Science topic

# Cryptography - Science topic

A topic for the discussion of research into Cryptography and Cryptanalysis.

Publications related to Cryptography (10,000)

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In this paper, we study the hybrid dual attack over learning with errors (LWE) problems for any secret distribution. Prior to our work, hybrid attacks are only considered for sparse and/or small secrets. A new and interesting result from our analysis shows that for most cryptographic use cases a hybrid dual attack outperforms a standalone dual atta...

Phonon-assisted upconverted emission is the heart of energy harvesting, bioimaging, optical cryptography, and optical refrigeration. It has been demonstrated that emerging two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors can provide an excellent platform for efficient phonon-assisted upconversion due to the enhanced optical transition strength and phonon-excito...

Considering its relevance in the field of cryptography, integer factorization is a prominent application where Quantum computers are expected to have a substantial impact. Thanks to Shor’s algorithm, this peculiar problem can be solved in polynomial time. However, both the number of qubits and applied gates detrimentally affect the ability to run a...

Information hiding aims to embed a crucial amount of confidential data records into the multimedia, such as text, audio, static and dynamic image, and video. Image-based information hiding has been a significantly important topic for digital forensics. Here, active image deep steganographic approaches have come forward for hiding data. The least si...

Internet of Everything (IoE) is one of the emerging technologies in the advancement of digital life and innovation. But the major issue that is to be addressed is the security concerns over such an environment, especially in end‐to‐end device communication. The proposed approach primarily focuses on reliable end‐to‐end device communication using po...

Mobile users frequently change their location and often desire to avail of location-based services (LBS). LBS server provides services to users at the service charge. The user queries the LBS server for services, and the LBS server replies queries’ answer with the associated fee. This exchange may breach the user’s privacy. Users’ query privacy and...

Security is unarguably the most important aspect when it comes to transmission and handling of medical data. Technological development has done wonders in the analysis of medical images as well as physiological signals. On the other hand, it posed a serious question of security threat for these signals. Schemes like cryptography, steganography, and...

One of the network communication systems in our surroundings that has a significant influence on our day-to-day lives is the satellite network. Many authentications and key agreement procedures have been developed for satellite communication systems in order to ensure secure communication. None, however, offer the satellite communication system wit...

Image encryption is the core technology of secure storage and transmission of image information. Based on a perceptron-like network of integer domain, a new unified image encryption algorithm is proposed. Its encryption algorithm and decryption algorithm are the same, both including an exclusive-or module, two types of perceptron-like networks and...

Now a days the cloud computing is rising and resourceful technology. The requirement of IT industry is to repository terabyte data generated by every day. For depot IT requires many of hardware, software and network frameworks. Cloud computing solve this problem in cost effective manner. It also changed the vision completely not only IT Industry bu...

The advent of large-scale quantum computers would greatly threaten the security of current cryptosystems. It is urgent to investigate how quantum computing will affect the security of symmetric cryptosystems. Since the security of symmetric schemes heavily depends on the development of cryptanalytic tools, studying the applications of quantum algor...

Attribute-based encryption (ABE) is a form of public-key encryption that allows fine-grained access control on encrypted data. Blind key-generation (BKG) attribute-based encryption (Rial, Designs, Codes and Cryptography 2016 ) is a variant in which the master authority issues secret keys without learning any information about the attributes associa...

Cramer and Shoup introduced at Eurocrypt’02 the concept of hash proof system, also designated as smooth projective hash functions. Since then, they have found several applications, from building CCA-2 encryption as they were initially created for, to being at the core of several authenticated key exchange or even allowing witness encryption. In the...

The Rank Decoding problem (RD) is at the core of rank-based cryptography. This problem can also be seen as a structured version of MinRank, which is ubiquitous in multivariate cryptography. Recently, \cite{BBBGNRT20,BBCGPSTV20} proposed attacks based on two new algebraic modelings, namely the MaxMinors modeling which is specific to RD and the Suppo...

The Learning with Errors (LWE) problem receives much attention in cryptography, mainly due to its fundamental significance in post-quantum cryptography. Among its solving algorithms, the Blum-Kalai-Wasserman (BKW) algorithm, originally proposed for solving the Learning Parity with Noise (LPN) problem, performs well, especially for certain parameter...

This paper presents an innovative theorem using factorials, integers, and multinomials. The theorems and its results can be used as an application in computing and cryptography to develop algorithms like RSA algorithm and Elliptic Curve Cryptography.

Wireless communication among vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) entities is secured through cryptography, which is used for authentication as well as to ensure the overall security of messages in this environment. Authentication protocols play a significant role and are therefore required to be free of vulnerabilities that allow entity impersonation,...

Currently voting process throughout the world is done using Electronic Voting Machines. Though this system is widely followed, there are many drawbacks of the system. People have to travel to their assigned poll booth stations, wait in long queues to cast their vote, face unnecessary problems and so on. It becomes difficult for working profession p...

Currently voting process throughout the world is done using Electronic Voting Machines. Though this system is widely followed, there are many drawbacks of the system. People have to travel to their assigned poll booth stations, wait in long queues to cast their vote, face unnecessary problems and so on. It becomes difficult for working profession p...

The rapid development of the Internet of Things (IoT) has led to the emergence of more and more novel applications in recent years. One of them is the e-health system, which can provide people with high-quality and convenient health care. Meanwhile, it is a key issue and challenge to protect the privacy and security of the user's personal health re...

Electronic toll collection (ETC) systems make it easier for drivers to pay the fee for driving on toll roads. Nevertheless, digitalization of any process enables the service provider to collect digital records containing an accurate description of all the transactions carried out by users. This is the case for ETC systems. Moreover, records about r...

The rapid deployment of wireless technologies has given rise to the current situation where mobile phones and other wireless devices have become essential elements in all types of activities, including in the home. In particular, smartphones and laptops are used for wirelessly sharing photos and documents, playing games, browsing websites, and view...

: 'Privacy, privacy everywhere but not a safety method to implement it': a harsh reality of today's world. With the precipitation of more data (2 x 10 19 bits of data is created in every 86400 seconds) in computer networks, involvement of meta-data in the form of images is essential. To keep data safe and secure in order to inculcate privacy, to er...

The proposed model is liable to meet the required security needs of cloud data centers. Most of the cloud services use a single encryption algorithm to encrypt the file and store them. The idea of dividing and encrypting adds on to meet the principle of security of the data. When we deploy the hybrid approach in a cloud environment, it increases th...

Modular multiplication of long integers is a key component of elliptic curve cryptography and homomorphic encryption. The multiplication complexity can be reduced by applying the Karatsuba algorithm that decomposes the operands into shorter segments. Nevertheless, for long numbers, it takes many clock cycles in previous designs to calculate the fin...

To store and access sensitive information from distant locations utilizing an internet connection, cloud servers are now often employed. By adopting cloud servers as their primary source of data storage, almost all businesses and organizations made the transition from local to distant data storage. It has become a struggle for each and every person...

Today, cryptographic hash functions have numerous applications in different areas. At the same time, new collision attacks have been developed recently, making some widely used algorithms like SHA-1 vulnerable and unreliable. This article is aiming at the development of a new hashing algorithm that will be resistant to all cryptographic attacks, in...

Chaos enables the emergence of randomness in deterministic physical systems. Therefore it can be exploited for the conception of true random number generators (RNG) mandatory in classical cryptography applications. Meanwhile, nanomechanical oscillators, at the core of many on-board functionalities such as sensing, reveal as excellent candidates to...

The security of code-based cryptography relies primarily on the hardness of generic decoding with linear codes. The best generic decoding algorithms are all improvements of an old algorithm due to Prange: they are known under the name of information set decoders (ISD). A while ago, a generic decoding algorithm which does not belong to this family w...

In 2020, Sala, Sogiorno and Taufer were able to find the private keys of some Bitcoin addresses, thus being able to spend the cryptocurrency linked to them. This was unexpected since the recovery of non-trivial private keys for blockchain addresses is deemed to be an infeasible problem. In this paper, we widen this analysis by mounting a similar at...

A arquitetura de rede 5G traz novos desafios em segurança cibernética quando comparada às redes legadas, cujo histórico demonstra vulnerabilidades em comunicações fim-a-fim. Nesse contexto, esse trabalho apresenta uma breve discussão sobre os aspectos de segurança cibernética em redes 5G relacionados à autenticação de assinante por meio de criptogr...

Nowadays, the research in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) cryptography seeks to implement data transmission techniques to ensure secure data transmission across the world. As data transmission techniques are not secured due to the presence of hackers and attackers, a DNA-based cryptosystem can be suitable to secure data transmission, where confidential...

Pseudorandom sequences, sometimes shortened as sequences, have played a key role in the applications of digital communications, cryptography and computer science. This research field is an example of scientific research directly born from the real world applications. Specifically, the research on sequences stems from the application of the sequence...

Communication, compression of information, transmission of information through noisy channels, interconnecting different information systems, cryptography, gate construction –– these areas all depend on classical information theory. We show that, in classical terms, semantic aspects of communication are not at all irrelevant to the engineering prob...

Coherence has been used as a resource for optical communications since its earliest days. It is widely used for multiplexing of data, but not for encoding of data. Here we introduce a coding scheme, which we call \textit{mutual coherence coding}, to encode information in the mutual coherence of spatially separated light beams. We describe its imple...

Boolean functions satisfying good cryptographic criteria when restricted to the set of vectors with constant Hamming weight play an important role in the well-known FLIP stream cipher proposed by Méaux et al. at the conference Eurocrypt 2016. After providing a security analysis on the FLIP cipher, those functions were nicely-investigated firstly by...

PASSEncrypt\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\mathsf {PASS~Encrypt}$$\end{document} is a lattice-based public key encryption scheme introduced by Hoffstei...

A weak pseudorandom function (weak PRF) is one of the most important cryptographic primitives for its efficiency although it has lower security than a standard PRF. Recently, Boneh et al. (in: Theory of cryptography conference, Springer, pp 699–729, 2018) introduced two types of new weak PRF candidates, which are called a basic Mod-2/Mod-3 and alte...

Vehicular communication networks are traffic applications of the Internet of Things consisting of vehicle nodes, roadside units, service providers, and other components. To protect the vehicle privacy, some vehicular communication networks adopt anonymous schemes. However, in these anonymous schemes, anonymity abuse is inevitable. In order to prote...

This paper proposes a two-dimensional dynamic coupled map lattices system (2D DCML) based on elementary cellular automata (ECA). In this system, the two-dimensional coupled map lattices are iterated simultaneously with the ECA, and the dynamic coupling methods and perturbations for each lattice are obtained according to the iterative results of the...

Typical security confirmation for a cryptographic protocol correlates its resilience to a specific attack to assure the hardness of some mathematical problem. Block encryption algorithm depends on the two most critical aspects; its sophistication and ease of use, to support security criteria. In this scheme, the principle of the moves of Rubik’s Re...

The trust, authenticity and integrity of Internet‐of‐Things (IoT) systems are heavily reliant on Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) and True random number generators (TRNGs). The PUF and TRNG produce device intrinsic digital signatures and random binary sequences, which are used for cryptographic key generation, key agreement/exchange,
device aut...

Nonlinear dynamic systems and chaotic systems have been quite exhaustively researched in the domain of cryptography. However, the possibility of using fractional chaotic systems in the cryptosystem design has been much less explored while it bears advantages such as enlarged keyspace and better resistance to attack compared to classical nonlinear s...

Crooked permutations were introduced twenty years ago to construct interesting objects in graph theory. These functions, over F2n with odd n, are such that their derivatives have as image set a complement of a hyperplane. The field of applications was extended later, in particular to cryptography. However binary crooked functions are rare. It is st...

In this paper, a GAN-based optimal neural network structure for group synchronization is proposed. For generating a key between two parties, asymmetric cryptography is commonly used to exchange the key over an unprotected medium. However, as the approaches that used this technique, such as RSA, have been compromised, new ways to produce a key that...

In the history of cryptography, many cryptographic protocols have relied on random coin tosses to prove their security. Although flipping coins is indispensable in this manner, the coins themselves have never been in the spotlight. Therefore, we would like to make physical coins rise to the level of cryptography, just as a deck of physical playing...

The usage of data has grown exponentially well across prominent sectors in both public and private organizations. Security policies for the data are inevitable as data plays a major role even in prominent sectors like healthcare, defense. Accessing the data from the cloud is one of the easiest ways which is why most of the cloud service vendors pay...

Now days advancements in multimedia technology and Information and Communication technologies (ICTs) has raised various security related concerns. Digital image watermarking is one of the new and popular techniques for the protection of multimedia content. This paper proposes an approach for digital image watermarking in which Lifting wavelet trans...

Public key cryptography is threatened by the advent of quantum computers. Using Shor’s algorithm on a large-enough quantum computer, an attacker can cryptanalyze any RSA/ECC public key and generate fake digital signatures in seconds. If this vulnerability is left unaddressed, digital communications and electronic transactions can potentially be wit...

A new method of secure Electronic Health Record (EHR) data sharing is implemented using matrix cryptography. The EHRs are encrypted and stored in the cloud for efficient distribution to multiple end users who decrypt the corresponding encrypted data. The end users are selected based on their attributes with reference to the relevance and sensitivit...

Gr\"obner bases are an important tool in computational algebra and, especially in cryptography, often serve as a boilerplate for solving systems of polynomial equations. Research regarding (efficient) algorithms for computing Gr\"obner bases spans a large body of dedicated work that stretches over the last six decades. The pioneering work of Bruno...

Nowadays, a fractional-order chaotic system is commonly used in digital cryptosystem applications due to its precision to initial conditions and their unpredictability. This paper proposed an encryption-decryption of image, sound, and text data based on fractional-order Rössler chaotic system. Firstly Master–Slave synchronization of fractional-orde...

5G has been launched in a few countries of the world, so now all focus shifted towards the development of future 6G networks. 5G has connected all aspects of society. Ubiquitous connectivity has opened the doors for more data sharing. Although 5G is providing low latency, higher data rates, and high-speed yet there are some security-related vulnera...

Internet of Things (IoT) refers to the widespread use of distributed intelligent objects equipped with various components such as captors, activators, and processors that interact in private, public, and professional environments without requiring human intervention. The growing quantity and popularity of these distributed smart objects have made t...

This paper introduces an area-optimized and power-efficient implementation of the Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode for an ultra-lightweight block cipher, PRESENT, and the Keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code (HMAC)-expanded PHOTON by using a feedback path for a single block in the scheme. The proposed scheme is designed, taped out, and integrated...

The recent literature reveals a dichotomy formed by a coevolution between cryptography and Artificial Intelligence (AI). This dichotomy consists of two sides, namely Crypto-Influenced AI (CIAI) and AI-Influenced Cryptography (AIIC). While it is pertinent to investigate this dichotomy from both sides, the first side has already been studied. In this...

The Internet of Things (IoT) and its relevant advances have attracted significant scholarly, governmental, and industrial attention in recent years. Since the IoT specifications are quite different from what the Internet can deliver today, many groundbreaking techniques, such as Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), ha...

Cryptographic key exchange protocols traditionally rely on computational conjectures such as the hardness of prime factorization1 to provide security against eavesdropping attacks. Remarkably, quantum key distribution protocols such as the Bennett–Brassard scheme2 provide information-theoretic security against such attacks, a much stronger form of...