Science topic

Cultural Studies - Science topic

The study of human culture in all its manifestations, across time and across cultures
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Gender studies as an interdisciplinary field encompasses sociology, history, the health sciences, education science, cultural studies among many others. I'm currently writing my bachelor's thesis in communication studies, but my topic heavily touches on Men's studies. Traditionally, it seems that communication studies are rarely included in Men's studies related anthologies, journals and the like, even though there's a large body of research intersecting with the two areas. Why is that? I'm currently having trouble establishing the state of the art when it comes to communication studies within Men's studies. Am I missing something?
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Dear Linus,
It is not exactly clear which your research problem is, or at least the topic of your paper. If you intend, for example, to address the role of media in social construction of (hegemonic) masculinity / masculinities, some scientific literature is avaliabe (see, for example, among other interesting approaches, the worthwhile studies in the book ”Men, Masculinity, and the Media”, edited by Steve Craig, Sage Publications, 1992), as is also for phenomenological approaches, as for example how media portray (idealized) men, or how media influence men self-image, self-esteem, and body esteem.
I wish you much success in your research.
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I would like to get prepared for pursuing my PhD. I am reading different theories as much as I can but I am not getting any unique, useful and demanding topic. I am seeking your kind support about how to choose a suitable and unique topic for thesis. Topics can be from English Literature, Cultural studies and any other field related to my discipline.
If you have any new idea in your mind, share and cooperate me to finalize a topic.
Kindly help me.
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Dear Anuradha Dhiman , I certainly have plans but I am trying to explore some new areas where I can anchor my topic. Though postcolonialism, postmodernism, cultural studies, gender studies and green studies attract me much, I am trying to get something new where I have really something to contribute. Thank you.
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How is the notion of "cultural distance" perceived/defined/employed/researched/tackled in current business/management/trade/etc. studies?
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You will likely find the (recent) work of people such as Oded Shenkar, Sjoerd Beugelsdijk, and Douglas Dow very useful. A good starting point might be: Beugelsdijk, S., T. Kostova, M. van Essen. V. Kunst and E. Spadafora (2018) Cultural distance and the process of firm internationalization, Journal of Management 44(1): 89-130.
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Dear colleagues,
I was encountering bacterial contamination in my tissue culture studies. How can I avoid these contaminations?
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When you start plant tissue cultures, you know that you want to start with material that is free from any microorganisms. (The only part of the plant that is usually free is the shoot tip.) However, you have used a whole stem piece. You probably surface sterilized the shoot with chemicals but your bacteria are inside the shoot before you started. When you put it on the culture medium with nutrients the bacteria grew. I do not know what plant you are using but I suggest that you surface sterilize the shoot segments and then working in a hood (with usual aseptic technique) you take a cork borer and remove plant material from the center of the stem. See if you can get that to make callus without the bacteria. (In another case explants from roots can use a cork borer that takes cortex but not central tissue that contains xylem.) Do not use any part of the explant that might have sodium hypochlorite on it. Another way is to surface sterilize seeds and grow the plants in sterile containers. The plants that grow might be free of bacteria and then you can use a whole stem piece. Hope you get this to work. Good luck.
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I have spent hours searching for a journal in q1 or q2 at Web of Science, however, I could not get the way to resolve this matter. Our paper deals with the pandemics in the Arabic novels using the New Historicism approach, so, we aim to get a journal in, Literature, Literary Criticism, Middle East, Literature Theory, or Cultural Studies.
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A week ago the new JCReport is released (see enclosed file).
Good luck with finding a suitable journal.
Best regards.
PS. You can also search in the so-called Master Journal list of Clarivate: https://mjl.clarivate.com/home here you can see in which index of the WoS a journal is included (SSCI, SCIE or ESCI).
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Currently working on a new drug, previously tested on cell culture studies only. Will administer through IP injection. How do I assess its permeability into the brain and across the bbb? Thanks.
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In addition to the answer of Geertje you should carefully purge the vascular system by perfusion of saline or an appropriate buffer
best regards , Gert
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While I was studying Edmund Spenser I encountered Pastoral literature again, I mean his Shepheardes Calendar.
As you know although there are some Pastoral examples in Persian Literature like the Rumi's Moses and the Shepherd:
We don't have outstanding Pastoral literature as an independent genre in Persian Literature.
Image Source:
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Thanks, big help!
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Thanks
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we lost a large number of intellectuals, critics and writers during the years from 2003-2020.
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I believe it is imperative to work on a some form of a literary anthology to register all the literary works that depicted the turning point in the history of the country and how the American invasion of Iraq and its aftermath were portrayed in the works of Iraqi writers (dead or still alive). It is a promising and massive project but it is not an impossible task. There is a bad need for volunteers to start working on such project. It is a national obligation!
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While our studies were going on, we noticed long thin formations around the cells as in the photo. While trying to understand what was happening, we saw that it was also in the newly opened sterile flask. When kept in the medium, their length becomes longer and their shape becomes curled. We used all the ingredients fresh. Could they be parasites or fungi?
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By my idea these formatione's filamenti are.
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دراسات ثقافية
موقع متخصص في الدراسات الثقافية العربية والمترجمة (دراسات، أبحاث، مقالات، كتب عربية ومترجمة).
رابط الموقع:
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Thanks for sharing such beautiful link with us Mr. Prof., Sir!
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I am interested in developing a greater understanding of US 'high stakes' assessments in literature for 16-19 year olds.
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i don't know anyone like that but this is a research I will be looking out for.
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I'm working on research that investigates how to achieve awareness of cross-cultural competence in Egyptian-Japanese work places. in order to overcome the cultural differences, communication problems and its bad impact on work environment.
currently, open ended interviews and literature analysis are the main lines, but still cant decide on best method and methodology! any recommendations?
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Dear Sara Abdellatif, Can you please clarify your research so we can try to help. What do you mean by Egyptian-Japanese workplaces? Are you comparing "workplaces" in Egypt and Japan? Normaly, in social sciences one can only compare subjects or objects sharing the same time-space scale. If they don't have it convective or contrastive research must be used. Can you please elaborate more on your research subject, data, and inquiry?
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I am very interested to hear what you think about the role of an art critic? I am thinking mainly of philosophically based criticism rather than gallery based criticism written to sell artworks. What should art critical writing attempt to achieve? Who do you know of who has achieved this?
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One of the art critic roles may be expanding the realm of possibility, through various even contradictory interpretations and comments which can persuade the artist to create new different works or start new career.
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I am working with lymphatic endothelial cells and trying to test effect of few chemicals, on LECs by wound healing scratch assay. My confusion is, if I have 4 different chemicals cited in different literature to be used for cell culture studies, in different concentration let's say, if A is 10 um then B 25, C may be 100 and D 400um. What would be ideal concentration if I want to compare the effect of these individual chemical on one cell type. Should I be choosing one from literature individually or a standard concentration for all to be used, to make a comparison.
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Nimal Raveendran Thank you Nimal sir for helping me with your wisdom
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I am a first-year PhD student who would like to hear about other researchers' experience related to interdisciplinarity within the humanities, especially those combining both text and visual elements:
  • Which are some suitable methods that can be applied?
  • Should both areas of studies be represented in a balanced way?
  • Any tip that you would have loved to hear before developing your own interdisciplinary project
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This largely depends on the more specific areas that you are researching of course. There are correlations between literary theory and art/aesthetic theory, and both can and are often utilized for art and literature, so you can draw correlations between the two. In addition, I tend to use theory that already exists in the interdisciplinary realm, like Derrida’s hauntology, or Kristeva’s abjection(two of my favorite). The balance between the two fields Is really up to you and how you approach your research as long as one isn’t an afterthought, in which case you need to question whether it belongs in the project. I hope that helps!
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I am in the process of trying to find out the evolving/modern culture of a certain musical genre by means of qualitative approach.
Are interviews an essential part of such topics ? Aside form Interviews , what other options do i have?
Thank you
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Renben: Like many other approaches, it would be beneficial if you have a sample data set in order to come up with a basic question, in case you do not have it yet. If you are thinking about a grounded theory approach, then my recommendation is for you to "interview" a diverse group of artists within the genre you want to study, to generate the basic data set. Of course, use Since one of the weaknesses of grounded theory is that you would be using inductive reasoning; therefore, it is particularly important for you to have well defined and type-organized questions for the "final" interview questionnaire. The sample data set will help you generate the final questionnaire. This way it would be easier for you to generate reasonable conclusions, and not overtly simplified ones.
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There have always been more poor people than rich people in any given place at any given time, though rich people would seem to fence themselves off from harm more, eat better, allocate themselves better health care, insure themselves expensively from risk, invoice their burdens on the poor, and live longer. In thousands of years, the population of the long-living rich has never come close to outstripping that of their shorter-life-spanned poor compatriots. Why is this the case?
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Hi Nyasha, the mortality rate of poor people is relatively high indeed, but so is their fertility rate, which offsets earlier demises. This contributes to a quite stable proportion between the rich and the poor.
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India is a diverse nation and the social, economic and cultural differences in all the regions (North India, South India, East India, and West India) of India implied to miscellaneous cultural differences. Is there any research conducted to study internal cultural differences in India?
P.S I'm also interested to take a glance at how other countries argue the intercultural challenges that they faced while working with India firms based in India.
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I am not in position to response to your question -1.
However, all companies conduct cultural sensitivity awareness training for their employees when they go to other country to minimize the conduct error due to cultural difference.
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After WWII and with regard to some causes like intercultural philosophy, the multiculturalism and poststructuralism , comparative literature has been distinguished from its previouse situation, which was known American school and has tended to cultural studies. Some scholars like Susan Bassnett and Jonathan Culler have criticized this tendency. What about you? Do you think that this tendency is usefull or not?
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Comparative literature may be part of the cultural studies, or the contrary, if the literary text reflects really its cultural origins.
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I am writing a paper in another language where most of the terminology is not readily translated. If I self-translate most readers won't figure out what I am talking about. Should I just transfer the English terminology as is?
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In addition to all that has been said above, translation depends on the subject matter. One has to be very careful of the concepts that cannot be captured by single words of another language. As a translator of works in my mother tongue to English, I have found myself many years later making revision on words I thought could be easily interchanged with the English language. So a lot of research and careful reflection is absolutely necessary.
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Dear Colleagues,
I am putting together a collection of essays on Literature and Class for the publisher Routledge.
Some of you may look at this question with different eyes than mine.
So please tell me about any experiences you have writing about literature through the lens of social class.
Have you done such analysis?
What theory did you find most helpful?
How do you define social class when it comes to writing about it in the arts?
Thanks for any and all ideas and comments.
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In an academic sense, social class is a reality directly linked to academic attainment, heritage, financial status and social positions. Hence an individual's knowledge of the literary and relevant theories and concepts naturally will be applied in making an analysis. However, these variables I mentioned, in many ways contribute to an individual's social construction of reality, inclination and attributions. Beyond and within academic stipulations of analysis of texts, individuals view texts based on the aforementioned persuasions and worldviews.
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theater that has been devised by Arab American actors as well as playwrights.
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Its mean : the theater performances that made by the arabs refuges in america
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Routledge has just reissued my book 'Student Learning in Higher Education' in its revivals series. It was first published in 1981. Have the fundamentals of how Western students study changed in that time? Does a Western perspective do justice to how students from other cultures study?
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Dear Prof. Wilson,
I'm working as a Research Fellow at the Chemnitz University of Technology in the field of Intercultural Competence. At our University, in a small town in East-Germany, our international stutends' rate goes up to 27% (Wintersemester 2018). It increased in only ten years, going from 7% in 2006 until 25% in 2016. In the frame of our research on Academic Cultures and Integration at TU Chemnitz, I have conducted interviews with with researchers and teaching staff and international students studying in Chemnitz about their difficulties (both groups) in an intercultural learning environment. Many topics were enlightened: art of teaching (frontal vs. participative), structural (in Germany, choice of the classes is on the students whereas in France, for example, where I'm from, students receive a study plan), financial (pressure to finish early your studies)... I'm working on the publication.
Regards from Germany!
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Although I already finished one research project which includes visual data analysis I'm still looking for tips and tricks on visual data analysis.
How do You collect data?
How do You analyse visual data?
How do You interpret visual data?
What are your topics of visual data analysis?
And here you are piece of work which I am co-author:
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and Saras's Pink Visual Ethnography. Best intro. We have been using visual ethnography working with refugees. Unfortunately did not publish it in visual form. You can check in my works: Generation 1.5...
Best
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Several authors claim that the first heritage institutions were created for the first time in Africa during colonization. I am looking for references that affirm the opposite. Studies attesting that there already existed in Africa an extra-family heritage, common to nations and peoples, but also that its was institutionalized and organized before the colonial period.
Thank you
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I am urgently searching for a theory, most likely in psychology of learning and education which holds that the more a leaner is good at calculations (Quantitative Technique) subjects such as mathematics, formal logic, the less the candidate is likely to perform in other subjects involving verbal and language based reasoning such as cultural studies, religion etc.
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Well, this is very heavy question. You should bear in mind that learning of mathematical operations is - in the aspects of learning theories - very similar to grammar learning because both of them are based in logic thinking operations (e.g. induction, deduction, abstraction etc.). Learning about literature (e.g. reading literature and literary theory), music, film, culture etc. is quite different and include some elements of creative thinking. There are several didactics theories that are dealing with it: theory of formal discipline, theory of generalisation etc.
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How does Hofstede's theory on 6 dimensions of culture (used to compare culture to culture) speak to themes found in cultural studies and postcolonial studies literature (such as orientalism and occidentalism, stereotype)?
Hofstede is this researcher who did a research study in the workplace in 50 countries in the 70s, and he created 6 dimensions to compare the culture of one country to another such as individualism vs. collectivism, power distance (the degree to which the less powerful members of a society accept and expect that power is distributed unequally), masculinity vs. femininity (The Masculinity represents a preference in society for achievement, heroism, assertiveness, and material rewards for success. Its opposite, Femininity, stands for a preference for cooperation, modesty, caring for the weak and quality of life), etc. 
To read more about the Hofstede's dimensions, go here: https://www.hofstede-insights.com/models/national-culture/
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Livia Rosseto Your paper is very fascinating, even though it was definitely out of my area of expertise. I appreciate the engagement and comparison between different approaches to spatial planning. The discussion on different forms of knowledge, aka knowledgescape, is wonderful. However, it did not touch on Hofstede as much as I would like, but I really enjoy this piece. It definitely taught me new things.
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I am seeking to approach the concept of loneliness via a critical review and reflection on the concept of aloneness. I find much more research literature on the former and little exploration of the latter. Why is that? Of course, loneliness as a concept needs further exploration, not least how it is understood not only across the life course, but by those from different cultural and ethnic backgrounds. What about aloneness?
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Considering aloneness separately is how leisure studies scholars study contemplation and spirituality (as leisure activities). I've written in this area, but Paul Heintzman (Univ. of Ottawa) is the leading thinker here.
Bob Stebbins
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Hi everyone,
I'm doing Saos-2 cell culture study. There has contamination about 2 months and I could not find the cause. There is always a blur in the flask. I share the microscope image after incubation.
Environmental conditions ; 5% CO2, 98% humidity, 37 °C , DMEM-High glucose and F12
Waiting for your ideas ..
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Hi
I'd recommend you to start with a fresh stock. Even if u add antibiotics and antimycotic agents in higher concentration than normal, this contamination would not go away. Discard these cells as i can see that cells have not yet adapted to the original epithelial morphology typical of Saos-2 cells indicating that they are in stress and like u said there is a turbidity in the medium so no way that it indicates the presence of debris which sometimes is released in the medium by the cells. So these cells shouldn't be propagated or passaged further or be used for experiment.
For further confirmation use mycoplasma testing kit or DAPI staining for mycoplasma.
For bacteria u can take a few microliters of the media and spread on nutrient agar media or any bacterial broth and observe for enhancement of growth. This should erase any confusions and again start with a fresh stock and keep a watch on your aseptic technique as well.
Hope it helps
şerefe !!
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Can someone suggest a machine learning solution, proprietary or open source, to analyse speeches (audio or transcripts) and literature (long texts).
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You should try out the Google text-to-speech/speech-to-text and see how you get on, that will at least help with one part of the problem: https://cloud.google.com/speech-to-text/
You could then do some statistical analysis of the text in something like Nvivo.
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I have two studies titled “ A Comparative Sports Culture Study between Europeans, North Americans and a Modern Muslim Nation” and “A multidimensional sport attitudes scale for multinational research. If you are interested, I can share them with you.

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Please share with us.
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Wherever your chosen reading locale - beach, park bench, airplane, air-conditioned living room - make sure you’re curling up with the best books of summer 2018. From novels to short story collections, historical yarns to nonfiction titles drawn from the headlines, there’s something new for readers of all stripes to dig into this summer. Debut authors with buzzy fiction, teen activists marking a movement and historical experts populate this summer reading list for 2018.
My suggestions are (for now):
1. Female Persuasion by Meg Wolitzer
2. The High Season by Judy Blundell
3. Look Alive Out There by Sloane Crosley
4. Nedoumice by Dzevad Karahasan
5. Alfir by Irfan Horozovic
6. The Missing by Agatha Christy
Do yoh have suggestions?
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Gore Vidal's essays, without fail. Beautiful style, analytical and knowledgeable.
Gore Vidal's 'Creation', a novel about a point in time when great thinkers emerged and the world changed, as they say in all the good blurbs. Brilliant novel and brilliant history!
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I am interested in doing tissue culture work on Cashew, I need some idea related to that
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Thanks @ Adom and Abumere for your response
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Hello, Colleagues,
I am having some success in mapping a pop cultural fiction phenomenon from small beginnings, to a circle of cognscenti, to a wild upswing in popularity.
There is a dark side to the fiction phenomenon in terms of dealing with human differences. So how can theory help in studying what appeals to the informal reader in this writing and what demographic segment makes use of this writing?
I have posted elsewhere about my case-in-point but now I am just wondering about the mechanics of the transmission and adoption of attitudes. Would cultural studies have theories, anthropology, sociology?
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Hello Gloria, greetings from Germany.
In the field of early European Ethnology , Hans Naumann suggested the theory of "Gesunkenes Kulturgut" in the early 1920s, saying that innovative powers in higher socio-cultural hierarchies create cultural aspects, which are then by time copied and adapted by what was then called "lower classes". Obviously, this theory didn't stand for long, as many examples of modern pop culture show us that culture may be transferred vertically bottom-to-top as well (Jeans, Tattoos, Boots with steel cabs, etc.). But nevertheless it is a considerable idea to begin with. It might also be worth discussing and adapting the Broken-Window-Theory by Wilson and Kelling or the characteristics of innovation diffusion stated by Hägerstrand for your work. Also defining the characteristics of the "Early-Adaptors" in diffusion processes and seeing different mechanisms in "vertical" and "horizontal" diffusion, using cultural expressions to include or exclude, might show a path to how a cluster of theories that might be helpful.
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Whether school culture exert different degree of influence between children of higher Socio-Economic Status(SES) and lower Socio-Economic Status families?
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Dear Leonidas A. Papakonstantinidis
Thanks for the answer. I am actually more concerned about the methodology of studying school culture than definition of school culture.
Thanks
SKM
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I used the World Values Survey longitudinal data file merged with the European Values Survey file as instructed. From this data, I tried to recreate the cultural dimensions, and plotted the cultural map but I got different coordinates in my recreated cultural map from the one in their website. I used SPSS and followed the instructions to the letter in their website http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/WVSContents.jsp. How can I resolve this problem? Thank you!
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See also this other book. I quote something from it as a possible point of departure for your question:
"This problem of “spatial mismatch” can be addressed with GIS tools, but this approach introduces an inevitable level of uncertainty. These problems of spatial mismatch and uncertainty could be reduced for NASS Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Improving Crop Estimates by Integrating Multiple Data Sources A VISION OF NASS IN 2025 43 if a basic spatial unit could be adopted, and all data could be expressed as attributes of one or more basic spatial units."
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In my own work on cultural crossing, I have tried to offer a detailed analysis of how readers experience descriptions of cultures that are not their own. Once you think about it, "culture" is an intangible and fuzzy term. Cultural studies has argued this for a long time, of course. But when we as postcolonial critics talk about cross-cultural or trans-cultural experiences, are we not tacitly simplifying the concept of culture to a point of distortion? Can we argue about any aspect of cross-cultural studies without assuming that it is possible to arrive at a definition of culture consisting of a list of characteristics? I have the impression that the only unambiguous comment about culture that can be made is that it appears to be a universal. 
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When human begins live together, as a society, in a particular area, they form several key habits and norms by which they live their life. Culture is the knowledge, language, values, customs, belief, food, attitudes, religion, morals that are passed from person to person and one generation to the next. Dominant culture consists of several sub cultures. Each sub culture provides its members with a different set of values and expectations. They share these norms with one another and collectively, this is called a culture. Culture is a collective phenomenon. Culture is a way of acting, a way of behaving; It is continually changing and dynamic. Culture is not inherited, it is learned
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The act of Censorship is obsessed with labeling, deleting and removing; the act of Selection concentrates on advising, educating and adding options. What are social and cultural factors that influence the selection of texts to be translated and published?
What are the relations between censorship and selection in the context of literary translation?
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As regards the relatonship between translation and censorship, you could take a look, first, at the discussion in Translation Studies in 2011 and 2012. The discussion started with the article ‘‘Translation and Censorship’’, by Piotr Kuhiwczak, Translation Studies
4, 2011, no. 3, and was commented on by Brian James Baer, Beate Müller and Paul St-Pierre & Cormac Ó Cuilleanáin in 2012 (attached).
Secondly, you might wish to read Samantha Sherry's (2012) PhD dissertation Censorship in Translation in the Soviet Union in the Stalin and Khrushchev Eras (attached) especially for its references section even if the topic itself is outside your sphere of interests..
Finally, as regards text selection for purposes of translation, you might wish to read a few articles on retranslation as such texts often discuss the issue of selecting texts for (re)translation. See e.g. Paloposki, Outi, and Kaisa Koskinen. "A thousand and one translations: Revisiting retranslation." BENJAMINS TRANSLATION LIBRARY 50 (2004): 27-38, available at http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.468.4623&rep=rep1&type=pdf#page=42.
Hope the above references will help you move forward...
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1. The Angkor wat temple is a vaishnavite temple
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It evinces Indian influence to a tremendous extent. The depiction of Vishnu arises from the first half of the twelfth century, while the syncretic effects of Hinduism came in the second half of the twelfth century.
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For several years I am observing diverse views toward how should one culture preserve and keep its traditional or folk music alive. I met a number of modern conservatories having courses on teaching this kind of music. Even though, such music conventionally were being taught orally for thousands of years. Do you think teaching traditional and folk music through modern system will eventually harm the nature of this kind of heritage or it is they only way to keep it alive in our time.
I personally have written a short article in case of Iranian traditional music a while ago in which I wrote some of my suggestions. However, I recently had a chance to visit Beijing central conservatory and listened to the outcome of teaching traditional music there and that visit made me think more about this issue.
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In a nutshell, the observer (viz., the conservatory) becoming the participant (viz., the musician) and, in turn, unintentionally changing the original character of the music.
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I think it is good for our living on earth that one day we keep either “metric system” or “imperial system” and saying good bye to the other one. I guess it brings a better understanding and communications. But, we are mostly do not have same idea about cultural features like arts, music, clothing, foods, etc.
The other thing is that some ethnic people in developing countries think that westerners would rather that the "others" keep their traditional way of life to have fun in their visits to strange lands. What’s your opinion would you keep your traditional way of life even if it’s demands hard work and harsh way of life?
Tradition is a huge concept and I think the problem starts here. I present an example:
When we say tradition it also includes water supplying for villages in remote area of developing countries. A number of traditional water supplying particularly from rivers and well involve spreading disease when we compare it with developed water refinery systems. Do we prefer that those villagers keep their traditional water supplying? This is only one instance I provided here to clarify a bit my point.
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I believe that cultural globalization means cultural impoverishment. It is like when a text is summarized: only the main ideas are retained.
In addition, throughout time each community has  developed the best adaptation to the environment. No common solution can be better for the community than its own cultural solutions.
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I am concerned at how small the conversation of male suicide is in contemporary art practice. Thoughts please.
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I am currently residing in a small rural village in Tanzania, partly to learn how the traditional family/village/tribe structure presents a substantially smaller number of suicides, especially amongst males, than in my own culture in Australia.
Any contributions on this subject would be much appreciated.
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I am proposing a cross cultural project for people on the Autistic Spectrum that looks at :
-how the experience of Autism may be different depending on religious or political community affiliation and associated values
-provides opportunity for people on the Autistic Spectrum to explore community identity and participate in cross-cultural experiences
Are there any studies that may support an assumption that limited social network, social anxiety and other factors such as lack of tailored initiatives, may mean that a person on the Autistic Spectrum may have less opportunity to challenge received opinion associated with the religious/ political affiliations of their immediate community?
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Thanks Laura
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Does anybody know about origin of etymology of numbers in English today? Why do they have those names? I mean, one can find the etymology of number words but I was not able to find initial meaning of those words like five was derived from fist etc. Do you know any sources or books concerning this issue?
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The names of numbers in English come from roots that are older than Proto-Indo-European and would have already begun to lose original meaning in PIE. For example the word for 5 was something like *penkwe which probably still had an understanble meaning of hand, English reflexes of this word are "five",  the "fing-" in finger and the "fi-" in fist. But the word for ten was something like *dekyomit" where the element *de meant two and *kyomit originally meant hand and had a common origin with *penkwe (which in certain grammatical forms would be *pent-) from some ancestral language via a series of changes *kyomit>*kyomt>*kyont>*kwent>*pent. PIE speakers would have probably already forgotten the meaning of this vestigial form surviving in the word for ten. The intermediate form *kyont is also the origin of English "hand" but as this root is found only in the Germanic languages it would be due to a borrowing into the Germanic branch from some contact with a sister languange to PIE where this form survived. The Celtic and Italic branches both have languages where the word for five has come from a form *kwenkwe rather than *penkwe indicating contact with sister languages to PIE.
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I am will be discussing the ways college student seek information through use of the internet rather than the library.
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This question particularly interests me as well.
All previous answers contain possible solutions. However, I think it would also be worth looking into the way digital technologies change all of us, and particularly one generation in respect to previous ones. It's one thing if your University Library doesn't have a copy of what you need (isn't it sweet to get that PDF online, especially if it's for free?). However, it's altogether a different thing if you prefer Google anyway : I believe it has a lot to do with our contemporary presentist temporality (french historian Francois Hartog) and other such mentalities. Everything has to be now, and the so-called smartphone does just that - the magnificent instant gratification.
Your phone, and google or other multi-nationals are smart, so you don't have to be. Being smart is a lot of hard work, and sadly, kids find their "phone" less intimidating than these multinationals (!), or having to think or expose themselves to the austerity of an actual intellectual workplace, such as a library hall.
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I am currently doing a research project on the biodegradation of Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) by Micrococcus luteus and Aspergillus niger. I have observed growth of these microorganisms in a carbon free broth with LDPE as a sole carbon source. Now, I would like to separate any enzymes, if present, from the broth culture to study its exact effect on the polymer chain.
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you can use NH4SO4 ...good luck.
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Please read the link to get further appraisal of the point of departure of the question. Thank you.
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You may want to look at UNESCO world heritage guidelines, or similar organization definitions on the subject.
As I study in Sahara desert, I am thinking on nomadic people that live in the same way there for centuries. But now this habit is decreasing and people are becoming sedimentary, establishing new settlements everywhere and loosing their livelihoods as nomadic. How one can measure the preservation of Tuareg culture? 
This is an interesting question. Keep exploring it
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I'd be happy to have your suggestions on reading materials focuses on Afghanistan-based Uzbeks from 1979 to 2001. 
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Here's a good summary account from the popular press (Cockburn is a very good investigative journalist with wide experience):
Rashid Dostum: The treacherous general
By Patrick Cockburn Saturday 1 December 2001
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Observatories were initially devoted to astronomical studies and were popular in many countries. Several observatories were established in India since early modern times, both by colonial authorities as well as by native rulers and by private individuals and institutions, such as St Xavier's College in Kolkata. Since late 90s of the last century, cultural observatories have become a commonplace. As for Observers, we have several prominent newspapers with that designation. Observers are also individuals selected for their expertise to act as neutral witnesses to elections or other activities which need a fair play for the benefit of general public.
I would appreciate opinions on this phenomenon, and particularly if "neutrality" is really seen in practice. For instance, is not the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights a one-man show by someone who was imprisoned more than once for violent activism and now continues his activism from UK base?
There is no doubt that they perform a wonderful and unselfish role in many situations, but it seems to be also facing the ambiguities of NGOs which often function as covers for the funding interests that pay for their activities.
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it is a question of lexicology. Not everything that is named an observatory is actually one. What is your subject? An observer is a quite generic word, whilst an observatory is a scientific institution with tools such a telescopes. Any other use is like the trend to call everything a lab or laboratory. It is pointless to try to tackle it all. Tackle the abuse, tackle the scientific cloud to obfuscate and create an aura of science, tackle the sciencitific history...
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Literature, authors or just titles. Where shall I look for this topic.
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A plural society is defined by Fredrik Barth as a society combining ethnic contrasts . The term ‘plural society’ was originally a creation of colonial administrators for societies where diverse populations ‘mixed’ only in the market, but failed to achieve cultural consensus or organic solidarity. creating deep cleavages which reinforced each other and offered few opportunities for cross-linkages.  In Barth’s view, ethnic boundaries are most enduring and stable when groups occupy different ecological niches; simply, they make their living in different ways and don’t compete. Societies which are divided into different linguistic,  ethnic, religious, or racial groups and communities..
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Using in research about elderly in museums and life long learning.
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hi everyone 
i think that this article may be usefull for answering your question : 
"Who participates and how much? Explaining non-attendance and the frequency of attending arts and heritage activities " 
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Sex detection Tests are creating so many demographic, socio-cultural, economic and legal issues in India. I just want to know, about other countries, if any.
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Hi Avinash,
for what I am concerned with (meaning only what I know of) the only recent study that includes gender aspect for prenatal test is related to the detection of strep b on mom to be that could have conséquences on male offsprings (seemingly demonstrates a possible link between sterp b and hyperactivity-attention deficit and so on on males). Another I might have seen somewhere I can't remember is a link between the adminsitration of Pitocin (to speed up labor) and autism (majority of males). But these studies when related to gender seem to wander off because 1st very hard to establish a sure relation and 2nd would open a Pandora box that nobody wants to touch...and for cause. We choose different battles I guess...or we are stuck with the battles our ancestors left us?
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I am looking for the origin of a trident that the Devil holds in his hand, as it is often drawn in illustrations. They say that it comes from the trident of Poseidon in Greek myths, but since when has the Devil been represented with it?
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Dear Eri,
I think there is not one single answer that solves the problem. Not only did ancient Greek's Poseidon carry the trident, but also Hindu God Shiva. Moreover, Roman gladiators (e.g. the "retarius") used it as a weapon in battle. So, it is quite reasonable to assume that Roman Catholic Church brought up the image of the Devil carrying a trident by reversing - in their belief - heathen symbolism and mixing this with some collective memory of brutality (symbolised by the gladiator maybe). Nevertheless keep in mind, that the actual image of the Devil was/is subject to historical and sociocultural change. it is most likely that the image of the Devil you are referring to arose in the Middle Ages.
Hope I could provide at least some ideas for further inquiry!
Best regards,
Florian
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Although the antifeminist movement worked to vilify feminism, did the women's liberation movement continue to grow and did this in any way lead into third wave feminism? 
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Women's movement continues to grow, thankfully. This is because women's liberation  is still a meaningful agenda,  Economic growth has not brought about equitable outcomes.  The women's movement has deepened through looking at the intersection of identities - gender, race, caste, class, sexual orientation, gender identity, disability etc.  However, it has got fragmented as well.  Further, not all women's movements are based on a socialist feminist perspective like before. Liberal feminism prevails, than liberating  feminism 
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I need to come up with an inventory of scenarios where the white are in advantage compared to people of color in Australia.
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You might have a look at my book below where here are a number of comparative figures regarding different areas (Education, Health, Employment, etc). And an article in attach published in Ute Eickelkamp (ed.) Growing Up in Central Australia: New Anthropological Studies of Aboriginal Childhood and Adolescence, Oxford, Berghahn Books : 239-272. ISBN hardback 978-0-85745-082-1 ; ebook 978-0-85745-083-8
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There are minor barriers that hinder adults who are disabled from participating in family events such as going to the zoo or museum. How would I find the data about these barriers? 
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Thanks to all for your answers. I am proceeding carefully. 
Dee Stewart
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To understand common experiences of a ‘sense of place’ from the perspective of people living in heritage sites.
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It's great to see the strong emphasis on the use of a phenomenology to understand the sense of place of heritage sites. I've used this methodology, paired with photo elicitation as a method, quite effectively. For an example, you might want to take a look at:
Wells, J. C., & Baldwin, E. D. (2012). Historic preservation, significance, and age value: A comparative phenomenology of historic Charleston and the nearby new-urbanist community of I’On. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 32(4), 384-400.
I also explore the use of mixed methods in understanding "spirit of place" (akin to some aspects of sense of place) here:
Wells, J. C. (2014). A methodological framework for assessing the 'spirit and feeling' of world heritage properties. In T. Gensheimer & C. L. Guichard (Eds.), World heritage and national registers: Stewardship in perspective (pp. 19-32). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
You can view pre-press, pre-prints of these articles on my ResearchGate account.
Here is a newsletter article where I explore the use of phenomenologies in historic preservation (built heritage conservation) practice:
In general, I would recommend that you focus on existential phenomenology, rather than the hermeneutic strain. Essential reading will be:
Merleau-Ponty, M. (1962). Phenomenology of perception: An introduction. London: Routledge.
Merleau-Ponty, M. (1963). The structure of behavior. Boston: Beacon Press.
Tuan, Y. F. (1974). Topophilia: A study of environmental perception, attitudes, and values. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Seamon, D. (1982). The phenomenological contribution to environmental psychology. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 2, 119-140.
I would also not discount other methodologies, including quantitative examples, especially those used in environmental psychology. (Methods include photo sorts, photo elicitation, behavioral mapping, etc.)
If all of this interests you, I would recommend that you consider joining the Environmental Research Association where I co-chair the Historic Environment Knowledge Network (see http://www.edra.org/content/historic-environment ). And, if you are currently researching/working in this area, also consider submitting a proposal to present at the conference (http://www.edra.org/edra48madison).
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I am looking for anti-racism relating to color blindness. And how can fashion be a platform to protest color racism.
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Fashion may also propagate a culture-independent style, may not it?
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Is African spirituality different from spirituality elsewhere? If yes, in what ways?
(Links to West African spirituality would be awesome!)
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Hello Eric,
You might like the books of Malidoma Patrice Somé. His book "Of Water and the Spirit" is about his personal history and experiences and it is fascinating - or at least I enjoyed it. He also has other books Healing Wisdom of Africa and Ritual: Power Healing and Community. 
Kind regards - tina
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Good day,
Some years ago, I heard someone refer to Japanese and various other cultures with major generational depth as 'high-density cultures', contrasting them with younger ones like non-native New Zealand or Canada, termed 'low-density cultures'.
Does anyone know who is using this image, and where it first appeared?
For all I know, it may have been a nonce usage, but probably not. A very poised lady, a Japanese academic, was contrasting our societies in these terms. This was in the nineties...
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Yes, Edward Hall discussed in detail. As well he mentioned the differences between east and west cultures. This should help you to find your answer to Japanese and Canadian culture.
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can somebody help me draw a relation between development and culture in 3rd world societies ?
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Faiz,
I do not know if it is now true, since it has been decades since I roamed Mexico, but used to the workers got a siesta (nap) break starting around 2 PM. I believe this also was practiced in Spain. Thus work shut down during the siesta, then started back after the break. This definitely is a cultural tradition that very much affected the daily lives and work of the citizens.
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Music and identity formation 
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Poets are public voices, many people can hear their thoughs that's why they can be strong influence in some crisis moments in a country, however some poets reflect the reality around, so can be influent for further generations; both cases promote massive reflexion. Music is every where, and help people to fell free when they take the music from composers to put in their own interior and build a peaceful reality inside into their own body and mind.
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I'm sure that this is qualitative, but what is the specific method or technique here? Should I base it from translation theories instead?
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Hi Carljohnson,
Its not clear whether you'll be translating from written texts, or from an oral performance.  Even if you're working from a written text, or some later generation of a written text, the original transmission had to be oral, told by someone who actually held the tales in tradition.
That makes it important to note that a native tradition-bearer, telling traditional tales in his native tongue, may nevertheless tell the tale in whatever he thinks are the ethnographer's own terms, in an attempt to best get his points across.
For example, it has always disturbed me that Sam Blowsnake, translator of Native American Trickster tales for Paul Radin (turn of the 20th century), began his Winnebago myth cycle "once upon a time" (or else Radin translated Blowsnake's opening formula as "once upon a time").  Either way, "once upon a time" is the opening formula for what native English-speakers call a fairy tale; its a formula that signals "this is not a true story."  It seems highly questionable as the opening formula of any peoples' sacred text.  
We can't know, but It seems like Blownake was reluctant to assign truth-value to the tradition when telling it to someone from a dominant, colonizing Judeo-Christian tradition.  Alternatively, Radin himself may have assumed "once upon a time" for the the formulaic opening, based on his own bias regarding non-Judeo-Christian myth cycles (i.e., not true stories).  
Despite this instance, Radin's translation is really remarkable, done with notes that are easy to follow.  In Radin's case, even problematic instances (like "once upon a time") are also instructive.  For learning from academic discussion, I second the motion on Burke, Geertz and Levi-Strauss.  But for learning by seeing how its done, I highly recommend Paul Radin's masterful treatment of "Wakdjunkaga," the Winnebago trickster cycle in his classic work "The Trickster: a study in American Indian Mythology."
Judith
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I'm looking for changing perspectives toward homosexuals 1950-54 in America and I'm wondering if anyone has created a digital archive of newspapers, as I can't seem to find one. I'm also looking at "nance" jokes as a creation point for a social/cultural identity for those being joked at, as by joking about a group you actually help in defining them in the cuktural identity. This could give me a great insight into the true taboo topics of the era. 
Does anyone one know of any such archives, newspapers, magazines and the like? I'm truly not asking for the sake of looking dense, another set of eyes could be the spark I need. 
Thank you
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How interesting, thank you Mary :)
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Religious buildings decorated/covered with human bones are known from several countries in Europe (also elsewhere, but I'm focused currently in Europe), mostly dating from between the 16th and the 19th centuries.
I'm mainly looking for information from the fields of Art History, History and maybe Philosophy. Something on the relationship of these places with religious/political/social changes in society at that time.Connections with Franciscan churches and with the Counter-Reform would also be important.
Information on possible differences in the motivations behind the construction of such buildings in different areas of Europe would be great.
I'm looking for references besides Paul Koudounaris, given that I already know his work.
Many thanks!
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I am doing a research project about Ladins minority in South Tyrol.
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EURAC in Bozen works on minorities and minority media. They will be sure to have some information for you.
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I am interested in examples of this in cultural studies, sociology or a neighbouring field. 
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Dear Meghan,
This one may also be helpful:
Recognition as care : a longitudinal study of Arabic immigrants’ experiences of diabetes training in Denmark. / Ahlmark, Nanna; Whyte, Susan Reynolds; Harting, Janneke; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine.
I: Critical Public Health, 2015.
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I'm translating a text of 高剑父Gao Jianfu about the new Chinese art, written during the period of the Republic of China. In one chapter he talk about western painting, in particular about Cezanne and 和夏尔檀. I can't understand who he is the second one. Somebody can help me?
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Yes, the only thing i could find was Teilhard de Chardin, but I need a painter. Ivo is 100% true, first because Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin now is written 夏尔丹, so is quite similar, also because the artistic ideas of Chardin and 高剑父 have a lots of common points.
Thanks a lot!
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I am currently working on the above project, which I am going to get involved for a couple of years from now. I would appreciate if someone could suggest me a few recent literature on the above, and share your experience, if you have anything related to the topic.
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Thank you everyone for your valuable comments, and also for the materials suggested.
I found that most of the literature discuss this issue in the western context, but not adequately in the Asian context (where my study is focused in) where you find a variety of unique cultural landscapes. On the other hand, the local economy of most of the developing countries in Asia, basically has developed around the cultural and environmental values of such landscapes.
It is interesting to see how western-influence changes the national economy of China and Japan as mentioned in the above comments. This may be explainable using the "transnational Urbanism" by Michael Peter Smith: he discusses about the globalization of local politics, economics and culture and its impact to the cultural landscape transformation.
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As i am working  on research topic "Impact of national culture on project management " my main focus is on Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory.
But i am having difficulity to identify scales for cultural dimension for methodology .
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Interesting how "culture" becomes a mechanism and not a heritage... Does this mean that "culture", as we know it, is not "intelligence"? I wonder what does it mean to "function effectively" in this context and how can "education" can help forget "culture" so that it becomes "intelligent"... It sounds to me like a paradox: a culture of ignoring culture in order to be intelligent. Yes, a paradox indeed. Tailor-made for executives who just care for effective, seamless, unperturbed, transnational gain.
Best regards, Lilliana
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People seem radical,disorder and are subjected to emotion.Pubic opinion is  irrational always.What`s the feature? How does it affected by the internet and what can we do to change something?
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Mass society
Mass society is any society of the modern era that possesses a mass culture and large-scale, impersonal, social institutions.[1]A mass society is a society in which prosperity and bureaucracy have weakened traditional social ties."[2] Descriptions of society as a "mass" took form in the 19th century, referring to the leveling tendencies in the period of the Industrial Revolutionthat undermined traditional and aristocratic values.
In the work of early 19th century political theorists such as Alexis de Tocqueville, the term was used in discussions of elite concerns about a shift in the body politic of the Western world pronounced since the French Revolution. Such elite concerns centered in large part on the "tyranny of the majority," or mob rule.
In the late 19th century, in the work of Émile Durkheim, the term was associated with society as a mass of undifferentiated, atomistic individuals. In 20th century neo-Marxist accounts, such as those of the Frankfurt School, mass society was linked to a society of alienated individuals held together by a culture industry that served the interests of capitalism.
Conservative accounts in the 20th century critiqued mass society from a different perspective. José Ortega y Gasset, for instance, lamented the decline of high culture in mass society.
 
 
Contents
 
 
ConceptEdit
Mass society as an ideology can be seen as dominated by a small number of interconnected elites who control the conditions of life of the many, often by means of persuasion and manipulation.[3] This indicates the politics of mass society theorists- they are advocates of various kinds of cultural elite who should be privileged and promoted over the masses, claiming for themselves both exemption from and leadership of the misguided masses.[4]
"As technological innovation allowed government to expand, the centralized state grew in size and importance." "Since then, government has assumed responsibility for more and more areas of social life: schooling, regulating wages and working conditions, establishing standards for products of all sorts, and providing financial assistance to the elderly, the ill, and the unemployed." "In a mass society, power resides in large bureaucracies, leaving people in local communities with little control over their lives. For example, state officials mandate that local schools must meet educational standards, local products must be government-certified, and every citizen must maintain extensive tax records. Although such regulations may protect and enhance social equality, they also force us to deal more and more with nameless officials in distant and often unresponsive bureaucracies, and they undermine the autonomy of families and local communities." [5]
Mass society theory has been active in a wide range of media studies, where it tends to produce ideal visions of what the mass media such as television and cinema are doing to the masses. Therefore, the mass media are necessary instruments for achieving and maintaining mass societies. "The mass media give rise to national culture that washes over the traditional differences that used to set off one region from another." "Mass-society theorists fear that the transformation of people of various backgrounds into a generic mass may end up dehumanizing everyone." [6]
Sociologist C. Wright Mills made a distinction between a society of "masses" and "public".
As he tells: "In a public, as we may understand the term,
virtually as many people express opinions as receive them,
Public communications are so organised that there is a chance immediately and effectively to answer back any opinion expressed in public.
Opinion formed by such discussion readily finds an outlet in effective action, even against – if necessary – the prevailing system of authority.
And authoritative institutions do not penetrate the public, which is thus more or less autonomous in its operations.
In a mass,
far fewer people express opinions than receive them; for the community of publics becomes an abstract collection of individuals who receive impressions from the mass media.
The communications that prevail are so organised that it is difficult or impossible for the individual to answer back immediately or with any effect.
The realisation of opinion in action is controlled by authorities who organise and control the channels of such action.
The mass has no autonomy from institutions; on the contrary, agents of authorised institutions penetrate this mass, reducing any autonomy it may have in the formation of opinion by discussion".[7]
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The literature indicates that older African Americans have the lowest rates of flu vaccination and I am conducting a qualitative study in an attempt to shed some light on the issue.
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Where could I find those materials?, by the way I am having a little issue in identifying individuals to evaluate my interview questions. Would you mind serving as a member on the content validity panel for my interview questions? You can contact me at forkpayea.johnson@waldenu.edu, I will be glad to provide you with the questions and evaluation rubric.
Thanks.
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'Paradise Now' is a avant-garde theatre was Performed in Living Theatre in America in 1960.
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Hello. I think you need to contact Teresa Rossell, at UB.
She's the UB specialist on Contemporary Theater
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I am looking for any information for my bachalor thesis about Hutsuls in Ukraine and in Romania. 
If I could find answers to my questions there, it would be great. My questions are:
1) Are Hutsuls regarded as a subgroup of Ruthenian or perceived as an separate ethnic group?
2) What are the common elements of a Ruthenian (Ukrainian, Romanian) culture with a Hutsuls culture, what are the main differences?
3) What are the main Hutsuls traditions and what assists (prevents) in their maintenance?
4) How do these traditions transmitted to future generations?
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try to get your hand if you can on the Romania anthropological research written during the interwar period. That's very interesting.
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Indigenous communities have their own definitions of tastes and flavors. They have a name for a full well cooked meal, or a mature, ripe seed. Is there anyone out there with knowledge of these time-tested community sciences?
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Dear Monica Opole
The scientific community is a diverse network of interacting scientists. It includes many "sub-communities" working on particular scientific fields, and within particular institutions; interdisciplinary and cross-institutional activities are also significant. Objectivity is expected to be achieved by the scientific method. Peer review, through discussion and debate within journals and conferences, assists in this objectivity by maintaining the quality of research methodology and interpretation of results.
History of scientific communities
The eighteenth century had some societies made up of men who studied nature, also known as natural philosophers and natural historians, which included even amateurs. As such these societies were more like local clubs and groups with diverse interests than actual scientific communities, which usually had interests on specialized disciplines.Though there were a few older societies of men who studied nature such as the Royal Society of London, the concept of scientific communities emerged in the second half of the 19th century, not before, because it was in this century that the language of modern science emerged, the professionalization of science occurred, specialized institutions were created, and the specialization of scientific disciplines and fields occurred.For instance, the term scientist was first coined by the naturalist-theologian William Whewell in 1834 and the wider acceptance of the term along with the growth of specialized societies allowed for researchers to see themselves as a part of a wider imagined community, similar to the concept of nationhood.
Membership, status and interactions
Membership of the community is generally, but not exclusively, a function of education, employment status, and institutional affiliation. Status within the community is highly correlated with publication record. Scientists are usually trained in academia through universities. As such, degrees in the relevant scientific sub-disciplines are often considered prerequisites for membership in the relevant community. In particular, the PhD with its research requirements functions as a marker of being an important integrator into the community, though continued membership is dependent on maintaining connections to other researchers through publication, technical contributions, and conferences. After obtaining a PhD an academic scientist may continue through post-doctoral fellowships and onto professorships. Other scientists make contributions to the scientific community in alternate ways such as in industry, education, think tanks, or the government.
Members of the same community do not need to work together.Communication between the members is established by disseminating research work and hypotheses through articles in peer reviewed journals, or by attending conferences where new research is presented and ideas exchanged and discussed. There are also many informal methods of communication of scientific work and results as well. And many in a coherent community may actually not communicate all of their work with one another, for various professional reasons.
Speaking for the scientific community
Unlike in previous centuries when the community of scholars were all members of few learned societies and similar institutions, there are no singular bodies or individuals which can be said today to speak for all science or all scientists. This is partly due to the specialized training most scientists receive in very few fields. As a result, many would lack expertise in all the other fields of the sciences. For instance, due to the increasing complexity of information and specialization of scientists, most of the cutting-edge research today is done by well funded groups of scientists, rather than individuals.However, there are still multiple societies and academies in many countries which help consolidate some opinions and research to help guide public discussions on matters of policy and government-funded research. For example, the United States' National Academy of Science (NAS) and United Kingdom's Royal Society sometimes act as surrogates when the opinions of the scientific community need to be ascertained by policy makers or the national government, but the statements of the National Academy of Science or the Royal Society are not binding on scientists nor do they necessarily reflect the opinions of every scientist in a given community since membership is often exclusive, their commissions are explicitly focused on serving their governments, and they have never "shown systematic interest in what rank-and file scientists think about scientific matters". Exclusivity of membership in these types of organizations can be seen in their election processes in which only existing members can officially nominate others for candidacy of membership. It is very unusual for organizations like the National Academy of Science to engage in external research projects since they normally focus on preparing scientific reports for government agencies.[8] An example of how rarely the NAS engages in external and active research can be seen in its struggle to prepare and overcome hurdles, due to its lack of experience in coordinating research grants and major research programs on the environment and health.
Nevertheless, general scientific consensus is a concept which is often referred to when dealing with questions that can be subject to scientific methodology. While the consensus opinion of the community is not always easy to ascertain or fix due to paradigm shifting, generally the standards and utility of the scientific methodhave tended to ensure, to some degree, that scientists agree on some general corpus of facts explicated by scientific theory while rejecting some ideas which run counter to this realization. The concept of scientific consensus is very important to science pedagogy, the evaluation of new ideas, and research funding. Sometimes it is argued that there is a closed shop bias within the scientific community toward new ideas. Protoscience, fringe science, and pseudoscience have been topics that discuss demarcation problems. In response to this some non-consensus claims skeptical organizations, not research institutions, have devoted considerable amounts of time and money contesting ideas which run counter to general agreement on a particular topic.