Questions related to Cultural Ecology
Hi, we aim to "quantify" cultural ecosystem services from urban forests of our study area (Karlsruhe, Germany). We know that cultural ecosystem services are difficult to quantify as they are often qualitative and have intangible significance. Our approach is to first do a detail survey on public and stakeholders' perception and preferences on selected cultural ecosystem services using questionnaire survey and Likert's scale of response. Then, we want to use our data from the questionnaire survey to develop a scoring systems. Do you know any method which can be helpful to us? Or, do you know how to valuate cultural ecosystem services? In addition to questionnaire survey, we also have data from urban forest plots on forest structure and composition. We followed the guidelines from i-tree-eco software's handbook and UFORE model developed by the US Forest Service (David Nowak). We will really appreciate if you can provide us some literature or provide some suggestions on methods to quantify cultural ecosystem services.
In 1983, geographer Michael Watts published an influential essay entitled “On the Poverty of Theory: Natural Hazards Research in Context,” where he launched a powerful critique of cultural ecology and traditional hazards research which had tended to look at natural disasters in isolation from broader political economy systems embedded on [local] human-environment interactions. At that time, climate change could be considered a minor controversial topic discussed mostly by physical scientists. More than 30 years later, climate change is now considered one of the greatest challenges of our time and calls for adaptation are everywhere. Adaptation to climate change has become an imperative, many would argue. In the developing world, governments, international organizations and NGO are implementing adaptation projects to support what is being called more resilient communities, here understood as communities that are capable of bouncing back from adverse situations and to adapt to change through self-organization and learning. Although often acknowledged, development deficits remain outside the scope of many of these projects that tend to focus on the symptoms of the problem and less on its causes.