample.
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My isolated micro. are good producers of cold active enzymes like (lipase and endoglucanase). Where to submit those cultures? I heard about MTCC. Is there any other options for this? Which is the best? -
-Grazie
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Thank You Dr R Kasana ...
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In an extreme case and in some parts of the world it can be a real case, if parents have financial capacity to send only ONE of their two children to school for a higher education - they have one son and one daughter. In your view, which one should they prefer to send to school for higher education? Their son or daughter? And why?
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Send the one who loves to study.  Apply for a loan for the other.
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Please if you know some articles in this area, I will appreciate
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thank you all for your contributions but the study focus centre on how can community culture (belief and norms) practices  affects successful and sustainable residential properties development.
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I'm currently planning a research project examining cross-cultural differences (qualitative rather than quantitative) in implicit achievement motivation. I'm particularly interested in the different kinds of incentives that arouse achievement motivation in different cultures.
I'm based in Singapore and am looking for potential collaborators in other cultural settings - particularly North America or Europe. If you are interested, please get in touch and I'll share more details about the project.
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My group is interested in the factors that affect academic achievement including differences between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.  Your question seems to be about how the motivational factor itself my differ, but it may be closely tied to the question of how much differences in motivation actually affect outcomes.
We are a large U.S.-based program, and we have international partners in Europe and Asia so that we can ask these questions cross-culturally.  We find that we run into a lot of the same concerns that Darko expresses above with respect to having instruments that work the same way across cultures.  
I am very curious about your qualitative approach and wonder if you are actually going to need a mixed methodology to achieve a more complete answer to you question. I am certainly interested in knowing more details about your plans.  (I have also just spent some time with a delegation from Singapore, so I have been focused on some of the issues associated with educational system there.)
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I have many strains in my NRRL collection but what should I have to do for finding same strain in MTCC and ATCC/DSMZ?
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Try StrainInfo ( http://www.straininfo.net/ ). You can not only find the equivalent strains but also have an historical account of their origins.
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Are there ways of thinking and acting in the possible future construction of new forms of social relations?
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International research indicates that where social capital flourishes, the result is that individuals, communities, organizations and nations prosper economically, and not only!. However, I need point out her the ambiguity of definitions and the variety of interrelated meanings for social capital. Social capital refers to associational life, civic virtue, civic engagement, community service, social action, social cohesion, social ties, trust, the collective value of social networks, the construction of broader identities, respect for ethnic, racial and gender diversity and the elimination of socioeconomic exclusions. It entails active and direct interactions among individuals and the norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness, namely mutual understanding, shared values and behaviours that bind the members of human networks, making cooperative action possible.
On the other hand, arguments suggest that social capital can reinforce exclusive identities, homogeneous groups, social divides, social discrimination, gender exclusions, capitalization, and egocentric bonding . For instance, organizations, clubs and social groups with high social capital have the power, the means or even the motives to exercise non-inclusive practices and policies. Of course one has to examine Putnam's analysis on bridging or inclusive social capital vs bonding-exclusive social capital... Specifically,''Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of the American Community (Putnam 2000), although it may be gender-blind (Kamberidou 2012) as well as Adkin's (2005) discussions on Social Glue...
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Just a few centuries ago we knew more about an important person because of the letters they wrote with their own hand with their parents, friends and others. Now that we use the e-mail and other messages that we don't have access, how do we are going to know about how a person was? For example, Leonardo da Vinci would be upset if he knew that we read his letters and that we have an idea of his mother relationship, but if Leonardo would use e-mail, how do we know how he felt?
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Dear Mario,
Interpreting documents of any kind poses problems of hermeneutics. Those documents can be manuscripts, photographs, and even emails. That said, the character of the document does not make the interpretation more or less correct (provided the document is legible). A rare manuscript may give us less information than a common email! So in every case your method is hermeneutics, the science of the interpretation of texts. The method will vary with the instruments at your disposal. For example. Manuel de Falla had a handwriting that was very difficult to read. I had to decipher some rare manuscripts of his on the famous French composer Maurice Ravel. If I were unable to zoom in on the manuscripts with my computer to magnify the text ten times, I would still ignore what Falla had written.
Culture VS education: dependent or independent relationship?
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While culture is rich of high values, positive approaches in life,...etc. Some times, there are some people with high education level do not show the cultural dimension in their behaviors. How do you perceive the relationship between culture and education?
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Concentrating on your question "How do you perceive the relationship between culture and education?", we can probably cite many instances on how this two are related. First example is the mass schooling in US and even the other parts of the world as a result of the Industrial revolution. Since there is a need for a workforce that knows specific skill set, a formal and unified education system must be in place to ensure and control these goals. In contrast, China in the early 20th century as well as Vietnam somehow succumbed to balance old ways of education which is based on Confucianism while considering the possibility to globalized the way education should be. If in the previous way of education children are taught about values, good living, and morals, the "new" way of education is more focused on specific skillset. These transitions of culture through the changing modernity and globalization affects the overall education structure of the country. Also in the case of social stratification, a culture who has low regards to women may selectively favor men in the education system. Remember in the olden times, even Harvard refused a female postdoc to have a doctoral status. And in our time now, some patriarchal cultures may still hold the idea that women needs to be at home and thus be exempted to school. Race can also prejudice a student from an education system. Macionis (2012) mentioned in his Sociology book that a comparison was made in the state public school of African Americans and Caucasians. The findings revealed that better facilities were present in Caucasian dominated schools as compared to African American dominated schools. Basically we can point to any aspect of the culture of a particular group and we can link them to education and how it affects education. Media? Look how homework times are decreased by TV. Internet? Look how it changes the way education is being conducted. Religion? Look at how homeschooling as a movement was actually fuelled by protestant and other religious groups. I hope I was able to give some points to ponder and brainstorm. A good place to start reading is the book of Macionis (2012) on Sociology.
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What lysis buffer should I use to grind the lung tissue?
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I would be more concerned about fine grinding of the tissue and keeping the reaction cool. Consider beat-meating or mill. Would you like to extract MMP-2 quantitatively? If yes, then I would do multiple rounds of extraction - spin down - resuspend. And then maybe ultracentrifugate the pooled extracts.
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My PhD research project at Birkbeck, University of London, attempts to understand how national culture enables or inhibits strategic alignment in organizations. I am currently seeking case study organizations, preferable in the IT or telecom industry in the UK or Sweden, to conduct interviews lasting between 30 minutes and 1 hour. All company information and individual interviews will be treated as confidential. In return, I will be able to provide case study companies with a short report about my findings, and how they compare with what is published in the literature as ‘best practices’.
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Please join forums in the sector to have better access of same.
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Do Gender, Culture or Language impact on how you work, interact with those outside your national sphere or perhaps the avenues you choose to disseminate your work? Some issues such as language have obvious implications such as simple understanding, but does this therefore limit people to publishing / interacting in their own cultural sphere? Cultures that have restrictions on female travel, institutions that do not have available financial resources etc., what barriers have you met?
My own interest is in poster presentation, but there are vast corpuses of information I have not accessed, either because I do not speak the language, cannot easily access the national / cultural circle etc.
I would like to see if innovations ranging from simple translation software (ok, I know it sometimes produces hilarious results), or virtual conferencing might help us transcend some barriers to sharing our work on a global scale.
Let me know your thoughts and experiences .... even in your own languages & scripts (& we will see what cut/paste into Google translate does to help us be understood).
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Dear all,
gender balance is usually considered in scientific association but it is not so frequent to have a she-president. I am proud to be the first one in the European Federation of Sexology. It hasn't been easy! Furthermore I come from the South of Europe as I am a professor in Rome...with a different culture! In the Italian academic context many women are now teachers but not in the higher position. I am an associate professor!
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As for Frederick Barth ethnic boundaries is the most appropriate concept when one have an ethnic group living inside a different ethnic society.
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Given germans in sother Brazil are responsible for industrialization of the southern most state of the country. Colonization and migration differ from country side from the one of the Capital Porto Alegre, in which the main contribuition was commerce and overall industries
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Coping with trauma outside of Iraq and maintaining cultural identity in Western society
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Not specifically, but its an interesting question and I have a student looking at it in the Zimbabwean community here (Leeds, UK), and another more generally looking at identity and meaning in young refugees. For something on Muslims look at the work of Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh
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What are the perceived norms involved
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Yes Gwendolyn D. I agree with Erik's insight.
The context and the typical response applies equally-well to Indian sub-continent. And such perceived barriers or inhibitions (deeply seated in society) to get appropriate professional aids, further undermines the diagnosis and treatments to affected population. This further hinders the medical aid and the very possibility to carb the issues at primordial stage, before it blows-up and effect QoL of individual and people around.
The current scenario is changing towards good, but not with very encouraging pace.
Sanjeev
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I feel my methodology chapter is weak, so I'm looking for additional references. Specifically, regarding the immersion of an individual (myself) into a foreign country and culture. And I would like to note the intricacies this kind of work entails, such as adjusting to lexicon and grammar, understanding the relevance of traditions, and other social complexities - which also promotes an understanding which natives of the culture may not recognize.
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Hi Lorin,
I really don't have good knowledge in this field. But if you read handbook of Cross-cultural psychology, you will get all the answers you want...
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I am particularly interested in the time period associated with the Indian Wars of the late 1800's in the western U.S.
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Also of interest to you may be the NPS investigations into the site of the Lodge Pole (Washita) massacre (27 November 1868). See, for instance, William B. Lees et al., Archaeology of the Washita Battlefield National Historic Site (Oklahoma Historical Society, 1997).
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Does anybody know about origin of etymology of numbers in English today? Why do they have those names? I mean, one can find the etymology of number words but I was not able to find initial meaning of those words like five was derived from fist etc. Do you know any sources or books concerning this issue?
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Perhaps it would make more sense if you answered the actual question. Not every question need begin to be answered with the big bang, nor every language question with the origins of human language. The question is a simple one: the origin (or etymology) of the *names* of our numerals. We did know how to count before Arabic numerals came along.
"Five" is not derived from fist. Fist is most likely derived from Proto-Indo-European *penqe, five. Likewise, "finger" seems (though uncertainly) derived from a word derived from *penqe as well.
A nice website of the numerals in PIE languages: http://www.zompist.com/euro.htm
By the way, Arabic numbers are most likely not Arabic, but Indian and Persian, hence often called Hindu-Arabic or Indo-Arabic,
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The aim of my study is this:
Explore the lived experiences of Black women in The United Kingdom who have a diagnosis of anorexia nervosa.
The objectives are this:
1. Critically evaluate the literature to establish the current views as regards to the affect of Black ethnic group membership on the experiences of anorexia in the Black community.
2. Explore the views of Black women with a diagnosis of anorexia, with a view to determine how they feel the Black ethnic variable has influenced their experience of anorexia.
3. Explore how the cultural and social norms of Black women impacts their perceptions of self, and how this influences cultural explanations of anorexia to determine how cultural and social variables affects the experience of anorexia for Black women.
For the fourth aim I need to think of something that will incorporate the voices of care providers but I cannot think of what I should be doing exactly, this my thought so far:
4. Examine the views of specialist Clinicians to build a better psychological picture of the additional difficulties that Black women with anorexia in the UK face.
I guess my first question is does the aim fully encompass my four objectives? And my second question, do you have any ideas about how objective number four could be improved further?
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Just a formal observation. Look at the verbs that you are using in your aim and your objectives. You cannot use the verb 'explore' in your aim and then 'evaluate' in your first objective. Students tend to do this all the time. It seems that they choose verbs at random or because they like a particular verb. It does not work that way. Verbs have consequences! Let me put it like this: it is epistemologically impossible to 'explore' in the aim and to 'evaluate' in the objectives. Reading further down the objectives there is another one: determine. Do you realize that you will have to use three different methodologies to explore, to evaluate and to determine? Whatever you further want to add in terms of objectives first you will have to settle this issue of the verbs.
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There has been an intense debate, even today, on the existence of a proper fascist culture in Italy during the 20s and 30s: Those who think there was no fascist culture, since fascism failed in its attempt of cultural renewal, and those who claim the success of fascist cultural transformation, since fascism made use of culture as a political tool of modernization.
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In terms of artistic achievement, certainly. This tended to be a "religion" according to Emilio Gentile. The most lasting legacy however seems to be the fascination political for a strong leadership, and not only in Italy.
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How would you define mobility? Have you experience mobility as researcher? How would you improve your mobility as researcher?
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Mobility has been defined differently: from spending at least a week abroad to spending at least a semester in the other university as a minimum. Usually, the goal of such mobility should be to teach and/or do research in the other university, conference trips do not count. Many universities have funds to support mobility, but rules may differ: e.g. some may cover all costs for their researcher who wishes to spend some time in another university, while some may demand that the receiving university (or the mobile researcher) covers some costs or even almost all costs. Rules may also differ for inviting mobile researchers from other universities.
From the researcher's perspective, it would be great if all costs would be covered (which university covers them, is not so important as long as if this does not mean too much paperwork and waiting for a long time - e.g. until the trip has ended), if the receiving university would provide good working conditions (office space, access to all databases) and if the trip would be beneficial professionally (e.g. if, as a result, several articles would be published in co-operation with inviting university's scholars). I have visited several universities (vistis have ranged between 1-6 weeks) and not always, such visits have led to joint articles.
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What psychotheraputic theories and techniques help to heal anxiety disorders beyond the cultural diversity?
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Evangelical Christian denominations do not recognize psychotherapy as a legitimate tool for helping individuals who suffer from anxiety disorders. They view those who suffer from anxiety disorders as "possessed by the Devil" or being persecuted for some evil they have committed or some sin they have not confessed. The true cause for anxiety in most of these cases is the members of these "fundamentalist" groups attempt to live such a strict, depraved lifestyle that can never be achieved; it is a constant source of stress and anxiety. There is no foundation for their beliefs in the King James version of the Bible however, they misquote verses from this bible as the basis for their beliefs. Unfortunately, women bare the hardest burden of the lifestyle these fundamentalist sects attempt to live. They separate themselves from interacting with the general society, are not allowed to cut their hair; wear cosmetics; disagree with their husbands; or take any position of authority in the church. Anxiety disorders, depression, and even PTSD are common from women who are trapped in these situations.
Psychotherapists will be viewed as "outsiders" at the very least. Taking a very calm, compassionate approach with the patient will be helpful. Change is very difficult for these patients, although they are in desperate need of relocation and rescue from the abusive, restrictive, and punitive religious atmosphere they have been living in. Working with the patient and her family may be a helpful approach, so as not to alarm the spouse that any attempt is being made to separate the patient from the husband or the church. Explaining that Anxiety has a physiological basis and further patient information can be very valuable in these circumstances.
I hope you find this information helpful.
Rebecca C. Brumm
Walden University
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Whorf, elaborating on Edward Sapir's reflections on language and culture, postulated that language detemines culture. This postulate was later treated as a hypothesis, often called the "Sapir-Whorf hypothesis." I have seen criticism of Whorf's postulate, as well as evidence that in limited cases language can determine specific aspects of culture. I would like to hear what specialists in this field have to say.
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Since language determines vocabulary and its relationships, we know that language determines what is easy or hard to express, and therefore, language determines what is ``simple'' and what is ``complex''
that does not determine what can and cannot be considered, but it does affect what is efficient or cumbersome to express and consider
in that sense, and only in that sense (complex vs. Simple yes instead of impossible vs. Possible no), i agree with the sapir-whorf hypothesis that language affects what can be considered
humans are remarkably creative in their use and creation of language - that fact, all by itself, dooms the strong version of the hypothesis (e.g., ``iron horse'')
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I have observed that in North America, many people make shopping lists, waiters and waitresses write restaurant orders, and individuals strictly follow year long plans. However, in other cultures people rely on what they can remember based on what other people asked them to do. Does this have an impact on how students learn?
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I think it also has to do with the way kids are taught to think and communicate in school, right from elementary school level. I have taught English to Japanese learners, and I've noticed that they are obsessed with grammar. That is because Japanese schools emphasize more on grammar rather than on actual communication in the language. In India, on the other hand, there is a huge difference in learners' approach to learning depending on their social and financial backgrounds. While children from an affluent background who go to private schools ahve excellent communication and analytical skills, their not-so fortunate counterparts, especially in rural India are still focussed on rote learning.
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I've started to investigate rites, tradition, law, permission, about Muslim burial in contemporary Italy. I'm starting from an explorative sociological point of view. I'd like to compare my ongoing findings to European situations.
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It is in Italian but the translation of the title is: "The islamic cemetery: comparison among culture: caracters and locations, cities and architectures".
Problems with M.C.F-7 cells
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I have been dealing with M.C.F-7 cells from quite some time and they worked fine for me. However I am now experiencing a strange change in the cell behavior. They show a stunted kind of growth , I mean they now take much longer time to reach to confluence in flasks. Earlier when I used to sub-culture my cells, within 2-3 days the flask would become at least 80-90% confluent. However nowadays, they aren't nearly 90% confluent in even 5-6 days and never form a complete monolayer. Though I don't see any evident contamination or observe any changes as of media turbidity, pH,or cell morphology is concerned. Usually a few cells in my flasks always show some sort of autophagy. Could it be that my media (DMEM+10%fbs) is lacking on some fronts to support their complete growth? When these cells are trypsinised and sub-culteres futher, they behave normal but it takse even longer time to grow to confluence.
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Hina, Sorry to hear about your trouble with MCF7's, but what you are observing is not uncommon. A few possibilities why your cells have slowed down: 1) The passage number is too high. A good rule to follow is to not use cells that have been passaged more than 20 (30 max depending on the line) times. The reason for this is with every splitting, you are essentially selecting for a new population that has different characteristics that evolve it from the parent population. This inherently diverges the population from the original cell phenotype, and may be why your cells have slowed over time. 2) Another possibility is contamination as you have mentioned. While you see no visible signs, another potential contaminant is mycoplasma. You will not be able to see these little guys, and must send a sample of your cells/media for testing. These bacteria can siphon nutrients away from your tissue culture, thus slowing their growing and dividing rates. 3) When splitting your cells, make sure the cells are in exponential growth and do not split too hard. This limits the selection of the new population (see point #1), and keeps the cells in growth phase. Additionally, keep a close eye on the time and amount of trypsin you use. Some cells are very sensitive to long periods of trypsinization, and have poor recovery when exposed for extended times. Another possibility is to use a more gentle dissociation agent like Versene (EDTA based), but this will take longer to get the cells off the plate. Overall, my recommendation would be to make a fresh batch of media (DMEM + 10% FBS + pen/strep should be completely sufficient to sustain MCF7's), and thaw out a new frozen vial of cells of a low passage number. Once you have them growing, send some media/cells for mycoplasma testing. If you do not have a low cell passage number, received the cells from another lab, or do not have any frozen down then I would recommend purchasing a fresh batch from ATCC.org. Additionally, many journals now require validation of cells lines either by DNA genotyping or by certificates of analysis, which ATCC provides. Hopefully this was of some help, and good luck. ~Adam
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The role of cultural differences in clinical features among patients with PTSD
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The role of culture is central in infuencing PTSD symptoms. For example, cultures indoctrinate us to view the world in certain ways and to use our emotions and bodies in different ways. Many cultures are personalistic in the sense that their world views believe in autonomous spirit beings which can affect human beings for good or bad. Where I did my fieldwork in India many years ago many psychiatric conditions were often viewed as ‘spirit possession’, since this is psychologically accessible to people who believe in a cosmology which has various kinds of spirit beings. Cultural symbols are powerful in informing emotions which affects psychoneuroimmunological systems. Ancestral shamans used technologies of the mind in order to treat all kinds of traumatic circumstances. While the phenotypic symptoms of PTSD are similar, understanding of its cause and prognosis is different. In Latin America PTSD may be understood as ‘nervios’ and ‘susto’, while in Iranian/Afghan, North Indian cultures it is often referred to as ‘asabi’ or ‘hona bud’ . What is important is that the person who has PTSD symptoms needs to retrieve some kind of ontological security. Cultures may significantly help via the performance of rituals which neurologically create endocannabinoids while decreasing stress hormones noradrenaline, adrenaline and cortisol. Rituals are powerful in that they manipulate powerful emotions which inform somatic feedback systems. Many healing rituals performed by ritual specialists, shamans, religious specialists in collective societies use healing rituals as social events which act to unite social members and reaffirms socio-religious worldviews. Social rituals are very powerful in manipulating emotions which can act to heal or transform people with psycho-physical maladies. The social mind is powerful in its ability to imagine all kinds of things which directly affects psychoneuroimmunological response.
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What difficulties are these faculties facing when teaching in UAE?
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Dear Razzan Itani
Do please see the web site for a way in which this could be achieved although that is NOT the only way to do this. www.ucl.ac.uk/ccs
Sushrut Jadhav
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The role of culture in positive psychology constructs among genders.
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Hello,
I think in positive psychology Eagly & Wood perspective about gender roles (is an element of cultural context) is the most used theory (specially in character strengths research), I think it works well, but I think it also depends on the culture which you're analysing.
Here you can find some information about it:
Eagly, A. H., y Wood, W. (1999). The origins of sex differences in human behavior: evolved dispositions versus social roles. American Psychologist, 54, 408–423. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0003-066X.54.6.408
Wood, W., y Eagly, A. M. (2002). A cross-cultural analysis of the behaviour of women and men: implications for the origins of sex differences. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 699-727. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0033-2909.128.5.699
Also I think it's important to consider Brofenbrenner's theory, it is posible to apply it into positive psychology field, but I don't have enough information about applications of this theory on positive psychology.
I hope this helps. If you need more details, please let me know.
Good luck with your research!
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What about the colonial culture in former colonies? What if most citizens fail to recognize that as worth cherisihng?
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Yes but some of us prefer post mdoernity which might just point the way forward. There is a lot wrong with the Western way of life even if most Africans would love to have such problems. High rates of depression,eating disorders, loneliness and isolation etc. The rich 1% getr icher and everyoen else gets poorer.
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Visit an aquarium shop you'll be able to find different good solutions, most of lamps are ready to culture aquatic plants.
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Near-Death Experiences (NDE) have been researched and data are inconclusive. In my research exploration, NDE’s have not been verified through neuroimaging or other means through neuroscience. NDE’s are often viewed as biological and chemical phenomena that occur in the brain after a significant event that affects life. To my understanding, there is currently no way to measure brain activity at that exact moment when the NDE is said to occur. For instance, if a patient is undergoing emergency resuscitation and there is no EEG activity, that patient can still maintain a high level of brain activity that would not appear on a FMRI, PET or CAT SCAN. There usually is a trigger or an after the fact assessment that is used as the means of specifying NDE’s. One of my other life long interests is the variation of cultural differences with NDE’s. While Judeo-Christian and Islamic traditions view NDE’s a particular way, ancient civilizations such as Egyptian, Sumerian, Babylonian, Vedic Indian, Buddhist, etc. have another perspective of NDE’s. What is your experience with Near-Death Experiences (NDE)?
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Millipore-CM culture inserts are very efective for organotypic cultures. However, they are very expensive. Does anybody know a method to clean, sterilize and reuse these inserts?
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Thank you all for your answers.
- Daniel, we don't use organotypic cultures for electrophysiology only, we also use them to evaluate cell viability after Oxygen and Glucose Deprivation and we also perform immunofluorescence, protein extraction and RNA extraction on them. We do not destroy the insert, so we thought that we might be able to reuse it. We were given a protocol, but in our experience, recycling the inserts is not convenient because liquid gets through the pores and floods the top of the insert.
- Ulrich, there is another method to fabricate your own inserts in Koyama R et al., 2007, J Pharmacol Sci.
For anyone interested, the protocol for recycling the membranes is the following:
1. Remove the cultures from the insert gently with a spatula or brush
2. Rinse inserts in tap water
3. Place inserts in Trypsin-EDTA (0.05% trypsin, 0.02% EDTA in 0.9% NaCl or HBSS) (we use leftovers from cell passages)
4. Incubate 1h 37º in incubator.
5. Rinse 3 times in demineralized water
6. Place in 70% alcohol for at least 24h
7. Dry alcohol under the hood and store under sterile conditions
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Cultural transmission in animals is well accepted, but what about art produced by wildlife? Do animals produce art?
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If you enter 'animal art' in Google Scholar, you end up with more than 3 million hits!
One example mentioning animal art in the title of a scientific publication is indicated below:
Jared Diamond. 1986. Animal art: Variation in bower decorating style among male
bowerbirds Amblyornis inornatus. Proc. Nati. Acad. Sci. USA Vol. 83, pp. 3042-3046, May 1986
Is it the ‘real’ world that we observe – or one interpreted through our own personal and subjective scheme of things?
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Is it the ‘real’ world that we observe – or one interpreted through our own personal and subjective scheme of things?
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Maybe the interesting question here is not whether what we observe is real but what we mean by observing. All observation is an inference from differences about patterns of causal disposition around us - we cannot make any inference about anything else because it could not cause us to infer anything. Even to see red there must be a contrast with less red some other place or time. We call these patterns 'things' but they are just bundles of tendencies - like to reflect red light, or to fall on the floor, or to be squishy when trodden on ('tomatoes'). We have no reason to think there is anything more than these relational tendencies - nothing 'intrinsic'. So observing is just figuring out some of the causal relational tendencies around us. It is subjective in that it is relative and unreliable if done just one way. But the more different ways we infer a causal relation the lower the probability that our inference will fail to match what others infer and what we infer later. So objectivity is just lots more subjectivity in as many ways as you can. There is nothing that 'the world is really like' beyond all this. That is an idea we are born with but need to see the emptiness of. Poor old Kant didn't quite make it.
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Is it possible that national culture is the reason why women are restricted to service-based and small industries as compared to men?
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Instead of National culture it can be called societal culture, it will affect the women entrepreneurs in variety of way, choice of activities, resource availability , support system, marketing channels , availability of raw materials. the definition of women entrepreneurs will itself will change .
dr. anjali kulkarni
TISS, India
Is culture an obstacle to the globalization of education?
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Globalization of education is a very sophisticated phenomenon that involves the exchange of ideas, research, teaching techniques, and global experiences about the teaching and learning processes. Globalization of education generates substantial benefits to all societies in general and to the developing ones in particular. Most of the educational developments take place in the developed world and most of the textbooks are produced by the developed world too. While, the apparent benefits of the globalized education are being enjoyed by many societies in the developing world, however the globalized education does not pay a serious attention to the cultural differences, the value systems, the customs and habits, and sometimes even to the social and religious beliefs of the developing world. Culture is a very serious matter in many societies, and could either lead to the success or the failure of many of the globalized educational programs adopted in the developing societies. Therefore, although globalized education is a must for the progress and the sustainable development of many societies of the developing world, nevertheless culture is a very important factor that should be taken very seriously in the exchange of ideas, concepts, theories, and in the teaching and learning methods to guarantee the greatest benefit possible from globalized education. Hence, what is your precious input on globalized education?
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@Bassam et al., Singapore, our neighbouring country has a globalized education, and is very competent in international exams like TIMMS and PISA. Many Singaporeans are working overseas, this represents a source of revenue. But globalized education doesn't remove cultural values or religious values. It doesn't mean that using English and knowledge from the west, will cause people to adopt the values of the western society, both good and bad.
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I'm currently researching technological automation in British agriculture and I am failing to see why the theories of "mechanisms of power" or an "iron cage" don't correlate with the high amounts of techno-optimism expressed by farmers? Is it false consciousness or false sociology?
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Dear James
This is an interesting question. I am guessing from your summary that you have conducted empirical research and found that farmers regard automation as liberating and offering promise for the future?
Before I try to address this, just worth noting that when Weber talked about an ‘iron cage’ it was in relation to the social relations and economics of capitalism, that forces people to work for a living (Protestant Ethic, page 181). Yes he was talking about industrialisation, but it was the rationalisation of working life and bureaucracy rather than technology that created this iron cage.
Beyond Weber there is a broader sociological tradition that has seen technology as de-skilling work (the ‘proletarianisation of everyone’). Taylorism and Fordism in factory work are the prime examples here. In Taylorism, a skilled job is split into a series of components, with one worker responsible for each: these sub-tasks are repetitive and offer little opportunity for creativity. In Fordism, work is mechanised to the extent that workers have to work at the speed of the production line, again leading to workers being alienated from their work. Of course, for Marx, this alienation derived from the social relations of capitalism, which meant that workers had to sell their labour power in order to survive.
Now I suspect that for farmers, these social relations are different. Many will be self-employed, and will be seeking to maximise their income. Technology represents a means to do just this: think how much grain can be gathered by a combine harvester as opposed to a scythe! Technology also reduces the costs of employing a workforce; where one machine can do the work of ten people, the wage bill is slashed. Offset against that of course is the capital outlay and the cost of diesel!
So I wonder if this is why your respondents are optimistic. I live next to a farm, and they just love their tractors and automated gadgets to do all the tasks that would take ages to do without technology. When I am cutting my lawns, I envy them their huge mowers that could do my lawns in about ten minutes.
Does this throw any light on the issue?
Nick
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How does one go about conveying to the general society the aspects of the scientific culture they would need in their daily life?
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The National Institute for Higher Education, Research, Science and Technology (NIHERST) of Trinidad and Tobago has development several interesting community based science interactive learning tools. Why not contact them for some assistance.
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We need papers from the Caribbean to complete the Diaspora section of our book. At least 4-6 scholarly articles. Please contact me at ogundayo@pitt.edu
Thank you!
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What is "African sacred spaces?"
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Relevant to on going research.
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Hallo Kathleen C. Gerbasi,
i can give you some hints to studies aubout your item, but they are all in german, but maybe some of them will give you new refrence to other studies:
Diana Karow und Günther Rötter: Eine Studie zur analgetischen Wirkung von Musik.
In: Jahrbuch der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Musikpsychologie, Band 16, 2002.
Dieter Vaitl: Veränderte Bewusstseinszustände. Grundlagen – Techniken – Phänomenologie. Mit einem Geleitwort von Niels Birbaumer, 2012. 376 Seiten, 33 Abb., 11 Tab.
And a know, there is a scientist, Dr. Torsten Passie, at the Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, he makes some reasearch about Consciousness and altered states of consciousness. He works at the department "Klinische Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie" at the MHH.
Hope that something might be helpfull.
Best wisches for your reasearch und greatings
Gesa C. Teichert
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I'm trying to start a research on how language shapes the way we live. The reason for this is that I'm trying to prove that language does modify every cultures architecture.
We already know that climate conditions most of the building designs. I would like to find other factors that have an implication in how we design.
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Muchas gracias David, me interesa mucho lo de las imagenes mentales.
Saludos desde Sydney, Australia
Estrella Sandoval
What does the term “Research Culture” mean to you?
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When we discussed about Research Culture, I saw this is an interesting topic that researchers have different opinions about it. Please share your opinion with me. Is there any dos and don'ts in research? Is the term Research Culture in existence? Is it positive? Does it have any negative facet?
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Maybe you recognize that this is a cliché, but I would like to start by saying that it is not a surprise for me, that no entries in this inherently interesting thematic thread. That's because the task is not easy. Maybe my reflections on this issue will be a good start for further discussion... I believe that the "culture of research" is something that should be a priority and necessary in research, and what (unfortunately) often lacking. As the "research culture" I mean in the first place, all that is an expression of respect for their fellow researchers from the academic community. In particular, I think about that, what is often by different fora mentioned as necessary for the proper understanding and assessment of any scientific work by the scientific community, namely the transparency of research. The "culture of research" (means for me "the test of reliability and integrity") requires the researcher fairness, integrity and conscientiousness in transfer to other researchers a detailed description of their workshop and the methodology used to solve the tasks, and all because, to presented scientific work could be verified by the scientific community and properly assessed.
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I've seen a couple of specific behaviors (rock holding during grooming, showing the tongue/mouth to others "for inspection") in the rhesus I work with but I haven't seen much published on this other than in chimpanzees and Japanese macaques.
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No, I was thinking animal- more specifically primates.
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National culture can have a profound effect on team performance. For example aircraft accident rates are much higher for high power distance, low individualist aircrews than for low power distance, high individualist aircrews (even when adjusted for GNP-per-capita); a further example - team performance capabilities at tasks requiring various levels of creativity, from highly original ideas to modest process and product improvements, vary considerably across cultures. The Japanese are unmatched at process improvement.
During my research, I have found little in the literature on team skill sets that is of relevance to culture, and have had to develop a task/skill set of my own, which I use for 'default' culture-based assessments. Users rate the various tasks/skills in this set in terms of their importance to their proposed or actual team's performance. Clearly, the key skills/tasks of an aircrew 'team' are different to those of a research team.
I do not want to bias any discussion towards my own ideas, but I provide the following examples for clarification.
(1) National culture affects the speed of communication between team members,
(2) National culture affects the willingness of team members to contribute ideas.
As a final comment, the tools that I am building are not intended to provide the basis for any form of selection. They are primarily intended to highlight certain issues that may arise if culture is not taken into account when designing systems or operating procedures. These tools have been validated to some extent against data collected on accident rates, industrial & commercial team performances, etc.
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Your question is complex . It is like a Russian Puppet : it contains many internal/implicit questions.
What follows is not a game. It leads to a serious issue – Be patient
Has anyone come across (or developed) a team task/skill taxonomy (or set) that can be used to assess cultural aspects of team performance? A very puzzling question !
This question supposes that many prerequisites have been clarified, and not just this one : . What taxonomy is most appropriate & what for?
Has anyone come across a way to assess cultural aspects of team performance? i.e. What method to assess & what tools to assess those cultural aspects that might be relevant?
Then on the one hand :
Has anyone come across a way to assess team performance? i.e. What does it mean to assess team performance, having in mind its relation with culture…? Or What is the method to assess team performance? or What are the criteria to assess team performance ?
Has anyone come across “team performance”? i.e. What is team performance? Or What do we call “team performance”? What team?
Has anyone come across what a team is or what kind of a team is to be considered?
And on the other hand, for each of the three above questions:
Has anyone come across cultural aspects of team performance? i.e. How does culture interfere with team performance? Both inside & ouside views? How to identify both the relevant cultural “aspects” and their action mechanisms?
And also :
Do these questions address existing teams that are to be observed by an “entomologist”? –i.e. External observer
Do these questions address teams still to be created or further developed? Combined insider’s view (the actors themselves) & External observer’s view
So what? What then?
1 Your definition of Culture :” The term “culture” relates to the values, assumptions, preferences,beliefs, rituals, knowledge, skills, and behaviors that are shared at the level of the social group (or society).”
In other words, all what the individual has absorbed since he was born & converted into his self. Of course, all what we “learn”, we learn it from other people or from direct encounter with earthy reality. So, what we learn is always “cultural”. Scientists enjoy building up classifications : of course, what we learn when we were 6 months old or 5 years old might be more deeply buried inside ourselves than what we “learn “ at 15 or 50 !. But some encounters at 20 or 40 can also be decisive. We are Biological-cultural beings. We are historical beings. What we are here & now is the position on our trajectory or rather our network. We always act in the present. Some civilisations distinguish the “present” & the “imaginary” : the present is what triggers our immediate micro actions ( it involves the current situation & memories of similar situations- e.g. 20 years ago- that are relevant here & now; the imaginary is what is not relevant here & now in the past or the future : it can be an event that occurred yesterday or 10 years ago. In mid-Empire Egyptian, everything happened in the present: future & past were not embedded in the verbal form, but well, whether the action was under way or stopped – terminated, suspended, or not started yet- Past & future were indicated in a subtle way, similar to an interrogation mark
So culture is everything we make use of when facing a new situation. Well, not quite : there are the “productive” things, i.e. the one that belong to the material world, data, information, knowledge, science, technology … : this can be modeled & transformed into prescriptions; we just have to carry them on. But a new situation is also life, movement, changes ; to a large extent they are determined, but not pre-determined. So, what will really happen.=?? We have to rely, not on theory, mathematics or reductionist concepts, but on ourselves, or habits & experience. The ones that seemed to be most effective according to our past & the ones of people who are close to us & whom we trust. And also, on our capacity to find ways & means to survive in case our initial decision is wrong ….
A computer scientist attempted to design an expert system in pneumology. So, he carefully observed the behavior/ criteria of a top-physician. Then in order to make his system more robust, he wanted to combine what he had learned with a new observation : that of another expert physician. Complete failure : why? The first physician was more “aggressive” & the second one more “contemplative”; but each of them knew how to act in case his initial decision led to a failure. Mixing both approaches leads to chaos. MIT developed an expert system for a renal intensive care unit together with the best physicians of the Mass General Hospital. Then, they wanted the expert system be tested in the Mass Gen Hospital ( the “authors”), in a general I C U, & in a post surgical ICU. The system was rejected by everybody !!! the people in the Mass Gen Hosp ( “ we know more than what we told you : we told you what we can describe with our language, our concepts, …. Not our feelings of experienced professionals; in the general ICU : no ! if we apply the advices of the expert system & if something goes wrong , what do we do? We prefer to call a human referent: he will have the expertise to react & will have the “legal” responsibility; the post op unit : if things seem a bit abnormal, we immediately transfer the patient to a top ICU)
2- the definition of performance
I have no experience of aircrafts ! Only of the design of computer / telecom systems to support ICU & Anesthesia teams. Also creating & managing international R/D projects in Europe dealing with the new IT in medicine at large
In our Western world, we design what should be an ideal team, an ideal project, an ideal something, …. and we act to make it pass in the facts. ( actually , we repeat again & again the old myth of the « creation » : God wanted to build the Universe & did it ; we just try to do the same thing – with a lot of success as far as science & technology is concerned) We know that this team/project consists of people and machines. People ,-pilot, driver, physician, patient, sportsman, manager, …. You name them- do not limit themselves to their reason, their knowledge, know how, technical expertise or technical skills: this is their “production” dimension. It can be analyzed, reduced to schemes, to algorithms … The life / living being dimensions as well as the “external” circumstances cannot be modelled. Although we keep striving again & again. Is it more effective to keep trying or use an other approach. My view point). In addition, culture can be observed from two different points
To be practical :
A__you describe bipolar cultural dimensions – actually three of them, for all practical purposes, from Hofstede – Why ? because he is well-known and referred to by many people – full stop ; not because he is the best one – And then, you show that there is clear correlation between them & crisis management.
Why not turn things upside down.
When we had to design automatic systems for ICU’s (Intensive Care Units) we addressed three major topics =
1. The normative : data, information flows, alogorithms, sensors, …. The rôles of the people= what ought to be done
2. The practical : what was really done ( physician have two patient records : the official one; shared with the other professionals, on the computers; & their personal ones : “the patient is lying; he is drunk; he is fooling his family; he is hiding something, …. “ ; similarly, nurse exchange “confidential” notes on the patients, the physicians, whom to trust, …. ) We need to know that in order to make the automatic system more effective – to compensate for the human weaknesses
3. The crises/breakdowns : everything goes wrong = what to do
As we are not Anglo-Saxon, the priority is not the normative ( see the paper of Dawson , Cambridge) but the breakdowns : everything has to be organized from them.
B__Why not start describing/observing what is a catastrophy? What ought to be done? How to organize the automatic system accordingly? How to train the people as if breakdowns were just normal events : no reason to panic. In this respect, the impact of culture is minimized. And instead of checking whether Hofstede or Trompenaars dimensions are relevant and to what extent, just identify the qualities that people & the equipment need most to successfully manage a breakdown.
This being said, individuals are not equal. And some will learn faster than others and be more effective & more efficient.
So, understanding their cultural background is most important – as in dramatic situations, behaviours learned during childhood will be prominent !
BUT WHAT IS CULTURE ?
When I got interested in Culture as an issue worth considering ( +/- 1987-1990), I faced two approaches :
- That of Hofstede, Trompenaars, … = purely descripitive; you smile often, you talk a lot, … OK: you are put in class 1; you want to act on your own … OK, class 2; the past is important for you, class 3…. And so on : you prefer white wine or beer , a contract is just a piece of paper, ….class 4 … Important if you want to leanr a rôle : how to do business with a Japanese, a Chinese or a Frenchman
- That of Charles Hampden-Turner just when he began to work with Fons Trompenaars ( The Seven Cultures of Capitalism; later, he stopped trying to understand …) , Emmanel Todd ( INED, Paris), or to a certain extent, Steve Toulmin, & many others about “time”, also, H Maturana, Montaigne, & people who recently became interested in empathy …. = what are the roots of Culture, what is culture as seen from the inside of the individual; the way he behaves in society – i.e. the view point of Hofstede … - is another story
I have of course chosen the second viewpoint. Culture is what gives more “thickness” to your present. It has to be continuously elaborated. It has to evolve. But this implies that you are fully aware of what you have to “conserve” in order to remain yourselves.
But this an other story.
What are the reasons for the emergence of the global culture?
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Seeking to identify few reasons for the emergence of global culture.
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I guess, I would start with the fact that a important part of human activity -economics, that is- is in large part unified and generalized on a global level - for this, see further Wallerstein, Amir and others. Parting from this fact, culture will be influenced from a globalized system as strong as economics - this could be investigated with an empirical study.
How can cheating be viewed in different disciplines including philosophy, sociology, culture,...etc?
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Cheating is the worst word I have ever heard. What is cheating? Can we have explanation for cheating within ethical frames? Can cheating be adjusted even for the interest of higher objectives?
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Without making a study of it, I think of cheating as ‘free-riding’ on society, which from an evolutionary psychology perspective would be betraying the community and undermining the social virtues that bind the community. Young children and more advanced mammals and birds apparently are hardwired to resent and detect ‘unfair benefit’ (recall the capuchin monkey that rejected unequal pay, see http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gOtlN4pNArk), and this sense continues to develop in adult homo sapiens (see, e.g., http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052748703673604575550243700895762). Because cheating can benefit the individual in the immediate case, I would say evolutionary psychology predicts arms races and local equilibria between selfish and altruistic genes, between cheaters and enforcers. Can cheating be justified in the interest of higher objectives? Sure, there are scenarios: if a man cheats on paying taxes because he needs the money to feed or obtain needed drugs for his children, or a crew takes down a big time crime lord at the casino as in countless movie plots…some social rules are pretty clear, some are obscure or de minimis – no one seems to treat going 5-10% over the speed limit as material. How about a bike racer who hides taking performance enhancing drugs, wins major races, then establishes a charity that raises big money for medical research? or a mining magnate who makes his fortune on the backs of de facto slave labor then establishes a scholarship that promotes global understanding? Standard means vs. ends arguments apply here, though cheating usually is not thought of as involving matters of life and death (how about cheating on the lottery for the military draft in the time of war?), so there may be more room for considering trade-offs between means and ends. But a sense for fair play is deeply rooted - most people I suppose would disapprove of the cheating bike racer who wins fame, or the 'robber baron' who makes a fortune, unless, e.g., the cheater is doing it for higher purposes such as saving lives (e.g., smuggling Jewish refugees away from the Nazis), as opposed to personally benefiting.
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Assessing the credibility and trust factor in terms of viewer's opinion related to shows on TV especially in the news and current affairs category.
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I work in this area. I think I (personally) would need a better definition of 'credibility'? Are you talking "legitimate" displays of visual imagery? The amount of trust individuals place in the accuracy of information presented? The perceived reality of the dialogue?
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I challenge you to form your own opinion and write a response letter to this article/debate.
If you do wish to respond with a letter, your response should be emailed directly to the editor at: publications@rsph.org.uk
There are plenty of holes in our arguments!
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Absolutely. As you rightly point out public health is rooted in urban planning. It's just that  communicable disease was the driver then whereas, ironically, 'drivers' are now part of the problem! (Sorry, terrible pun). There is now an emerging movement of planners, designers and architects that are very in tune with the public health agenda and equally increasing numbers of public health professionals who are keen to influence the planning agenda. Sadly they rarely seem to meet in the middle and there seems to be too few formal structures or systems to harness their collective intelligence effectively, so it remains confined to the conference circuits or a few showcase projects. 
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Hofstede (1980) in his seminal work on culture described a set of features that influences how group of people reacts to its environment and thus differentiates group membership. In his definition of national culture, five independent dimensions were proposed in relation to national culture. They are namely; power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism – Collectivism and Masculinity.
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The initial model was extended to include:
5. Short Term - Long-Term Orientation (Hofstede & Bond, 1988)
6. Indulgence - Restraint (Hofstede & Minkov, 2010).
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Reason I ask: recently, I published these 2 papers:
2 x papers on - the Structure of the Meme (the unit of culture):
My Question: Have there been any prior (scientific, empirical) identifications of the meme? (i.e. - since Dawkins first proposed the term `meme' in The Selfish Gene, 1976?)
- I've searched the literature on Memetics (e.g. Dawkins, the Journal of Memetics, and Blackmore, Dennett, Aunger, Distin, etc) but - can't find any...
(but - I may have missed something.)
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Hello, I am working on memes def. now. Oliver was talking about Mneme - unit of memory.
regards,
Rob
How does cell culture density affect gene expression?
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Cell-cell contact or lack of contact may alter gene expression and subsequently, cell behavior eg. proliferation. Has anyone done gene expression or cell cycle analysis in relation to cell culture density? My interest is in human cancer cell lines.
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Well, the previous statement is not that kind of "black and white" one - I would say that cancer cells, at least in vitro, are, when it comes to contact inhibition due to increased density, less density-dependent than normal cells, yes! But, still you can see that many of them markedly slows down their growth in high density cultures, leading to increased accumulation of cells in the G0/G1-cell cycle phase and less amount of cycling cells (diminished S-phase). However, there is great variation depending on which cell line you study, some are more, others less contact inhibited. On the other hand, increased contact between cancer cells in in vitro cultures often increase their resistance to cell death/apoptosis, maybe (at least partly) secondarily to the G0/G1-accumulation and/or decreased S-phase. This is one of the reasons why 3-D cultures has gained a lot of interest during the recent years. In these, tumor cells are grown in immediate proximity to each other, in clumps/aggregates actually, and sometimes with other (normal) cell types as well, just like the situation in the tumor in situ/in the body. These cells shows much lower proliferative activity, and often completely different responses to drugs as compared with traditional 2-D cultures. So, to conclude, most likely your cells, at least when it comes to gene expression related to cell cycle, would show obvious differences if you compare e.g. cell cultures harvested at low density with cell cultures harvested at high density (100% confluency).
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To clarify my idea, we all know that the earth climate is changing. In order to adapt with new situations Architects and Urban designers are working to find new solutions or initial ideas on how people can build new houses which can suit properly to the new environment. However, it is essential to understand that some areas persist to keep their own traditional and unique identities in terms of their lifestyle, their economy, their resistance to change. Finding solutions to solve this problem or to mix these two aspects can lead mankind to a new era when sustainability is no longer a problem for Architects and Urban designers.
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This is a great topic! I have been studying a question similar to yours in my doctorate, however, I am researching urban environments. I am interested in how the local cultures shape response and adaptation to climate and how the meaning of thermal comfort varies across cultures. My focus at the moment is the rebuild of Christchurch post-earthquake and the so-called vitality aimed for the city. I am investigating what are the socio-cultural preferences that make local people want - and then adapt - to the climate even when it is not considered thermally adequate (read outside of the comfort zone). If we could provide these motivators could we also prompt adaptation? Or is it just the matter of "designing microclimates" following pre-formulated prescriptions? Clearly what works as stimulators in China might be seen different in Brazil or Finland......
What is the viability of traditional culture in the context of development?
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My opinion directs to the challenge of traditional culture; development represses directly or indirectly tradition, and traditional cultures.
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In a recent book on music that evolved out of my KAM research, I address this very question. Is not music and dance the embodiment of cultures that, when lost or unappreciated, result in the brokenness of traditions in favor of a static model of education based on lies?
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I want to understand cultural mediation in non-museum context.
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My recent readings point to archivists moving into a much more visible position as mediators between the content and the public. Many archivists are historians and educators who publish regularly. Outreach and curation are archival functions also but with different materials. Methods in historical representation and cultural (perhaps ethnographic) interpretation have evolved differently, so the question may also be how far archivists can go to interpret history on the basis of material in the archives?
A basic factual narrative is already provided in archival finding aids with biographical or organizational history, but most of the data and information is raw and needs to be contextualized, analyzed, and interpreted by researchers, and their thesis presents the framework for their scholarly approaches.
Is there room for archivists to contribute to scholarly work? I would think, most certainly, but I respect the position adhering to the fundamental curation of manuscripts and institutional records. You can say, there is a range within which archivists see their role as mediators of the historical and/or cultural record, depending on the collecting scope of the archival institution.
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I have tried quantitatively with a hierarchical cluster analysis - looking to triangulate the data
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Dear Pat,
Thanks for the helpful advice. Just one last question: the organisation works with a matrix structure and many employees (43%) work at multiple locations, so would the covariates for location be needed in this case?
Nick
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Cultural aspects influence our experiences and how to provide care.
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Culture is important to be used as a framework for our care as it shape our behavior, believes, and attitudes
After how many generation people become representative of a culture?
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I am going to interview Australian participants and they should not be bi cultural and be representative of Australian culture. Since people with different cultural background live in Australia, I was wondering that after how many generation people fully adopt the new culture.(for example second or third generation?) Thank you for your help Regards, Fatima
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This is dependent on different individual`s ancestry due to varying degrees of correlation between their original nationality to Australia's. My hypothesis would be that the greater the variance in fundamental beliefs, the longer a family will identify as bicultural. Measuring this variance, which is an essential component of answering your question, is an entire project upon itself. From my point of view, the biggest possible issue that I can see is purely methodological: how to offer a clear definition of what exactly constitutes "Australian Culture". As Noman Mohammad has already indicated, this is a huge task in of itself; I also agree that this is a full project that you need to address before delving too deep into how different immigrant groups feel about bi-cultural values. It is not possible to identify how people see themselves as culturally if clear qualifiers for different cultures are not identified (especially if someone's perspective of what they identify as differs from their core values, such as in the false-consensus effect).  My suggestion is establishing a clear set of values that are, generally speaking, reflected heavily in Australian cultural icons. Unfortunately I am not particularly versed in Australian cultural traditions, so I cannot offer any good references After your interviews, you could then quantify the responses in terms of how the responses correlate with what you have identified as the core values. This way, you can identify how much generations assimilate information and values from their surroundings. All of this will be necessary before you can clearly identify how bi-cultural immigrants are, and how much representation they feel is necessary. Your question is entirely premised on the results of another study that needs to be conducted. Hopefully this helps a little bit. It is not a perfect response by any means, but that is my general point of view.