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Has mankind begun to enter an age of 'global culture'; wherein the needs and desires of different cultures around the world are becoming synonymous due to the technological innovations and higher expectations toward standards of living (particularly Western lifestyle), as presented by contemporary architecture? Does architecture now dictate culture where once the opposite was evident?
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Hi dear Nicholas.
Globalization is a term that has been used since the mid-1980s to mean the collapse of borders and the transcendence of them globally in economic, cultural, political, social, etc. dimensions, the process of which is the transformation of local structures into global ones. Globalization, its dimensions and scope are so wide and wide that it has affected all aspects of human life, to the point that some experts have called it the greatest event in human history. In the light of the development of the electronic communications revolution over the past few decades, the concept of distance and space has become unimaginably disrupted. Globalization in its present form has materialized since the collapse of communism and the bipolar system and the end of the Cold War. In fact, globalization refers to the process by which the free flow of thought, people, goods, services, and capital in the world is achieved.
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I'm currently writing a paper on sexual deviance in Hittite society. I can easily find lists of the various laws but cannot find research on the reasons behind them. Why can a man have sex with a mule but not a sheep or pig? Why can he sleep with a set of sisters but not also their mother? Why is necrophilia allowed but simply handling a corpse discouraged?
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الحثيين لديهم جوانب مبهمة لحد الان
بانتظار علم الاثار يكشف عن الاسرار
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I'm researching into the media used by the Khalistan movement in Britain. In particular my interest is to do with the use of newspapers and music.
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I guess you can check out Indian Records in Delhi. You will find a lot of British documents on your topic
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The twenty first century has witnessed an emergence of multiple of identities egging upon different forces of the time. It has also come across the proliferation of the idea of cultural diversity as globalization, communications, market, migration and the increased diversification of identity patterns have emerged within traditionally homogeneous groups. While cultural diversity points towards the existence of several cultures that are dissimilar, heterogeneous and often incommensurable the multiculturalism promotes the acceptance of cultural diversity by encouraging the recognition of minorities by the society and its institutions. ‘Multiculturalism’ now takes into its fold not only the disadvantaged and marginalized groups like minorities and tribals but also the immigrants who may come under ethnic, religious minorities as well as minority nations and indigenous peoples and communities like LGBT, disabled, etc., After 9/11 and certain terrorist acts in Europe there has been a shift in thinking that considers the existence of immigrants incompatible with the European member cultures and history.
The recent upsurge of radicalism and nationalism in liberal multicultural democracies usher in the era of community confrontations as was witnessed by Europe in late nineteenth century and Asia in mid-twentieth century. The secular credentials are on the wane in many states known for their multicultural values and egalitarian orders and the politics of dominance and discrimination is on the rise. The statements of many European leaders from Germany, France Denmark about non-utility of multicultural model has alarmed the immigrant populations and minorities alike. The state behavior has transformed from community welfare to individual interests. Doesn't it needs a quick attention and reversal?
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Honestly, Harish, a lot of this is just sound-nice slogans, which then run up against practical realties.
In India, for example, you have run up against the practical realities of allowing truly indiscriminate immigration. So, where is all this talk about multiculturalism? Does one explicitly exclude one or more specific cultures, with the excuse "they can go somewhere else?" India is attempting to do this very thing.
In Canada and the US, both countries have run up against the practical realities of allowing atrocities to be committed, in the name of cultural/religious traditions. It's almost like the lawmakers are caught off-guard, after spouting their predictable slogans about minority rights, to discover that those minority rights are taking the basic human rights away from other people.
Two or three obvious, and actual examples being, should parents be allowed to murder their children, for reasons of some supposed fabricated "honor"? Or, should adult men be allowed to marry pre-pubescent girls, supposedly because this will keep them from sinning later on in life? Or, should husbands be allowed to force their wives to dress like lepers?
We could easily go on. So, in spite of the magnanimous-sounding rhetoric about multiculturalism, and the easy examples such as LBGT rights, people do finally come to grips with the practical realities. Of course, in cases like this, some people will have lower thresholds than others, in what they will tolerate in society. That's to be expected. When people see some of their "multicultural" lawmakers making light of certain traumatic historical occurrences, such as the September 11th attacks on New York City and Washington DC, then it's only natural to expect that some will overreact.
The secular credentials are on the wane in many states known for their multicultural values and egalitarian orders and the politics of dominance and discrimination is on the rise.
That's not at all the way I would put it. The secular credentials are under threat, and therefore, the term "multiculturalism" may be more carefully redefined. The terms pluralism, or multi-ethnic, which have applied to countries such as the US for centuries, may have to be dusted off and taken more seriously once again.
It's not at all bad to examine popular slogans, and find out if they ultimately become destructive of a society. I'd say, true multiculturalism could easily tear a country apart. It's what I would call "balkanization," and we have all seen where that leads.
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From the (2002) review by Roger Egbert:
At a time when movies think they have to choose between action and ideas, Steven Spielberg's "Minority Report" is a triumph--a film that works on our minds and our emotions. It is a thriller and a human story, a movie of ideas that's also a whodunit. Here is a master filmmaker at the top of his form, working with a star, Tom Cruise, who generates complex human feelings even while playing an action hero.
See:
The opening scene, demonstrating the effectiveness of crime prevention, based on mysterious predictions of the “pre-cogs,” contrasts with the account of the predictions involving the search for a “minority report.” Though the precogs, it is said, “are never wrong,” sometime they disagree among themselves. The hunt for the dissenting view leads on into political intrigue—which may explain our skepticism of the prediction of crimes –on the part of “the usual suspects.”
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Philadelphia, PA
Dear Malik & readers,
You might want to go back over the discussion already at hand in the thread.
I think the answers are all there.
H.G. Callaway
---you wrote---
An interesting question waiting for the discussion to continue.
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Let's think, for example, in American and French films of the 50s. Do these countries, despite of the differences between them -political, economical, social- have common points during the same age? Let's compare, for instance, as an experiment if you hace free time, two characters like Ethan Edward (John Wayne, The searchers, John Ford, 1956) and Antoine Doinel (Jean Pierre Leaud, Les 400 coups, François Truffaut, 1959).
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Actually, I wanted to add something on the fundamental issues that literature and theater have addressed over centuries and were ultimately translated into cinematic narratives. The famous movie ”Rashomon” by Kurosawa gave birth to the so-called ”Rashomon effect” of contradictory truths, that is, plausible versions of a controversial and bloody event that can perfectly coexist. One of the best Romanian movies of the post-communist new wave is exactly about this. The movie ”Was it, or not”, 2006 (released internationally as 12.08 East of Bucharest) is about the Rashonom effect applied to the 1989 bloody regime change in Romania, and the question, of course, is whether it was a true revolution or not.
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Since this paper is in Spanish at this time, I am unable to give you any assistance please send me a copy of your La reconsruccion de siniestros ... paper in English
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For your info I was able to translate your Spanish version to English so Thanks for your earlier response
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I'm working on Dalit women and Social Exclusion: A study of the Chamar Women in Post colonial Uttar Pradesh. I want suggestions, sources related to Dalit women in Uttar Pradesh, material / texts Social Exclusion and Chamar women related sources in Historical perspective. 
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Good evening respected scholars and friends. I am very happy to see the responses and suggestions for me. your suggestions and recommendations helped me a lot. I was busy in final thesis writing that's why I have not given some response to you. I feel uneasy for this and kindly forgive me for the same. Here, I submitted my thesis to University for the award of the degree. Thanking you for your kind help and suggestions. I will keep contact to you.
Thanking you.
SANTOSH.
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Museums in town tell about history and culture. We need some interesting media to attract them, giving experience beside learning culture and history. especially for children. Any Reference or Information will be help so much. thank you.
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Naila, I hope that by now you have found lots of references for your task of exploring interactive media for traditional dance. I knew of one motion capture scheme for Greek folk dance; I can't remember its name but I looked for it online and, although I didn't find that one, there are plenty of others. I just Googled 'interactive media in Greek dance' and found masses. The same must apply to other culturally specific dance forms.
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Preferably speaking Portuguese and English, Spanish or German.
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If you have not done so yet, I suggest getting in touch with Dr. Ramón Gutiérrez via CEDODAL. In addition to having edited a book on the Jesuit missions of South America, he can get you in touch with more specialized authors.
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Dear Laia and Anna,
I find your project very interesting. Please let me know if diasporic processes are relevant to your approach.
Kind regards,
Frederic Lefrançois
University of the French West Indies
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Thanks for the suggestion!
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Love-brother- yuorself
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It is great concept. Should be used across country borders to eradicate and spread the message of Love.
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If cinema can be used as a source of investigation, could it be possible in a concrete historical period like Spain during the 20th century, in the 60s decade?
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It's only the social aspects of each country. Thanks for answering, me. Shehu.
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Archduke Leopold-Willem of Habsbourg, emperor Ferdinand III's brother, lived from 1647 to 1656 in Brussels, where he was general governor of the Low Countries.  He was a great collector of paintings; he bought no less than 1400 paintings of, among others, Holbein, Bruegel the Elder, Van Eyck, Mantegna,Giorgione, Veronese.
On May 6th, 1656, Léopold-Willem goes back from Antwerp to Vienna, bringing with him his collection of paintings, which he made install in 1657, partly in the Stallburg, in the Hofburg palace, partly in the Neue Burg.  He makes the Flemish painter Jan Anton van den Baren his manager of his collection.  In this collection, stands the Tower of Babel, as testifies the inventory written in 1659.  
In this inventory, the painting is described as follows : «581. Ein grosses Stückh von Öhlfarb auf Holz, warin der babilonische Thurn.  In einer alter Ramen mit verguldten Leisten, 6 Spann 4 Finger hoch, vnndt 8 ½ Spann braith.  Original vom älten Brögel.» (f° 255)
My question is : which was the value (in cm) of a Spann in this time ?  I didn't find a more recent book about the ancient measures than this (a bit old) one : Horace DOURSTHER : Dictionnaire universel des poids et mesures anciens et modernes, contenant des tables des monnaies de tous les pays, Bruxelles : M. Hayez, 1840.  But the author says nothing about the Spann.  Can anyone help me ?  I would be very glad, and thankful.
(Please, forgive me my bad english; I do my best, but it is not my mother language.)
Xavier de COSTER
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Xavier,
maybe the link, that I used in my last comment, does not work right in your computer without the cookies saved in my computer.
One of the searched citations is the book Palma Vechchio by Annemarie Spahn (1932). She also mentions the inventory of the collections of archduke Leopold Wilhelm from 1659 and she supposes the length of the Spann 20,8 cm (see page 110). The same length mention also other publications (e. g. Jahrbuch der Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen des Allerhöchsten Kaiserhauses, 1911-1912 - page 70, footnote 4 - see http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/jbksak1911_1912/0082 - I hope that this link will work better).
I cannot be sure that the authors are certainly right, but I suppose that they have some good reasons for their statements.
Good luck with your research!
Jakub
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Dears,
Does anyone know the research about a German newspaper called Hamburger Echo? By the way, is there any online database about this newspaper I can get? I am carrying out an research about this newspaper related to Marxism  during the period of 1887-1895.
Thanks,  
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Nein.
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I am looking for some researches about ceramic used as decorating element in Persian palaces related to 5th century and before.
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Hi
I think you can take good information about it mr zomarshi
I think he knows a lot of things about that.
حسین زمرشیدی
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I seek co-authors for a research on the demography of isolated communites.  I have a few thousand of records from the parish registers (baptisms, marriages and deaths) of an Italian village located in a small island, covering  the XVI-XVIII centuries. I'm looking for specialists in the fields of automatic family reconstruction, genetics of isolated populations and historical demography
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Hello Hugh!
Thank you for your advices and your contribution to the discussion... Actually I do created some family three, through several generations, but I belive
that the true scientific interest can only come from the recosnstruction of the connections between the families, to point out exactly the genetic business, if any.
Well... I suspect that I have to work hard!
Greetings
Carlo
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Colonial regimes fashioned diverse aspects of culture in the colonized territories, dislocated indigenous knowledge systems and in the process suppressing any possibility for growth of new technology.
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However, there are a number of obstacles that hinder attention to this approach, or their introduction into development planning as a measure, anticipation, application and sustainability. Among these negative constraints are bureaucracy, lack of democracy, and the absence of a human rights philosophy. Poverty, hunger, unemployment, the spread of non-scientific thought, its dominance over the simple masses, the dominance of spontaneous education systems versus critical education, the spread of illiteracy in the alphabetical, cultural and technological fields, the lack of targeted and constructive monetary media, Discouraging competencies and creative frameworks, and the absence of material and moral motivation.
On the other hand, since it is impossible to separate sustainable development from culture, since the relationship between them is dialectical, organic and complementary, it must be linked to sustainable development in terms of cultural, social, economic and environmental. The cultural approach in establishing the mechanisms of sustainable development is planning, To contribute to the enrichment of globalization. The cultural dimension, which is moral, intellectual, spiritual and sentimental, must be integrated and local policy makers and local and international social actors should be empowered to integrate the principles of cultural diversity and the values of multiculturalism into all policies, applied mechanisms and practices. The promotion of civil society, democracy, the development of education, the belief in the philosophy of creativity, the acceleration of action and the adoption of a comprehensive and sustainable development policy.
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After a PhD about the public land registries from the rural spaces of medieval and early modern Southern France, I am beginning new researches about the role of the surveyors in the same region.
I am very interested in improving our knowledge of this underestimated microcosme, which inserts between the masses and the notables of the countryside, whether these last ones were noble persons or commoners.
I will take with pleasure any bibliographical information or archives references.
Thanks !
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Dear Mr. Jaudon and Mr. Pizzati
It's a lecturer from Department of Economics in University of AJK Pakistan.
I would like to invite you in the class to give 30-60 Minutes Skype lecture about European History in undergraduate course class of History of Economic Thought.
In response to that we can volunteer for your students in any affordable virtual activity. 
The class will be every Monday to Wednessday at 11am (Pakistan time)
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The current Metropolitan Opera production (Feb. 2017) is Antonin Dvorak's Rusalka.  This opera contains what may be viewed as current events references. 
The Grove Dictionary of Music entry on rhetoric and music states that after the Baroque period, the rhetorical underpinnings of music were no longer studied.  But in the 20th C., such highlighted rhetoric in art music is causing a revival of interest.
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What still remains to be fully explained is how these critical interrelationships often controlled the craft of composition. These developments are unclear partly because modern musicians and scholars are untrained in the rhetorical disciplines, which since the beginning of the 19th century have largely disappeared from most educational and philosophical system. It was only in the early 20th century that music historians rediscovered the importance of rhetoric as the basis of aesthetic and theoretical concepts in earlier music. An entire discipline that had once been the common property of every educated man has had to be rediscovered and reconstructed during the intervening decades, and only now is it beginning to be understood how much Western art music has depended on rhetorical concepts. ("Rhetoric and Music." Grove Dictionary of Music. Blake Wilson et al.)
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Does anyone know of research that specifically analyzes the rhetorical aspects of modern era opera since Wagner to now?
Given that directors have much leeway in creating subtexts in classic and contemporary works, this is a topic that is open for more study.
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Dear Hasitha,
Thanks very much.  I will look at them.
G
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In spite of an apparant invasion plan and a list of individuals to be rounded up following an invasion there is little to indicate that Hitler intended a full blown invasion and occupation of Britain in the early stages of WW2.
Hitler did however have a pathological obsession with destroying the Soviet Union and openly talked of expanding the Reich into Soviet territory.
Would, or more likely could Hitler have ever occupied Britain in 1940?  
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Dear Dr Turner
I agree with Lewis, Hitler had plans to invade Britain but he cancelled it for two reasons: First the courageous resistance of the British people and their withstand of the German air attacks, secondly, he thought that the million of tones of bombs will prevent Britain for effective contribution in the war against him. He was wrong as the history said .
Regards
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We are in the process of building an International Digital Employee Assistance Archive that will be Open & Free to anyone..... Recently a very important Icon in our field passed and so we are considering having a Section that Identifies some of the Icons in the field who have passed but need to be remembered...... Has anyone done this in their Archive or what are your thoughts of including this type of information in an internally based archive....
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it is extremely valuable to have this.  In part because as Rakesh said a useful career summary is valuable to researchers.  In part because it is useful to know that iconic figures have died, I once made the mistake of holding back publication because I was awaiting comments from an eminent figure who had in fact died.  Finally iconic figures should have the tributes they have earned posted in as many places as possible, ok the last is a personal point of view rather than a contribution to research effectiveness.
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The fact that Brazilian Concrete Poetry had established itself artistic and historically as nascent in the early 1950s, and today knowing its affirmation in the national scene as a reference to rupture with the classic verse, its creative root: Haroldo de Campos, Augusto de Campos and Décio Pignatari - provided a consistent backbone to the movement, can one attribute such development and consistency to the fact that its actors are semioticians?
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Very good
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I am trying to look at how the University as a contested space influenced the actions, relationships and culture of the growing feminist and gay movements in Britain during the late twentieth century. 
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See Naama Klorman-Eraqi, "The Hackney Flashers: Photography as a Socialist Feminist Endeavor," forthcoming, Photography and Culture, Vol 10, no. 3, October/November 2017
Naama Klorman-Eraqi. "Underneath We’re Angry: Feminism and Media Politics in Britain in the Late 1970s and Early 1980s," forthcoming, Feminist Media Studies, Vol 17, no. 2, April 2017
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In spite of clear tendencies of Alexander III the Great to build an empire that would unite number of nations, it is not quite clear how far he practiced the “brotherhood of nations”, i.e. homonoia. (See below Tarn, and de Mauriac  as well as the use of the term by Aristotle, that I gave later). His empire and later Diadochi states were apparently not quite compatible with the idea “of being of one mind together”, what the word “homonoia” probably should mean. Was the reality quite opposite?
Were the political and administrative structure of the Macedonian states, the empire of Alexander of Macedonia, Egypt of Ptolemy’s and the Hellenistic Diadochi states, while its citizens were of mixed national origins, prominently “nationalistic states”?
What kind of state was the empire of the Alexander of Macedonia? Was it a Macedonian nationalistic state, where all high administrative and military positions as well as core military units were occupied by the Macedonians; or did its political structures mirrored the mixed multi-national population that constituted the empire? How many of Alexander’s generals and high officials were Greek and how many Macedonian? Did Alexander chose for satraps in the occupied territories some Geeks or exclusively Macedonians and local dignitaries? What was the national structure of the core military units that were left in the occupied regions?
I am also interested in the political system of the Ancient Egypt at the end of the 4th century BC. Was the Egyptian Ptolemy dynasty an Egyptian, Macedonian or Greek dynasty? Did the Ptolemy family mix with the Greek families or with local Egyptian families or it remained “racially clean” Macedonian?
What kind of states were Hellenistic states? Were they by their political and national structure Macedonian or Greek? How many generals in those states were Greeks and how many still Macedonians? Did they rely exclusively on high military or state officials that were Greeks or they were mostly Macedonians; did “nationalism” lose its power with time and when?
* When the commentators would advance significant affirmation, I would encourage them to put the most relevant and direct reference, if possible avoiding popular reviews and other non scholarly publications.
** Please avoid discussing the side issues. The particular aspects of the concepts of "nation", "state", "polis", "citizenship", "ethnicism" and related concepts, could be discussed here:
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Tarn, WW: Alexander the Grat, Vol II, Sources and Studies, Chapter 25, Cambridge University Press, 2002 (1948).
Henry M. de Mauriac: Alexander the Great and the Politics of "Homonoia", Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 10, No. 1 (Jan., 1949), pp. 104-114, Published by: University of Pennsylvania Press, Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2707202
Additional information.
The expression “homonoia” in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics (EN) was translated by Crisp, Reckham and Thomson by “concord”. Here below are some parallel translations of some connected Greek espressions from the classical and more recent translators of the EN (in the following order: Bartlett-Collins, Crisp; Reckham; Ross; Thomson). This list may help make clear some points that get easily confused.
Homonoia = like-mindedness; concord; concord; unanimity; concord
1155a24 (Book 8, VIII, 1)
1167a22 (Book 9, IX, 6)
Eunoia = goodwill; goodwill; goodwill : goodwill; goodwill
1166b30 (Book 9, IX, 5)
Koinonia = community ; community; partnership; community; community
1159b27 (Book 8, VIII, 9)
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I recommend using those bibliographies below. There are certainly, other sublime lists of works related to the subject. Please avoid too popular works, although some of them may be excellent.
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To go back to your original question, Dragan, I would say that the “prominent feature” of Alexander’s empire was Alexander’s own ego.  Macedonian nationalism and pan-Hellenic ideals were simply tools to his own ambitions, not ends in themselves.
Early in his campaign, Alexander decided to use the Persian satrapy system to govern his newly conquered territories (Bosworth, Conquest and Empire, p. 229 citing Arr. 1.17.1 – 8, along with epigraphic evidence).
Which brings me to my second point.  As someone who has undertaken academic research on Alexander, I agree with you on the need to read the surviving literary sources but with a number of cautions.
 Firstly, the only biography is Plutarch’s Life of Alexander.  Arrian, Curtius and Diodorus were writing Histories according to their own understanding of what that term meant at that time.  And Diodurus’ account of Philip and Alexander was only a small part of his grand history that went all the way back to the Trojan War.  Justin’s contribution was an epitome of a similar grand history by Pompeius Trogus (Philippic Histories and Origins of the Entire World and Locations of the Earth (Historiae Philippicae et Totius Mundi Origines et Terrae Situs)).
Each of these sources has to be approached with caution, paying due consideration to the author’s own biases and the likely biases of their sources.  This is why historiographic analysis is so important.  (See in particular, Hammond, N.G.L., Three Historians of Alexander the Great, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1983, “The Sources of Justin on Macedonia to the Death of Philip”, CQ, Vol. 41, No. 2, 1991, pp. 496 – 508, and Sources for Alexander the Great, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1993.)  A point you concede in your allusion to Lionel Pearson’s, The Lost Histories of Alexander the Great.
Then you have to look for corroborative evidence through other means such as passing references in other ancient written works, inscriptions such as Barry has cited (epigraphy), archaeology, coins (numismatics) and Prosopography – “the study of individual persons in a larger context.  Although no agreed definition exists, in classics and ancient history it is often used to give a name to a lexicon or a study that includes all persons considered relevant to a specific and fixed period, or to a political structure or other entity.  Prosopography is also used to denote the prosopographical method, which arranges and discusses persons according to their names and aims to establish the social contexts of groups, such as their ethnic and regional origin, family connections and careers.”  M. Horster, ‘The Prosopographia Imperii Romani (PIR) and New Trends and Projects in Roman Prosopography”, Prosopography Approaches and Applications: A Handbook, ed. K. S. B. Keats-Rohan (Oxford, 2007), pp. 231 – 240 (p. 231).
The other issue to bear in mind is that all historians, ancient and modern, bring their own interests, focuses and biases to their work.  For myself, my focus has been on Alexander’s strategy and tactics, and the Macedonian military, together with the issue of his father’s assassination.
The issues that you appear to be concerned with, are outside the focus of my own attention, but as a suggestion, you might have it useful to see if anyone has done any analysis of the ethnic composition of the many colonies Alexander established.
 You might also find it helpful to approach Rolf Strootman who is on RG and has done a lot of work on the Hellenistic kingdoms after Alexander.
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I am searching for NOISEMAKERS in ANCIENT GREECE and ROME, in art depictions and archaeological finds.
I know that "Draco" in the Roman army is one possibility but I need one more simple piece.  It is possible exist as music instrument.  Please I am not interested in children's toys.  
I attach one actually and traditional noisemaker, it is very similar to the one I am searching but isn't the same.
Thanks.
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It is used as well in the alaman-swiss-alpine-swabian carnival as in the rhineland area (Cologne, etc.).
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These sources can be St. Bernard himself and/or any individuals that have ties/ relationships with the Knights Templars. The time period must be 1100-1200.
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Tammy, you may find this book useful:
St. Bernard of Clairvaux : the story of his life as recorded in the Vita prima Bernardi by certain of his contemporaries, William of St. Thierry...[et al.] / a first translation into English by Geoffrey Webb and Adrian Walker.
Other Entries:William, of Saint-Thierry, Abbot of Saint-Thierry, approximately 1085-1148?
Webb, Geoffrey.
Walker, Adrian.
Published:London : A. R. Mowbray, [1960]
Description:130p : port ; 19cm.
Subjects:Bernard, of Clairvaux, Saint, 1090 or 1091-1153.
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Looking for information on worker agitation and stikes from the mid 1920s to late 1930s. Ideally related to the Lancashire cotton industry, specifically Oldham, but any would be welcome, primary document or written secondary work. 
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Does anyone know of any Arabic or Greek sources that refer to the leper knights?  I have western sources, both modern and medieval, but none from the enemies' perspectives.
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You need to be trawling the Ottoman Archives.
Not an easy place to get access to.
But start with SOAS and the Courtauld Institute
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I’m interested in history of system of catholic education in non-Catholic countries in XVIII century, particularly in Russia. Please, contact with me if you have some interest and information hereof.
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Hi there,
Sorry, this will be a short answer ;)
Maybe take a look at Van Horn Melton, James. Absolutism and the eighteenth-century origins of compulsory schooling in Prussia and Austria. Cambridge University Press, 2003.
He compares the catholic austria and the protestant prussia. The Person of Ignatz Felbiger is quite interessting in this perspective. He was a catholic schoolreformer, who moved from austria to prussia. He was called for organising the elementary schools in the catholic part of prussia (silesia). That may be interessting for you.
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... or for comical effect? Think of Hendrix-style gimmicks, but documented in a traditional context. Examples from the Mediterranean area and the Middle East would be particularly welcome. 
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Movies are fiction, but there is a comical scene early in the Amadeus movie where Mozart plays a ditty on the piano while held upside down by a friend.
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Many foreigners like Greeks, Kushanas, Hunas, Turks. Afghans,etc have invaded India but in course of time became Indianised but why not the Europeans in general but English in particular became alien to the same ?.
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The history of the British in India is a very complex, starting with the East India Company. However, in the mid to late 1800s the various regions of India were in turmoil. Several of these asked for British assistance in subduing hostilities with these rogue factions. The French, at the time, also were causing problems in India and actually controlled one province and had to be forced out of India. Britain more or less united India through guile and force. Afterwards there was the matter of British policy toward colonies of the Crown. According to British law of the time, any founded or subjugated colony was afforded the full rights of British citizens, including the right to emigrate to any other British country. This created a situation whereby instead of Indian culture subsuming the British, the full rights of the United Kingdom afforded to the Indians and the uniting of the provinces by the British caused the British to be the dominate culture.
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Are there any sources about an ancient cultic worship of one's own reflection (in water)? Have historians found such a phenomenon?
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Since my computer is stuffed with texts on and of ancient Greece, I did a search on Narcissus to see what turned up. If one takes the narcissus flower as a kind of theophany of Narcissus and emblem of an auto-erotic weakness for sensual beauty, one can see Kore as an acolyte in the cult of Narcissus, dancing in a meadow trapped/raped between two worlds, whom Demeter tries to rescue from the sort of infinite recursion characteristic of multiple mirrors and endlessly reproducing plant life. We may miss the mirror or the more chthonic reflection in water, but -- the flower being the sex organ of the plant -- we still have mirroring of a different order. In any case, the mirror returns transformed from myth to metaphor in Plato's Symposium and Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics. Maybe some of the following rough hits will be suggestive:
Narcissus Cult?
Sugested by Lewis Richard Farnell, The Cults of Greek States, Vol III
p. 32:
As earth-goddess, Demeter has functions that range beyond  the corn-field. She could be worshipped as the giver of all  vegetation and fruits, to whom the myrtle, the briony, the  narcissus were sacred " ; and thus we find such titles as  [Greek text]  at Phlye ", [Greek text] in many places 30, [Greek text] at the Megarian Nisaea 13. The last appellative is  explained by Pausanias as designating the goddess of sheep,  but we must interpret it rather in relation to the apple-orchard a,  and in the same way must translate the invocation in Callimachus' hymn 14, Feed our cattle, bring us apples, the  corn-stalk, and the harvest.' For it is worth observing that  Demeter has far less to do with the pastoral life than with the  cultivation of the soil : none of her appellatives suggest the  former, except perhaps Ei/Socrta 10, and it is not certain that she  was ever styled thus ; and though she might be worshipped  here and there, in Attica and Laconia, as the goddess of wells  and springs 11, they concern the tiller as much as the shepherd.
Note 35: includes references to:  Schol. Soph. Oed. Col. 681, & Schol. Aristoph. Ran. 333 (See below.)
============================
Soph. Oed. Col. 681
Chorus
Stranger, in this land of fine horses you have come to earth's fairest home, the shining Colonus. [670] Here the nightingale, a constant guest, trills her clear note under the trees of green glades, dwelling amid the wine-dark ivy [675] and the god's inviolate foliage, rich in berries and fruit, unvisited by sun, unvexed by the wind of any storm. Here the reveller Dionysus ever walks the ground, [680] companion of the nymphs that nursed him.
Chorus
And, fed on heavenly dew, the narcissus blooms day by day with its fair clusters; it is the ancient crown of the Great Goddesses. [685] And the crocus blooms with a golden gleam. Nor do the ever-flowing springs diminish, from which the waters of Cephisus wander, and each day with pure [690] current it moves over the plains of the land's swelling bosom, bringing fertility. Nor have the dancing Muses shunned this place, nor Aphrodite of the golden rein.
====================================
Aristophanes. Frogs. Matthew Dillon, Tr.
Chorus
Iacchus, here abiding in temples most reverend,
Iacchus, O Iacchus,
come to dance in this meadow;
to your holy mystic bands
Shake the leafy crown
around your head, brimming
with myrtle,
Boldly stomp your feet in time
to the wild fun-loving rite,
with full share of the Graces, the holy dance, sacred
to your mystics.
==============================
A Commentary on the Plays of Sophocles
James C. Hogan
683-85 The scholia also identify the great ladies with the Erinyes (whom we fear is an interpretative addition alluding to them), but the dual number, after narcissus, a flower associated with the rape of Persephone (Kore), makes it more likely that these "great goddesses" are Demeter and Persephone. Garland may not refer to some practice of cult, but perhaps recalls the fact that Demeter's daughter was picking flowers, narcissus and crocus among them, when she was carried off by Hades (the Homeric Hymn to Demeter makes the narcissus the specially grown "snare" that attracts the innocent Kore).
========================
Homeric Hymn to Demeter:
(ll. 4-18) Apart from Demeter, lady of the golden sword and
glorious fruits, she was playing with the deep-bosomed daughters
of Oceanus and gathering flowers over a soft meadow, roses and crocuses and beautiful violets, irises also and hyacinths and the narcissus, which Earth made to grow at the will of Zeus and to
please the Host of Many, to be a snare for the bloom-like girl --
a marvellous, radiant flower. It was a thing of awe whether for deathless gods or mortal men to see: from its root grew a hundred blooms and is smelled most sweetly, so that all wide heaven above
and the whole earth and the sea's salt swell laughed for joy.
And the girl was amazed and reached out with both hands to take
the lovely toy; but the wide-pathed earth yawned there in the
plain of Nysa, and the lord, Host of Many, with his immortal horses sprang out upon her -- the Son of Cronos, He who has many names (5).
(ll. 405-433) Then beautiful Persephone answered her thus:
'Mother, I will tell you all without error. When luck-bringing
Hermes came, swift messenger from my father the Son of Cronos and
the other Sons of Heaven, bidding me come back from Erebus that
you might see me with your eyes and so cease from your anger and
fearful wrath against the gods, I sprang up at once for joy; but
he secretly put in my mouth sweet food, a pomegranate seed, and
forced me to taste against my will. Also I will tell how he rapt
me away by the deep plan of my father the Son of Cronos and
carried me off beneath the depths of the earth, and will relate
the whole matter as you ask. All we were playing in a lovely
meadow, Leucippe and Phaeno and Electra and Ianthe, Melita
also and Iache with Rhodea and Callirhoe and Melobosis and Tyche
and Ocyrhoe, fair as a flower, Chryseis, Ianeira, Acaste and
Admete and Rhodope and Pluto and charming Calypso; Styx too was
there and Urania and lovely Galaxaura with Pallas who rouses
battles and Artemis delighting in arrows: we were playing and
gathering sweet flowers in our hands, soft crocuses mingled with
irises and hyacinths, and rose-blooms and lilies, marvellous to
see, and the narcissus which the wide earth caused to grow yellow
as a crocus. That I plucked in my joy; but the earth parted
beneath, and there the strong lord, the Host of Many, sprang
forth and in his golden chariot he bore me away, all unwilling,
beneath the earth: then I cried with a shrill cry. All this is
true, sore though it grieves me to tell the tale.'
=========================
Greek Anthology
BOOK IV
1.—THE STEPHANUS OF MELEAGER 1
To whom, dear Muse, dost thou bring these varied fruits of song, or who was it who wrought this garland of poets ? The work was Meleager's, and he laboured thereat to give it as a keepsake to glorious Diocles. Many lilies of Anyte he inwove, and many of Moero, of Sappho few flowers, but they are roses ; narcissus, too, heavy with the clear song of Melanippides and a young branch of the vine of Simonides ; and therewith he wove in the sweet- scented lovely iris of Nossis, the wax for whose writing-tablets Love himself melted ; and with it marjoram from fragrant Rhianus, and Erinna's sweet crocus, maiden-hued, the hyacinth of Alcaeus, the vocal poets' flower, and a dark-leaved branch of Samius' laurel.
=========================
Greek anthology Book V 73-76:
BOOK V. 73-76
73.—RUFINUS
Ye gods ! I knew not that Cytherea was bathing, releasing with her hands her hair to fall upon her neck. Have mercy on me, my queen, and be not wrath with my eyes that have looked on thy immortal form. Now I see ! It is Rhodoclea and not Cypris. Then whence this beauty ! Thou, it would seem, hast despoiled the goddess.
74.
By the Same
I send thee this garland, Rhodoclea, that with my own hands I wove out of beautiful flowers. There are lilies and roses and dewy anemones, and tender narcissus and purple-gleaming violets. Wear it and cease to be vain. Both thou and the garland flower and fade.
=========================
Greek anthology Book V  147
147.—MELEAGER
I will plait in white violets and tender narcissus mid myrtle berries, I will plait laughing lilies too and sweet crocus and purple hyacinths and the roses that take joy in love, so that the wreath set on Heliodora's brow, Heliodora with the scented curls, may scatter flowers on her lovely hair.
========================
Greek anthology General Index
Echo, nymph, beloved by Narcissus,
vi, 79, 87
===========================
A. W. Price, Love and Friendship in Plato and Aristotle. p.41 (Sympsium, etc.):
It is supremely, I suggest, a kind of love poetry (praising the boy as lovely rather than as temperate).  Because any description must ascribe shareable qualities, this is an aid towards aesthetic generalization.  The force of 'there' [Greek text] must be not that the lover makes the boy into a poeticizing Narcissus, but that his own poetry is inspired by the boy's presence. No doubt it will also be presented to the boy, who will ideally commit it to his memory. Such verbal offspring offer a kind of immortality, so long as they are read or remembered, by their object or by others; but this is a restricted immortality, affecting other men's lives to a marginal extent (and only compensatingly many others if the poetry is exceptional). So there is clear point (at least if one is not 'the excellent Sappho, or the skilled Anacreon', Phdr 235c3-4) in ascending to level B: one can then propagate capacities (like the virtues of 209b7c2) whose exercise constitutes a more significant part of a life. Yet here we may be stopped short: why should the lover ascend any further? Of course, in Plato's own opinion virtues need to be backed by knowledge, which ultimately means knowledge of the Forms, …
p. 86:
It better fitted the heroism of Harmodius and Aristogeiton to suppose, with Pausanias in the Symposium, that the elder felt love, but the younger friendship (182c5-6). Plato is willing to encourage both lover (Phdr 252a4-6) and beloved (255a4-b1) to disregard the conventional proprieties; but he is still driven to construe a loving response on the boy's part in a charming but over-ingenious way that seems not fully interpretable. His purpose is to meet both objections by attributing the boy's love to the power of his own beauty and not to that of the other's virility. He returns to the metaphor of a effusion of desire, which before (251 c5-d1) fitted the imagery of a regrowth of feathers to be watered in the lover's soul. It is now (255c1-d3) put to use to remarkable effect: desire overflows the eyes of the lover, and, like a sound echoing back towards its source, re-enters the eyes of the boy, who in turn finds his own feathers beginning to sprout again. So he too falls in love, but with what or whom he cannot tell (d3). In a way, he is a Narcissus in love with his own reflection (d6). Yet his emotion cannot stop there: it must become as true of him as of the lover that he sees his god (their god) in the other. His frame of mind is not sterile and self-regarding; he is not, to apply the first of Shakespeare's Sonnets, contracted to his own bright eyes, nor does he feed his life's flame with self-substantial fuel. And if the lover may be allowed to love him and not just the god in him, he may be allowed to love the lover. Like Ganymede loving Zeus (C1-2), who is a god, he loves the other as a god whom his own godlike beauty has attracted. 47 Harder to interpret are the metaphor of the overflow, and the simile of the echo.
p.219:
The beloved is identifying at once with the lover's ideal self, and with an idealized perception of himself. In loving the other as a mirror of himself (cf. 255d6), he is loving himself through the eyes of the other; the mirror reflects what is visible to the lover, not to anyone, in respect of what he is like as well as what he looks like. 6 But Ganymede (cf. 255c2) is not Narcissus: he loves Zeus (who has the privilege of being to the boy at once god and lover), and will love others as Zeus loved him. The beloved too will see his god in the lover. Plato would apply to erotic love what Freud (much against Christ) asserts only of loving one's neighbour: 'If I love someone, he must deserve it in some way. . . He deserves it if he is so like me in important ways that I can love myself in him; and he deserves it if he is so much more perfect than myself than I can love my ideal of my own self in him' (xii. 299- 300). 
=================================
Claude Calame. Poetics of Eros in Ancient Greece p. 154 §1 “EROTICIZED MEADOWS”
p. 155:
The Hellenistic author of this poem may have drawn the spatial  model for his idyll from the famous scene of abduction of Core that is  described in the Homeric Hymn to Demeter. Once again, the place  where the girl is seized is a meadow of fresh grass, where Demeter's  daughter is enjoying herself in the company of the full-breasted daughters of Ocean, gathering roses, crocuses, irises, and hyacinths. But it is the narcissus, with its heady scent, that proves her undoing, luring her  to the gaping hole through which Hades drags her down to the underworld. Without going into the secondary function of the meadow, from  which it is possible to pass into the underworld, it is worth noting that,  in the retrospective account at the end of the Hymn, in which Core  gives her own version of the abduction, the scene is highly eroticized:  the meadow that inspires desire (himertos) and the flowers that arouse  era's (eroenta) are reflected by the amorous desire (himeroessa, erateine)  that is evoked by the youthful charm of the daughters of Ocean.
p 162:
These three meadow flowers all produce an overpowering scent, as do the narcissus and the rose, which are also frequently mentioned. The  story of Narcissus' love and death in his own reflection is well known.  It was Aphrodite's way of punishing the recalcitrant young man for  repeatedly rejecting the love that a series of Nymphs offered him. One  of these was Echo, whose name was to determine the manner of the  young hero's death. However, there is a less well known version that  tells of the youth's passionate love for his twin sister. Looking into the  waters of a spring, Narcissus mistook his own reflection for the face of  his beloved and proceeded to fade away in sorrow. At the point of death  he was metamorphosed into a narcissus. As for the rose, born from the  blood of Adonis whom Aphrodite had loved, I need only refer the  reader to the scholarly studies that have already been devoted to its  many connections with the goddess of love and her entourage of other  divine figures, such as the Hours, the Charites, and Eros."
==============================
Richard Normann “Aristotle’s Philosopher God” in Barnes Articles on Aristotle V4,  p. 93:
A further point I wish to make is that this interpretation lends an air of  unnecessary absurdity to the whole account. It suggests that the Prime Mover is a sort of heavenly Narcissus, who looks around for the perfection which he wishes to contemplate, finds nothing to rival his own self, and settles into a posture of permanent self-admiration. This, of course, is a  caricature, but it merely exaggerates the impression that Ross and others do  actually convey. And the reason why they convey it is that a central element  in their misunderstanding of Aristotle's argument is their misconception of  what he means by mind 'thinking itself'.
============================
BMCR:
Review of Shadi Bartsch, The Mirror of the Self.
Review of A. Bonadeo, Mito e natura allo specchio… “The section on the myth of Echo and Narcissus is in a sense the focal point of the entire book and offers a long analysis of the well-known passage in book 3 of Ovid's Metamorphoses” 
============================
Review of Herwig Görgemanns, et al (ed.), Plutarch, Dialog über die Liebe. Sapere Bd. 10
F. Graf’s essay (pp. 191-207) is devoted to an extensive reconstruction of Eros’ cult in Thespiae. The author demonstrates that the agon related with Erotideia, the festival of Eros celebrated every four years in the Boiotian city, is epigraphically attested since the second century B.C. and that, in the beginning, it included panhellenic athletic contests only. By the time of Augustus, probably for economic reasons, the agon related to the festival dedicated to the Muses (Mouseia) was added to the agon of the Erotideia. This change explains why in the Amatorius the young Plutarch could mention the two festivals together (cf. 748F), and hint at agonistic contests as well as musical ones. The second section of the essay discusses what literary and epigraphical sources tell us about the sanctuary of the god, which has not been excavated. Basing himself on Pausanias’ narrative, Graf assumes that the sanctuary was within the territory of the city and consisted of a temple, a garden dedicated to Narcissus, two statues of Eros and two other statues by Praxiteles, one of Aphrodite and one of Phryne. The last sections of Graf’s study deal with three different subjects that show the antiquity and importance of the worship of Eros in the Boiotian city: the origins of the cult of Eros in Thespiae which is related to the tale of the punishment and death of Narcissus, a story of homoerotic love that goes probably back to archaic times; the worship of a sacred stone (cf. Pausanias IX.27.1), which Plutarch does not mention in his work and which Pausanias presents, not convincingly, as an example of the archaic aniconic cult of the god; the possible, although in Graf’s opinion not necessary, relationship between Eros’ cosmogonic role in Hesiod’s Theogony and the cult of this same god in Thespiae.
============================
--Ralph
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I am working on interpretation of combat images from Roman pottery, to this end I am looking for any newly discovered images of fighting men on Roman pottery, I am particularly anxious to know of any new discoveries on Arretine ware.
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Thank you for the link re the gemstone.  I must admit the first thing that occurred to me was the parallels in posture with the Fresco of the Gladiators from the Tomb of Vestorius Priscus outside the Vesuvian Gate at Pompeii.  In part this may be conditioned by the red background of this fresco being similar to the carnelian used for the gemstone.  Given the form of the helmet I agree it looks early, either 1st century BCE or CE.  The overall effect is unusual.  The fallen posture is usually associated with defeat as is the posture of the 'panther' if that is indeed what it is, I cannot decide from the image whether the stone has been damaged, was badly carved or just has not photographed well.  The usual parallels are with a human opponent standing over a defeated foe who is sat and with a human killing a leaping beast.  This seems to combine the two images and have a human who has been knocked to the ground but is still fighting,  in that situation I don't suppose appealing to clementia from an angry big cat was any more use than appealing to Claudius.
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I need bibliography on illustrations of situlae, on which feasts are shown where servands are shown serving wine.
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Perhaps also see:
Konferenz Morbach 2009: Situlen in Archaologie und Kulturgeschichte. Zusammenfassungen der Vortrage auf der Internationalen Table Ronde, Morbach, 1. Mai 2009. Leipziger online-Beitr. Ur- und Fruhgeschichtl. Arch. 32 (Leipzig 2009). URL: http://www.uni-leipzig.de/histsem/uploads/media/Nr.32-Table_Ronde_Morbach.pdf [last accessed by me 27.10.2012].
and
Hansen 2011: S. Hansen, Grosgrabhugel der alteren Eisenzeit zwischen West und Ost. Eine Annaherung. In: V. I. Molodin/S. Hansen (Red.), „Terra Scythica“ [Symposium
Denisov-Hohle/Altai 2011] (Novosibirsk 2011) 291–18.
(this shoudl be available on academia, where Prof. Hansen is well represented).
Best wishes
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Can anyone reccomend a book that provides a good overview of the early development of islam?
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Eugene Rogan, The Arab: A History.
I am an architect, not an historian, but, for my studies, I have found it very useful and interesting!
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I have a list of 8 treatises starting from Bernard de Rosier (1436) to Conrad Bruno (1548). I am aware of later ones like de Vera, Mothe le Vayer, Wicquefort and Callieres but would like a comprehensive list. Thanks for any help.
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I have reviewed the paper Specificity of Esthetic Experience for Artworks:
An fMRI Study - Di Dio, Canessa, Cappa and Rizzolati. The study compares photographs of two classical Greek sculptures with two contemporary young men in underwear and purports to derive some useful knowledge about the nature of aesthetic judgement. While I am not qualified to critique the experimental methods, I question assumptions underlying the study.
The study seems to ask this question: "What is the difference between looking at a Greek sculpture and looking at a dude in the gym change room?" As if the difference were simple. I contend the mater is far from simple. Let me elaborate why. The first complexity is the question of who is looking?
The first set of assumptions are about the normative (white? western? male?) viewer. Did the experimenters ask a Nuigini native or an Inuit? An Australian Aboriginal or a Mixtec?
Some people might be immediately outraged by being requires to view an image of a near-naked young male human, some might find the experience pleasurable.
In the case of viewing the images of two near-naked young men -  if the viewer is a gay male or a straight female, they might look at the images and wonder:
 Is he 'well hung'? Are his nipples pierced? Does he have a tattoo?
They might become sexually aroused.
A straight male or lesbian would likely not pursue such inquiry, but any viewer might ask "Am I looking at a genre of soft porn?"The images bear some resemblance to those by 'Tom of Finland'. 
They might look for markers of ethnic or social status:
What brand/style of underwear is he wearing?
Does he look smart or stupid?
What does his haircut tell me? Does he look like a neo-nazi skinhead?
Would I want to have conversation with him?
These and many other considerations will occur in any experimental subject.
Clearly, few are going to ask these questions about an archaic Greek sculpture.
To add another dimension of complexity:  these are images, representations, not the things themselves. As a moderately educated westerner, I know immediately I’m looking at an image of an archaic Greek sculpture, which fits into a particular version of cultural history which I am, to a greater or lesser extent, enculturated to. I can take a position, not about the sculptures as representations of naked guys, but as icons which stand for an entire historical and ideological narrative – I can endorse, reject, qualify, etc. Indeed, art history asks us to de-eroticise 'art', lest it become debased. This, in my opinion, is Victorian nonsense, but still very much part of the idea of 'art'.
The authors seem confident that there is such a thing as 'art', that we can distinguish between art and non-art, and that these Greek sculptures epitomise it. As an art professor, I dispute these assumptions. 
Further, as a culturally educated person, I read these images - regardless of what they represent - as, not just black and white (chemical) photographs indicative of a certain period of C20th image technology, but as offset lithographic translations of these photographs in mass paper media publication, possibly a compendious history of world art, circa 1970.
I may have opinions about such compendious histories of world art, and the way they reduce all artworks to small flat rectangles, and the way they thus create a false sense of continuity supporting a thesis about the history of art.
 The authors seem to feel that the Archaic Greek sculptures automatically qualify as some epitome of 'beauty'. This is indicative of an axiomatic endorsement of a theory of art history by the authors. I do not endorse this version of art history. I therefore do not automatically confer 'beauty or aesthetic value on these images. 
As I hope to have indicated,the ways contemporary westerners think about images is profoundly complex. To assume that fMRI data collected from subjects viewing these images represents aesthetic response, it to me, an unjustified assumption.
Simon Penny
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Christopher,
"Perhaps the difference is between applied research and basic research? "
I would say not. This 'experiment' is riddled with unexamined faulty assumptions. The question of what makes something aesthetic is a cultural question, and not a neuroscience question. The goals of this work are in the same dubious category as seeking the gay gene or the god neuron.
Most neuroaesthetic research is stuck in a C20th internalist/cogntivist frame, and it was this frame that caused the demise of first generation artificial intelligence, in the 1980s. Hence my reference to FAI. Brains (if you follow Edelman), and certainly minds, are formed by cultures.
Long ago, I used to like bluegrass music, now I hate it. Did my bluegrass neuron die? As a kid I did not like olives. Now i like them - did I grow an olive neuron? Without doubt, there are useful questions to ask about the behavior of the brain under different stimuli,
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I mean resources about educational institutions, or a history of religious education in Ottoman Egypt 
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A Report Submitted to Abdülhamit II on Administrative and Social-Economic Structures of Egypt.
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Cultural and critical studies 
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Luca,
I'm not saying emotions have no causal import on behavior; there are no black and white statements concerning the role of emotions in human thought and behavior, obviously, because of so many variables and contingent influences, and because we don't have the tools to measure these kinds of things with any scientific accuracy, and because humans are not static entities but dynamically interact with and react to stimuli in such unpredictable ways.
What I am saying is that scientific method has purposefully developed over thousands of years an approach that tries to discover, test, and explain the observable or "knowable" world, by agreeing among its practitioners on sharing and replicating scientific findings among interested individuals/institutions.  This peer review process is absolutely essential to scientific methodology because it implies that testing of theories across a base of "objective" examiners, who accept the agreement to apply their insight, intelligence, and understanding without prejudice and subjectivity
This agreement works pretty well in suppressing wildly inappropriate responses, attacks, subjective ramblings, incoherency, etc.,--all of which are commonly considered as being part of "emotional" responses, responses not associated with pure science in this respect.
Now, if you look at Plutchik's "Wheel of Emotions", he lists 32 -- i.e, 8 basic emotions, with their correlates. Of these, I think it's safe to say that at least nine can be considered intrinsic to the process of discovery (purely scientific, or otherwise): anticipation, interest, optimism, boredom, pensiveness, surprise, distraction, disapproval, and awe. Therefore, in this sense, emotions (as cited above) are inseparable from "being in the world".  This answers Umesh's question nicely, just as it is: we cannot suppress anticipation, interest, optimism, boredom, pensiveness, surprise, distraction, disapproval, and awe, nor can we imagine anyone trying to do so; such a concept is certainly not part of science in any aspect.
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This postcard was issued in Aug. 1915 and circulated until 1916 at least.
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'Paradise Now' is a avant-garde theatre was Performed in Living Theatre in America in 1960.
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Hello. I think you need to contact Teresa Rossell, at UB.
She's the UB specialist on Contemporary Theater
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I am presently researching how social cohesion was achieved and maintained in Liberia between a diverse population comprising an  Americo-Liberian elite, re captives and the indigenous tribal peoples, in the period 1822-1900. Is anybody else out there carrying out similar research?
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I've been looking for some financial grants for my research project in bildungsforschung ( cultural formation), and it is so hard.
So I come at the comunity to ask.
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You can start browsing on H-Net (Humanities and Social Sciences Network) Funding (Fellowships, Grants, Scholarships, Prizes). There are many funding programs, but the competition is really tough. However, you have to start somewhere. Best of luck!
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I will research differences and similarities about foods in different religions for this reason ı need a sample survey.
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Thank you so much for your kinly answers, thats are helpful informations for my research.
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Any Arabic speakers who would help me find out what does "budal" or "bodal" mean? I found it in a ancient document and I think it is a channel or a leat, near a watemill. 
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The Arabic language is built on three letter roots, and b-d-l is indeed an Arabic word. The problem everyone is having, is in the vowel structure of first a u and later an a.  If these were reversed, it would be the name of an Bedouin tribe from southern Jordan. Please confirm that the vowels in budal are correct. You can read more about the b-d-l root at:  http://corpus.quran.com/qurandictionary.jsp?q=bdl
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Any research expert on the contemporary African diplomacy and International Relations can answer my question
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Africa's International Relations: Themes and Perspectives- Fred Aja Agwu
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In the past few decades we've lost records pertaining to the manufacture & distribution of products due to Paper Retention Policies. The lack of paper storage & the often hazards of on-line records storage, gives question: How much information will actually be available for future researchers? Take soda bottle caps. There likely have been 30 changes to Coca-Cola bottle caps alone, not counting varieties, since 1970. Is there a record? Can we date each type? Is that information already lost to us?
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Chloe,
Its interesting that when I first started off in archaeology we wanted to send some carbon samples from northern Florida for C14 dating. We were told that the analytical company did not have a baseline for that area. I don't know how familiar you are with the process, but above-ground atomic testing in the 1950s spread radioactive isotopes across the globe in varying amounts, depending on wind, distance, etc. Each area had to be tested to determine the natural background radiation in that area in order to calibrate the results.
Thus you are correct, we do not yet know what come chemical or metallic compounds are doing to archaeological samples or how modern materials degrade into other things. Do certain chemicals bind with magnetic ferric ions, thus nullifying or changing magnetic resonance dating? Are chemical compounds destroying blood collagen that we could extract from projectile points? What about the effects on enzymes we extract from pottery to tell us what was cooked in them? I don't think we can even begin to answer these questions yet. Often, archaeology is about catching up with technology, that is why we reserve samples for future, as yet undiscovered, methods.
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My research thesis is looking at the working man's sensory environment in the factory space of industrial Britain. I am planning on comparing the research I have done at New Lanark with factories in Manchester and Lancashire that were notoriously bad for their treatment of workers. 
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would 19th century Manchester newspapers be helpful for your research?
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I was wondering why Poland, a land rich in culture and history endowed with specific identity, was uncomfortable for the great powers at the beginning of the 19th century, to the extent that, with reference to Germany and Russia, it was just supposed to be deleted as national identity.
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I assume you are asking about the 1934 German-Polish non-aggression pact.  This was most likely done because, 1) Poland was concerned about Germany rearming in violation of the Versailles treaty and was hoping for some measure assurance that it was safe, and  2) because Germany wanted to calm fears related to their rearming.  It was a purely diplomatic move to buy Germany time to complete their rearming to reclaim their pre-1919 borders. 
As to why Germany invaded Poland, probably two reasons, the most obvious of which was because it needed to in order to have a direct border with Russia for its planned invasion of Russia.  But also, keep in mind that after WWI Germany and Russia both were forced to give up millions of square miles of territory to recreate a Polish state, which had not existed for over 100 years, and neither country was too happy about that.
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I read recently that according to an Israeli study, older people have more problems with alcohol after retirement. This study, conducted by the University of Tel Aviv claims that not only retirement leads to drugs and alcohol abuse, but rather a series of other painful circumstances that occur in this stage of life, like the death of the partners/spouses and friends. A similar US study indicated that about 3 million Americans, 55 years or above, suffer alcohol problems. I would be interested in research this aspect of aging in more details, focusing Holocaust survivors. Thank you in advance; would appreciate your comments and also the pointing of literature.
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Thank you George for your interesting view.
Nevertheless, my question does focus the problems with survivors, exactly because those who are still alive are aged and most likely very depressed.
All the best and a Merry Xmas
Tom
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I found that during my serveys in DRCongo
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Specimen #3 looks like  a plate of standard British transfer printed ware, 1850s to 1900s,
Specimen #1 has similar traits, but could be earlier. Also the rim pattern is very distinct and you should be able to identify this one more easily than specimen #1
Specimen #2 is different, the motif looks like characters /writing
If you can, try and  look these sources:
A.W. Coysh  (197)) Blue and White Transfer Ware, 1780-1840
Rosemary Halliday (2012) Extraordinary British Transferware: 1780-1840
A.W. Coysh  & R. K. Henrywood (1982) Dictionary of Blue & White Printed Pottery 1780-1880
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I am hoping to get a greater number of sources regarding crew social dynamics on H.M.S. Challenger. My obstacle is that I reside in Thailand with limited access to hard copy sources.
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It was not the scientists who suffered - it was the crew.
"When the voyage came to an end in 1876, only 144 crew remained on the ship from the original 216 members. Seven people had died, 26 were left in hospitals or were unable to continue the journey, and several had deserted at the various ports of call. After the death of Prof. Thomson in 1882, John Murray became director and edited the Expedition Reports." https://paleonerdish.wordpress.com/2013/07/01/the-challenger-expedition-and-the-beginning-of-oceanography/comment-page-1/
There is an e-book here which may help: "At Sea with the Scientifics"
There is a free preview so you can decide whether to buy it.
I suggest that you search for "The Challenger Expedition" with Google, Google Scholar and Google Books. That is what I did  https://www.google.com/search?tbm=bks&q=the+challenger+expedition
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I'm looking for sources that discuss American Indian student involvement.
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Some primary sources may be found on Calisphere (photos): http://calisphere.cdlib.org/item/4fb28b83090fe6eb91d938928fd62368/
Although there are no online items, the San Francisco Public Library has a substantial collection on the event:
Good luck in your research!
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I am not looking for stories abiout Shantala Devi. I need specific outlooks on dance in the temples.
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Thank you! Will definitely look up your references.
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I would also be interested in domestic useage of gas as lighting and heating/cooking in the late nineteenth century in Manchester, UK.
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Hey Gill, here is a closer shot :-)
The Longsight Public Library:
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I'm about to start a micro-study on a particular corpus of material. I am curious to know who else is working in this area just now?
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Dear Karen
Have a look at this:
Barron, Anne. "Copyright law's musical work." Social & Legal Studies 15.1 (2006): 101-127.
Kretschmer, Martin, and Friedemann Kawohl. "The history & philosophy of copyright." (2004): 21-53.
Kretschmer, Martin. "Intellectual property in music: A historical analysis of rhetoric and institutional practices∗." Studies in Cultures, Organizations and Societies 6.2 (2000): 197-223.
Ginsburg, Jane C. "“Une chose publique ? The author's domain and the public domain in early British French and US Copyright Law" The Cambridge Law Journal 65.03 (2006): 636-670.
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my interests are in paratext, and eighteenth-nineteenth century UK music publishing.  Seeking ways to share subject with and BEYOND music departments ...
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You can read my master thesis' bibliography, maybe you'll find something useful... I applied semiotics, cultural history and musicology to develop an approach to historize through music, but it has a literary theory approach, mostly the first two chapters: "Construcción de identidad. Una aproximación desde el paisaje sonoro mexicano" https://www.dropbox.com/s/belv9bg5bwvr13n/Woodside%2C%20Juli%C3%A1n%20-%20%28M%29%20Construcci%C3%B3n%20de%20identidad.%20Una%20aproximaci%C3%B3n%20desde%20el%20paisaje%20sonoro%20mexicano.pdf?dl=0
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  • Operatic music in the colonies--specifically Jamaica
  • opera companies in the colonies--specifically Jamaica
  • orchestral music in the colonies--specifically Jamaica
  • band music in the colonies--specifically Jamaica
  • Orchestral performances in the colonies--specifically Jamaica
  • Any lead that you can give is appreciated
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HELO,
YOU CAN LOOK UP SIBTHROPE BECKETT. HE DID A LOT OF THE FOUNDATIONAL WORK IN MUSIC IN JAMAICA founding several orchestral and  operatic groups. The Jamaica Journal did a feature on him. There was also an opera written by a Jamaican in the 30's I believe. You can also look up the work of Dr Olive Lewin. 
BECKETT, Sibthorpe Leopold, O.D., J.P.; Retired Civil Servant, Musician. Founder, Permanent Resident Conductor, Director of Music, Jamaica Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra since 1940; Founder and Director of Music “Y” Choral Group since 1943; 
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Regarding identity construction in the European expansion.
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Dear Dr. Luengo
Your problem is related to the old concept of "ethnogenesis," the way a group of people acquire an ethnic identity. See the wikipedia article for an introduction to this literature.  For the formation of local identies is Latin America in the wake of the Iberian conquest, see George Foster's classic book.He argued that Iberia was rife with petty local religious heresies reflecting local identities. The Catholic Church went to some trouble to select settlers that we orthodox in their beliefs so as to keep the Americas free of such heresies. But the Indian and Mestizo communities in the Americas preserved pre-Hispanic beliefs or reinvented new ones reflecting local identities. Foster's work more generally will provide you an introduction to the large anthropological literature on Latin America. Cultural evolutionists like myself have paid some attention to making a formal evolutionary theory of these processes. Social psychologists have a useful literature called social identity theory.
Best, Pete
Foster, G. M. (1960). Culture and conquest: America's Spanish heritage. New York: Werner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, Inc.
McElreath, R., Boyd, R., & Richerson, P. (2003). Shared norms can lead to the evolution of ethnic markers. Current Anthropology, 44(1), 123-129.
Haslam, S. A. (2001). Psychology in Organizations: The Social Identity Approach. London: Sage Publications.
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I am researching the routes of the Cairo-Cape railways as part of my PhD. Tanzania's Central Line, from Dar es Salaam to Dodoma, was built by the Germans and there seems to be little about it in English. I am looking for historical sources on its building, anecdotal material and material about its impact on the local people, together with its importance in the German colonial endeavour. Unfortunately, I don't speak German, but may be able to get help translating short references. Thanks for your help.
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I am not an expert, though I had been teaching in Windhoek once. But as a postdoc Humboldt fellow in Frankfurt am Main I had a fellow-post doc who was a young Brit specialiizng in history of East Africa, namely Adam Jones. Might lead somewhere. Good luck
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These items were supposed to be 'liquidated' under Allied Control Council Directive No. 30 but is there any surviving evidence as to how this was carried out in practice?  Any correspondence, memos, photos etc would be of great interest!  My research project explores burial practices and commemorative culture during and after the Third Reich. 
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Great topic! I know a lot of Nazi monuments that remained untouched, but there are some prominent examples that were torn down or repurposed: Nuremberg rally grounds & the "Ehrentempel" in Munich next to the Braunes Haus for instance. Others lasted for decades: one in Wuppertal (I think)--a bulky male statue that was cut off at the ankles one night in the 1980s, the famous 76er monument in Hamburg that was bombed and paint-bombed in the early 1980s before receiving a 'Gegendenkmal'. Bismark tower in Weimar-Buchenwald replaced by the camp memorial bell tower. Do you read German? If so, there's a bibliography on this page: http://www.history.ucsb.edu/faculty/marcuse/publications/sda/pages/steine00cov3.htm. Check out esp. Nicolai and Pollack, but also Lurz, who published a monograph Kriegerdenkmaeler in 1987. Helmut Scharf's Kleine Kunstgeschichte des dt. Denkmals (1984) has a chapter on Nazi monuments whose fate you could track down. The Nazis didn't have that much time to build stuff, and the Allies weren't that keen on tearing them down unless they were very prominent. "Gegendenkmal" and Demontage are two terms associated with what you're looking for (the latter used more for post-1989 though).
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Im loking to know the urbanism plans for Argel betwin 1963-1965
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I really don´t know about an answer. But the identification between both revolutions was very hard very son and the linked a lot. Cuba have a high level in architecture and urbanism and Argelia lost all the french colonial knowledge in this matter after the Independence. On the othe hand Cuba practiced since 1960 a very strong international copperation policy, helping some  African colonies fighting for Independence and to build the new states (Angola, Mozambique,...) Anyway I can give you a email address of mu relative and colleague from La Habana Universtity who probably can help you: felix@frc.uh.cu to find some information about it.
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I been researching the democratic transition of Chile. My focus is on the cinematographic representation of everyday life and politics (State) during the democratic transition of Chile. I read the most important theories in the relation cinema and history, such as Pierre Sorlin, Robert Rosenstone, Roman Gubern, Marc Ferró, Gilles Deleuze, Christian Metz y José María Caparrós.
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The constitution in Chile is heavily influenced by ideas of Hayek. There is a paper, unfortunately in German: Der Gesellschaftsvertrag einer Diktatur: Ideen- und Realgeschichte der chilenischen „Verfassung der Freiheit“, by Karin Fischer, See: http://www.metropolis-verlag.de/Der-Gesellschaftsvertrag-einer-Diktatur%3A-Ideen--und-Realgeschichte-der-chilenischen-Verfassung-der-Freiheit/12568/book.do;jsessionid=1622CB5E6F3FF58632E57A11B64E03DB
Here is the literature cited in this paper,
Sincerely Walter Ötsch
Baird, Charles W. (1989): James Buchanan and the Austrians: The Common Ground. In: Cato Journal 9 (1), Spring/Summer 1989, 201-230.
Barros, Robert (2003): Dictatorship and the Rule of Law: Rules and Military Power in Pinochet`s Chile. In: José María Maravall/Adam Przeworkski (eds.): Democracy and the Rule of Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 188-219.
Bauer, Carl J. (1998): Derecho y economía en la Constitución de 1980. In: Perspectivas 2 (1), 23-47.
Buchanan, James (1982): Democracia limitada o ilimitada. In: Estudios Públicos 6, 37-51.
Centro de Estudios Públicos (CEP), Corporación de Estudios para Latinoamérica (CIEPLAN), Libertad y Desarrollo, Proyectamérica (2011): Frente a la mayoría: leyes supramayoritarias y Tribunal Constitucional en Chile. Santiago: Programa de Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (PNUD).
CEP (1982): Conferencia Mont Pelerin. Estudios Públicos 6, segundo trimestre. Santiago: Centro de Estudios Públicos.
Corvalán Márquez, Luis (2001): Del anticapitalismo al neoliberalismo en Chile. Santiago: Editorial Sudamericana.
Cristi, Renato (1998): La Génesis de la Constitución de 1980: Una Lectura de las Actas de la Honorable Junta de Gobierno. In: Revista Ciencia Política, XIX, 208-228.
Cristi, Renato (1999): Jaime Guzmán, capitalismo y moralidad. In: Revista de derecho (Valdivia) 10 (1), diciembre 1999, 87-102.
Cristi, Renato (2000): Pensamiento Político de Jaime Guzmán. Autoridad y Libertad. Santiago: LOM.
Ebenstein, Alan (2001): Friedrich Hayek. A biography. New York: Palgrave.
Fischer, Karin (2009): The Influence of Neoliberals in Chile before, during, and after Pinochet. In: Mirowski, Phil/Plehwe, Dieter (eds.): The Road from Mont Pèlerin. The Making of the Neoliberal Thought Collective. Cambridge/London: Harvard University Press, 305-346.
Fischer, Karin (2011): Eine Klasse für sich. Besitz, Herrschaft und ungleiche Entwicklung in Chile 1830 – 2010. Baden-Baden: Nomos.
Fontaine Aldunate, Arturo (1988): Los economistas y el Presidente Pinochet. Santiago: Zig-Zag.
Fontaine Talavera, Arturo (1991): El miedo y otros escritos: El pensamiento de Jaime Guzmán E. Estudios Públicos 42. Santiago: CEP, 251-570. Online unter http://www.cepchile.cl/dms/lang_1/doc_1182.html  (12.4.2012).
Fontaine, Juan Andrés (1993): Transición económica y política en Chile: 1970-1990. In: Estudios Públicos 50 (otoño 1993), 229-279.
Gamble, Andrew (1979): The free economy and the strong state: the rise of the social market economy. In: The Socialist Register 16, 1-25. Online unter http://socialistregister.com/index.php/srv/article/view/5431 (10.3.2012).
González-Rossetti, Alejandra/Chuaqui, Tomas/Espinosa, Consuelo: Enhancing the political feasibility of health reform. The Chile case. Boston: Harvard School of Public Health 2000 (= LACHSR Serie 40).
Guzmán, Jaime (1976): Habla el abogado Jaime Guzmán: Actas constitucionales darán vida a una nueva democracia en Chile. Por Hernán González Valdebenito. In: La Tercera de la Hora, 13. September 1976, 4-5.
Guzmán, Jaime (1979a): Editorial. In: Revista Realidad 1 (3), agosto 1979.
Guzmán, Jaime (1979b): Editorial. In: Revista Realidad 1 (5), octubre 1979.
Guzmán, Jaime (1980): La Definición Constitucional. In: Revista Realidad 2 (3), agosto 1980, 17-39. Online unter http://www.jaimeguzman.cl/wp-content/uploads/documentos/escritos/la-definicion-constitucional.pdf (12.4.2012).
Guzmán, Jaime (1981): Una entrevista que me impresionó. La Segunda, 15 de mayo.
Hayek, Friedrich August (1981a): Recht, Gesetz und Freiheit, Band 3: Die Verfassung einer Gesellschaft freier Menschen. Eine neue Darstellung der liberalen Prinzipien der Gerechtigkeit und der politischen Ökonomie. Landsberg am Lech: Moderne Industrie.
Hayek, Friedrich von (1981b): Lider y Maestro del Liberalismo. Interview mit Friedrich August von Hayek von Renée Sallas, El Mercurio, 12. April 1981, D8–D9.
Hayek, Friedrich von (1981c): Friedrich von Hayek: De la Servidumbre a la Libertad. Interview mit Friedrich August von Hayek von Lucia Santa Cruz, El Mercurio, 19. April 1981, D1–D2.
Hayek, Friedrich von (1981d): La Fuerza de la Libertad. Interview mit Friedrich August von Jaime Guzmán. In: Revista Realidad 2 (24), Mayo 1981.
Hayek, Friedrich (1982): El Ideal Democrático y la Contención del Poder. In: Estudios Públicos 6, 12-20.
Hayek, Friedrich August (1991): Die Verfassung der Freiheit. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.
Hayek, Friedrich August (2007): Der Weg zur Knechtschaft. München: Olzog.
Junta de Gobierno (1973): Bando No. 5. Santiago, 11 de septiembre 1973. Online unter http://www.archivochile.com/Dictadura_militar/doc_jm_gob_pino8/DMdocjm0023.pdf (12.4.2012).
Junta de Gobierno  (1974): Declaración de principios del gobierno de Chile, Santiago, Marzo 11 de 1974. Online unter http://www.archivochile.com/Dictadura_militar/doc_jm_gob_pino8/DMdocjm0005.pdf (12.4.2012).
Peireira, Anthony W. (2005): Political (in)justice. Authoritarianism and the rule of law in Brazil, Chile, and Argentina. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Pinochet, Augusto (1977): Discurso en Cerro Chacarillas con ocasión del día de la Juventud el 9 de julio de 1977. Online unter Archivo Chile, Centro de Estudios Miguel Enríquez http://www.archivochile.com/Dictadura_militar/doc_jm_gob_pino8/DMdocjm0003.pdf (5.4.2012).
Schneiderman, David (2008): Constitutionalizing Economic Globalization. Investment Rules and Democracy`s Promise. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Valdivia Ortiz de Zárate, Verónica (2008): Nacionales y gremialistas. El “parto” de la nueva derecha política chilena, 1964 - 1973. Santiago: LOM.
Vergara, Pilar (1985): Auge y caida del neoliberalismo en Chile. Santiago: FLACSO.
Walpen, Bernhard (2004): Die offenen Freinde und ihre Gesellschaft. Eine hegemonietheoretische Studie zur Mont Pèlerin Gesellschaft. Hamburg: VSA.
Walpen, Bernhard/Plehwe, Dieter (2001): „Wahrheitsgetreue Berichte über Chile“. Die Mont Pèlerin Society und die Diktatur Pinochet. In: 1999. Zeitschrift für Sozialgeschichte des 20. und 21. Jahrhunderts 2, 2001, 42-70.
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There are some better maps than others, to give some examples: Linschoten (1595), Pedro Barreto de Resende (1635), Plan de Goa (1750), Lopes Mendes (1863), Direcção das Obras Públicas (1910), etc
If one could should at least 5 in order of relevance what would they be and why.
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Yes, that is a valid point, but I was looking at a different perspective, not a religious, sociologic one. Far from my intention to base a serious work on pictographic data alone. 
That said, it is accepted that religious building served as landmarks in cartography. Old Goa maps, some better then others, give the relative location of some churches, chapels and convents. This is extremely helpful when the location hasn't survived to the present day, or to establish a valid timespan for its erection that could help validate written documentation.
For those that are acquainted to Old Goa cartography, there may be an opinion to what maps one should be looking with better attention or those that should not be taken into consideration, and why.
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Have tried using google translate but the translation has been insufficient in gaining an understanding of the text. 
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The name of the English translation of the book is: "The Bastille. A History of a Symbol of Despotism and Freedom. Durham, Duke University Press, 1997 („Bicentennial Reflections on the French Revolution“)". Hope this meets your needs. If you need to reach the author I have his coordinates although he is presently away.
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I'm doing a research (quasi dissertation) for a class, and would need specific information on latin american classical composers, especially of those that were active during the 19th and 20th century.
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There has been a recent interest among so-called "Early Music" performers in post colonial music in Latin America and in fact there are a number of recordings as a result. Might I suggest if you are studying this period a bit of independent musical analysis would be appropriate. I offer the following recordings as a point of departure:
  • Jerusalem: Matins for the Virgin of Guadalupe, 1764
Ignacio Jerusalem y Stella (Performer), Joseph Jennings (Performer), Chanticleer (Performer)
  • Bolivian Baroque Hybrid SACD - DSD, Import, Florilegium Ens (Artist)
  • Bolivian Baroque Vol. 2 [Hybrid SACD] Hybrid SACD - DSD, Import
Ashley Solomon (Artist)
  • Baroque Mexico 2, I. Jerusalem Y Stella (Artist), Mexico Barroco Puebla IV, San Juan Jose De (Artist)
  • Bolivian Baroque, Vol. 3 Hybrid SACD - DSD, Import
Florilegium (Artist), Arakaendar Bolivia Choir (Artist), James Johnstone (Artist), De Chavarria (Composer), Zipoli (Composer), Velasco (Composer), de Araujo (Composer), Casseda (Composer), Duron (Composer), Anonymous (Composer), Ashley Solomon (Conductor)
  • Baroque Mexico Puebla 5, Mexico Barroco-Puebla (Artist)
  • Baroque Mexico Puebla 8, Mexico Barroco-Puebla (Artist)
  • Venetian Composers in Guatemala & Bolivia Hybrid SACD - DSD
Galuppi (Artist), Facco (Artist) Format: Audio CD
  • Moon Sun & All Things Import, Ex Cathedra & Jeffrey Skidmore (Artist)
  • New World Symphonies Import, Jeffrey Skidmore (Artist), Ex Cathedra (Artist)
  • Fire Burning in Snow Import, Ex Cathedra & Jeffrey Skidmore (Artist) 
Understand that for performers of so-called "early music" is the most modern music around.
Karl
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Gifts could be of anthropological objects too and I am also interested if anyone knows something about gifts made by John Jacob Astor's son in-law, the german diplomat Vincent Rumpff (1789-1867). Thank you!
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Depending upon how one defines 'ethnographical gifts' - the New-York Historical Society has some material pertaining to the dominant classes of American society gifted by Astor. And the Museum of the City of New York holds mainly documentary evidence of the same, including images of the old man himself, but they may have more than that.
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I have started a project on Tobias Smollett, 1737-55. Detailed research shows he arrived in London in 1737 and interacted with Fielding, Pope, Cibber, and Hogarth. The research has major implications for the history of English Literature and is being slowly posted online at www.tobiassmollett.blogspot.co.nz
The research arises from continuing investigation of themes discussed in an essay in a forthcoming book,   “A Satire, not a Sermon: Four Stages of Cruelty and Murder” in 250 Years On New Light On William Hogarth edited by Bernd Krysmanski, 45 Essays to Commemorate the 250th Anniversary of Hogarth’s Death ISBN 978-3-00-046975-6
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I do not want to add the essay to Researchgate before publication, but if you would like an advance copy of my analysis, including Paul Before Felix Burlesqued, can you please indicate via email the best way to send it to you? (I am afraid Hogarth's satire is on the same terrible subject of man-midwifery murder.)  My email address is donshelton@actrix.co.nz
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The context of this query is ongoing research into the reconceptualisation of shale tip sites.
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There are many of them at Lejja, Eastern Nigeria. The sites are linked with iron smelting and there are many in situ furnace walls.The house of their incarnate being is shaped like a blast furnace and stand as a testimony.
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I want to write a text about the interwinement of the different attitudes towards the Chinese Indonesians (for example the period of racial segregation under the regime of the Dutch) and architecture (for example the way Chinese Indonesian houses or housing districts differed from others). Does anybody know papers on this subject?
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I recommend you the text of Leonard Blussé, that I am sure you know. Apart from his works, perhaps you would be interested in comparing it with other similar cities such as Manila and Chinese-Philippines. In terms of "history" there is a lot written on this topic. About architecture I have written several things. Thank you!
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I will work on Pakistan and South Korea cases
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Culture undoubtedly plays a major role.  Both the Middle East and Korea have patriarchal societies that are collective societies:  the needs of the community are greater than the needs of the individualism.
I believe the answer to the issue of women's rights lies in this:  advocates demand too much too quickly, before the women who live there really know what they want, and they try to impose top down solutions.
In Britain and the United States, women's rights (suffragette) movements took decades to gain any traction.  In the United States, the women's rights movement had to take a back seat to the anti-slavery movement; women waited over sixty years before they finally made any real gains by gaining the Constitutional right to vote.  Gender bias was still a major part of society for decades after that, and women still struggle to break the glass ceiling.
In Saudi Arabia, women finally have the right to vote.  They're trying to get the right to drive.  Women's rights activists have two things going for them:  they're not demanding too much too soon (they understand they have to placate entrenched patriarchal interests disguised as religion), and their King wants reform.
If the King did not want reform, it would not happen at all.