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# Crustal Deformation - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Crustal Deformation, and find Crustal Deformation experts.

Questions related to Crustal Deformation

As we all know, PYLITH can simulated crustal deformations with kinds of materials. 2-D and 3-D problems of pure elastic ，plastic and rheological materials.

However，all the above materials are isotropic.

Is there anyone who knows the anisotropic material definition in PYLITH ?

Thanks a lot for your suggestion！

I am looking for tools for generating realistic folding from layers with varying rheologies (clastic sediments). The specific situation is a thin-skinned fold-thrust belt with prehnite–actinolite facies conditions. Scale/resolution requirement is 1-5m.

Also interesting would be your views what type of approach is more suited, ie. kinematic or process/physical modelling.

Thanks!

We perform differential SAR Interferometry for analyzing the land movement. In case of Landslides the area generally suffers from decorrelation. So for the confidence in the result what minimum threshold should be taken so that outliers should be removed?

There are many geophysical and remote sensing methods to determine the crustal deformation and active tectonic movements. I need some research papers related to active tectonic movements in eastern part of India.

Thanks.

These ostracods are from north Iran(rice fields and lakes) and their SEM are ready.

Hello,

In a strike slip fault in central Mexico, we record P, R', Y-shear. But R shears are absent. Can someone please suggest similar cases and reasons for such absence.

Thanks

Amar

**Hello,**

**My name is An Xiangyi,a student of Korea University,studing structure geology.Now I am studing crustal deformation derived by GPS observations .I have a question that how could I get long term velocity or displacement data from GEONET RINEX data from which the longest period I can get once is 10 days.So it is difficult to collect every 10days for 5 years data.**

Sentinel - 1 product types are:

SH (single HH polarisation)

SV (single VV polarisation)

DH (dual HH+HV polarisation)

DV (dual VV+VH polarisation)

Which polarisation is useful for surface deformation studies?

Receiver function and crustal structure modeling

Dear RG members

I want to have a clarification so that I may be able to understand it.

With best regards

IJAZ

I have some GPS data high frequency 1hz of the last earthquake in Algiers Ml=5.4 and I would like to know with which software I can process my data ?

as mentioned in Fialko 2001 for 3 D displacement from InSAR, a linear system of equations should be solved for each pixel :

1.Two equations from Ascending and Descending Orbits

[Un Sin φ – Ue Cos φ] Sin θ + Uu Cos θ + δlos = dr ……….. (1)

Where,

φ … The azimuth of the satellite heading vector (positive

clockwise from the North)

θ … The radar incidence angle at the reflection point

dr … The LOS displacement at the reflection point

δlos … Is the relative measurement error

2.

One equation for the Azimuthal Offset from the descending orbit

Un Cos φ + Ue Sin φ + δazo = dazo ………………….……….. (2)

my question is how to obtain dazo from an unwrapped differential interferogram.

Apart from applying the technique in fold thrust belts which are deformed in a thin skinned manner, can we also use this in any other tectonic regime?

To resolve 3 D Surface displacement from DInSAR it is required to know the incidence angle at each target pixel and the azimuth of the satellite heading vector clock wise positive from north to form three equations in three unknowns(Un, Ue, and Uv) for each pixel.

The azimuth vector differs according to the looking direction of the satellite and I use ERS satellites and ENVISAT

DInSAR produces the surface displacement in only the direction of radar line of sight (LOS) then, how to resolve this vector in the three dimensions East-West, North-South, and Up-down (vertical) for merging with other space geodetic techniques as GPS

There are two ways for interferometry

a. apply an external DEM like SRTM

b. Apply a third SAR image to an interferometric pair

if an External DEM is applied with low accuracy about ten meters or more how is sub-centimeter accuracy achieved ???

A differential interferogram (DInSAR) can be composed if the phase of one interferogram is subtracted from the phase of another interferogram "DEM" so that the remaining contributions in the phase are those related only to surface displacement.

but how it can be extracted or converted from phase units to metric units displacements per unit time (e.g. cm / year) ?

i mean for instance, if it can say that ductile shear zone is dextral inverse or inverse dextral.

For the same geographical position I obtained Three elevations from three different sources of DEMs

For InSAR DEM:

Lat ; 24.29248762 Long 32.2634383 Elev: 92.193 M

For ASTER :

Long; 32.2634383 Lat; 24.29248762 Elev :427.161 M

For SRTM :

Long ; 32.2634382962 , Lat ; 24.2924876245, Elev : 437.485 M

At what pressure at surface conditions will frozen Alberta oil sands fail in a lab test, that is, fracture break or shear? Is it very different from frozen mud?

In geodetic applications, how can one use differential interferometry for crustal displacement monitoring?

Estimating 3D deformation can be done by combining Ascending, Descending and MAI Interferograms

My question can we estimate it using only Single Viewing direction InSAR? either Ascending or descending, without using other information like GPS or assuming deformation model?

It is well known that mafic magmas can pond at the base of the crust and subsequently feed upper crustal reservoirs. Eventually these mafic, stagnated magmas crystallize. But can them keep liquid (or only partially crystallized) during several millons of years (i.e. 10-20-30 My), after the volcanic front retreated trenchwards, and go on feeding high level magma chambers?

While acquiring seismic data for fault depth behavior analysis, one has to plot a variety of contour maps like velocity or depth contour maps for geodetic surveys, frequency contour maps for the data acquired, etc. One of the easiest and efficient ways of making contour maps is by using Surfer software.

I want to know how the data can be implemented and interpreted and if someone is ready to collaborate, I am enthusiastic to do so.