Science topic

# Cryptography - Science topic

A topic for the discussion of research into Cryptography and Cryptanalysis.

Questions related to Cryptography

Greetings all,

I am a Phd student starting on my thesis journey to hopefully do good to the libraries, furthermore, lets say the main theme focus suggested by the ministy of higher education is the corporate governance and IPO instead of internal financing. and since I am highly interested in Blockchain I believe such techonology would serve corporate governance in wide range of ways, since it shares same characteristics with it (Transparency, cryptography, security etc), My question is what problem can we solve on the IPO in particular? can we assume blockchain adoption is same as corporate governance ? what variables can we use? the preferable study case (empirical ? ) I would be happy to find some insights since it is broad new topic and we need to shed lights on. thanks in advance

I'm working on modifying the TDES cipher and the implementation will be in pure python (only builtin libraries used), and need to compare the results with the standard pure python implementation of the original TDES and other ciphers . Is there a repository containing such pure implementations (in python) without re-implementing them from scratch?

What is the background story of calculating the value of d in the RSA algorithm of Cryptography and Network Security?

The value of d is required for decryption. I want to know the derivation of finding d. The equation of finding d is d = e

^{-1}mod Φ(n).Consider an example:

**P = 17, q = 7, n = 119, φ (n) = 96, e = 5. From here I want to find the value of d in my hand. How can I do this?**It is widely claimed, without any hesitation or disclaimer, that quantum computers (QC) can (or well, will be soon able to) break cryptography by factorizing large numbers. However, to my knowledge, largest number ever factorized by a quantum computer is 21 (= 7 x 3) for Shors algorithm, and to make things worse, this world record hasn't been improved for a whole decade!

Some larger numbers were factorized too, but not like "give me a number and I will factorize it". Rather, it was done by starting from a known solutuion and figuring out if this particular case could be programmed in to the QC - which is basically cheating, or at least not a useful factorization process.

So what is stopping the game? What are the factors that limit the size (measured in number of bits) of an arbitrary numer that can be factorized by a QC? Are they just a technologic annoyance or is there a fundamental obstacle that invalidades QC from ever factoring large numbers?

2 Logistic chaotic sequences generation, we are generating two y sequence(Y1,Y2) to encrypt a data

2D logistic chaotic sequence, we are generating x and y sequence to encrypt a data

whether the above statement is correct, kindly help in this and kindly share the relevant paper if possible

Good day Dear Researchers. Please I would want to ask a question on cryptography. Am trying to use hybrid cryptography to secure a system, that is 3DES AND AES. Is it possible to merge both algorithms to have a unique algorithm. Or we encrypt the plaintext using the first algorithm (3DES) then the output is encrypted again using the next algorithm (AES). PLEASE, WHICH IS BETTER AND WHY?? AND WHICH IS POSSIBLE AND WHY??

Dear colleagues and experts

When I encrypt audio using one of the chaotic map for example logistic map and then DNA cryptography rules, how can I estimate the keyspace of all system

Thanks

The article is here: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/360059185_Gasaq_Provably_Secure_Key_Derivation/

Kindly visit the article, and share your honest thoughts in any communication style, even if you are not an expert. Feel free to submit your thoughts here, or under the comments section of the article.

**Looking forward to hear your thoughts. Let the fun debates begin!**

Best,

M. R.

Hi all,

Does PUF stop side channel attacks?? If so, how does PUF stop side channel analysis based on timing differences or power differences??

Thanks in advance..

I was able to create a compound chaotic system which is given satisfying results so far when used to generate substitution boxes. However, I want to improve the values of NL, SAC, BIC, DP and LP. I need recommendations on how to improve these values. What I am thinking is to use values generated by the proposed chaotic system as an input for elliptic curve. Problem is that I am not much familiar with ECC. Please help in this regard. Thank you!

P.S. I want to achieve results much better than AES S-box in all criteria.

I am interested in the usefulness of zero knowledge proof in verifying an algorithm (for bias, privacy, data processing, and general deployment process). Have you come across examples of it in regulatory compliance?

May you please name some good books on Blockchain technology?

Today's network security is mainly based on public-key cryptography. It is expected that these algorithms will be faster to break for attackers with quantum computers. Especially in case of collecting vehicle data in central storage systems, which could be used to support autonomous driving or to solve crimes, security plays a major role. This raises the question of the application of Post-Quantum Cryptography. In which time frame are realizations seen and also the costs of the application?

Some recent events point that IBM got a 27 qubit computer (https://www.ibm.com/blogs/research/2020/09/ibm-quantum-roadmap/), and maybe 10 years from now one with one million qubits (see same source). Speculations aside, the fact is that quantum entanglement does proves a remarkable advancement in cryptography, among many other applications.

On the other hand let us recapitulate that the Riemann hypothesis (RH) is still out there, unsolved, and that its proof (or disproof) might lead to an understanding on how to factorize much faster than now. We know that today's internet security is based on prime cryptography, and hence its very close connection to a proof of the RE, even if that proof is only existential (the tools for proving it may show a way for faster factorization, and hence to decrypt in way that can't be done now).

It seems that quantum cryptography might arrive much faster than the solution to the RE, and hence the question. As concerns of cryptography, RE would appear that it has lost its most important motivation to be researched, at least commercially speaking. Thus, RE would remain as a pure mathematical problem ( a very tough one, though), connected, perhaps, with many other mathematical statements that are assumed true, if RE is proven true. So, the question is:

Is RE still relevant for some foreseeable practical applications, other that cryptography?

Respected research fellows,

I am working on logistic chaotic map for generating numbers from 0-255 (in non-repetitive manner), so far I am successful in generating numbers but there are so many repetition of values. I need some help please! Following is python snippet I am using to generate these numbers.

def sbox(x, r, size):

i = []

for j in range(size):

x=r*x*(1-x)

i.append(int((x* pow(10,14))%256))

return i

print(sbox(0.9058,3.9,256))

This will eventually go towards Substitution Box creations.

Hello all, I'm an undergraduate student and currently I'm interested to learn more about Cryptographic for Network Security. I want to know is there any paper or journal that quickly summarize whether each Encryptions Algorithm has their own behaviour that maybe works better for its different purposes?

Like some algorithms are best-used for Cloud Computing, some others are for an E-Commerce website, some others for Social Media application, etc. that would lead to decision making of which are more suitable for algorithm for every project.

Thanks before!

My friend and I wrote a research paper on computer science (cryptography). The article is a simple contribution. We need someone to join us and do a good grammar correction for the theory part. In addition, an improvement may be proposed to the proposed contribution.

my respects

Hi, I am looking forward for collaborators (academic and research work) who are interested to work in the following area:

Quantum Attacks

Quantum Computing

Quantum Artificial Intelligence

Post-quantum Cryptography

Internet of Drones

Blockchain and Quantum Computing

I want to generate a Lyapunov-exponents-Diagram for my new chaotic map using matlab code. i am unable understand the concept which some of the matlab codes used to get Lyapunov-exponents-Diagram for any chaotic map . kindly help me

NIST randomness test is very important for any encryption algorithm. I want Matlab code for NIST test.

The recent Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences or Nobel prize (as commonly known) was actually awarded to an economist (Fama) who claimed that markets are efficient and any prediction of it's movement is fruitless. Isn't the Bitcoin price random too?

Furthermore, we can even fit Robert Schiller's theory into it. There is clearly a long-term trend and crazy volatility. Also, Bitcoin tries modelling the ideal world scenario of no transaction fee as used when designing theory like CAPM.

With such similarities, why isn't research being done in the Bitcoins? There's so little to read. We pretty much end up with Satoshi's paper which is more cryptography and less economics.

in the principe of the cryptographie RSA

I want to know the execution times of the following cryptographic primitives involved in ECC:

1. ECC point addition

2. ECC point multiplication

3. ECDSA signing time

4. ECDSA signature verification time

Can anyone please help me with this.

what is the new idea it can implemented security and cryptography for IoT ?

Hii,

I'm doing MBA in cloud computing, please suggest me some topic to do thesis on cloud cryptography, If possible on aviation cloud implementation.

The

**future**of blockchain-based**internet**solutions**Blockchain**is defined as a decentralized and distributed

**database**in the open source model in a peer-to-peer

**internet**network without central

**computers**and without a centralized

**data**storage space, used to record individual transactions,

**payments**or journal entries encoded using

**cryptographic**algorithms.

In current applications,

**blockchain**is usually a decentralized and dispersed register of**financial transactions**. It is also a**decentralized transaction**platform in a distributed**network**infrastructure. In this formula,**blockchain**is currently implemented into**financial institutions**.Some

**banks**are already trying to use blockchain in their operations. if they did not do it, other**economic**entities, including fintechs, implementing blockchain could become more competitive in this respect. However,**cryptocurrencies**and a secure record of transactions are not the only blockchain applications. Various potential**blockchain**applications are being considered in the**future**.Perhaps these new, different applications already exist in specific companies,

**corporations**, public institutions or**research**centers in individual countries. In view of the above, the current question is: In what applications, besides**cryptocurrency**, blockchain in your company, organization, country, etc.? Please reply

I invite you to the discussion

Thank you very much

Best wishes

cryptography is a technique for securing the message through various ways such as cipher and algorithms so that Intruders or attackers don't steal or replicate our data.

I'm looking to talk with people that match that description. Any suggestions or advice is greatly appreciated.

Number theory is among cryptography foundations, but sometimes it is hard for students to understand the theory, mostly due the lack of previous skills and knowledge of that mathematical theory by students.

Have you dealt with that problem? Have you faced other problems while teaching number theory? How to overcome them?

Visual cryptography scheme (VCS) used to encrypt the secret image in visual form by splitting it into k shares, then be transmitted securely via communication channels to n participants. When all the k shares stacked ,the original secret image is visible.

Although this scheme has important features, but suffers from major problems such as the codebook is very difficult to manage and design , generate meaningless share that is not carry any visual information, loss contrast and pixel expansion that results increase size and poor quality of recover image and suffers from cross interference problem .

In order to obtain better quality of the shares with carrying visual information, it is important to enlarge the area of visual cryptography (VC) through proposition scheme to create halftone share that carrying meaningful information to increase visual quality and security, this scheme called Halftone Visual Cryptography (HVC)

The main idea of (HVC) scheme is realization visual cryptography" via digital halftone technique depending on the Blue noise concept to generated k shares more pleasant to human eyes and more flexible shares management. Halftone Visual Cryptography (HVC) methods are still endure unsolved problems like the visual quality of shares , large pixel expansion, difficulty design codebook and cross interference in reconstruction secret image and construction share images.

I am new to Cryptography field and try to implement Threshold Implementation. In Decomposition of SBox into composition of two quadratic SBox. I am not getting how to split SBox input of 4bit into 12bit input of G1,G2,G3 respectively. And also how to form ANF(Algebraic Normal Form)equation to get G(x) and F(x).

I am attaching image of SBox decomposition also for reference.

Please can someone explain it .

I am new to Cryptography field and try to implement Threshold Implementation. In Decomposition of SBox into composition of two quadratic SBox. I am not getting how to split SBox input of 4bit into 12bit input of G1,G2,G3 respectively. And also how to form ANF(Algebraic Normal Form)equation to get G(x) and F(x).

I am attaching image of SBox decomposition also for reference.

Please can someone explain it with a small example .

Hello fellow researchers;

I want to generate the AES cipher Sboxes, and I couldn't figure out how to do it; I know that we take 4X4 bytes state matrix, where each byte can be expressed as a polynomial ; and then we calculate the multiplicative inverse of that byte mod x^8+x^4+x^3+x+1; then we multiply it by the matrix A and XOR it with a constant c.

A = [1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1] and c = [0

[1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1] 1

[1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1] 1

[1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1] 0

[1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0] 0

[0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0] 0

[0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0] 1

[0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1] 1]

And as I understand the multiplicative inverse of 1 is 1 and for 0 is not defined; so what would a byte turn into? for example x = 00011001, what is b such that x . b mod x^8+x^4+x^3+x+1 =1 ?

Dear colleagues

I want to ask, where can I obtain the original versions of classic photos that are traditionally used for image encryption?

Examples include the Lenna figure, vegetables, baboon, cameraman, rice, etc.

Is there any source to get all such images, and maybe try out new ones, that aren't bound by any copyright.

Apart from the above, I want to see if there are any copyright free images of other types, like fingerprints, x-ray images, satelite images, that can be used as examples in image encryption papers.

WHAT IS A MDS MATRIX (MDS in AES finalists) and how can we achieve diffusion through it?

In my master's Degree I proposed a way to extend the existing privacy enhancing technologies used in Instant messaging in order for the users to be able to publish user-driven services:

This MSc Thesis I want to continue it over into a PhD as a step to implement it. From my point of view it requires lots of research that may also have scientific value as well.

The research I am interested to do it via a MEXT Scholarchip in Japan. But so far what I found only few researchers that either are qualified in cryptography or in cyber security:

But still I have hard time to look over univercities that do a complete research in Privacy Enhancing technologies or in Cybersecurity in Japan. Therefore, I want to ask:

- Which Universities in Japan do research in a related field (Cryptography, Cyber security, Internet Privacy) and which ones would you reccomend and why?

- Should I keep looking for professors-only and create a database with contact info or it is reccomend to look for univercities as well?

Hash Question (Use Sage): The following describes the simple hash function: Choose p, q primes and compute N = pq. Choose g relatively prime to N and less than N. Then a number n is hashed as follows: H = gn mod N If there is an m that hashes to the same value as n, then gm ≡ gn mod N so gm-n ≡ 1 mod N which implies that m –n ≡ 0 mod φ (N) So breaking this amounts to finding a multiple of φ (N), which is the hard problem in RSA. Write a function that takes a bit length n and generates a modulus N of bitlength n and g less than N and relatively prime to it. Show the output of your function from part (a) for a few outputs. Using N, g, n as arguments write a function to perform the hashing. For parts (d)-(f) compute the simple hash: N = 600107, g = 154835, n = 239715 N = 548155966307, g = 189830397891, n = 44344313866 N = 604766153, g = 12075635, n = 443096843 Write a function that creates a collision given p and q. Show that your function works for a couple of examples.

I have to calculate the NPCR and UACI of the binary image. How it will be different from grayscale images.

I want a hardware which support MATLAB code code for my data hiding algorithm . Kindly suggest me the hardware board which support MATLAB code.

I am looking for mathematical methods or techniques discussed on solving number triangles such as simple case pascal triangle. For example, one finds sequence of numbers that form a pascal triangle pattern. The formula to generate those numbers are hypothetically unknown. Is there a method in mathematics to derive the formula that will generate those numbers. (example, methods in cryptography )

I am doing research on comparative analysis of ID based cryptographic protocols like ElGamal, RSA, DSA etc. How can compare these protocols with the properties without doing any objective experiment?

I have introduced some factorization for the infinite Hilbert Operator based on the Cesaro, generalized Cesaro and Gamma matrices in the following papers:

1-H. Roopaei, Factorization of Cesàro and Hilbert matrices based on generalized Cesàro

matrix, Linear Multilinear Algebra, 68 (1) (2020), 193-204.

2-H. Roopaei, Factorization of the Hilbert matrix based on Cesàro and Gamma matrices,

Results Math., 75 (1) 3, 2020. DOI: 10.1007/s00025-019-1129-1.

Now, my questions are:

1-Is there any other factorization for the Hilbert matrix based on the Hausdorff operators? and in especial case of Hausdorff classes, based on Euler or Holder operators?

2- As I know the infinite Hilbert operator is used in Cryptography and Image processing. Is there any mathematicians in this group who can introduce some good references?

I want to know why is it that XOR is ignored in the computation cost of a security protocol? And is there any reference there which can prove that it is insignificant so can be ignored?

Like in a certain research paper it is stated that "In the proposed scheme, we take the

cost of concatenation (||) operations and XOR (⊕) evaluated as insignificant." why is this?

I would like to use bilinear pair concept for designing a secure data.

I wanted to know if it is possible to generate random numbers using GAN and what mathematical background is necessary.

I developed a new cryptographic algorithm (block cipher) based on RADG and using chaos (tent Map) with key of 256 bit, the design of the RADG is no more fixed as it was, the design totally depends on the chaos seed X and TM parameter μ , which is vary .

I built the cipher/Decipher code and it works perfectly .

what standard test/validation programs should I use to prove validity ?

Why is there not detailed material on this subject? Anybody, to begin with, can take initiative.

I’m doing a project on ”Applying graph theory on symmetric cryptography”. As a part of it, I’ve been given an algorithm to calculate the time complexity using Big O notation. I have got an answer of O(l(n^2)). Note that here n ≤ l.

But the answer should be O(l^3).

Can I argue that O(l(n^2)) ≤ O(l(l^2)) = O(l^3)?

Bijection Functions used for Internal Encoding in Look Up Tables in White-Box Cryptography, but it suffers from few attacks, so to avoiding these attacks can we replace it by any other functions or optimization algorithm?

For Security Purpose in Smart Devices we generally used Symmetric Key Cryptography (DES, AES) for its lightweight, but for increasing security can we think about public key Cryptography too?

In socialist millionaire problem, two millionaires learns whether their wealth are same or not without revealing detail wealth. It is a step in protocol where Qa = g^x and Qb = g^y, where x and y are wealth, g is base of the discrete logarithm. a) Is it not computational overhead on users if value of x and y are huge? b) If I want to replace x and y as string in place of numbers, then how may I do it?

best in worldwide usage and applications, and best in extensibility

Do you think bot's like this https://tradesanta.com/en have theoretical support?

It's posible to predict the market fluctuations?

Encryption-decryption algorithm based on Cryptography module using Fernet key instance

Encoding of biometric data to arithmetic for use in cryptography

In ECDH, when two person wants to share private key, they first select a point G on elliptic curve and after that, each of them pick a random integer a and b, respectively, and multiply with G. After the multiplication each of them shares aG and bG with each other and after that, they multiply again using their keys a(bG) and b(aG), respectively, and creates a shared key between themselves. However, if one person wants to communicate with a group of person (more than 2) using a shared key utilizing ECDH, how he can use this method? because each of the person may choose different integer while establishing the key.

How to employ ECDH in key exchange with a group of people?

Dear colleagues,

As I am new in the domain of teaching courses, so it takes too much of time to prepare my course, saying for example: cryptography course, web development,..etc,...
So, my problem is that, for every short period, there is something of new especialy in web development, (e.g., new programming languages, new packages, new technologies,....soon so forth), so my question is that, really I can not cope with myself to update my course for every short time,.., so by doing that I come to loose so much of time and efforts, which guide to a negative impact on the time preserved for my research investigation?!

So, any advice is so welcome !

Best regards.

hello everyone,

recently i am learning phase of understanding ns3 simulator.

Just out of curiosity, can we integrate cryptography module to it??

I mean can we secure a program with any of the available encryption schemes??

Thank you

I need a topic on Cryptography/ Network security for Ph.D study

The binary image as shown in the figure

I am doing my Mtech Project on Secure AODV routing protocol I need a way to show Simulation in NS2 ? Please anyone provide me how to implement my algorithm and Simulate the result in NS2.

I am working on ECG cryptography and authentication for Body Area Networks. I seek knowledge on how to get the algorithms implemented. I mean the language or libraries to use for implementations and respective results.

Currently working on e-voting using cryptographic Techniques. I Would like to implement RSA and also to know how SHA works technically with RSA.

In quantum key distribution (QKD) optical fiber networks, the quantum channel (QCh) is used for establishing and updating secure keys which are used to encrypt data [1]. Public interaction channel (PICh) is used for exchanging other key related information [1]. Traditional data channel is used for transmitting encrypted data [1].

My question is, what are the modulation schemes to be used for QCh and PICh?

I could not find information regarding the modulation scheme in any of the published articles I read. Please answer this question or suggest some articles that contain this information.

Please note that I am not looking for modulation schemes used for transmitting traditional data.

Thanks

[1] Zhao, Y., Cao, Y., Wang, W., Wang, H., Yu, X., Zhang, J., Tornatore, M., Wu, Y. and Mukherjee, B., 2018. Resource allocation in optical networks secured by quantum key distribution.

*IEEE Communications Magazine*,*56*(8), pp.130-137.Hello all,

I have been wondering about differences between true random number generator and pseudo-random number generator.

In my system there are three main components; clock signal ,push button, and output (LED). When the button is pressed, the LED simultaneously represents the state of the clock signal and remains the last state while the button is released. For instance, I release my finger when the LED is 'ON' so, it is on until the next pushing and vice versa. let's say the period of the clock is relatively fast so human is not able to know whether the current state is 0 or 1.

However, I got be confused that is my system a TRNG or PRNG. First, i thought it is a TRNG because the randomness is only determined by human decision. Therefore in this case I may say the source of randomness is non-deterministic However, the second thought can be raised that what if the clock can also be considered as a source then the randomness is likely not random ( non-deterministic) anymore

Notably, the real system is much more complicated, for an ease of discussion i just briefly explain the principle of the system.

what do you think about this?

Thank you in advance

Korakot

Hi,

As per the definition of logic obfuscation, obfuscated circuit stays in obfuscated mode upon global reset (i.e. initial state) and generates incorrect output; upon receiving correct initialization sequence it enters into functional mode and generates intended outputs.

This is fine with respect to the design that does not connected with any further critical systems. If at all, the obfuscated logic needs to be connected to further safety critical systems, won't incorrect value generated in obfuscated mode affects the critical systems??

In such case, how to apply logic obfuscation??

Thanks in advance.

There are many algorithms used to build a secure transmission system but with the advancements in programming field most of them are now breakable.

The question now is : what the best algorithm used for securing text ?

i want to use artificial intelligent algorithm with cryptography.

I want to use ECC in my research.

The BCS in the UK have developed a Blueprint for Cyber Security in Health and Care, and aim to bring together key stakeholders to work together in improving security within the NHS. But are our health and social care systems really fit for the 21st Century, and are they citizen-focused?

If you have an opinion, please consider submitting to a paper to the link provided on this question.

**Call for Papers**

The development of new electronic services within health and social care provides an opportunity for citizen-focused health care, especially in sharing information across traditional organisational boundaries. With the move to enhanced services, there are also increasing risks, including from data breaches and in the hacking of medical devices.

As health care data often contains sensitive data, there are many risks around the trustworthiness of the security infrastructures used within health and social care and in the methods that can be applied to share information across domains. New regulations, too, such as with GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation), focus on an integrated security approach for incident response, encryption, and pseudoanonymisation and in providing citizens with more control over their data. This will require new approaches to the design of data architectures and the services used within health and social care infrastructures.

This special issue focuses on the latest research within health and social care for cyber security, including the application of new methods to integrate data from each part of the patient journey. It will also focus on the integration of policies and data protection methods, to protect against data breaches, along with allowing data to be used to improve patient safety and in reducing the costs of health care provision.

Potential topics include but are not limited to the following:

- Data breaches and risk models within health and social care

- Detecting and responding to health care data breaches

- New design principles for GDPR requirements within health and social care data

- Models for risk analysing cyber security threats

- Citizen-focused health and social care systems

- Information sharing and secure architectures within health and social care

- Trust, governance, and consent around interagency approaches

- Data sharing models for interagency approaches

- Creating consensus models for health and social care

- Cloud-based architectures for integrated health and social care

- Cryptography for health and social care data

- Integration of cryptography for trust and governance, including methods for anonymization and secure data processing

- Policy integration for data access

- Anonymization and sanitisation of health care data

- Application of blockchain methods within a health care environment

- Attacks on health care devices

- Vulnerabilities in health care devices

Hi All,

It is well known that Hardware Trojans known so far actually have knowledge of the algorithm and use side channel analysis to leak the keys. To prevent side channel analysis, logic obfuscation techniques are used. I just wanna know that "is there a side channel analysis known in literature which reveals the entire algorithm or IP core or HDL code?"

Thanks in advance.